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Chuanhe Liu and Yan Liu

In this work, 2 separate experiments were performed to describe the influence of elevated temperature
treatments postharvest on the color, physiochemical characteristics and aroma components of pineapple fruits during
low-temperature seasons. The L (lightness) values of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits were decreased. The a
(greenness-redness) and b (blueness-yellowness) values of the skin and pulp were all markedly increased. The elevated
temperature significantly increased the contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and slightly affected contents of vitamin C
(nonsignificant). Titratable acidity (TA) of pineapple fruits were notably decreased, whereas the values of TSS/TA of
pineapple fruits were significantly increased. The firmness of the pineapple fruits decreased and more esters and alkenes
were identified. The total relative contents of esters were increased, and the total relative contents of alkenes were
decreased.
Abstract:

Keywords: aroma components, color, elevated temperature, pineapple, quality

The elevated temperature treatments changed pineapple fruits matured in low temperature seasons
to be more red and yellow and enhanced the physiochemical quality and production of aroma components, especially the
ester components. The results of this work can be applied in the area of industrial production and postharvest handlings
to enhance overall quality of pineapple fruits matured in low-temperature seasons and provide references for postharvest
quality handlings of other fruits.

Practical Application:

Introduction
The pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.], which is indigenous
to Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay, has been introduced worldwide and is the leading edible member of the family Bromeliaceae
(Smith and Downs 1979). Pineapple is a tropical fruit with attractive sensorial (mechanical properties, flavor, sweetness/acidity ratio, color, and so on) and nutritional (ascorbic acid, minerals, fiber,
antioxidants, and so on) characteristics (Coppens dEeckenbrugge
and Leal 2003). The pineapple is generally consumed fresh as table
fruit or in desserts and is used for juice preparation due to its delicate flavor, overall acceptability and nutritional richness in terms
of vitamins and minerals (Chauhan and others 2009). Exhibiting a delicate taste, this tropical fruit enjoys widespread consumer
acceptance whether fresh or processed and has found some additional applications in canned fruit, jam, wine, and concentrated
juice productions (Pino and Queris 2010). Moreover, pineapple
fruit and juice are used as ingredients in many foods, such as pizzas,
cakes, and ice creams. In mainland China and Hong Kong, the
pineapple is a popular fruit and is used as a culinary ingredient,
particularly in the preparation of pork and chicken dishes (Zheng
and others 2010).
With the use of ethephon for flower induction, pineapple can
be fruited, and can be harvested multiple times per year. However,
MS 20131922 Submitted 12/23/2013, Accepted 5/15/2014. Authors are with
Inst. of Fruit Tree Research, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 510640,
Guangzhou, P. R. China and Key Laboratory of South Subtropical Fruit Biology
and Genetic Resource Utilization Ministry of Agriculture, 510640, Guangzhou,
P. R. China. Direct inquiries to author Chuanhe Liu (E-mail: founderlch@126.com).

R

C 2014 Institute of Food Technologists

doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12688
Further reproduction without permission is prohibited

pineapple fruits, even when obtained from the same orchard and
at the same maturity level, are diverse in fragrance and quality
due to different climate and environmental conditions during the
growth period. Those fruits ripened in the summer have a strong
fragrance and are of the best quality, while those fruits ripened in
the winter are acidic in taste with a slight fragrance. Therefore,
consumers prefer summer fruits and will spend more for them (Liu
and others 2011).
Sensorial qualities, particularly aroma, can substantially influence consumers acceptance and purchase preferences. Fruit aroma
and taste are the result of a special variety and combination of different metabolites. Sugars, acids, and aromatic volatiles contribute
to the characteristic flavor of fruits, which is dependent on the
proper balance of these chemical constituents. While sugars and
acids contribute to the sweetness and tartness, aroma is derived
from combinations of volatile molecules and provides the unique,
fruity flavors that characterize fresh fruit (Forney and others 2000;
Ayala-Zavala and others 2004). The different proportions of the
volatile components, sugars and acids often determine the aroma
and taste properties.
In addition to cultivars, other factors such as maturity, temperature, and light have been shown to affect the quality and production of the aromatic compounds of fruits (Forney and others
2000). The storage temperature significantly affects the aromatic
compounds and overall quality of fruits, and higher temperatures
have been shown to enhance the quality and aroma production
of fruits postharvest (Forney 2001; Ayala-Zavala and others 2004).
Fruits stored at higher temperatures were rated significantly higher
in ripe aroma, sweetness, and flavor and significantly lower in sourness; these fruits also exhibited higher soluble solid concentration

Vol. 79, Nr. 12, 2014 r Journal of Food Science C2409

C: Food Chemistry

Effects of Elevated Temperature Postharvest


on Color Aspect, Physiochemical Characteristics,
and Aroma Components of Pineapple Fruits

Elevated temperature postharvest affects pineapple fruits . . .

C: Food Chemistry

(SSC) and SSC/titratable acidity (TA) ratio (Maul and others 2000;
Obenland and others 2011). Fruits stored at higher temperatures
produced higher levels of aromatic volatiles than those stored at
lower temperatures, and the volatile concentrations increased with
the temperature in the range of 0 to 30 C (Dixon and Hewett
2000; Ayala-Zavala and others 2004). Furthermore, research has
shown that more esters and specific volatiles, such as methyl esters,
are produced in fruits stored at higher temperatures (Dixon and
Hewett 2000; Forney and others 2000).
To the best of our knowledge, few reports are available pertaining to the effect of temperature on pineapple fruits postharvest,
and the available literature is limited to investigating the effects
of low-temperature treatments postharvest on changes in the
quality and internal browning symptoms of pineapple fruits harvested during high-temperature seasons (Marrero and Kader 2006;
Joseph-Adekunle and others 2009; Bentez and others 2012; Hong
and others 2013). Little information is available regarding whether
elevated temperatures enhance the overall quality and aroma
production of pineapple fruits harvested during low-temperature
seasons. Accordingly, in this work, 2 separate experiments were
performed to investigate the influence of elevated temperature
treatments postharvest on the physiochemical quality and aroma
components of pineapple fruits harvested during the winter. In
addition, we examined the changes in the visual color of pineapple
fruits in response to the elevated temperature treatments.

Materials and Methods


Materials and treatments
Two separate experiments were conducted in January and
March 2013. In experiment 1, 60 pineapple fruits with the same
degree of maturity (yellow ripeness, about 200 d after the emergence of red flower buds) were harvested on January 14, 2013
from a commercial orchard located in the town of Shenwan in the
city of Zhongshan (2211 N to 2247 N, 11309 E to 11346 E),
Guangdong Province, P. R. China. After harvesting, the pineapple
fruits were transferred to the lab for experimental treatments and
measurements. In this experiment, 3 treatments were included. In
treatments T0, T1, and T2, 20 pineapple fruits with no packaging were subjected to an artificial climate chamber at 12, 27, and
32 C, respectively, for 36 h. The pineapple fruits subjected to
T0 were considered controls (CK). The relative humidity in the 3
artificial climate chambers was uniformly adjusted to 60%. After
being treated with elevated temperatures for 36 h in the artificial
climate chambers, the pineapple fruits were taken to the laboratory immediately. Totally 12 pineapple fruits were then randomly
sampled from each treatment for the determination of parameters
including color aspect, firmness, quality, and aroma components.
The 12 sampled pineapple fruits were divided to 3 parts as 3
replicates. Each replicate was comprised of 4 pineapple fruits.
In experiment 2, another 60 pineapple fruits with same degree
of maturity (yellow ripeness, about 200 d after the emergence of
red flower buds) were harvested on March 4, 2013 from the same
orchard used previously. The experimental designs and conditions
were same as those in experiment 1. The sampling methods and
replicates were the same as in experiment 1.
Color monitoring
The surface color of the skin and pulp of the pineapple fruit was
measured using a colorimeter (SP60, X-rite, Grand Rapids, MI,
U.S.A.) based on the Commission Internationale de lEclairage
(CIE) Lab color space after calibration with the standard white
C2410 Journal of Food Science r Vol. 79, Nr. 12, 2014

plate. For the skin color, 2 equidistant spots were examined on


the mid axis of each fruit sample. For the pulp color, each fruit
sample was cut into 2 halves longitudinally, and the center of each
half was examined. Color changes were measured by the colorimetric evaluation of the 3 CIE parameters, namely, lightness (L ),
greenness-redness (a ), and blueness-yellowness (b ). The CIE L ,
a , and b color coordinates were calculated considering the standard illuminant D65 and an observer angle of 10. The colorimeter
yielded L , a , and b values for each spot. The pineapple color
was measured using the CIE and Hunter scale in which +a, a,
+b, and b represent red, green, yellow, and blue, respectively; L
characterizes lightness and ranges from 0 (black) to 100 (white).

Measurements of physiochemical characteristics


The contents of total soluble solids (TSS), TA, and vitamin C
were determined according to the methods in the book edited
by Tong and Zhou (1982). The TSS content was determined by
directly measuring the soluble solids using a hand refractometer
scale. The TA content (percentage of citric acid) was determined
via titration with a solution of sodium hydroxide. The TSS/TA
(the ratio between TSS and TA) was calculated by dividing the
TSS by the TA. The vitamin C content was determined using the
titrimetric method with 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol.
The firmness of the samples, which is an indicator of texture, was
defined as the maximum force applied to puncture the pineapple
pulp and was measured using a Texture Analyzer (GY-1, made
by Hangzhou Top Instruments Corp., China). The probe had a
puncture diameter of 3.5 mm and was adjusted for a travel distance
of 10 mm. The mean value of firmness for each treatment was then
calculated and expressed in kg/cm2 . The unit of firmness then was
converted to N (Newton) from kgcm2 after being multiplied by
the gravity acceleration constant (9.8) and the area of thrust surface
(1/40.352 cm2 ).
Aroma component identification
The aroma components were analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) according to Liu and others (2011). The MS was operated
using an EI ion source with a temperature of 170 C, an electron
energy of 70 eV, and a photomultiplier tube voltage of 350 V. The
mass-scanning range was 35 to 335 amu. The aroma components
were tentatively identified by comparing their mass spectra with
mass spectra published in the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) library, and the relative contents of each
component were determined using their peak areas.
Statistical analysis
The data were tested for statistical significance using the analysis
of variance package included in Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS
Statistics 17.0. The mean comparisons were performed using least
significant difference (LSD). A probability level of P 0.05 was
considered significant (n 5).

Results and Discussion


Change in the skin and pulp color
The appearance of food products is of major importance to
consumers with regard to both acceptability and preference. The
color of fruit products is generally accepted as one of the most
relevant quality parameters. Therefore, color plays a decisive role
when evaluating the quality of the fruit product at the point of sale.
In this work, the effects of elevated temperatures on the color of

Elevated temperature postharvest affects pineapple fruits . . .


Table 1Changes in the color aspects of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits caused by elevated temperatures postharvest.

Treatments
Experiment 1
T0
T1
T2
Experiment 2
T0
T1
T2

Pulp

58.04 1.28 a
57.29 0.75 a
56.68 1.59 a

2.45 0.27 c
4.08 0.46 b
6.71 0.55 a

17.22 0.50 b
19.44 0.92 b
23.87 1.00 a

80.75 0.38 a
79.90 0.34 a
79.82 1.18 a

1.04 0.34 b
2.65 0.15 a
2.84 0.12 a

26.74 1.09 b
35.67 1.30 a
37.97 0.32 a

54.12 0.56 a
48.98 2.17 b
39.90 1.21 c

4.77 0.36 b
9.96 1.34 a
9.96 1.22 a

21.30 1.54 b
25.06 1.81 ab
27.03 1.49 a

82.44 0.79 a
77.72 0.19 b
72.99 0.76 c

0.30 0.17 c
2.31 0.32 b
3.43 0.21 a

32.07 0.63 b
41.36 0.57 a
42.45 0.71 a

Note: Values with different letters within a column in each experiment are significantly different according to the LSD test (P = 0.05).

the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits were investigated by studying


changes in the L , a , and b values. The results are summarized
in Table 1.
In experiment 1, the elevated temperatures decreased the L
values of the skin and pulp, although the decreases in the L value
were statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05) compared the values
recorded for T0. In experiment 2, similar results were obtained.
Compared with those of T0, the L values of the skin of T1
and T2 significantly decreased by 9.50% and 26.27%, respectively
(P 0.05). In addition, the L values of the pulp also decreased
from 82.44 to 77.72 and 72.99, respectively, as the temperature increased. The decreases in the L values of the pulp were significant
at the 95% confidence level (P 0.05). These results suggest that
the elevated temperature treatments decreased the L values of the
skin and pulp of pineapple fruits, in agreement with a previous
study in which the L values of strawberries stored at a temperature of 20 C decreased compared with those of strawberries
stored at 10 C (Miszczak and others 1995). Similar results were
also observed in tomato and walnut (Christopoulos and Tsantili
2011; Renard and others 2013). By contrast, the skins of pineapple fruits were directly exposed to the air condition with higher
temperature. So the color of skin was darker than the pulp in this
work after being treated with elevated temperature.
The a (greenness-redness) and b (blueness-yellowness) values
of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits increased in response
to the elevated temperature treatments. In experiment 1, the a
values of the skin under the T0, T1, and T2 treatments were
2.45, 4.08, and 6.71, respectively. Those of the pulp were 1.04,
2.65, and 2.84, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that both
T1 and T2 significantly increased the a values of the skin and
pulp of pineapple fruits compared with those of T0 (P 0.05).
In experiment 2, a similar tendency was observed. The a value
of the skin of T0 was 4.77, while those of T1 and T2 were
significantly increased at 9.96 and 9.96, respectively (P 0.05).
Similarly, the highest a value of the pulp, 3.43, was observed in
the fruits under the T2 treatment, followed by T1 at 2.31. The
lowest value was recorded under the T0 treatment at 0.30, and
significant differences were observed for T1 and T2 compared
with T0 (P 0.05).
In experiment 1, the b values of the skin increased for
T1 (19.44) and T2 (23.87) compared to those of T0 (17.22);
a significant difference was observed between T2 and T0
(P 0.05). The b value of the pulp of T1 was 35.67, whereas
that of T2 was 37.97 and that of T0 was 26.74. The increase was
33.39% for T1 and 41.50% for T2 at a 95% (P 0.05) confidence
level when compared to T0. Similar change tendencies were observed in the b values in experiment 2. The b values of the skin
of T1 and T2 were increased by 17.65% and 26.90%, respectively;

a significant difference was observed between T2 and T0 (P


0.05). The b values of the pulp increased for T1 (41.36) and T2
(42.45) compared to that of T0 (32.07). Statistical analyses showed
that significant differences were observed when T1 and T2 were
compared with T0 (P 0.05).
The above results of the skin and pulp color demonstrate that
high temperatures postharvest exert a stimulating enhancement in
the skin and pulp color of pineapple fruits, turning them more
yellow and red. Similar results were obtained in a previous study
in which tomatoes stored at higher temperatures (20 C) exhibited
an increase in red color compared with those stored at lower temperatures (4 C) (Renard and others 2013). Kalt and others (1993)
also reported a stimulating effect of elevated temperature on the
postharvest color development of nonfully colored strawberries.
This change could be explained by the presence of carotenoids as
well as other components (vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids,
proteins, and so on) in the fruits that affected the final color
(Miranda and others 2009; Vega-Galvez and others 2009).

Changes of physiochemical characteristics


The data describing the characteristics (TSS, TA, vitamin C,
and firmness) recorded in the 2 experiments are presented in
Table 2. In experiment 1, the TSS contents under the T0, T1, and
T2 treatments were 17.52, 18.25, and 20.30, respectively, while
those in experiment 2 were 15.63, 15.93, and 17.32, respectively.
Statistical analyses indicated that the increases in the TSS contents
for T2 were significant at the 95% confidence level (P 0.05)
compared with those of T0 for both experiments.
The data collected from the 2 experiments suggest that the TA
contents decreased in response to the elevated temperature treatments. In experiment 1, the TA contents of T1 and T2 decreased
by 17.31% and 27.89% compared to that of T0. These decreases
were both subjected to statistical analyses (P 0.05). Similarly,
in experiment 2, the T1 values decreased by 19.15% and the T2
value decreased by 23.40%. The decrease in T2 was significant at
the 95% confidence level (P 0.05), while the decrease in T1
was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) compared to T0.
Due solely to the increase in the TSS contents and the decrease
in the TA contents in the 2 experiments, the TSS/TA (the ratio of
the total soluble solid and titratable acid contents) of the pineapple
fruits increased in response to the elevated temperature treatments.
In experiment 1, the TSS/TA values of T1 and T2 increased substantially by 26.90% and 59.06%, respectively (P 0.05). In experiment 2, the increase was 30.70% for TI and 51.78% for T2.
The increase in T2 was significant at the 95% confidence level (P
0.05), while in T1, it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
Regarding the vitamin C contents, the values of the treatments and the control ranged from 51.07 mg/100 gFW to 56.20
Vol. 79, Nr. 12, 2014 r Journal of Food Science C2411

C: Food Chemistry

Skin
L

Elevated temperature postharvest affects pineapple fruits . . .


Table 2Changes of physiochemical characteristics of pineapple fruits resulting from elevated temperatures postharvest.

C: Food Chemistry

Treatments
Experiment 1
T0
T1
T2
Experiment 2
T0
T1
T2

TSS (%)

TA (%)

TSS/ TA

Vitamin C (mg/100 gFW)

Firmness (N)

17.52 0.28 b
18.25 0.66 b
20.30 0.68 a

1.04 0.18 a
0.86 0.009 b
0.75 0.04 c

16.88 0.11 c
21.42 0.71 b
26.85 0.62 a

51.53 3.79 a
56.20 4.44 a
51.07 5.40 a

5.95 0.17 a
5.57 0.45 b
4.59 0.09 c

15.63 0.34 b
15.93 0.33 b
17.32 0.48 a

0.94 0.05 a
0.76 0.07 ab
0.72 0.05 b

16.32 0.67b
21.33 2.07 ab
24.77 1.55 a

41.03 2.74 a
41.23 3.42 a
42.60 2.07 a

6.03 0.09 a
4.77 0.05 b
4.18 0.08 c

Note: Values with different letters within a column in each experiment are significantly different according to the LSD test (P = 0.05).

have been found in pineapple, but few of these volatiles have


been identified as contributing to the distinct pineapple flavor
(Tokitomo and others 2005). Previous research suggests that the
aroma components of pineapple fruits consist predominantly of esters and alkenes (Preston and others 2003; Elss and others 2005; Liu
and Liu 2012). Several methyl esters, some characteristic sulfurcontaining esters, and various hydroxy esters and their corresponding acetoxy esters, as well as a number of lactones, are responsible
for the typical pineapple flavor profile (Engel and others 1990).
In this work, a total of 27 different aroma components were
identified in the pineapple fruits in the 2 experiments, including
7 esters, 18 alkenes, and 2 heterocyclic compounds (Table 3). In
experiment 1, 6 esters, 15 alkenes, and 2 heterocyclic compounds
were detected (Table 3 and 4). Eleven aroma components consisting of 10 alkenes and 1 heterocyclic compound were identified in
the fruits from T0 (Table 4). Alkenes represented 91.62% of the
total aroma production in the T0-treated pineapple fruits, while
heterocyclic compounds represented 0.57%. In experiment 2, 7
aroma components, including 3 esters and 4 alkenes, were identified in the T0-treated pineapple fruits with total relative contents
of 31.78% and 51.98%, respectively. These results indicate that
the aroma components of pineapple fruits consist mainly of esters
and alkenes, in agreement with the results of previously published
reports (Miszczak and others 1995; Preston and others 2003; Elss
and others 2005; Liu and others 2011). However, some scholars have argued that esters are the main volatile compounds in
fresh pineapple fruits; this discrepancy could be explained by differences in the cultivars, growing conditions, and harvest seasons
(Umano and others 1992; Taivini and others 2001; Kaewtathip
and Charoenrein 2012). Our previous research has indicated that
there are more types of ester aroma components with high relative
contents in the pineapple fruits harvested during the hot season
(summer). In addition, the pineapple fruits harvested during the
relatively cold season (winter) contained more alkenes with higher
relative contents (Liu and others 2011; Liu and Liu 2012). This
current study reveals that alkenes also contribute a high portion
of the total aroma production in T0-treated pineapple fruits harvested during the winter, confirming the previously published
results (Liu and others 2011; Liu and Liu 2012).
Aroma compounds in fruits can be generated from fatty acids,
amino acids, and carbohydrates; different environmental conditions can affect the levels of precursors and the activities of related
enzymes, thereby impacting the flavor development and aroma
production (Wang and others 2005). In this work, a greater accumulation of total aroma components was observed in pineapple fruits after exposure to elevated temperatures postharvest in
Aroma components
both experiments (Table 3 and 4). In experiment 1, 2 esters
Flavor plays an important role in consumer satisfaction and in- nonadecanoic acid methyl ester and 10,13-octadecadiynoic
fluences the further consumption of fruits and foods in general acid methyl esterwere identified in the T1-treated pineap(Pelayo and others 2003). More than 280 volatile compounds ple fruits with total relative contents of 13.05%. Similarly,
mg/100 gFW in experiment 1 and from 41.03 mg/100 gFW to
42.60 mg/100 gFW in experiment 2. Statistical analyses of the
2 experiments revealed that the elevated temperature treatments
slightly affected the vitamin C contents but produced no marked
differences (P > 0.05).
Overall, the results indicate that the elevated temperature treatments postharvest improved the physiochemical quality of the
pineapple fruits by increasing TSS content and TSS/TA ratio and
decreasing TA. Similar results were obtained in previous studies.
Obenland and others (2011) reported that the storage of W. Murcott mandarins at 8 C led to a slightly higher SSC than that in
fruit stored at 0 C, and the SSC/TA ratio in the fruit stored at
8 C was significantly higher than that of fruit stored at 0 or 4 C.
Higher temperatures produced fruit that was less tart and less offflavor; the decrease in tartness that occurred during storage was
likely due to increases in SSC/TA resulting from decreased TA
contents and increased SSC (Obenland and others 2011). Fruits
stored at low temperatures have been rated by a trained panel as
having a significantly lower ripe aroma, sweetness, and flavor and a
significantly higher sourness than those stored at higher temperatures for the same duration (Maul and others 2000). Nevertheless,
contrasting results were also previously obtained. Obenland and
others (2013) reported that the SSC and TA contents were relatively unchanged when fruits were stored at 20 C compared with
those of fruits stored at a continuous 5 C. Hong and others (2013)
reported decreases in the contents of TSS, sucrose, glucose, fructose, vitamin C, and TA in summer pineapple fruit kept at 25 C
compared to those of fruits stored at 10 and 6 C. This variation
could be due to differences in the cultivar, storage duration, and
harvest season.
Firmness is generally accepted as one of the most relevant quality
parameters characterizing the fruit texture. However, in this work,
both of the experiments suggest that the firmness of pineapple
fruits decreased substantially in response to the elevated temperature treatments. In experiment 1, the firmness of T0 was 5.95 N,
while those of T1 and T2 were 5.57 N and 4.95 N, respectively.
Similar results were observed in experiment 2, in which the firmness of the pineapple fruits decreased from 6.03 N (T0) to 4.77 N
(T1) and 4.18 N (T2). This reduction in the tissue firmness could
be due to changes in the plant cell wall that occurred when the
fruit were subjected to high temperatures postharvest. Similar results were obtained in previous studies in which peach (Zhang and
others 2011) and tomato (Renard and others 2013) fruit softened
after harvest, with the greatest loss of firmness observed in fruit
stored at higher temperatures.

C2412 Journal of Food Science r Vol. 79, Nr. 12, 2014

Elevated temperature postharvest affects pineapple fruits . . .


Table 3Aroma components and relative contents in pineapple fruits subjected to elevated temperatures postharvest.
Relative contents (%)

Esters

Alkenes

Heterocyclic
compounds

Component name

Molecular formula

Hexanoic acid methyl ester


Hexanoic acid ethyl ester
Octanoic acid methyl ester
Octanoic acid ethyl ester
10,13-octadecadiynoic acid methyl ester
Octadecanoic acid ethyl ester
Nonadecanoic acid methyl ester
Cis-ocimene
1,3,6-octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl-, (E)
Ocimene
Sabinene
Aristolen
a -guaiene
(+)-Sativen
(+)-cycloisosativene
a` -copaene
a -elemene
a -cubebene
Junipene
Isolongifolene
c-cadinene
a` -muurolene
a` -amorphene
Delta-cadinene
Germacrene-D
Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione,17,21-dihydroxy-,
bis (o-methyloxime)
Torreyol

C7 H14 O2
C8 H16 O2
C9 H18 O2
C10 H20 O2
C19 H30 O2
C20 H40 O2
C20 H40 O2
C10 H16
C10 H16
C10 H16
C10 H16
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C15 H24
C23 H36 N2 O4
C15 H26 O

Experiment 2

T0

T1

T2

T0

T1

T2

16.18
1.23
3.18

41.98
3.39
6.40
5.06

4.68
7.12

2.40

2.73

10.32

19.06

8.34
0.77
4.96

23.83
3.91
5.57
12.16
3.61
4.22

0.52

18.62
11.51
10.87

2.87

3.28
13.49

4.18
0.38
3.24
1.76
16.63
2.47
2.84
1.03

2.26
4.57

9.06
6.77
15.95

24.66

5.66

19.02

2.64

16.57
2.87
56.76
2.60

5.69
1.51

5.70
0.63

1.31

8.51
10.64
46.06
7.33

2.32

1.59

11.54
0.93

1.70
1.06

0.89

0.57

Note: not detected or not found.

Table 4Aromatic categories and relative contents of pineapple fruits subjected to elevated temperatures postharvest.
Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Relative content (%)


Categories
Esters
Alkenes
Heterocyclic compounds
Total

Number

Relative content (%)

Number

T0

T1

T2

T0

T1

T2

T0

T1

T2

T0

T1

T2

0
91.62
0.57
92.19

13.05
86.43
0.52
100.00

43.87
56.13
0
100.00

9
1
10

2
10
1
13

4
12

16

31.78
51.98
0
83.76

78.80
14.84
0
93.64

72.54
20.03
0
92.57

3
4

4
5

4
7

11

Note: not detected or not found.

4 estershexanoic acid methyl ester, hexanoic acid ethyl ester,


octanoic acid methyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester
were identified in the T2-treated pineapple fruits with total relative
contents of 43.87%. These results indicate that more esters with
higher contents were identified in the pineapple fruits after treatment with elevated temperatures. In addition, more alkenes were
identified in the pineapple fruits from T1 and T2 (Table 3 and 4).
However, the total relative contents of the alkenes of T1 (86.43%)
and T2 (56.13%) deceased compared to that of T0 (91.62%)
(Table 4).
Similar results were obtained in experiment 2. Three esters
were identified in the pineapple fruits from T0 with total relative
contents of 31.78%. After treatment with increased temperatures,
another esteroctanoic acid ethyl esterwas identified in the
T1 and T2 pineapple fruits. The total relative contents of the
esters of T1 (78.80%) and T2 (72.54%) increased compared to that
of T0 (31.78%) (Table 3 and 4). Four alkenes with total relative
contents of 51.98% were identified in the T0 pineapple fruits. A
total of 5 and 7 alkenes were identified in the pineapple fruits from

T1 and T2, respectively. However, the total relative contents of


the alkenes of T1 (14.84%) and T2 (20.03%) decreased compared
to that of T0 (51.98%) (Table 4).
With respect to aroma components, the 2 experiments indicate
that elevated temperatures enhance the production of aroma components. These results are in agreement with previous research
(Maul and others 2000; Ayala-Zavala and others 2004; Obenland
and others 2013; Renard and others 2013). Pineapple is a fruitynote fruit in fragrance. Alkenes are grassy-note and esters are
fruity-note aroma components (Zhang and Chen 2007). Among
these aroma compounds, volatile esters are quantitatively the most
important and, therefore, are key contributors to the aroma of
pineapple fruits (Miszczak and others 1995; Elss and others 2005).
Especially, some methyl esters are significant for flavor of pineapple
fruits (Engel and others 1990). In this work, more types of esters
were identified in the pineapple fruits after treatment with elevated
temperatures, resulting in an increase in the total relative contents.
Octanoic acid methyl ester and hexanoic acid methyl ester are significances of ester flavor category. These results support harvesting

Vol. 79, Nr. 12, 2014 r Journal of Food Science C2413

C: Food Chemistry

Experiment 1
Categories

Elevated temperature postharvest affects pineapple fruits . . .

C: Food Chemistry

pineapple fruits during the winter, as these fruits become more fragrant after exposure to elevated temperatures. Similar results were
reported in previous publications. Ayala-Zavala and others (2004),
Obenland and others (2011) and Zhang and others (2011) reported
that the production of esters, such as hexyl acetate, methyl acetate,
(Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and butyl acetate, significantly increased in
fruits stored at higher temperatures. The ester concentrations were
enhanced to a greater degree when the fruits were transferred
to higher temperatures after being held at lower temperatures
(Obenland and others 2013). In contrast, the terpene content
declined as a result of storage at warm temperatures (Obenland
and others 2013) because the last step in the production of esters
is catalyzed by alcohol acyl-transferases (AAT), which have been
shown to be responsive to increasing temperatures (Fellman and
others 2000; Xi and others 2012).

Conclusions
Elevated temperature treatments altered the color of the skin
and pulp of pineapple fruits ripened in low-temperature seasons.
The chromaticity of the skin and pulp changed to be more red
and yellow with less lightness. The elevated temperature treatments enhanced the quality of the pineapple fruits ripened in
low-temperature seasons by increasing the contents of TSS and
decreasing the TA content. The elevated temperatures significantly increased the TSS/TA, and slightly affected the contents
of vitamin C (nonsignificant). After exposure to elevated temperatures, the pineapple fruits ripened in low-temperature seasons
were more fragrant. More esters and alkenes were identified in the
pineapple fruits that were exposed to elevated temperatures. In
addition, the total relative contents of esters increased in response
to the elevated temperature treatments, whereas the total relative
contents of alkenes decreased. It was found that elevated temperature treatment at 32 C was better for the quality of pineapple
fruits when compared with the treatment at 27 C. It should be
noted that elevated temperature treatments, especially at 32 C,
have been shown to decrease the firmness of the pineapple fruits.

Acknowledgment
This work was financially supported by Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest (201203021) from Ministry of Agriculture of P. R. China.

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