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CE 102

HIGHER SURVEYING

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
TACHEOMETRY
This is a procedure of obtaining horizontal distances
and differences in elevation based on the optical
geometry of the instrument employed

The line of sight of the tacheometer may be kept


horizontal or inclined depending upon the field
conditions

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
STADIA METHOD
Horizontal Stadia Sights:

D = Ks + C

where:
D

distance from the instrument center to the face of the rod

stadia interval factor

stadia intercept; the difference between the upper stadia


hair reading and the lower stadia hair reading

stadia constant or the distance from the center of the


instrument to principal focus; C = 0 for internal focusing
telescope

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
STADIA METHOD
Horizontal Stadia Sights:

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
STADIA METHOD
Horizontal Stadia Sights:
where:
hi

height of the instrument axis above the ground


at A

hA , hB

elevations of A and B

SM

middle hair reading

H.I.

height of the instrument

H.I.

hA + hi

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
STADIA METHOD
Inclined Stadia Sights:

ID = Ks cos + C
HD = Ks cos2 + C cos
VD = Ks cos sin + C sin

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
STADIA METHOD
Inclined Stadia Sights:
where:
ID

the inclined or slope distance from the center of instrument


to the horizontal cross hair reading or rod reading

HD =

the horizontal distance between the instrument and the rod

VD =

the vertical distance between the telescope axis and the


horizontal cross hair reading

observed vertical angle of elevation or depression;


(+) for angle of elevation, (-) for angle of depression

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
STADIA METHOD

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
An engineers level with a stadia constant of 0.30 m was set-up on the line
between two points, A and B, and the following hair readings were
observed.
Hair Readings
Rod Position

Upper (a)

Middle (c)

Lower (b)

Rod held at A

1.330 m

1.175 m

1.020 m

Rod held at B

1.972 m

1.854 m

1.736 m

If the stadia interval factor of the level is 99.5, determine the length of the
line AB.

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
SAMPLE PROBLEMS

A dumpy level with an internal focusing telescope was set up on the left
bank of the river and the rod readings tabulated below were taken on a
stadia rod held successively at the left and right water edges. If the stadia
interval factor of the instrument is 100, determine the width of the river.
Hair Readings
Rod Position

Upper (a)

Middle (c)

Lower (b)

Rod held at LWE

2.189 m

2.172 m

2.155 m

Rod held at RWE

2.277 m

2.173 m

2.069 m

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
The following data were obtained by stadia measurement:
vertical angle

= + 18 23, and observed stadia intercept =

2.20 m. The stadia interval factor of the instrument is 95.5 and the
rod reading is taken at 1.95 m, determine the horizontal, vertical
and inclined stadia distances, and the difference in elevation
between points A and B if the height of the instrument is 1.62 m.

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
The upper and lower stadia hair readings on a stadia rod held at
station B were observed as 3.50 m and 1.00 m, respectively, with the
use of a transit with an internal focusing telescope and having a
stadia interval factor of 99.5. The height of the instrument above
station A is 1.45 m and the rod reading taken at 2.25 m. If the
vertical angle observed is - 23 34, determine the following:

a) horizontal, vertical, and inclined stadia distances


b) difference in elevation between the two stations
c) the elevation of station B, if the elevation of station A is
155.54 m above the mean sea level

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
A transit with a stadia interval factor of 100.8 was set at point C on the line
between points A and B, and the following stadia readings were observed:
Hair Readings
Position of Rod

Vertical Angle

Rod held at A
Rod held at B

Upper (a)

Middle (c)

Lower (b)

+ 15 35

1.330 m

1.175 m

1.020 m

- 8 08

1.972 m

1.854 m

1.736 m

If the stadia constant is 0.381 m, determine the length of line AB and the
difference in elevation between points A and B.

TACHYMETRIC SURVEYING
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
Indirect Leveling by Inclined Stadia Sights
Given the following set of stadia level notes. The instrument used has a stadia interval
factor of 100 and equipped with an internal focusing telescope. Complete the
tabulation and perform the customary arithmetic check.
BACKSIGHT
STA

FORESIGHT

RR

BMa

1.55

- 5 35

1.50

TP1

1.74

+ 8 15

1.68

1.76

+ 5 35

1.48

TP2

0.95

- 4 48

1.77

1.98

+ 12 08

1.66

BMb

2.49

- 12 50

2.53

1.06

+ 7 22

2.05

2.14

+ 14 05

1.79

2.67

- 15 32

1.92

TP4

1.92

- 9 41

1.33

2.16

- 7 59

1.25

2.65

+ 7 32

1.88

g
TP

BMc

VD

RR

VD

Change
in
Elev

ELEV
(m)
550.50