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Krystal Charles

57652

Laboratory and
Workshop Design
(LABS 2007)
Laboratory 6: Planimeter Exercise

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007

UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD & TOBAGO (POINT LISAS


CAMPUS)

NAME:

KRYSTAL CHARLES

STUDENT ID:

57652

PROGRAMME:

B.A.SC. PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

COURSE:

LABS 2007

LECTURER:

NICOLE RAMCHARAN

EXPERIMENT DATE:

21ST JANUARY 2016

DUE DATE:

28TH FEBRUARY 2016

LAB:

6-PLAINIMETER EXERCISE

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007

Executive Summary:
The exercise/experiment tested the usage of the Planimeter instrument by drawing a contour map
to determine the volume of the reservoir. In order to perform the exercise a digital Planimeter
was used to measure the perimeter of the map. The Planimeter was calibrated using the steps
outlined in the lab manual and tests were performed before the actual measurements were done.
Once the areas were obtained the estimated bulk rock volumes were calculated.

Objective/Aim:
To draw a contour map and determine the area and volume of the reservoir structure drawn.

Theory:

A planimeter is a mathematical instrument composed of a polar arm, tracing arm and a


tracing pointer, used for measuring the area of an arbitrary planar or two-dimensional
figure.
In this lab the planimeter was used to measure the area of a contour line on the structural
map created. To calculate volumes it is necessary to find the areas between isopach
contours. An isopach (or isopachous) map is one that shows bulk means of isopachs, the
variations in true strati- graphic thickness of a stratum, formation, or group of formations.
Once areas are determined bulk rock volumes are determined using the trapezoidal and
Simpsons rule. Stating once this bulk volume has be determine it is easily to find the
originally oil in place and the recovery factor is also determine.
Reservoir volumes can be calculated from isopach maps by planmetering. Isopach map
illustrates thickness variations within a tabular unit, layer or stratum.
The importance of the isopach map is a line representing equal stratigraphic thickness,
and an isopach (or isopachous) map is one that shows by means of isopachs the variations
in true strati- graphic thickness of a stratum, formation, or group of formations.
Using electric logs for each well, and isopach well was created showing the sand
thickness from the log.
The subsurface isopach map is based primarily on formation thicknesses determined from
well cuttings, cores or geophysical logs. Although isopachs must be drawn to agree with
thicknesses plotted on the map, their spacing and the nature of thickening and thinning
may be guided by other known facts concerning the source of sediments, their relative
rates of deposition, truncation, and so forth.
An isopach map drawn strictly to the numerical values and without regard to the geologic
reasons for thickening and thinning of formations, is likely to present a picture difficult to
integrate or reconcile with other geologic facts.

Trapezoidal Rule

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007
Volume=

h
2

{a0 +2a1+2a2+an} +tnan

Simpsons rule
Volume=

h
3

{a0 +4a1+2a2+an} +tnan

Where:
h=contour interval (feet)
a0 =Area enclosed by zero contour (feet)
a1 =Area enclosed by first contour (feet)
a2 =Area enclosed by second contour (feet)
an =Area enclosed by nth contour (feet)
tmax= maximum thickness above the top contour
tn = Average formation thickness above the top contour (t max/2).

Procedure:
As Outlined in the manual.

Results:
2

Enclosed Area (In )


1st Reading

2nd Reading

26.1
20.62
14.91
10.66
3.99

26.1
20.61
14.91
10.64
3.98

Avg.

Estimated volume Estimated volume


(trap.) acres-ft
(simp) acres-ft

Reading

Contour 1
Contour 2
Contour 3
Contour 4
Contour 5

Calculations
1in2 =1.5942 *10-7 acre
h=10ft
Tmax =7ft

26.1
20.615
14.91
10.65
3.958

9.98164E-05

10.05 E-05

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007

Contour Conversion (Inches2 > Acres)


Contour 1= (1.5942 x 10-07)(26.1)
= 4.16086E-06
Contour 2 =(1.5942 x 10-07)(20.61)
=3.28644E-06
Contour 3 =(1.5942 x 10-07)(26.1)
=2.37695E-06
Contour 4 =(1.5942 x 10-07)(26.1)
=1.69782E-06
Contour 5 =(1.5942 x 10-07)(26.1)
=6.35289E-07

Trapezoidal Rule

Bulk Rock Volume =

10
2

[4.16086E-06+ (2) (3.28644E-06) + (2) (2.37695E-06) + (2)

(1.69782E-06) +6.35289E-07] + [

7
2 ] (6.35289E-07)

= 0.00001097 acre ft.


= 9.98164E-05acre ft.

Simpsons Rule

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007
Bulk Rock Volume =

10
3

[4.16086E-06+ (4)( 3.28644E-06) + (2)( 2.37695E-06) + (4)(

1.69782E-06) +6.35289E-07] + [

7
2 ]( 6.35289E-07)

= 0.000100514acre ft.
= 10.05 x 10-05 acre-ft.

Discussion

Contour maps are used excessively for the determination of hydrocarbons in place and
reserves. The contour lines were drawn to connect points of equal vales compared to
some chosen reference (0, 12, 15, 35, 32, 38, 47, 40, and 45) as shown in figure below in
the Isopach map. Each contour represents a given constant gross thickness in the

reservoir and it illustrates the size and shape of the given horizon.
The Planimeter (instrument used to measure perimeter in contour maps) aids in
calculating the bulk density using both the SIMPSONS RULE and the TRAPEZOIDAL

RULE.
The reservoir bulk volumes is essential in estimating petroleum reserves.
This method entails determining the physical size of the reservoir, the bulk volume, and
fluid content. It provides the estimate of the hydrocarbons in place from which ultimate

recovery can be estimated by using appropriate recovery factors.


The Simpsons rule is the most accurate between the two formulas though the trapezoidal
rule is more commonly used. The bulk volume values are very important since it is
further used to calculate the original oil in place (OOIP) and the recoverable reserves and
the recovery factor (RF) to determine profitability.

Questions
Commenting on the volume of the reservoir and possible ways the reservoir can be produced.
According to the bulk volume which was calculated it suggested that the reservoir has a small
volume therefore methods should be implemented to produce as much reserves as possible

LAB 6: Planimeter Exercise


LABS 2007
without economic complications. Once the natural pressure of the well depletes, secondary and
tertiary methods enhance oil recovery (EOR), such as thermal recovery, chemical injection, and
water flooding should can be set in place. An artificial lift can also be used to reduce cost.

Conclusion

It could be concluded that in the petroleum industries isopach maps are used to determine

the bulk volume of a reservoir by using the Plainmeter instrument.


It could also be concluded that the Simpsons rule is more accurate than the Trapezoidal

rule.
The importance of using a Planimeter device is very essential to a Petroleum Engineer
which is used to obtain the bulk and hence determine the original oil in place.

References
Finding a Volume of Revolution Using the Simpson's Rule. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2016,
from http://melindalitten.wikispaces.com/Finding a Volume of Revolution Using the Simpson's
Rule
planimeter. 2013. [online] Available at:
http://infohost.nmt.edu/~petro/faculty/Engler370/fmevlab6-isopach.pdf [Accessed: 10 Nov
2013].
Importance of isopach. 2013. [online] Available at:
http://mirkostrade10.sydneyinstitute.wikispaces.net/file/view/Calculating+Bulk+Volumes+Using
+Trapezoidal.pdf