Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 62
Ni-Base Filler Thermanit 625 in the Offshore Industry V. Gross Böhler Schweisstechnik Deutschland GmbH Germany,
Ni-Base Filler Thermanit 625
in the Offshore Industry
V. Gross
Böhler Schweisstechnik Deutschland GmbH
Germany, Hamm
Tehran, 13.8.2008
BÖHLER WELDING Group
content A. basics and features of filler metal grade Thermanit 625 B. Applications in the
content
A. basics and features of
filler metal grade Thermanit 625
B. Applications in the offshore industry.
Essentials for:
SCALE RESIST.
CRYOGENIC
B1. claddings
B2. clad pipe welding
CORROSION
HIGH TEMPER.
2
BÖHLER WELDING Group
General Aspects BÖHLER WELDING Group
General Aspects
BÖHLER WELDING Group
micro structures of conventional alloys Austenic structure: cubic-face centered high ductility non magnetic high
micro structures of conventional alloys
Austenic structure:
cubic-face centered
high ductility
non magnetic
high structural stability
austenite forming elements:
Ni
Mn
C
N
Ferrite forming elements:
Ferritic structure:
Cr
cubic-body centered
low ductility
moderate structural stability
magnetic
Mo
Si
Ti
Nb
V
W
BÖHLER WELDING Group
thermal conductiv. thermal conductiv. thermal expan. thermal expan. Basic microstructures Ferrite Martensite
thermal conductiv.
thermal conductiv.
thermal expan.
thermal expan.
Basic microstructures
Ferrite
Martensite
Ferrite +
Austenite
Austenite
516 / 70
13 % Cr
(S) / DSS
6 Mo (Ni-basic)
strength
.
+ .
.+++ .
.
++ .
. + .
toughness
.
+ .
. +
.
.
++ .
.+++ .
sensibility to
heat input
.
+ .
.+++ .
. ++ (+) .
.+++ .
+Cr, Mo, Ni; N
increasing corrosion resistance (price)
BÖHLER WELDING Group
main offshore high alloyed material Alloy C Cr Mo Fe others filler metal Duplex 0,02
main offshore high alloyed material
Alloy
C
Cr
Mo
Fe
others
filler metal
Duplex
0,02
22
3
-
N=0,15
Thermanit 22/09
Superduplex
0,02
25
3,5
-
N=0,25
Thermanit 25/09CuT
4565
0,01
24
4,5
-
N=0,40
Thermanit Nimo C (alloy C4)
825*
0,02
22
3,2
31
Fe=31, Cu=2
Thermanit 625
625
0,02
21
9
3
Fe=3, Nb=3,5
Thermanit 625
59
0,01
23
16
1
Fe=1
Thermanit Nimo C 24
* matching filler metal not recommended
BÖHLER WELDING Group
General overview nickel-base alloys Standard Super alloys alloys Alloys with specific physical properties Wet High
General overview nickel-base alloys
Standard
Super alloys
alloys
Alloys with specific
physical properties
Wet
High
High
High
Electrical
Soft
corrosion-
temperature-
corrosion-
temperature-
Expansion
resistance
magnetic
resistant
resistant
resistant
strength
alloys
alloys
alloys
alloys
alloys
alloys
alloys
• Ni
• NiCrFe
• NiCrMo
• Age hardenable
• NiCr
• NiFe
• NiFe
alloys
• NiCu
• NiMo
• NiCrFe
• NiFeCo
• Non age
• NiCrFe
• NiCrFeMo
• FeCrAl*
• NiCrMoFe
hardenable
alloys
• FeCr*
• CrNiFeMo
• NiCrMoCo
• CoCrNiW
* Fe-base alloy
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Nickel alloy family tree Alloy X 2. 4665 alloy 333 2.4608 + Co Alloy C-276
Nickel alloy family tree
Alloy X
2. 4665
alloy 333
2.4608
+ Co
Alloy C-276
2.4819
+ W
+Cu
+Nb
Alloy 825
Alloy C-4
Alloy 625
2.4858
2.4610
2.4856
Alloy 602 CA
+
Mo
2.4633
+ C
Alloy 690
Nb
2.4642
Alloy 601 H
+ Si
+ Al
+ Alloy X-750
+
Ti
+ Mo
+ Co
NiCr 6015
Alloy 718
Alloy C-263
Alloy 600
2.4851
2.4669
2.4867
2.4816
2.4668
2.4650
Alloy 80 A
alloy 751
Alloy 75
2.4952
2.4649
2.4630
+
Fe
NiCr 8020
+ Si,Cr
Nickel
alloy 200 / 2.4066
alloy 201 / 2.4068
+ Cu
+ Al
2.4869
Alloy 400
Alloy K-500
NiCr 7030
2.4630
2.4375
2.4869
+
Mo
+ Mo
Alloy 59
2.4605
Alloy B 2
2.4617
+Co
Alloy 617
2.4663
BÖHLER WELDING Group
- 625 has a single phase microstructure, no second phase like ferrite in some austenitic
- 625 has a single phase microstructure, no second phase
like ferrite in some austenitic grades
- it is loaded by Cr, Mo, Nb
which behaviour can be expected by thermal
treatments in terms of melting, forming, heat treatment,
cooling, welding??? The influence of trace elements (e.g. S)
Seggregations, precipitations, hardening, hot cracking
affecting mechanical and corrosion properties and later
on the service
Special procedures have to be developped
BÖHLER WELDING Group
exposure to higher temperatures 90 0 80 1000 3000 70 10000 60 30000 50 40
exposure to higher temperatures
90
0
80
1000
3000
70
10000
60
30000
50
40
30
20
10
0
550
650
850
950
exposure 750 temp. (°C)
Drop in toughness to be considered at
exposure to 580°C to 900°C in service
BÖHLER WELDING Group
behaviour of 625 weld metal after pwht tests done by SMAW strength properties Rpo.2 Rp1.o
behaviour of 625 weld metal after pwht
tests done by SMAW
strength properties
Rpo.2
Rp1.o
Rm
900
Some low alloyed base metals require
pwht after cladding (e. g. grade 11, 12,
800
700
22V).
600
500
Impact on mechanical properties
400
as
600°C
650°C
700°C
welded
pwht temp. (14hrs/air cooling)
toughness
70
60
50
40
30
20
Mechanical properties are not
affected by pwht in the indicated
ranges.
10
0
as
600°C
650°C
700°C
welded
Corrosion properties have to be
rated seperately!
pwht (14hrs/aircool.)
BÖHLER WELDING Group
impact energy (J)
strength (MPa)
corrosion Influence of sensitisation on workability of various corrosion resistant nickel alloys Intergranular Attack
corrosion
Influence of sensitisation on workability of various
corrosion resistant nickel alloys
Intergranular Attack
Nominal Composition
Alloy
PRE
Cr %
Ni %
Mo %
Fe %
Others %
825
22
40
3.2
31
Cu
33
904 L
20
25
4,5
Bal.
Cu
35
926
21
25
6,5
Bal.
Cu 0.9, N
42
0.2
* 50% H 2 SO 4 + 42g/l Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3, t = 24h / boiling
31
27
31
6,5
Bal.
Cu 1.2, N
48
0.2
Thermal instability caused by welding
(multi-pass welding of thick plates)
may lead to precipitation of second
phases or carbides which promote
the corrosive attack
625
21
61
9
3
Cb 3.5
51
59
23
59
16
< 1
Al 0.3
76
C-276
16
58
16
5
W
4
69
22
21
57
13
3
W
3
65
686
21
56
16
2
W
4
74
PREPRE == %Cr%Cr ++ 3,33,3 %Mo%Mo ++ 3030 %N%N
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Hot cracking tendency/ MVT-Test SMAW SAW GMAW GTAW Base metal MVT-Test (7,5 kJ/cm) 30 Base
Hot cracking tendency/ MVT-Test
SMAW
SAW
GMAW
GTAW
Base metal
MVT-Test (7,5 kJ/cm)
30
Base metal: alloy 625
Filler metal: Thermanit 625
25
III
20
II
15
10
I
I = not critical, easy (area of e.g.316L)
5
II = to be welded with more care
0
01234
0,5
III = very critical
Total strain [%]
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Total cracking length [mm]
Influence of dilution to the hot cracking tendency BM: 6Mo (S31254) Filler metal: 625 20
Influence of dilution to the hot cracking tendency
BM: 6Mo (S31254)
Filler metal: 625
20
80
30
70
40
60
50
50
60
40
70
30
80
20
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
[%]
Ni in the weld seam
BÖHLER WELDING Group
[%]
Hot crack tendency
Dilution
[%]
Filler metal in the weld seam
general aspects of usual welding processes BÖHLER WELDING Group
general aspects of usual welding processes
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Essential difference between base/weld metal Base metal Weld metal -structure: as casted -structure defined by
Essential difference between base/weld metal
Base metal
Weld metal
-structure: as casted
-structure defined by rolling
and heat treatment, annealing
+ accelerated cooling
-no secondary treatment
-higher amount in S, N, H, O
-vacuum metallurgy
in particular for slag process
-lowest contents in S, N, H, O
-but
: fast solidification
BÖHLER WELDING Group
filler metal processes • „slag processes“ SMAW/ SAW/ FCAW – weld pool is protected by
filler metal processes
• „slag processes“ SMAW/ SAW/ FCAW
– weld pool is protected by slag, not affected by wind on site
– SAW high rate of deposit, but high heat input, restricted dia (<2,5mm)
– FCAW , advantages in positional welding
• „solid processes“ GTAW/ GMAW
– very sensitive to turbulances (for weld pool protection)
– low rate of deposit for GTAW (increase by using GTAW hot wire
equipment to sensitive for site conditions). Optimum properties!
– GMAW good compromise for shop fabrication in terms of quality and
rate of deposit.
17
BÖHLER WELDING Group
fusion welding procedures Arc welding (1) Other welding processes (7) Gas-shielded Gas-shielded Manuel Submerged
fusion welding procedures
Arc welding (1)
Other welding
processes (7)
Gas-shielded
Gas-shielded
Manuel
Submerged
welding with non
Tungsten-plasma
metal arc
metal-arc
arc
consumable electrode
welding (15)
welding (12)
Welding (13)
welding (11)
(14)
SMAW
Electro slag
Metal-inert gas
welding (131)
Gas-tungsten-arc
SAW with wire
Covered electrode
welding (72)
welding (141)
electrode (121)
(111)
RES*
MIG*
SAW*
SMAW*
GTAW*
Electron beam
Metal-active gas
welding (135)
SAW with strip
electrode (122)
welding (76)
EB*
MAG*
SAW*
Flux-cored metal
arc welding (136)
Process and reference no. are accord. to ISO 4063
LASER (751)
*) Some abbreviations in common use
FCAW*
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Classification for 625 filler metals Class. SMAW GM(T)AW SAW FCAW EN/ EN 14172 EN 14172
Classification for 625 filler metals
Class.
SMAW
GM(T)AW
SAW
FCAW
EN/
EN 14172
EN 14172
EN 14172
EN 14172
ISO
E
Ni 6625
S Ni 6625
S 6625
S 6625
AWS
A
5.11
A 5.14
A 5.14
A5.34
E
NiCrMo-3
ER NiCrMo-3
ER NiCrMo-3
ENiCrMo-3 T1-4
remark:
Classifications do allow Fe-content up to 5% in the all weld metal, but
Fe is kept lower in our grades, in order to compensate possible pick-up
of Fe in cladding applications.
BÖHLER WELDING Group
All weld metal properties, chemistry of 625 process C Si Mn Cr Mo Nb Fe
All weld metal properties, chemistry of 625
process
C
Si
Mn
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
O
SMAW
0,02
0,7
1,0
22
9
3,5
3(<1)**
0,04*
GTAW
0,02
0,2
0,2
22
9
3,5
<1
0,005
(core wire)
GMAW
0,02
0,2
0,2
22
9
3,5
<1
0,01
SAW
0,02
0,2
0,2
22
9
3,5
<1
0,04*
FCAW
0,02
0,2
0,2
22
9
3,5
2**
0,04*
* higher O-content is „normal“ due metal-slag reaction under atmosphere
** very low Fe-content in stick electrodes in highly corrosive media
required
BÖHLER WELDING Group
SMAW process, “the easy way” 9) Arc 9) Arc 10) Core wire 10) Core wire
SMAW process, “the easy way”
9) Arc
9) Arc
10) Core wire
10) Core wire
11) Coating
11) Coating
12) Droplet transfer
12) Droplet transfer
13) Gas atmosphere from the coating
13) Gas atmosphere from the coating
14) Liquid slag
14) Liquid slag
15) Solid slag
15) Solid slag
16) Weld pool
16) Weld pool
17) Deposited metal
17) Deposited metal
arc length !!!
arc length !!!
arc length
Type of coating
•Rutile: longer arc, easier handling, quality
inferior to basic coating
•basic: short arc !!!! Skills required!!
premium quality!
issues of execessive arc length
issues of execessive arc length
•turbulances
•turbulances
•porosity
•porosity
•burn out of O-active elements
•burn out of O-active elements
Thermanit 625 = basic coating
•slag inclusions
•slag inclusions
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Details from EIL-8 qualification tests Passed corrosion tests Stringer beads !!! Parameters reflect low heat
Details from EIL-8 qualification tests
Passed corrosion
tests
Stringer beads !!!
Parameters reflect low heat input !!!
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Principle sketch of GTAW/ TIG welding -applicable in all Positions! Attention ! main issues: •depending
Principle sketch of GTAW/ TIG welding
-applicable in all Positions!
Attention ! main issues:
•depending on the amount of filler metal supply dilution up to 100% is possible
•Risk of overheating the weld metal, hot cracking sensivity to considered!
•Rod to cooled down in the shielding gas
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Selected shielding gases for GTAW accord. DIN EN ISO 14175 Symbol Shielding gas components in
Selected shielding gases for GTAW accord. DIN EN ISO 14175
Symbol
Shielding gas components in volume %
inertial
oxidizing
inert
reducing
reactive
Main-
Sub-
CO 2
O
Ar
He
group
group
2
H 2
N 2
I
1
100
• Mild Steel
2
100
• Low alloyed
3
Bal.
0,5 ≤
He ≤ 95
steel
M1
1
0,5 ≤ CO 2 ≤ 5
Bal. a
0,5 ≤
H 2 ≤
5
• Duplex
2
0,5 ≤ CO 2 ≤ 5
Bal. a
• Aluminum
3
0,5 ≤ O 2 ≤
3
Bal. a
M2
0
5 < CO 2 ≤ 15
Bal. a
1
15
< CO 2 ≤ 25
Bal. a
2
3
< O 2
≤ 10
Bal. a
3
0,5 ≤ CO 2 ≤
5
3
< O2 ≤
10
Bal. a
M3
1
25
< CO2 ≤ 50
.
Bal. a
2
10 < O 2 ≤ 15
Bal. a
3
25
< CO 2 ≤ 50
2 < O2 ≤10
Bal. a
C
1
100
2
Rest
0,5 ≤ O 2 ≤
30
R
1
Bal. a
0,5 ≤ H 2 ≤15
• CRA
2
Bal. a
15 < H 2 ≤ 50
• Nickel Alloys
N
1
100
2
Bal. a
0,5 ≤
N 2 ≤
5
• Nickel Alloys
3
Bal. a
5
<
N 2 ≤ 50
• Duplex
0
1
100
• Super Duplex
Gas mixtures with components, which are
not mentioned in this table or gas mixtures with compositions out
Z
of the specified range.
a) For this classification Argon can by partially or completely substituted by Helium.
Further subgroups are listed in DIN EN ISO 14175
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Orbital GTAW Weldingparameter Current type / polarity DC / - pulse current A 140 -
Orbital GTAW
Weldingparameter
Current type / polarity
DC / -
pulse current
A
140 - 160
pulse time
ms
300
background current
A
20
background current time
ms
300
Arc voltage
V
10 -12
(arc length)
mm
2 - 3
Start position
(up-stream)
ten o'clock
Welding speed
mm/min 50 - 70
Application: CPI - heat exchangers tubes
Oil & Gas - umbilical's
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Böhler Schweißtechnik Deutschland GmbH GTAW - Welding Parameters Base material Alloy 625 Blechdicke 5 mm
Böhler Schweißtechnik
Deutschland GmbH
GTAW - Welding Parameters
Base material
Alloy 625
Blechdicke
5 mm
Filler metal
Thermanit 625 - FM 625
Drahtdurchmesser
2,4 mm Ø
Chem. Composition
Cr
Ni
Mn
Si
Mo
Nb
Fe
Ti
C
Cu
other
Base Material
22.3
bal.
0,08
0,12
9,10
3,40
3,70
0,18
0,024
0,05
Filler Metal
22.4
bal.
0,08
0,10
9,17
3,48
0,70
0,21
0,014
0,03
Weldingparameter
root
hot pass
final layer
Stromart / Polung (current / polarity)
DC / -
DC / -
DC / -
Stromstärke (amperage)
I
100
130
130
Spannung (voltage)
U
10
12
13
Schweißgeschw. (welding speed) cm /min
12
14
15
Zwischenlagentemp. (interpass temp.)
°C
80
100
100
Streckenenergie (heat input)
kJ/cm
5
6,7
6,7
Schutzgasmenge (gas flow)
l/min
88
8
Schutzgas (shielding gas)
R1 / Argon 4.6 +2% H2
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Böhler Schweißtechnik Deutschland GmbH Mechanical Properties of GTAW / GMAW - Weldment Base metal Alloy
Böhler Schweißtechnik
Deutschland GmbH
Mechanical Properties of GTAW / GMAW -
Weldment
Base metal
Alloy 625
Thickness
16 mm
Filler metal
Thermanit 625 - FM 625
Welding wire
1.2 mm Ø
Welding procedure
GTAW / GMAW, single V butt joint 70°, Pos. PA
Requirements AD 2000 HP
Tensile test *
Test temperature
R p0.2 [N/mm 2 ]
R p1.0 [N/mm 2 ]
R m [N/mm 2 ]
A 5 [%]
Rupture position
RT
904
Base metal
RT
909
Base metal
cross wise
Bend test
Weld metal
Mandrel Ø
180° bend assessment
cover pass bend
3
x a
No cracks
root pass bend
3
x a
No cracks
Side bend
ISO-V-notch impact toughness
Test temperature
Impact energy [J]
Weld metal
RT
- 196 °C
123 / 151 / 142
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Principle sketch of plasma arc welding (PAW) PM 1 PM 2 Optical microscopy of PAW
Principle sketch of plasma arc welding (PAW)
PM 1
PM 2
Optical microscopy of PAW square
butt welded joint.
Filler metal . Thermanit 625
Base materials: 1. 1.4529
2. ~ 1.4742
Advantage: weld preparation => square but weld up to 6 mm plate thickness possible
BÖHLER WELDING Group
GMAW Principle sketch of GMAW / MAG welding with pulsed arc 1 Wire electrode 2
GMAW
Principle sketch of GMAW / MAG welding with pulsed arc
1 Wire electrode
2 Wire feed rollers
3 Shielding gas
4 Contact tube
11
5 Gas nozzle
6 Base metal
7 Root layer
8 Weld deposit
9 Arc
10 Direction of welding
11 Power source
BÖHLER WELDING Group
GMAW, “ a fine process” Why GMAW became popular for Ni-base wires??? history Disadvantage of
GMAW, “ a fine process”
Why GMAW became popular for Ni-base wires??? history
Disadvantage of Ni-base wires:
Ni-base wires show low Si-content which decrease the
viscosity & surface tension of the weld pool.
Welding with conventional GMAW process and gases not
possible. High degree of oxidation, spatters.
But:
Improvement was achieved, when Thyssen Edlestahlwerke
(electrode division) developped mixed gases (Arg+He+low
CO 2 content) in the mid ´80ies. In combination with the
pulse technique spatterfree welds have been made
possible. Properties close to the TIG process are achieved!
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Droplet transfer depend of shielding gas and modes of arc Short arc metal transfer via
Droplet transfer depend of shielding gas and modes of arc
Short arc
metal transfer via fine droplets
shielding gas: CO 2 and mixed gases
base material: mild steel
welding position: PA, PG
root layer
Typical parameters:
I
= 160 Amp.
U =
18 V
1,2 mm ∅
Ar 82% / CO 2 18%
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Influence of shield. gas components on wetting Ar poor wetting of the parent metal Ar/He/CO2
Influence of shield. gas components on wetting
Ar
poor
wetting of the parent metal
Ar/He/CO2
good
Reduction of surface tension and viscosity
O 2 und CO 2 : through oxidation
He
: through higher temperature
"Preheating effect"
Dissociation
endothermic
CO 2 CO + ½ O 2
Recombination
exothermic
λ He
8
Thermal conductivity
λ Ar
1
α He
5
Heat transfer coeff.
α Ar
1
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Effect of gas components in CRONIGON® Ni 10 Ar + 0.05% CO 2 + 30%
Effect of gas components in CRONIGON® Ni 10
Ar + 0.05% CO 2 + 30% He + 2% H 2
base gas
arc stabilization
surface tension
higher travel speeds,
out-of-position welding
preheating effect provides for
excellent wetting characteristics
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Droplet transfer comparison of Thermanit 625 Argon, MIGp, 120Hz CRONIGON ® He30S, MAGp, 150Hz 5000
Droplet transfer comparison of Thermanit 625
Argon, MIGp, 120Hz
CRONIGON ® He30S, MAGp, 150Hz
5000 fps, playback @ 20fps
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Shield. gas influence on penetration/ welding speed Parent and filler metal: Alloy 625 / Filler
Shield. gas influence on penetration/ welding speed
Parent and filler
metal:
Alloy 625 /
Filler Tht. 625
Welding
process:
GMAW pulsed
arc (t-MAGp)
Plate thickness:
5 mm
VARIGON ® He 50
CRONIGON ® He 30 S
Shielding gas
Argon
(Ar + 50% He)
(Ar + 0,05% CO 2 + 30% He + 2% H 2 )
v
25 cm/min
35 cm/min
50 cm/min
S
v
5 m/min
D
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Typical GMAW parameter for Thermanit Nimo C 24 Böhler Schweißtechnik Deutschland GmbH GMAW - Welding
Typical GMAW parameter for Thermanit Nimo C 24
Böhler Schweißtechnik
Deutschland GmbH
GMAW - Welding Parameters
Base metal
Nicrofer 5923 hMo - Alloy 59
Thickness
16 mm
Filler metal
Thermanit Nimo C 24
Welding wire
1.2 mm Ø
Analysis
Cr
Ni
Mn
Si
Mo
Nb
Fe
Ti
C
Cu
V
Base metal
22.50
60.65
0.15
0.02
15.90
1.00
.002
0.01
0.15
Filler metal
22.65
60.80
0.15
0.03
15.60
0.29
.005
0.01
0.14
Welding parameters
Filler passes
Cover pass
Current / polarity
DC / +
DC / +
Amperage
175 A
175 A
Voltage
30 V
30 V
Welding speed
45 cm/min
45 cm/min
Interpass temperature
130 °C
130 °C
Heat input
7 kJ/cm
7 kJ/cm
Wire feed rate
6.2 m/min
6.2 m/min
Drop transfer frequency
90 Hz
90 Hz
Shielding gas
Cronigon Ni 10 (Argon + 30% He + 2 % H 2 + 0.05 % CO 2 )
BÖHLER WELDING Group
GMAW gas shield issue gas absorption during gas shielded metal arc welding irregular wire feed
GMAW gas shield issue
gas absorption during gas shielded metal arc welding
irregular wire feed
poor contacting
adverse welding parameter
turbulence by unstable arc
(ambient air)
turbulence caused by:
turbulence by spillings
- too much shielding gas
(ambient air)
(ambient air)
- insufficient shielding gas
(ambient air)
turbulence by thermal
(ambient air)
- effect of injection
(ambient air)
porosity
weld deposit
base material
BÖHLER WELDING Group
SAW 1. Base metal 2. Solidified weld metal 7 3. Solidified slag 4. Flux 5.
SAW
1. Base metal
2. Solidified weld metal
7
3. Solidified slag
4. Flux
5. Liquid weld metal
8
6. Liquid slag
7. Electrode
8. cavern
features
1. high dilution
2. high rate of deposit,
(but dia max 2,4mm possible in safe welding)
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Basic effects of parameters on SA weld beads (CS, 4mm) amperage voltage speed BÖHLER WELDING
Basic effects of parameters on SA weld beads
(CS, 4mm)
amperage
voltage
speed
BÖHLER WELDING Group
all weld metal, mechanical properties tensile test rt Impact test process Rpo.2 Rm A5 RA
all weld metal, mechanical properties
tensile test
rt
Impact test
process
Rpo.2
Rm
A5
RA
(J)
(J)
(MPa)
(MPa)
(%)
(%)
rt
-196°C
SMAW
500
780
43
40
90
80
GTAW
500
770
40
50
180
130
GMAW
520
820
45
45
190
150
SAW
480
750
42
50
120
100
FCAW
468
762
36
42
75
60
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Features of different processes rate of deposit dilution % equipment local welds SMAW + 20
Features of different processes
rate of deposit
dilution %
equipment
local
welds
SMAW
+
20
+++
+++
GTAW
+(+)
0-100
+
+
GMAW
++
25
+
+
SAW
+++
35
+
-
FCAW
++
25
+
+
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Properties related to process corrosion tensile impact heat welders skills test test input test SMAW
Properties related to process
corrosion
tensile
impact
heat
welders skills
test
test
input
test
SMAW
+
+
+
+
++
GTAW
+++
++
+++
+, +, +
+++
GMAW
++
++
+++
++
++(+)
SAW
+
+
+ +++
+
FCAW
+
+
+ ++
+
best quality to be achieved with the GTAW and GMAW process
attention: but qualified welders are required too for this job!!!
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Cladding BÖHLER WELDING Group
Cladding
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Cladding in general Criteria •in principle all usual welding techniques are applicable •low dilution with
Cladding in general
Criteria
•in principle all usual welding techniques are applicable
•low dilution with the lower alloyed base metal
•economical aspects
•quality aspects (what is necesary?)
•disposal of welding equipment (incl. operator!)
•geometry of the weld
•site/ shop welding
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Quality criteria •dilution to be considered in order to achieve requ. Quality •bead geometry Dilution
Quality criteria
•dilution to be considered in
order to achieve requ. Quality
•bead geometry
Dilution %
•optimized bead overlap (50%)
SMAW
25
•restricted travel speed
GTAW
0-100
GMAW
25
SAW
35
Risk of lack of fusion
FCAW
25
NO
YES
BÖHLER WELDING Group
SMAW cladding electrode cladding Strip cladding ~6mm SMA weld C Cr Mo Nb Fe SAW
SMAW cladding
electrode cladding
Strip cladding
~6mm
SMA weld
C
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
SAW
C
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
strip
All weld
,04
21,3
9,6
3,0
1,2
Surface
,016
20,3
9,0
3,0
4
Surface
,04
21,6
9,0
3,3
1,4
-1mm
-1mm
Surface
,016
20,1
9,0
3,0
4
Surface
,04
20,4
9,4
2,9
3,4
-2mm
-2mm
Surface
,016
20,6
9,0
2,8
4
Surface
,04
20,0
9,0
2,9
6,8
-3mm
-3mm
BÖHLER WELDING Group
SAW clad joints 825 clad 2 layers 3mm Parameters: suff. radius avoids lack of fusion
SAW clad joints
825 clad
2 layers
3mm
Parameters:
suff. radius avoids lack of fusion
weld
C
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
All weld
,01
21,6
9,1
3,6
0,7
Surface
,02
21,6
9,0
3,3
1,4
Surface -
,02
20,9
8,6
3,2
4,4
wire: Thermanit 625, dia 2mm
flux: Marathon 444
current: DC+, 290A
volts: 28 V
speed: 55 cm/min
interpass: max 100°C
bead overlap: 50%
1.5mm
BÖHLER WELDING Group
GMAW pulsed arc with Thermanit 625 water walls Oil & Gas: nozzles super heater tubes
GMAW pulsed arc with Thermanit 625
water walls
Oil & Gas: nozzles
super heater tubes
BÖHLER WELDING Group
GMAW Thermanit 625 claddings Cladding parameters Welding pos. vertical up flat weld C Cr Mo
GMAW Thermanit 625 claddings
Cladding parameters
Welding pos.
vertical up
flat
weld
C
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
Base metal
CS
CS
flat
,02
wire
,015
21,5
8,9
3,6
,21
Layers
3
3
at 5mm aboce CS
,02
20,9
8,7
3,6
3,2
clad height
7,5 mm
8 mm
overlap
~50 %
Filler metal
Thermanit 625
1,2mm
weld
C
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
Amps, pulsed
130 A
140A
vertical up, 3G
,02
Volts
Pulsed, 24 V
25
V
wire
,015
21,6
8,7
3,7
,4
frequence
87 Hz
91
Hz
at 5mm above CS
,02
21,5
8,6
3,6
1,4
Gas shield
Arg/He/CO
(o.5%)
18 l/min
2
Interpass temp.
max 100°C
BÖHLER WELDING Group
BÖHLER WELDING Group
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Cladding on grade 11 base metal Classification AWS A 5.14 ERNiCrMo –3 Grade Thyssen Thermanit
Cladding on grade 11 base metal
Classification
AWS A 5.14 ERNiCrMo –3
Grade Thyssen
Thermanit 625
Dia
1,2 mm
Amps/ Volts
DC-: 120-160A, 10-14 V
Travel speed
~14 cm/min
Interpass
1. layer acc. to base metal<200°C, other layers max 100°C
Bead overlap
50%
Gas shield*
High purity Argon, min 99,996%, ~14 l/min
Bead height
~1,5 – 2mm
Nos. of layers
min 5 to meet cladding thickness of 7mm
Cleaning
Brushing each layer with stainless brush
Others:
After welding TIG rod to be cooled in the gas shield !
weld
C
Cr
Mo
Nb
Fe
wire
,015
21,6
9,2
3,7
,6
at 3mm above CS
Manual TIG
,02
21
8,6
3,4
3,2
TIG Hot wire
,02
21,7
9,0
3,5
1,8
BÖHLER WELDING Group
shielding gas flow rate/ weld bead appearance 5 l/min 10 l/min 15 l/min 20 l/min
shielding gas flow rate/ weld bead appearance
5 l/min
10 l/min
15 l/min
20 l/min
wire
Thermanit 309 L Mo; heat-no. 96236; Ø 1,2 mm
amperage
250 Amps; DC-
base metal
CS
pos.
1G
preheat
none
trailing gas
Additional investigation:
Influence of the flow rate on oxygen content of surface area
100
1000
90
900
80
800
70
700
60
600
Si-Cr-Al
50
Fe-Mn
500
Fe
400
40
300
30
200
20
100
10
0
0
5
5
10
15
20
5
10
15
20
flow rate [l/min]
flow rate [l/min]
Oxide content of surface
area
Composition of oxides
BÖHLER WELDING Group
o
[sedix
mp ]p
xo.ler
ocedi
.p %[m
]
Improved torch with dragging nozzle Standard torch without dragging nozzle BÖHLER WELDING Group
Improved torch
with dragging nozzle
Standard torch
without dragging
nozzle
BÖHLER WELDING Group
welding of clad pipes BÖHLER WELDING Group
welding of clad pipes
BÖHLER WELDING Group
625 filler metal for clad pipe joining Filler metal selection reflects: •clad material •cast structure
625 filler metal for clad pipe joining
Filler metal selection reflects:
•clad material
•cast structure of the weld metal
•seggregations due to 2dimensional heat flow in root
area
•strength of pipe material
Clad
filler
•dilution with pipe material
316L
309LMo
317L
625
825
625
625
625
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Cladd pipes clad pipe joining Manual TIG automatic TIG * * 9,27mm X60 X70 23,8mm
Cladd pipes
clad pipe joining
Manual TIG
automatic TIG
*
*
9,27mm
X60
X70
23,8mm
3mm
317L clad
316L clad
3mm
pipe dia: 378mm
pipe dia: 219,1mm
Courtesy of Butting
Fe-content
* Filler passes alternatively b SMAW
BÖHLER WELDING Group
back shield issues with back shield back shield device without back shield Back shield required
back shield issues
with back shield
back shield
device
without back shield
Back shield required for:
-root pass
-base metal
-to maintained for min 2 layers !!!
350 ppm O 2
<10 ppm O 2
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Clad pipe welding, access from outside only considerations: -pick up of Fe from structure must
Clad pipe welding, access from outside only
considerations:
-pick up of Fe from structure must be avoided-
X65
825
Root pass parameters:
- amperage: DC-, ~70 A
- voltage:~10 V
- travel speed: ~7-10cm/min
X65
- hot pass: ~100A; 10V, 10 cm/min
825
- interpass: max 100°C
- back shield by Argon of the root to be
maintained for min 2 passes
- sufficient wire supply to be guaranteed
any contact of root pass with
any contact of root pass with
- after welding rod to becooled down in gas or
cut before restart
pipe material MUST be avoided !!!
pipe material MUST be avoided !!!
BÖHLER WELDING Group
corrosion Influence of sensitisation on workability of various corrosion resistant nickel alloys Intergranular Attack
corrosion
Influence of sensitisation on workability of various
corrosion resistant nickel alloys
Intergranular Attack
Nominal Composition
Alloy
PRE
Cr %
Ni %
Mo %
Fe %
Others %
825
22
40
3.2
31
Cu
33
904 L
20
25
4,5
Bal.
Cu
35
926
21
25
6,5
Bal.
Cu 0.9, N
42
0.2
* 50% H 2 SO 4 + 42g/l Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3, t = 24h / boiling
31
27
31
6,5
Bal.
Cu 1.2, N
48
0.2
Thermal instability caused by welding
(multi-pass welding of thick plates)
may lead to precipitation of second
phases or carbides which promote
the corrosive attack
625
21
61
9
3
Cb 3.5
51
59
23
59
16
< 1
Al 0.3
76
C-276
16
58
16
5
W
4
69
22
21
57
13
3
W
3
65
686
21
56
16
2
W
4
74
PREPRE == %Cr%Cr ++ 3,33,3 %Mo%Mo ++ 3030 %N%N
BÖHLER WELDING Group
Interpass/ HI issues, quite frequently for PQ coupons thermocouples Heat flow must be considered in
Interpass/ HI issues, quite frequently for PQ coupons
thermocouples
Heat flow must be
considered
in general all
kind of materials
can be affected !!!!
! Risk in overheating, if the temperature is measured only on top side !
BÖHLER WELDING Group
range of fabrication parameters (e.g. amperage, preheating, interpass temp., pwht) Ni-base, 6Mo,Superduplex
range of fabrication parameters
(e.g. amperage, preheating, interpass temp., pwht)
Ni-base, 6Mo,Superduplex
•thickness
•restraint condition
•yield strength
Duplex
30x grades, eg. 316L
Low alloy-steel
-
optimum
+ +
parameters
QA activities have to be developped accordingly !!!
BÖHLER WELDING Group
BÖHLER WELDING Group
BÖHLER WELDING Group