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Static Failure

Question 1: A steel machine part is statically loaded and has a yield strength of 320 MPa. For
each of the following stress states find the factor of safety using each of the three static failure
theories.
a) x = 60 MPa
y = -30 MPa
z = -20 MPa
xy = 40 MPa
b) x = 70 MPa
xy = 30 MPa
40 30 0
c) ( MPa) := 30 60 0

0 0 10
Solution:
Steel is a ductile material so we will use the ductile static failure theories. First the principal
stresses for the given stress state should be calculated. (refer to Tutorial 2 - Question 1)

)
(

3 x + y + z 2 + x y + x z + + y z 2xy 2yz 2zx


x yz

+ 2 xy yz zx x 2yz y 2zx z 2xy = 0

3 I 1 2 + I 2 I 3 = 0

a) Inserting the known stresses to the given eqn.


I1 = 10

I2 = -4000

I3 = 68000

3 10 2 4000 68000 = 0

Recall the roots of the equation provides the principal stresses. Solving and arranging;
1 = 75.21 MPa

2 = - 20 MPa

3 = - 45.21 MPa

Factor of safety for each failure theories :


i) Maximum Normal Stress Theory:
(Theory states that failure occurs if any of the principal stresses exceeds the yield strength of the
material.)
max =

Sy
n

=>

n=

320
75.21

=>

n = 4.26

ii) Maximum Shear Stress Theory:


(Theory states that yielding starts whenever the maximum shear stress at any point becomes equal
to the maximum shear stress in a tension test specimen of the same material when that specimen
starts yielding)
max =

Sy
2n

max =

1 3 75.21 (45.21)
= 60.21 MPa
=
2
2

n=

320
2 60.21

=>

n = 2.66

(minimum)

iii) Distortion Energy Theory:


(Theory states that yielding occurs whenever the distortion energy in a unit volume reaches the
distortion energy in the same volume corresponding to the yield strength in tension or
compression)
( 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
= 1

the von Mises stress

n=

320
(75.21 + 20) 2 + (20 + 45.21) 2 + (75.21 + 45.21) 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Sy
n

=>

b) For the given stress state


I1 = 70

I2 = -900

I3 = 0

3 70 2 900 = 0
Solving and arranging;
1 = 81.1 MPa

2 = 0 MPa

3 = -11.1 MPa

Factor of safety for each failure theories :


i) Maximum Normal Stress Theory:

max =

Sy
n

=>

n=

320
81.1

=>

n = 3.95

ii) Maximum Shear Stress Theory:

max =

Sy

max =

2n
n=

320
2 46.1

=>

1 3 81.1 (11.1)
= 46.1 MPa
=
2
2
n = 3.47

(minimum)

iii) Distortion Energy Theory:


( 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
= 1

1/ 2

Sy
n

=>

n = 2.91

n=

320
(81.1 0) 2 + (0 + 11.1) 2 + (81.1 + 11.1) 2

Sy

1/ 2

=>

n = 3.67

DET
MSST
MNST

81.1
-11.1

A
Sy=320

-Sy

Note: The result according to Maximum Normal Stress Theory is a misleading result as the stress
state falls into the 4th quadrant in the A B graph. The result according to Maximum Shear
Stress Theory can be interpreted as the most conservative one whereas the one obtained by
Distortion Energy Theory is slightly greater and a more realistic one when compared with
experimental results.

c)

xx

:= yx

zx

xy xz

yy yz

zy zz

is the matrix representation of the stress state of an element.

For the given stress state,


I1 = -110 I2 = 2500

I3 = -15000

3 110 2 + 2500 15000 = 0


Solving and arranging;

1 = -10 MPa

2 = -18.4 MPa

3 = - 81.6 MPa

Factor of safety for each failure theories :


i) Maximum Normal Stress Theory:
(max. in compression) max =

S y (= S yc )
n

=>

n=

320
81.6

=> n = 3.92

(minimum)

ii) Maximum Shear Stress Theory:


max =

Sy

max =

2n

n=

320
2 35.8

=>

1 3 10 (81.6)
=
= 35.8 MPa
2
2
n = 4.47

iii) Distortion Energy Theory:


the von Mises stress

n=

( 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
= 1

320
(10 + 18.4) 2 + (18.4 + 81.6) 2 + (81.6 + 10) 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

=>

Sy
n

=>

n = 4.72

Question 2: A steel LPG tank is shown in the figure. The wall thickness of the tank is 15 mm and
has a yield strength of 340 MPa. The full weight of the tank is 6500 kg and the internal pressure is
3 MPa. Calculate the factor of safety of the tank according to the distortion energy theory.
(checking

t 15
1
1
the tank can be treated as thin-walled pressure vessel)
=
=
<
r 750 50 20

1.5 m

4m

15

Solution:
First the principal stresses should be calculated for both cylindrical and spherical sections.
For cylindrical vessel:
For point A:
tangential stress t =

Pr 3 750
= 150 MPa
=
t
15

longitudinal stress

 =

radial stress

r.A

= p = 3 MPa

Pr 3 750
= 75 MPa
=
2t
2 15

bending stress due to weight of the tank: (consider weight as a concentrated force which is a
conservative assumption compared with the distributed weight assumption)
I=

D o D i4 =
1500 4 1470 4 = 1.929 1010 mm4
64
64

b,A =

63 . 766 10 6 ( 750 15 )
Mc
=
2 . 4 MPa
I
1 . 929 10 10

At the bottom of the tank the tensile stresses will be larger, so the bottom mid-point is critical.
Recalling there will be no traverse shear stress due to weight at the bottom fiber, the axial stresses
are to be taken as principal stresses. Arranging as 1 > 2 > 3 ;
1 = t = 150 MPa

3 = r = 3 MPa

2 =  + b = 77.5 MPa

After calculating the stress state we can find the factor of safety using the distortion energy
6500 kg

6500 9.81
= 31883 N
2
4000
M = 31883
= 63.766 10 6 Nmm
2
F=

4000 mm
F

theory:
( 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
= 1

n=

1/ 2

340
(150 77.5) 2 + (77.5 + 3) 2 + (150 + 3) 2

For point B:
tangential stress t = 150 MPa
longitudinal stress

b,B =

1/ 2

Sy
n

=>

radial stress

 = 75 MPa

63 . 766 10 6 750
Mc
=
2 . 5 Mpa
I
1 . 929 10 10

n = 2.56

r .B

=0

Comment: Since a thin walled cylinder is used, as it can be seen in above equations, bending
moments at point A and B can be considered to be equal. Also, pressure in the tank is small which
results in small radial stress at point A compared to longitudinal and tangential stresses. Therefore
checking safety factor according to stress element at point A is sufficient for this problem.
For the spherical cap:
on spherical shells stresses in orthogonal directions are same:
l = 2 = t =

Pr 3 750
=
= 75 MPa
2t
2 15

3 = r = p = 3 MPa

1 = 2 = 75 MPa
n=

340

(75 75) 2 + (75 + 3) 2 + (75 + 3) 2

n = 4.36

1/ 2

Factor of safety used for the production of the tank is 2.56 (the smaller of the two factors
calculated above).
Question 3: A cast iron structure is loaded as shown in the figure. The material has Sut = 325
MPa and Suc = 912 MPa. Find the factor safety of the structure using brittle failure theories
at the points A and B (Coulomb-Mohr and Modified Mohr).
100

For machine elements made of brittle materials


stress concentrations should be considered. The
neck for this case is critical.

F = 1.5 i k kN

Mx = Fz . 100 = 100000 N.mm

200
Fz

30

R6

My = Fx . 200 = 300000 N.mm

Fx

T = Fx . 100 = 150000 N.mm

Mx

My

45

Fz = 1000 N
Fx = 1500 N

Solution:
The maximum bending moment on the shoulder is to be calculated using

My (in N.m).

The transverse shear due to Fx at points A and B is zero.


As stated before, the stress concentrations should be considered on brittle elements. Certain fillets,
notches, holes, grooves on the element should be checked as critical sections, as the stress
concentrates around these sections.
For

D 45
=
= 1.5 and
d 30

r 6
=
= 0.2
d 30

=> Kt.axial = 1.57

Kts.torsion = 1.25 (Fig E-3)

Kt.bending = 1.4

(Fig E-1, Norton, pp.994)

(Fig. E-2)

Stresses at the maximum tension (point A) and compression (point B) points on the critical
section, respectively:
A = K t .bend

F
Mc
K t .axial z
I
A

(tens.+comp.)

0 = K ts.torsion

I=

B = K t .bend

F
Mc
K t .axial z
I
A

(comp+comp)

Tc
(same for all points)
J

4 4
. 4
4
D = 30 = 3.976 10 mm
64
64

J = 2.I = 7.952.104 mm4

A=

2
2
D = 706.86 mm
4

300 10 3 15
1000
1.57
= 156.2 MPa
4
706.86
3.976 10

At point A:

A = 1 .4

At point B:

B = 1.4

shear stress

0 = 1.25

300 10 3 15
1000
1.57
= -160.7 MPa
4
706.86
3.976 10

150 10 3 15
= 35.37 MPa (show the direction on the cube below !)
7.952 10 4

Recall in 2D stress analysis; 1,3 =

x + y
2

x y

2

+ 2zy

Point A:

1,3

y= 0

156.2+ 0
156.2 0
2
=

+ (35.37)
2
2

1 = 163.84 MPa

2 = 0 MPa

3 = -7.64 MPa

A
B

Point B:

1 = 7.4 MPa

1,3 =

160.7+ 0
160.7 0
2

+ (35.37)
2
2

2 = 0 MPa

y= 0

3 = -168.1 MPa
B

Coulomb-Mohr Theory:
1 3
1
(note Suc is treated as positive)

=
S ut S uc n

for point A:

163.84 7.64 1

=
325
912
n

for point B:

7.4
.
168.1 1

=
325
912
n

=>

n = 1.95

=>
3

n = 4.65

7.4 163.84 Sut

-7.64
-168.1

(minimum)

A
B

Suc

Modified Mohr Theory:


3

163.84 Sut

-7.64

3
1

7.4 S1

Sut

-168.1

-Sut

-Sut

S3 G
Suc

Suc

Point A

Point B

Point A:

n=

S ut
325
=
= 1.98
1 163.84

Point B:

n=

S1 S 3
=
1 3

(minimum)

(S1 and S3 is to be found)


S ut S uc S ut
=
S1
S uc S 3

using similarity of triangles DEF and FGH.


solving the equations :

S1 = 37.2 MPa

S1 37.2
=>
=
1 7.4

or

n=

n = 5.03

S
S1
= 3
7.4 168.1

=>

=>

325 912 325


=
S1
912 S 3

S3 = 844.8 MPa (= -844.8 MPa)

n=

S 3 844.8
=

3
168.1

n = 5.03

You can also use the equations 12.c, 12.d, 12.e in pp. 274 of Norton to obtain the same result.

Question 4. The steel crankshaft is loaded statically as shown in figure. The steady force is
counterbalanced by a twisting torque T and by reactions at A and B. The yield strength of the
material is 420 MPa. If the factor of safety according to maximum shear stress theory is to be 2.0,
what should be the minimum diameter of the crankshaft? (Note: In practice such problems are
dealt with dynamic considerations. Here it is taken as a static example.)
At point C, there is normal stress in axial directiondue to bending (max. moment). At point D,
both axial stress due to bending and shear stress due to torsion exist.
90

90

FA = FB = 2500 / 2 = 1250 N

T = 2500 . 45 = 1.125 . 105 N.mm

FB

FA

48

Sections at points C and D should be


checked.

C
F = 2.5 kN

45

At point C:
M = 1250 . 90 = 1.125 . 105 N.mm
b =

Mc
=
I

1.125 10 5
4
d
64

d
2

d
6
2 = 1.146 10 MPa
d3

Recall , for max shear stress theory:

max

c=

1.146 10 6
0
3
1 3
d
=
=
= 105 MPa
2
2

which gives d = 17.6 mm

I=

1 = b

all =

Sy
2n

=>

4
d
64
2 = 3 = 0

420
= 105 MPa
22

and

d3 = 5457 mm3

all = max

At point D:
M = 1250 . 48 = 6 . 104 N.mm

bending =

Mc
=
I

c=

d
2

d
5
2 = 6.112 10 MPa
d3
4

6 10 4

d
64
2

Sy

I=

4
d
64

tortion =

J=2.I

Tc
=
J

max

x y
=
2

max

6.112 10 5
5.73 10 5
6.494 10 5
+
=
=
= 105 MPa

2d 3
d3
d3

+ 2xy

all =

2n

420
= 105 MPa
22

1.125 10 5

4
d
32

d
5
2 = 5.73 10
d3

all = max

=> d3 = 6185 mm3

which gives, d = 18.36 mm


Checking both points, point D found to be more critical. The minimum diameter of the shaft
should be 18.36 mm. But it should be better to get used to accept preferred numbers in machine
elements design, so it can be set as d = 20 mm.