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Design of a Pole-Slipping Protection for Loss of Synchronizing of a Gen...

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9th September 2013

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Design of a Pole-Slipping Protection for Loss of


Synchronizing of a Generator

Transmission line faults in power systems are common. They result in electromechanical oscillations called
power swing. If the power swing is severe, it can lead to loss of syschronism among the interconnected generators.
This is referred to as pole slipping condition. The voltage and current swing during a pole slipping condition can
damage electrical components in the power system. Unwanted operations of various protective device may occurs.
These could affect reliability of the power system causing power failures in wide areas.
Relays require effective algorithms for fast and detection of pole slipping condition. This project was
focused on the development of a relay that condition in a generator. To achieve this, the algorithms were first
developed in MATLAB and then tested with the signals derived from PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. The pole
slipping algorithms proposed were based on impedance detection in R-X diagram and equal energy area in time
domain. The algorithms were then implemented on a hardware based on dsPIC microcontroller. Finally, the relay
hardware was tested with analogue signals from OMICRON.
Fault for long duration, insufficient electromagnetic toque, faulty excitation and operating errors can lead
machine to pole-slipping condition
My project based on single machine infinite bus system and 3 phase to ground fault at the middle of the
transmission line of the system.

[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-B9Oo2Wfvs1s/Ui16DunxvAI
/AAAAAAAAAIo/sYFLTKNklOU/s1600/1.jpg]

Fig. 1 three phase to ground fault in the system

A significant thing in the project is critical time. Critical time is most time circuit breakers clear fault
without pole-slipping condition. That means if circuit breakers clear fault after critical time, pole-slipping condition
will occur.

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[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-33QjPnxl9dE/UiyKDKE_OrI/AAAAAAAAAHY/C-GL32U1vUM/s1600/5.jpg]

Fig. 2(a) power and rotor angle in stable power swing condition

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-oCHlumJzoKA/Ui18ZxEb4cI
/AAAAAAAAAKs/PloUf-8Nr5k/s1600/3.jpg]

Fig. 2(b) power and rotor angle in stable power swing condition

[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-63z4WBw0kd0/Ui18beWhroI
/AAAAAAAAALU/Zhw0_hXYD_E/s1600/4.jpg]

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Fig. 3(a) power and rotor angle in pole-sloping condition

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-ywbpz8nDYAo/Ui18bS4BnRI
/AAAAAAAAAK4/0AxCWnPKxYg/s1600/5.jpg]

Fig. 3(b) power and rotor angle in pole-sloping condition

The relay can be selected method user would like to use. There are the behaviour of the impedance vector
method and the equal energy area method.

The behaviour of the impedance vector method


The parameter supervised to detect generator pole slipping and out-of-step is the behaviour of the
impedance vector measured at the generator terminals.

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-kHBpZFsjMyo
/Ui18btmvzPI/AAAAAAAAAK8/qVrGFl04WIQ/s1600/6.jpg]

Fig. 4 Behaviour of the impedance vector at the generator terminals


during out-of-step conditions following the tripping of a power system fault
A = normal operation, B = beginning of fault, C = fault tripped,
1 = first slip of the impedance vector, 2 = second slip of the impedance vector

The typical behaviour of the impedance vector during the pole slipping which occurs after a power system
fault can be seen from Fin 4. The tip of the vector during normal operation is indicated by point A. At fault
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incidence it changes from A to B. When the fault is tripped, it jumps initially from B to C and then follows curve 1
for the first pole slip and curve 2 for the second. This behaviour of the impedance vector can be detected by a relay
having the operating characteristic shown in Fig. 5. The characteristic comprises three parts, the lens (1), the
straight line bisecting the lens (2) and the reactance line (3). In order to count as a pole slip, the impedance must
enter the operating area at point M and leave it on the opposite side of the lens (point N). For this to take place, the
center of the power swing must line within the generator unit zone, in which case it is usual to trip the unit after the
first slip. If the center of the power swing is located in the power system, i.e. above the reactance line (3), tripping is
only initiated after a prescribed number of slips.
[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-JVMpRdIDkA8/Uiybmyw0vxI/AAAAAAAAAH8/v9eI0GHtN_I/s1600/7.jpg]

[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-dekkREEgj0Y
/Ui18cBD6YOI/AAAAAAAAALI/KBX4X45o7Jw/s1600/7.jpg]

Fig. 5 Lenticular operating characteristic of a pole slipping protection relay


Za, Zb = power system and generator

The equal energy area method


[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ThxQZKRjmXI/Ui06CFerqwI/AAAAAAAAAIM/b-DDUf1mBrM/s1600/8.jpg]

[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-UCoKfmMrnY0
/Ui18chFqLhI/AAAAAAAAALM/SAC9Mcrc0Iw/s1600/8.jpg]

Fig. 6 P-t curve for a stable system

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[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-lj68VYlRnYY
/Ui18djMrVUI/AAAAAAAAALc/mLMjOEa1FSc/s1600/9.jpg]

Fig. 7 P-t curve for an unstable system

Fig.6 and Fig.7 show electrical power graph in stable swing case and unstable swing case respectively.
Operation point is at a before power system fault. After the fault, the point moves to b. At c, fault elimination
initiates. Area below graph between a to c is energy area A1. From d to f, machine discharges energy. Area below
graph between d to f is energy area A2. If energy area A1 less than energy area A2, it is stable swing. On the other
hand, energy area A1 more than energy area A2, it is pole slipping. Because machine cannot empty stored energy
before get new mechanical energy.

Simulation
The project is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC. The generator is very important for power swing simulation.
Because it is a majority cause of power swing in the system.

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-I1GdD-3e_nc/Ui18ObkzoLI/AAAAAAAAAI0/SvanGCj2qTI/s1600/11.jpg]

Fig. 8 The system for power swing simulation

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[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-UObjQUATE_c
/Ui18Oxj1ByI/AAAAAAAAAJA/DOdgh9mJ9GM/s1600/12.jpg]

Fig. 9 The system for power swing simulation in PSCAD

The behaviour of the impedance vector method simulation


Voltage and current are measured at the terminals of the generator. The parameters is used in relay block to
calculate impedance.

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xcv7pJXTsyo/Ui18PSE7yiI
/AAAAAAAAAJM/MOtYf08xcMU/s1600/13.jpg]

Fig. 10 The behaviour of the impedance vector method block

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/AAAAAAAAAJY/vyKf5ZQYsas/s1600/14.jpg]

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-H9SfKghlRyc/Ui18QgYdZHI
/AAAAAAAAAJc/QZ3aFvLJUlM/s1600/15.jpg]

Fig. 11 Functions are inside Lenticular block

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--2V2qFYxFGQ
/Ui18Vy-xRVI/AAAAAAAAAKM/25zNNADh2gg/s1600/16.jpg]

Fig. 12 Lenticular protection zone of reley

The equal energy area method simulation

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Voltage and current are measured at the terminals of the generator. The parameters is used in relay block to
calculate energy area by integral calculus

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-z69Nk_Sy2OA/Ui18QxIBacI
/AAAAAAAAAJk/WL2atfHTi5A/s1600/17.jpg]

Fig. 13 The equal energy area method block

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-sjhu4AnPjxw
/Ui18SSHDCpI/AAAAAAAAAJs/LvGI3ilCI0U/s1600/18.jpg]

Fig. 14 Function is inside the Power method block

Design and making the relay

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Fig. 15 working sequences of the devices


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Step-down transformer
Hall effect current sensor
Analog to digital converter
Microcontroller
Display
Auxiliary relay
Switching power supply

Protection relay testing

Relay testing is important in protection system. To ensure the relay can work accurately in every
circumstance. Today, testing tool controlled by computer system is used widely. OMICRON is the one product is
used to test protection relay.

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[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TM0MuNaPH3M/Ui18V8IkSnI
/AAAAAAAAAKI/dOi7yCApPKs/s1600/20.jpg]

Fig. 16 Protection relay tester CMC 265 plus

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-P3XE_pdMC0w
/Ui18YVv0TCI/AAAAAAAAAKc/9bYzpCh7FdU/s1600/21.jpg]

Fig. 17 Software for using with OMICRON

Design of algorithm for power swing detection

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[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-lssLTF0LO0E
/Ui18YVzAJOI/AAAAAAAAAKk/39nUo7yrCU4/s1600/22.jpg]

Fig. 18 The behaviour of the impedance vector algorithm

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[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-JV2KYJC6jJs
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Fig. 19 The equal energy area algorithm

Result of simulation
Result of The behavior of impedance vector method

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[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-rjyyrmO-QSI/Ui3Jn_3LTMI
/AAAAAAAAAMM/cM4hEEv20s8/s1600/24.jpg]

Fig. 20 R-X diagram in simulation in stable power swing case

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-E4YgnDoj0uo/Ui3JnEegxCI
/AAAAAAAAAME/7cfkjEehQhM/s1600/25.jpg]

Fig. 21 Trip signal of relay in stable power swing case

Impedance measured in stable power swing case. It moves to the operating zone then gets back to the
right side and oscillates. Impedance does not leave from the left side of the lens so trip signal is zero
status

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-oxsXv5bw_qw/Ui3JmMV_sI/AAAAAAAAAMA/NTz6H4ueC2Y/s1600/26.jpg]

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Fig. 23 R-X diagram in simulation in unstable power swing case

[http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-rGInRtI28uk/Ui3Jpe7n0aI
/AAAAAAAAAMk/Cv0h9ZqUQxA/s1600/27.jpg]

Fig. 24 Trip signal of relay in unstable power swing case


In case of unstable power swing. Impedance moves to operating zone. It enters to the right
side of the lens and leave from the left size of the lens. Pole slipping condition occurs. Trip signal is
high status.

Result of the equal energy area method

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com
/-MsgQhH1prgQ/Ui3JomcBZdI/AAAAAAAAAMY/OTklIlAI_hw/s1600/28.jpg]

Fig. 25 Energy area in simulation in stable power swing case

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-p7rkwHDrNGk/Ui3JpOR1V1I
/AAAAAAAAAMc/Uf8LA0yQMI8/s1600/29.jpg]

Fig. 26 Trip signal of relay in stable power swing case

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Power is measured at the terminals of the generator. Energy area is calculated by intergral
function. In this case, energy area A1 is less then energy area A2 so trip signal is low status.

[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-1Cw8GCOM5eE/Ui3JqzLJp8I
/AAAAAAAAAMs/cC8Hl02q8a0/s1600/30.jpg]

Fig. 27 Energy area in simulation in unstable power swing case

[http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-2CVD9YGZlVE
/Ui3OloZDFmI/AAAAAAAAANY/1CGhBYr8_OE/s1600/31.jpg]

Fig. 28 Trip signal of relay in unstable power swing case

Energy area A1 is more than energy area A2. Pole slipping condition occurs so trip signal is high
status

Experimental result
Testing protection relay with OMICRON proves that the relay can be used in real situation. Generated voltage
and current signal from PSCAD applied to OMICRON and tested follow any situation. In system we test, the
critical time is 611.1 ms.

Table1 Experimental result table from the behaivour impedance vector method

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[http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-4Bvm9FfhvtQ
/Ui3V1456QTI/AAAAAAAAANs/xHuQV1PvfAM/s1600/32.jpg]

Table2 Experimental result table from the equal energy area method

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/-92KuqhAq87o/Ui3V2HWxukI/AAAAAAAAAN4/126FwRk2m44/s1600/33.jpg]

Pole slipping protection relay can detect fault by two methods. First, the behavior impedance vector method.
Second, the equal energy area method. From table1, the behavior impedance vector method can detect fault
correctly 100%. From table2, the equal energy area method cannot detect fault correctly. Because hall effect current
sensor is not accurate. It affects to calculated energy area.

Device pictures

[http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-ElDPWZCA2JQ/Ui3fssZ6pNI
/AAAAAAAAAOE/epBawiywjP0/s1600/34.jpg]

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9th September 2013 Supachai Sabua


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