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INTRODUCTION

In the era of high competition, every manufacturing industry want to increase their
productivity, quality for satisfying their customer at the minimum production cost.
Failure cost has the major role in the production cost. Hence the ideas of DRILL TOOL
DYNAMOMETER come in to picture by us. Because the main fault in the
manufacturing industry, in production line the failure of drill bit.
Whenever the work is perform on the CNC the cause of failure of drill bit is the
difference in the composition of material in the another lot and when the operator works
at manual drilling machine the cause of failure may be over pressure or load applied by
the operator/worker.
Hence the implementation of our project can reduce or eliminate this failure, because
with the help of drill tool dynamometer worker can see the load applied on the work
piece and he can stop the machine or can change the work (material) if the load exceed
to the strength of drill bit,so that the failure of drill bit can be avoided.

A strain gauge type drilling dynamometer and its major components.

TYPES OF DRILL MACHINES


SR.NO.

DRILL MACHINE

Upright Sensitive Drill Press

Radial Arm Drill Press

Gang Drill Machine

Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine

Micro Drilling Machine

Turret Type Drilling Machine

APPLICATION

BASIC TYPES OF DRILLING MACHINES

Drilling machines or drill presses are one of the most common machines found in the
machine shop. A drill press is a machine that turns and advances a rotary tool into a
work piece. The drill press is used primarily for drilling holes, but when used with the
proper tooling, it can be used for a number of machining operations. The most common
machining operations performed on a drill press are drilling, reaming, tapping, counter
boring, countersinking, and spot facing.
There are many different types or configurations of drilling machines, but most drilling
machines will fall into four broad categories: upright sensitive, upright, radial, and
special purpose.

Upright sensitive drill press

The upright sensitive drill press (Figure 1)


is a light-duty type of drilling machine that
normally incorporates a belt drive spindle
head. This machine is generally used for
moderate-to-light duty work. The upright
sensitive drill press gets its name due to the
fact that the machine can only be hand fed.
Hand feeding the tool into the work piece
allows the operator to "feel" the cutting
action of the tool. The sensitive drill press
is manufactured in a floor style or a bench
Figure 1 Upright sensitive drill press

style.

Upright drill press


The upright drill press (Figure
2) is a heavy duty type of drilling machine
normally incorporating a geared drive
spindle head. This type of drilling machine
is used on large hole-producing operations
that typically involve larger or heavier
parts. The upright drill press allows the
operator to hand feed or power feed the tool
into the work piece. The power feed
mechanism automatically advances the tool
into the work piece. Some types of upright
drill presses are also manufactured with

Figure 2 Upright drill press

automatic table-raising mechanisms.

Radial arm drill press


The radial arm drill press (Figure 3) is the hole producing work horse of the machine
shop. The press is commonly refered to as a radial drill press. The radial arm drill press
allows the operator to position the spindle directly over the workpiece rather than move
the workpiece to the tool. The design of the radial drill press gives it a great deal of
versatility, especially on parts too large to position easily. Radial drills offer power feed
on the spindle, as well as an automatic mechanism to raise or lower the radial arm. The
wheel head, which is located on the radial arm, can also be traversed along the arm,
giving the machine added ease of use as well as versatility. Radial arm drill presses can
be equipped with a trunion table or tilting table. This gives the operator the ability to
drill intersecting or angular holes in one setup.

Figure 3 Radial arm drill press

SPECIAL PURPOSE DRILL MACHINES


There are a number of types of special purpose drilling machines. The purposes of these
types of drilling machines vary. Special purpose drilling machines include machines
capable of drilling 20 holes at once or drilling holes as small as 0.01 of an inch.

Gang drill press

The gang style drilling machine (Figure 4) or


gang drill press has several work heads
positioned over a single table. This type of
drill press is used when successive operations
are to be done. For instance, the first head
may be used to spot drill. The second head
may be used to tap drill. The third head may
be used, along with a tapping head, to tap the
hole. The fourth head may be used to
chamfer.
Figure 4 Gang drill press

Multispindle drill press

The multiple spindle drilling machine is commonly


refered to as a multispindle drill press. This special
purpose drill press has many spindles connected to one
main work head (Figure 5).
All of the spindles are fed into the workpiece at the
same time. This type of drilling machine is especially
useful when you have a large number of parts with
many holes located close together.

Figure 5 Multispindle drill


press

Micro drill press


The micro drill press is an extremely accurate, high
spindle speed drill press. The micro drill press is typically
very small (Figure 6) and is only capable of handling very
small parts. Many micro drill presses are manufactured as
bench top models. They are equipped with chucks capable
of holding very small drilling tools.

Figure 6 Micro drill press

Turret type drilling machine


Turret drilling machines are
equipped with several drilling heads
mounted on a turret (Figure 6). Each
turret head can be equipped with a
different type of cutting tool. The turret
allows the needed tool to be quickly
indexed into position. Modern turret
type drilling machines are computercontrolled so that the table can be
quickly and accurately positioned.

Figure 6 CNC turret type drilling machine

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TYPES OF DRILL BITS


Sr.No.

Name of Tool Bits

Tungsten Carbide Inserts

Roller Cone bits

Specification

Each cone has teeth made of hard steel,


tungsten-carbide

Self Sharpening Bits

Poly Crystalline Diamonds (PDC)

Fishing tools

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DRILL TOOL SPECIFICATIONS


Inch

Mm

Segment

1/4

1-2.57

5/16

1-2.57

3/8

10

1-2.57

12

1-2.57

9/16

14

1-2.57

5/8

16

1-2.57

18

1-2.57

20

1-2.57

7/8

22

1-2.57

25

1-2.57

30

1-2.57

1-1/4

32

1-2.57

1-3/8

35

1-2.57

1-1/2

38

1-2.57

40

1-2.57

45

1-2.57

1-3/4

12

50

1-2.57

THE MECHANISM OF CUTTING


Assuming
Orthogonal Cutting - assumes that the cutting edge of the tool is set in a position that is
perpendicular to the direction of relative work or tool motion. This allows us to deal with forces
that act only in one plane.

We can obtain orthogonal cutting by turning a thin walled tube, and setting the lath bit cutting
edge perpendicular to the tube axis.
Next, we can begin to consider cutting forces, chip thicknesses, etc.
First, consider the physical geometry of cut

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Next, we assume that we are also measuring two perpendicular cutting forces that are
horizontal, and perpendicular to the figure above. This then allows us to examine specific forces
involved with the cutting. The cutting forces in the figure below (Fc and Ft) are measured using
a tool force dynamometer mounted on the lathe.

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1.2.1 Force Calculations


1.2.1.1 - Force Calculations

15

The forces and angles involved in cutting are drawn below,

Having seen the vector based determination of the cutting forces, we can now look at
equivalent calculations

16

The velocities are also important, and can be calculated for later use in power calculations.
The Velocity diagram below can also be drawn to find cutting velocities.

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A final note of interest to readers not completely familiar with vectors,


the forces Fc and Ft, are used to find R, from that two other sets of equivalent forces are found.,

1.2.1.2 - Merchants Force Circle With Drafting (Optional)


Merchants Force Circle is a method for calculating the various forces involved in the cutting
process. This will first be explained with vector diagrams, these in turn will be followed by a
few formulas.
The procedure to construct a merchants force circle diagram (using drafting
techniques/instruments)
is,

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1. Set up x-y axis labeled with forces, and the origin in the centre of the page.
The scale should be enough to include both the measured forces.
The cutting force (Fc) is drawn horizontally, and the tangential force (Ft) is drawn
vertically.
(These forces will all be in the lower left hand quadrant)
(Note: square graph paper and equal x & y scales are essential)
2. Draw in the resultant (R) of Fc and Ft.
3. Locate the centre of R, and draw a circle that encloses vector R. If done correctly, the heads
and tails of all 3 vectors will lie on this circle.
4. Draw in the cutting tool in the upper right hand quadrant, taking care to draw the correct rake angle () from
the vertical axis.
5. Extend the line that is the cutting face of the tool (at the same rake angle) through the circle.
This now gives the friction vector (F).
6. A line can now be drawn from the head of the friction vector, to the head of the resultant
vector (R). This gives the normal vector (N). Also add a friction angle () between vectors R and
N. As a side note recall that any vector can be broken down into components. Therefore,
mathematically, R = Fc + Ft = F + N.
7. We next use the chip thickness, compared to the cut depth to find the shear force. To do this,
the chip is drawn on before and after cut. Before drawing, select some magnification factor (e.g.,
200 times) to multiply both values by. Draw a feed thickness line (t1) parallel to the horizontal
axis. Next draw a chip thickness line parallel to the tool cutting face.
8. Draw a vector from the origin (tool point) towards the intersection of the two chip lines,
stopping at the circle. The result will be a shear force vector (Fs). Also measure the shear force
angle between Fs and Fc.
9. Finally add the shear force normal (Fn) from the head of Fs to the head of R.
10. Use a scale and protractor to measure off all distances (forces) and angles.
The resulting diagram is pictured below,

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CONCEPT OF TOOL DYNAMOMETER


The cutting force measurements allow in the past to analyze and develop
accurate conventional cutting methods. Nowadays with a constant demand for high
precision machining oriented to high accuracy and even smaller dimensions also, the

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development of reliable and sensitive measuring instruments assumes a wide


importance. In fact they have a fundamental role in the analysis, optimization and
monitoring of a machine processes, selecting machines, tools and materials. Force
measurements are also fundamental for the definition of optimum cutting conditions, the
breakage behavior of the micro end mills, the process of chip formation and how they
influence the cutting forces and the machining process. Cutting speed, depth of cut, feed
rate, work piece material, tool material, cutting geometry, wear of the tool and cutting
fluid are the main factors determining the magnitude and direction of cutting forces.
However the small diameter of the tools requires high rotational speeds to
achieve a reasonable cutting speed and material removal rate. With such
rotational speed, in the order of ten thousand of rotation per minute, the tool
excitation on the work piece has high frequency. This requires measuring
sensors with a correspondingly high natural frequency in order to avoid
resonance. Moreover the force peaks are contained in the range of few
newtons.

1.1 GENERAL ASPECTS


The term dynamometer refers to an instrument used to measure force. It can also
be used to refer to a testing machine capable of applying force of a given precision. A
dynamometer is composed of a transducer comprising a metallic test specimen which
receives the force to be measured and deforms elastically by the application of this
force. In modern transducers such deformation (strain) is communicated to a miniature
electric circuit attached to the test specimen, resulting in a modification of the electric
resistance. This resistance variation is measured by the Wheatstone bridge method,
whereby two legs of the electric circuit are supplied with an analog voltage, continuous
or intermittent and an analogue voltage variable according to the force applied to the
dynamometer is collected between the two other legs in the circuit.
The necessary equipment to supply voltage, collect and process the output signal and
display usable values constitutes the electronic element connected to the transducer.
Traditional electronic instruments stabilized and multimeter supply can be used.

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Transducer manufacturers have developed specific electronic equipment allowing to


optimize settings, measurement conditions and precision.
The latest advances in the technique of dynamometers consist in integrating the
electronic equipment associated to the digitalization of the signal and the transducer, so
as to constitute a single device that powered by 220 V, releases an output digital signal
according to the force applied to the transducer.
When the relationship between the force applied to a dynamometer and the
measurement of its output signal cannot be accurately determined by means of a
calculation, it is necessary to calibrate the dynamometer, which consists in establishing
the exact relationship between the force applied to a dynamometer - input - and the
electrical signal it releases - output. In essence, the operation consists in applying forces
that can be accurately measured to a dynamometer and registering the values provided
by the electronic equipment connected to the transducer. This operation is generally
performed by applying the protocol established by the international standard ISO 376.
This standard provides for a classification of the dynamometer according to precision
criteria. The results of the calibration of a dynamometer lead to the determination of a
mathematical polynomial of 2nd or 3rd degree, which allows calculating the value of the
force applied to the dynamometer based on the indication provided by the electronic
equipment. The formula allowing calculating the level of uncertainty of this value is also
part of the calibration. Dynamometers are often used as the sensitive element of
weighing instruments. In this case, the shape of the test specimen is determined so as to
obtain an output signal that is exactly proportional to the mass of the specimen placed on
the of the instrument loading tray.

1.2 DYNAMOMETER
A dynamometer or "dyno" for short is a machine used to measure torque and
rotational speed (rpm) from which power produced can be measured.

1.2.1 Design Criterions and Material of Dynamometer

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Sensitivity, rigidity, elasticity, accuracy, easy calibration, cost and reliability in


the cutting environment have been taken into account in designing the dynamometer.
Dimensions, shape and material of dynamometer are considered to be effective factors
on dynamic properties of the dynamometer. A dynamometer essentially consists of an
important ring element. The rigidity, high natural frequency, corrosion resistance and
high heat conductivity factors were taken into consideration while selecting the ring
materials. Also, deformation under the load should conform to that of strain gauges.
1.3 TYPES OF DYNAMOMETER
SR.NO.

DYANMOMETER

SPECIFICATION

Eddy Current Dynamometer

Magnetic Powder Dynamometer

Hysteresis Brake Dynamometer

Electric Motor/Generator Dynamometer

Strain Gauge Type Dynamometer

1.3.1 Eddy Current Dynamometer


EC dynamometers are currently the most common absorbers used in modern
chassis dyno. The EC absorbers provide the quickest load change rate for rapid load
settling. Some are air cooled, but many require external water cooling systems. Eddy
current dynamometers require the ferrous core or shaft, to rotate in the magnetic field to

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produce torque. Due to this, stalling a motor with an eddy current dyno is usually not
possible.

1.3.2 Magnetic Powder Dynamometer


A magnetic powder dynamometer is similar to an eddy current dynamometer, but
a fine magnetic powder is placed in the air gap between the rotor and the coil. The
resulting flux lines create "chains" of metal particulate which are constantly built and
broken apart during rotation creating great torque. Powder dynamometers are typically
limited to lower RPM due to heat dissipation issues.

1.3.3 Hysteresis Dynamometer


Hysteresis dynamometers, such as Magtrol Inc's HD series, use a proprietary
steel rotor that is moved through flux lines generated between magnetic pole pieces.
This design allows for full torque to be produced at zero speed, as well as at full speed.
Heat dissipation is assisted by forced air. Hysteresis dynamometers are one of the most
efficient technologies in small dynamometers.

1.3.4 Electric Motor/Generator Dynamometer


Electric motor/generator dynamometers are a specialized type of adjustablespeed drives. The absorption/driver unit can be either an alternating current (AC) motor
or a direct current (DC) motor. Either an AC motor or a DC motor can operate as a
generator which is driven by the unit under test or a motor which drives the unit under
test. When equipped with appropriate control units, electric motor/generator
dynamometers can be configured as universal dynamometers. The control unit for an AC

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motor is a variable-frequency drive and the control unit for a DC motor is a DC drive. In
both cases, regenerative control units can transfer power from the unit under test to the
electric utility. Where permitted, the operator of the dynamometer can receive payment
(or credit) from the utility for the returned power.

1.3.5 Dynamometer with Strain Gauge


The traditional configuration of a dynamometer for cutting force measurements
in drilling operations consists of four elastic octagonal rings on which strain gages are
mounted with the necessary connection to form the Wheatstone measuring bridge.
Semiconductor strain gages are small in size and mass, low in cost, easily attached and
highly sensitive to strain but insensitive to ambient or process temperature variations.
Strain gages required simple construction but tend to change resistance with the time so
they are suitable for test of short duration the rings are fixed and held between two metal
plates.
This type of dynamometer produces an output voltage corresponding to the
elastic deformation of its structure under an applied force. One of the critical problems is
the stiffness of the components that is in conflict with the sensitivity of the
dynamometer however the main limitation is the low bandwidth of the system.
1.4 STRAIN GAUGE
It is a device used to determine the strain at a specified place. The smallest gauge
developed and sold commercially to date is the electric resistance type. This gauge is
prepared from an ultra thin alloy foil which is photo etched to produce the intricate grid
construction with a gauge of 0.2mm. On the other hand, mechanical strain gauges are
still employed in civil engineering structural application where the gauge length is
200mm (Berry strain gauge). These Berry gauges are rugged, simple to use and
sufficiently accurate in structural application where the stain distribution is
approximately linear over the 200mm gauge length.

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Strain gauge system has four basic characteristics namely gauge length,
sensitivity, range of strain and the accuracy or precision.

Gauge length is the distance between two knife edges in contact with the

specimen and by the width of movable knife edges in a mechanical strain gauge.
Sensitivity is the smallest value of strain which can be read on the scale

associated with the strain gauge.


Range represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without resetting

the strain gauge.


Precision is Very sensitive instruments are quite prone to errors unless they are
employed with at most precision.

Strain Gauges are broadly classified as follows

Mechanical
Optical
Electrical
Acoustical

1.4.1 Electrical Strain Gauge


Electrical Strain Gauges are classified as bellow

1.4.1.1 Resistance Strain Gauge


The resistance of an electrically conductive material changes with dimensional
changes which take place when the conductor is deformed elastically.
When such a material is stretched, the conductors become longer and narrower,
which causes an increase in resistance. This change in resistance is then converted to an
absolute voltage by a wheatstone bridge. The resulting value is linearly related to strain
by a constant called the gauge factor. This is the type of strain gauge are being used in
the laboratory.

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1.4.1.2

Capacitance Strain Gauge

Capacitance devices, which depend on geometric features, can be used to


measure strain. The capacitance of a simple parallel plate capacitor is proportional to:
(1.1)
Where:
C is the capacitance,
a is the plate area,
k is the dielectric constant, and
t is the separation between plates.
The capacitance can be varied by changing the plate area a or the gap t. The
electrical properties of the materials used to form the capacitor are relatively
unimportant. So capacitance strain gauge materials can be chosen to meet the
mechanical requirements. This allows the gauges to be more rugged, providing a
significant advantage over resistance strain gauges.

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1.4.1.3 Photoelectric Strain Gauge


An extensometer (an apparatus with mechanical levers attached to the specimen)
is used to amplify the movement of a specimen. A beam of light is passed through a
variable slit, actuated by the extensometer, and directed to a photoelectric cell. As the
gap opening changes, the amount of light reaching the cell varies, causing a varying
intensity in the current generated by the cell.

1.4.1.4 Semiconductor Strain Gauge


In piezoelectric materials, such as crystalline quartz, a change in the electronic
charge across the faces of the crystal occurs when the material is mechanically stressed.
The piezoresistive effect is defined as the change in resistance of a material due
to an applied stress and this term is used commonly in connection with semiconducting
materials. The resistivity of a semiconductor is inversely proportional to the product of
the electronic charge, the number of charge carriers, and their average mobility. The
effect of applied stress is to change both the number and average mobility of the charge
carriers. By choosing the correct crystallographic orientation and doping type, both
positive and negative gauge factors may be obtained. Silicon is now almost universally
used for the manufacture of semiconductor strain gauges.

1.4.2 Optical Strain Gauge


1.4.2.1 Photoelastic Strain Gauge
When a photo elastic material is subjected to a load and illuminated with
polarized light from the measurement instrumentation (called a reflection polariscope),
patterns of color appear which are directly proportional to the stresses and strains within
the material. The sequence of colors observed as stress increases is: black (zero stress),
yellow, red, blue-green, yellow, red, blue-green, yellow, red, etc. The transition lines
seen between the red and green bands are known as "fringes." The stresses in the
material increase proportionally as the number of fringes increases. Closely spaced
fringes mean a steeper stress gradient, and uniform color represents a uniformly stressed
area. Hence, the overall stress distribution can easily be studied by observing the

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numerical order and spacing of the fringes. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis of the
direction and magnitude of the strain at any point on the coated surface can be
performed with the reflection polariscope and a digital strain indicator.

1.4.2.2 Moire Interferometry Strain Gauge


Moire interferometry is an optical technique that uses coherent laser light to
produce a high contrast, two-beam optical interference pattern. Moire interferometry
reveals planar displacement fields on a part's surface, which is caused by external
loading or other source deformation. It responds only to geometric changes of the
specimen and is effective for diverse engineering materials. Contour maps of planar
deformation fields can be generated from x and y components of displacements.

1.4.2.3 Holographic Interferometry Strain Gauge


Holographic interferometry allows the evaluation of strain, rotation, bending,
and torsion of an object in three dimensions. Since holography is sensitive to the surface
effects of an opaque body, extrapolation into the interior of the body is possible in some
circumstances. In one or more double-exposure holograms, changes in the object are
recorded. From the fringe patterns in the reconstructed image of the object, the
interference phase-shift for different sensitivity vectors are measured. A computer is
then used to calculate the strain and other deformations.

1.5 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A STRAIN GAUGE

29

The gauge should be of extremely small size (gauge length and width) so as

to adequately estimate strain at a point.


The gauge should be of significant mass to be permit the recording of

dynamic strain.
The strain sensitivity and accuracy of the gauge should be significantly high.
The gauge should be unaffected by temperature, vibration, humidity and

other ambient condition.


The gauge should be capable of indicating both static and dynamic strains.
It should be possible to read the gauge either on location or remotely.
The gauge should exhibit linear response to strain.
The gauge and associated equipment should be available at reasonable cost.
The gauge should be suitable for use as a sensing element or other transducer
systems.

1.6 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF STRAIN GAUGE

The advantages of strain gauge are:


Small size and mass
Ease of production over a range of sizes
Robustness
Good stability, repeatability and linearity over large strain range
Good sensitivity
Freedom from (or ability to compensate for) temperature effects and other
environmental conditions
Suitability for static and dynamic measurements and remote recording

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Low cost

The disadvantages of strain gauge are:

Relatively high temperature sensitivity


Semiconductor types are extremely nonlinear
The semiconductor gauge is considerably more expensive than ordinary
metallic gauge

Design requirements for Tool force Dynamometers


For consistently accurate and reliable measurement, the following requirements are
considered during design and construction of any tool force dynamometers :
Sensitivity : the dynamometer should be reasonably sensitive for precision
measurement
Rigidity : the dynamometer need to be quite rigid to withstand the forces without
causing much deflection which may affect the machining condition
Cross sensitivity : the dynamometer should be free from cross sensitivity such that
one force (say P ) does not affect measurement of the other forces (say P and
Z
X
P )
Y
Stability against humidity and temperature
Quick time response

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High frequency response such that the readings are not affected by vibration within
a reasonably high range of frequency
Consistency, i.e. the dynamometer should work desirably over a long period.

TOOL DYNAMOMETER

The dynamometers being commonly used now-a-days for measuring machining forces
desirably accurately and precisely (both static and dynamic characteristics) are
either strain gauge type
or piezoelectric type
Strain gauge type dynamometers are inexpensive but less accurate and consistent,
whereas, the piezoelectric type are highly accurate, reliable and consistent but very
expensive for high material cost and stringent construction.

Turning Dynamometer
Turning dynamometers may be strain gauge or piezoelectric type and may be of one,
two or three dimensions capable to monitor all of P , P and P .
X Y
Z
For ease of manufacture and low cost, strain gauge type turning dynamometers are
widely used and preferably of 2 D (dimension) for simpler construction, lower cost
and ability to provide almost all the desired force values.
Design and construction of a strain gauge type 2 D turning dynamometer are shown
schematically in Fig. 10.8 and photographically in Fig. 10.9 Two full bridges comprising
four live strain gauges are provided for P and P channels which are connected with
Z
X
the strain measuring bridge for detection and measurement of strain in terms of voltage
which provides the magnitude of the cutting forces through calibration. Fig. 10.10

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pictorially shows use of 3 D turning dynamometer having piezoelectric transducers


inside.

Photographs of a strain gauge type 2 D turning dynamometer and its major components.

Use of 3 D piezoelectric type turning dynamometer.

Drilling dynamometer
33

Physical construction of a strain gauge type 2 D drilling dynamometer for measuring


torque and thrust force is typically shown schematically in Fig. 10.11 and pictorially in
Fig. 10.12. Four strain gauges are mounted on the upper and lower surfaces of the two
opposite ribs for P

channel and four on the side surfaces of the other two ribs for the

torque channel. Before use, the dynamometer must be calibrated to enable determination
of the actual values of T and P from the voltage values or reading taken in SMB or PC.
X

Schematic view of construction of a strain gauge type drilling dynamometer.

Milling dynamometer
Since the cutting or loading point is not fixed w.r.t. the job and the dynamometer, the job
platform rests on four symmetrically located supports in the form of four O-rings. The

34

forces on each O-ring are monitored and summed up correspondingly for getting the
total magnitude of all the three forces in X, Y and Z direction respectively.
Fig. 10.13 shows schematically the principle of using O-ring for measuring two forces
by mounting strain gauges, 4 for radial force and 4 for transverse force.

Fig. 10.14 typically shows configuration of a strain gauge type 3 D milling


dynamometer having 4 octagonal rings. Piezoelectric type 3 D dynamometers are also
available and used for measuring the cutting forces in milling

A typical strain gauge type 3 D milling dynamometer.

Grinding dynamometer
The construction and application of a strain gauge type (extended O-ring) grinding
surface dynamometer and another piezoelectric type are typically shown in Fig. 10.15
and Fig. 10.16 respectively.

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A typical strain gauge type 2 D grinding dynamometer

Piezoelectric type grinding dynamometer in operation.


Unlike strain gauge type dynamometers, the sophisticated piezoelectric type (KISTLER)
dynamometers can be used directly more accurately and reliably even without
calibration by the user.

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CHAPTER 2

Design and Fabrication of Drill Tool Dynamometer


AIM:
To determine the cutting tool forces on the work piece using drill tool dynamometer.

THEORY:
The strain gauge based Drill Tool Dynamometer designed to measure Thrust &
Torque during drilling operation and effect of speed, feed cut on these forces. The unit
consists of a mechanical sensing unit or test piece holder and digital force indicator.
The existence of some physical variables like force, temperature etc and its magnitude
or strength cannot be detected or quantified directly but can be so through their effects only. For
example, a force which can neither be seen nor be gripped but can be detected and also
quantified respectively by its effects and the amount of those effects like elastic deflection,
deformation, pressure, strain etc. These effects, called signals, often need proper conditioning
for easy, accurate and reliable detection and measurement.

Schematic view of construction of a strain gauge type drilling dynamometer.

37

A strain gauge type drilling dynamometer and its major components.

OBJECTIVES:

To minimize the number of parts in the experimental setup (simple in

construction).
To have a more accurate and reliable experimental setup.
Easy to understand and simple in operation.
Easy in handling and digital force indicators to measure two forces
simultaneously.

METHODOLOGY:
In order to assemble the drill tool dynamometer, the important components
needed are strain gauges and Physical construction of a strain gauge type drilling
dynamometer for measuring torque and thrust force consists Four strain gauges are
mounted on the upper and lower surfaces of the two opposite ribs. The ends of the strain
gauges connected to the strain indicator using wires.
When the load is applied on a member, the force is produced in a member will
be experienced by the strain gauges and are shown on the strain indicator.

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ITEMS REQUIRED:
Mechanical Sensing Unit with strain Gauge.
Digital Force Indicator.
4 Strain gauges.
Job holder.
Fixed member.
Necessary cables, wires, solder etc.

RESULTS EXPECTED:
Accurate cutting forces can be obtained during the drilling process on the work
piece using the drill tool dynamometer through the digital force indicator.

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MODEL CONTENT TABLE


SR.NO.

COMPIONENT NAME

SPECIFICATION

D.C.Motor

12volt permanent magnet type motor

Gears

Rack And Pinion type

Transformer

12-0-10 D.C. transformer

Rectifier

Resistance

Load cell

Max Load Capacity 150 Kg.

Display

Digital display

Power Supply

220 Volt Ac.,3Volt Dc.

Capacitor

MODEL CONTENT SPECIFICATIONS

40

INTRODUCTION - DC Motor

Faradays used oersteds discovered, that electricity could be used to produce motion, to
build the world first electric motor in 1821. Ten years later, using the same logic in
reverse, faraday was interested in getting the motion produced by oersteds experiment to
be continuous, rather then just a rotatory shift in position. In his experiments, faraday
thought in terms of magnetic lines of force. He visualized how flux lines existing around
a current carrying wire and a bar magnet. He was then able to produce a device in which
the different lines of force could interact a produce continues rotation. The basic
faradays motor uses a free-swinging wire that circles around the end of a bar magnet.
The bottom end of the wire is in a pool of mercury. Which allows the wire to rotate
while keeping a complete electric circuit.

BASIC MOTOR ACTION

41

Although Faraday's motor was ingenious. It could not be used to do any practical work.
This is because its drive shaft was enclosed and it could only produce an internal orbital
motion. It could not transfer its mechanical energy to the outside for deriving an external
load. However it did show how the magnetic fields of a conductor and a magnet could
be made to interact to produce continuous motion. Faradays motor orbited its wire rotor
must pass through the magnets lines of force.

When a current is passes through the wire ,circular lines of force are produced around
the wire. Those flux lines go in a direction described by the left-hand rule. The lines of
force of the magnet go from the N pole to the S pole You can see that on one side of the
wire, the magnetic lines of force are going in the opposite direction as a result the wire, s
flux lines oppose the magnets flux line since flux lines takes the path of least resistance,
more lines concentrate on the other side of the wire conductor, the lines are bent and are
very closely spaced. The lines tend to straighten and be wider spaced. Because of this
the denser, curved field pushes the wire in the opposite direction.

42

The direction in which the wire is moved is determined by the right hand rule. If
the current in the wire went in the opposite direction. The direction of its flux lines
would reverse, and the wire would be pushed the other way.

Rules for motor action


The left hand rule shows the direction of the flux lines around a wire that is
carrying current. When the thumb points in the direction of the magnetic lines of force.
The right hand rule for motors shows the direction that a current carrying wire will be
moved in a magnetic field. When the forefinger is pointed in the direction of the
magnetic field lines, and the centre finger is pointed in the direction of the current in the
wire the thumb will point in the direction that the wire will be moved.

TORQUE AND ROTATORY MOTION


In the basic action you just studied the wire only moves in a straight line and stops
moving once out of the field even though the current is still on. A practical motor must
develop a basic twisting force called torque loop. We can see how torque is produced. If

43

the loop is connected to a battery. Current flows in one direction one side of the loop,
and in the opposite direction on the other. Therefore the concentric direction on the two
sides.
If we mount the loop in a fixed magnetic field and supply the current the flux
lines of the field and both sides of the loop will interact, causing the loop to act like a
lever with a force pushing on its two sides in opposite directions. The combined forces
result in turning force, or torque because the loop is arranged to piot on its axis. In a
motor the loop that moves in the field is called an armature or rotor. The overall turning
force on the armature depends upon several factors including field strength armature
current strength and the physical construction of the armature especially the distance
from the loop sides to the axis lines. Because of the lever action the force on the sides
are further from the axis; thus large armature will produce greater torques.

In the practical motor the torque determines the energy available for doing useful work.
The greater the torque the greater the energy. If a motor does not develop enough torque
to pull its load it stalls.

Rack and Pinion

44

Rack and pinion animation along a steep slope.


The rack and pinion arrangement is commonly found in the steering mechanism of cars
or other wheeled, steered vehicles. This arrangement provides a lesser mechanical
advantage than other mechanisms A rack and pinion is a pair of gears which convert
rotational motion into linear motion. The circular pinion engages teeth on a flat bar - the
rack. Rotational motion applied to the pinion will cause the rack to move to the side, up
to the limit of its travel. For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a pinion mounted
on a locomotive or a railcar engages a rack between the rails and pulls a train such as
recirculating ball, but much less backlash and greater feedback, or steering "feel". The
use of a variable rack was invented by Arthur E Bishop,[1] so as to improve vehicle
response and steering "feel" on-centre, and that has been fitted to many new vehicles,
after he created a hot forging process to manufacture the racks, thus eliminating any
subsequent need to machine the form of the gear teeth.

RESISTANCE

45

Resistance is the opposition of a material to the current. It is measured in Ohms


(). All conductors represent a certain amount of resistance, since no conductor is
100% efficient. To control the electron flow (current) in a predictable manner, we use
resistors. Electronic circuits use calibrated lumped resistance to control the flow of
current. Broadly speaking, resistor can be divided into two groups viz. fixed &
adjustable (variable) resistors. In fixed resistors, the value is fixed & cannot be varied. In
variable resistors, the resistance value can be varied by an adjuster knob. It can be
divided into (a) Carbon composition (b) Wire wound (c) Special type. The most
common type of resistors used in our projects is carbon type. The resistance value is
normally indicated by colour bands. Each resistance has four colours, one of the band on
either side will be gold or silver, this is called fourth band and indicates the tolerance,
others three band will give the value of resistance (see table). For example if a resistor
has the following marking on it say red, violet, gold. Comparing these coloured rings
with the colour code, its value is 27000 ohms or 27 kilo ohms and its tolerance is 5%.
Resistor comes in various sizes (Power rating). The bigger, the size, the more power
rating of 1/4 watts. The four colour rings on its body tells us the value of resistor value
as given below.
COLOURS

CODE

Black-----------------------------------------------------0
Brown----------------------------------------------------1
Red-------------------------------------------------------2
Orange---------------------------------------------------3
Yellow----------------------------------------------------4
Green-----------------------------------------------------5
Blue-------------------------------------------------------6
Violet-----------------------------------------------------7
Grey------------------------------------------------------8
White-----------------------------------------------------9

46

The first rings give the first digit. The second ring gives the second digit. The
third ring indicates the number of zeroes to be placed after the digits. The fourth ring
gives tolerance (gold 5%, silver 10%, No colour 20%).
In variable resistors, we have the dial type of resistance boxes. There is a knob
with a metal pointer. This presses over brass pieces placed along a circle with some
space b/w each of them.
Resistance coils of different values are connected b/w the gaps. When the knob is
rotated, the pointer also moves over the brass pieces. If a gap is skipped over, its
resistance is included in the circuit. If two gaps are skipped over, the resistances of both
together are included in the circuit and so on.
A dial type of resistance box contains many dials depending upon the range, which it has
to cover. If a resistance box has to read upto 10,000, it will have three dials each
having ten gaps i.e. ten resistance coils each of resistance 10. The third dial will have
ten resistances each of 100.
The dial type of resistance boxes is better because the contact resistance in this
case is small & constant.

POWER SUPPLY
In alternating current the electron flow is alternate, i.e. the electron flow
increases to maximum in one direction, decreases back to zero. It then increases in the
other direction and then decreases to zero again. Direct current flows in one direction
only. Rectifier converts alternating current to flow in one direction only. When the anode

47

of the diode is positive with respect to its cathode, it is forward biased, allowing current
to flow. But when its anode is negative with respect to the cathode, it is reverse biased
and does not allow current to flow. This unidirectional property of the diode is useful for
rectification. A single diode arranged back-to-back might allow the electrons to flow
during positive half cycles only and suppress the negative half cycles. Double diodes
arranged back-to-back might act as full wave rectifiers as they may allow the electron
flow during both positive and negative half cycles. Four diodes can be arranged to make
a full wave bridge rectifier. Different types of filter circuits are used to smooth out the
pulsations in amplitude of the output voltage from a rectifier. The property of capacitor
to oppose any change in the voltage applied across them by storing energy in the electric
field of the capacitor and of inductors to oppose any change in the current flowing
through them by storing energy in the magnetic field of coil may be utilized. To remove
pulsation of the direct current obtained from the rectifier, different types of combination
of capacitor, inductors and resistors may be also be used to increase to action of
filtering.

NEED OF POWER SUPPLY


Perhaps all of you are aware that a power supply is a primary requirement for
the Test Bench of a home experimenters mini lab. A battery eliminator can eliminate
or replace the batteries of solid-state electronic equipment and the equipment thus can be
operated by 230v A.C. mains instead of the batteries or dry cells. Nowadays, the use of
commercial battery eliminator or power supply unit has become increasingly popular as
power source for household appliances like transreceivers, record player, cassette
players, digital clock etc.

48

CAPACITORS
It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then
release it.

49

To understand the concept of


capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other
without touching. If a battery is connected to these plates the positive pole to one and the
negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate
connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one
plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or
voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors.
Capacitors are of two types: - (1) fixed type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic
capacitors-these names refer to the material they are made of aluminium foil. (2)
Variable type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has
two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of
measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of
capacitance. Small unit capacitor are pico-farad denoted by pf (Ipf=1/1000,000,000,000
f) Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, it's two terminal are marked as (-) and (+)
so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy
the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.

LOAD CELL
A load cell is an electronic device (transducer) that is used to convert a force into an
electrical signal. This conversion is indirect and happens in two stages. Through a
mechanical arrangement, the force being sensed deforms a strain gauge. The strain
gauge converts the deformation (strain) to electrical signals. A load cell usually consists

50

of four strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. Load cells of one or two
strain gauges are also available. The electrical signal output is typically in the order of a
few millivolts and requires amplification by an instrumentation amplifier before it can
be used. The output of the transducer is plugged into an algorithm to calculate the force
applied to the transducer.
Although strain gauge load cells are the most common, there are other types of load
cells as well. In industrial applications, hydraulic (or hydrostatic) is probably the second
most common, and these are utilized to eliminate some problems with strain gauge load
cell devices. As an example, a hydraulic load cell is immune to transient voltages
(lightning) so might be a more effective device in outdoor environments.
Other types include piezo-electric load cells (useful for dynamic measurements of
force), and vibrating wire load cells, which are useful in geomechanical applications due
to low amounts of drift.
Every load cell is subject to "ringing" when subjected to abrupt load changes. This stems
from the spring-like behavior of load cells. In order to measure the loads, they have to
deform. As such, a load cell of finite stiffness must have spring-like behavior, exhibiting
vibrations at its natural frequency. An oscillating data pattern can be the result of
ringing. Ringing can be suppressed in a limited fashion by passive means. Alternatively,
a control system can use an actuator to actively damp out the ringing of a load cell. This
method offers better performance at a cost of significant increase in complexity.

How it Works - Strain Gauge Load Cell


A strain gauge is a long length of conductor arranged in a zigzag pattern on a membrane.
When it is stretched, its resistance increases.
Strain gauges are mounted in the same direction as the strain and often in fours to form a
full 'Wheatstone Bridge'.

51

The diagram above represents what might happen if a strip of metal were fitted with four
gauges.
An downward bend stretches the gauges on the top and compresses those on the bottom.
A load cell may contain several similar strain gauges elements.

52

LOAD / FORCE CELLS

The load or force cell takes many forms to accommodate the variety
of uses throughout research and industrial applications. The majority
of today's designs use strain gauges as the sensing element, whether foil or
semiconductor.
Foil gauges offer the largest choice of different types and in consequence tend to be the
most used in load cell designs. Strain gauge patterns offer measurement of tension,
compression and shear forces.
Semiconductor strain gauges come in a smaller range of patterns but offer the
advantages of being extremely small and have large gauge factors, resulting in much
larger outputs for the same given stress. Due to these properties, they tend to be used for
the miniature load cell designs.
Proving rings are used for load measurement, using a calibrated
metal ring, the movement of which is measured with a precision
displacement transducer.
A vast number of load cell types have developed over the years,
the first designs simply using a strain gauge to measure the direct
stress which is introduced into a metal element when it is subjected
to a tensile or compressive force. A bending beam type design
uses strain gauges to monitor the stress in the sensing element
when subjected to a bending force.

53

More recently the measurement of shear stress has been adopted


as a more efficient method of load determination as it is less
dependent on the way and direction in which the force is applied
to the load cell.
The 'S' or 'Z' Beam Load Cell

A simple design load cell where the structure is shaped as a


'S' or 'Z' and strain gauges are bonded to the central sensing area
in the form of a full Wheatstone bridge.
The Wheatstone Bridge Circuit

E = Excitation Voltage(typically 10

Vdc.)

O/P = Output Signal


The Bending Beam Load Cell

54

The strain gauges are bonded on the flat upper and lower sections
of the load cell at points of maximum strain. This load cell type is
used for low capacities and performs with good linearity.
Its disadvantage is that it must be loaded correctly to obtain
consistent results.
The Shear Beam Load Cell

The strain gauges are bonded to a reduced part of the cross section
of the beam in order to maximize the shear effect. They are bonded
at 45 degree angles on either side of the beam to measure the shear
strains.

55

Used for medium to large capacities, the load cell has good linearity
and is not so susceptible to extraneous loading, in particular to
side loads.

Miniature Load Cells

Miniature load cells because of their compact size usually use


semiconductor strain gauges as the sensing element. They are
available in many different configurations for both tension and
compression force measurement. They offer good performance
with high outputs and high overload capabilty for protection.
Speciality Automotive/Autosport Load Cells

56

Many more Load Cell designs exist and we will bring you details
of these at a later stage.

LOAD CELL SPRING MEMBER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Bending: Simple

FIGURE 1. Bending: The simple cantilever


Bending elements are low-force, generally less than 1,000 lbf range,
high-deflection structures offering convenient and flat strain gauging surfaces where
complete push/pull strain symmetry is maintained.

Two strain gauges may be mounted on the top surface of the beam with two strain
gauges mounted on the bottom of the beam in equal and opposite strain fields. Since

57

strain gauges are directly opposite one another and beam thickness tends to be small,
little likelihoodexists that the strain gauges will operate at different temperatures
providing generally good thermal performance. Although the cantilever beam structure
provides excellent electrical nonlinearity, due to electrical symmetry, the point of load
contact with the beam translates curvilinearly, producing mechanical nonlinearities.
The maximum moment resisting movement of the beam occurs at the rigid clamp with
the maximum stress occurring according to My/IE where M= moment at the clamp,
y = displacement from the centerline of the beam (neutral axis), 1= area moment of
Inertia and
E = Young's Modulus for the material used. Since the majority of the beam length serves
only to increase the moment at the rigid clamp, various modifications of the simple
beam are used to reduce the beam mass in the interest of maintaining a high natural
frequency or to concentrate the strain at the strain gauge locations as shown in Figure 2.

Lastly, a review of beam bending characteristics of reveals that the surface strain present
in the beam surface linearly varies from the point of force application to the clamp. This
implies that the strain gauges will experience a strain gradient and provide an output
equating to the average strain. Constant stress beam sections can be fabricated by
tapering the edges of the beam such that the tapered edges projected intersect at the
point of load application to the beam as shown in top view Figure 2. In the end analysis,
the load cell designer must weigh the performance benefits produced against the cost of
incorporating the mechanical features shown.

58

FIGURE 2. Simple Cantilever Enhancements

Bending: Multiple
Multiple cantilever structures produce a "multiple bending" where tension and
compression strain fields exist on the same surface of the beam as shown in Figure 3a.
The advantage of multiple bending elements is realized when one considers that the
point of load application to the structure translates linearly along the loading axis,
thereby reducing or eliminating first order nonlinearities. When the peripheral support
clamp is rigid and immobile, deflection of the bending beams also produces median
plane tensile loads in the beam resulting in nonlinear outputs. When the peripheral
clamp is rigid and mobile, as shown in Figure 1, median plane tensile stresses are
eliminated however, as the beams deflect, the moment arm reduces in length yielding
yet another non-linear term and doubling the deflection of the load cell. Note that "T" is
used in the Figure to denote tensile strains and "C" is used to denote compressive strain.

59

FIGURE 3. Multiple Bending:

Multiple bending can be implemented as shown in Figure 4 where the sensitivity of the
load cell to off-axis loads is minimized. Coupled dual-beam load cell configurations
conveniently produce equal and opposite axial loads within each of the beams in
response to extraneous couples. Since the strain gauges can be wired to cancel the
effects of axial loads, the result is a load cell structure largely insensitive to the point of
load application and particularly well-suited to commercial weighing applications. As
the beams deflect, however, small changes in the moment arm lengths result producing
geometric nonlinearities. Additionally, axial forces produce nonlinearities in each beam
which tend to be equal and opposing, thus canceling each other. Although strain gauging
inside a drilled hole is more labor intensive, the design lends itself to effective sealing.
Often vacuum degassed silicone gel materials are used to fill the interior strain gaged
cavity waterproofing by the "exclusion" principle.
The "binocular" dual beam design of Figure 4b is popular for low force commercial
weighing applications. The thickened sections resist bending thereby reducing the

60

compliance of the design and maximizing the natural frequency. Note that the maximum
strain occurs at the transduction zones and is less than this value everywhere else within
the structure. Low-profile bending-based load cells are usually configured as strain
gaged diaphragms or multiple strain-gaged spoke assemblies.

Often, low profile multiple-bending designs possess four spokes at 90 degree intervals
where strain gauges are wired to cancel off-axis moment-induced strains. It should be
noted; when in the process of designing any load cell structure, the designer must
consider all bending as well as shear loads that the spring element must communicate.
FIGURE 4. Coupled Dual-Beam Cantilevers:

Many of the designs shown are depicted herein possessing right-angled corners. To
minimize stress concentrations that will occur at geometric discontinuities, it is highly
recommended that generous fillets be used with particular attention to possible
discontinuities at surfaces tangent to radiused features. Stress risers will often show local
stresses in excess of the microyield strength of the material used, producing zero
instabilities and potential fatigue failures.
Forty years ago sensor designers found that performance was almost always enhanced
when the sensor was fabricated from a solid billet of material and attention paid to the
elimination of structural discontinuities. Today we have a much more refined

61

understanding of materials and material behavior along with the terminology to express
these various attributes and characteristics.

Bending: Ring
The bending ring shown in Figure 5 has a rich history and is popularly
known as the Morehouse proving ring. The original design having been appropriated
from Russia. The Morehouse proving ring was and continues to be used as a transfer
standard in both sensor calibration systems and materials test systems. It is obvious from
the design of the ring that each leg of the ring must communicate axial loads while
simultaneously experiencing bending. The fact that both axial and bending occur within
the transduction zone of the sensor characterizes ring-style load cells.
The beauty of the proving ring with strain gauges installed as shown is the fact that all
gauges of the wheatstone bridge ideally experience identical axial strain, resulting in
cancellation of axial strain effects in the output of the bridge. Another attribute of the
ring structure relates to the smoothly varying tensile and compressive moment-induced
strains that result due to loading of the cell. The original transduction method used with
the structural ring design predates strain gauges entirely where a manually "plucked"
metal reed and micrometer assembly were used to
detect exceptionally small deflections of the ring. A hardened ball bearing acts as the
micrometer-adjustable target surface against which the reed tip oscillates, where the reed
is also provided with a hardened cylindrical tip, the micrometer is adjusted to move the
target until the reed just contacts the target, dampening the reed response. The
displacement sensitivity of this very mechanical system is impressive. The output of the
sensor is viewed directly on the micrometer scale.
It should be noted that the design of the bosses communicating load into the ring
structure significantly affects the performance of the ring. The optimum proportions and

62

dimensions of these bosses is as much determined by experience and test as it is by


rigorous mechanical design.
Bosses are often undercut or modified to be made more flexible in the interest of
rejecting off-axis loads trading off performance for off-axis load rejection. Likewise,
transduction zones are provided with stress- concentrating notches to enhance output,
natural frequency and to reduce compliance. In some cases, the extent to which these
boss and flexure modifications extend are so radical as to almost defy characterization as
a ring-based load cell. The single common thread in all of these designs is the fact that
transduction zones must communicate both bending and axial loads.

FIGURE 5. Bending: The ring:

63

Shear:
Strain gauge-based load cell structures, configured to operate based upon the
measurement of shear strain, provide high capacity and low compliance in a compact
and low profile geometry. Strain gauges measuring shear are oriented at 45 degrees to
the neutral axis in bending and are mounted to straddle the neutral axis. Bending stresses
are, by definition, equal to zero at the neutral axis in bending. Although the strain gauge
must possess some finite physical dimensions, by equally straddling the neutral axis in
bending, half of each strain gauge will experience some
bending strain while the other half will expenence the same strain in the opposite
direction thereby largely cancelling bending in the output of the sensor. Practically, the
shear patterns cannot be positioned with absolute perfection and shear webs cannot be
fabricated with absolute symmetry resulting in less than perfect cancellation of bending
strains.
Unlike bending stresses developed in the cantilever beam structure, where bending
stresses are a direct function of moment which itself is a direct function of the moment
arm, shear stresses by definition are equal only to the load carried by the member and
the area of the member, independent of the point of loading. By varying the thickness of
the load-bearing member, the shear stresses are varied in direct proportion. Utilizing this
philosophy, load carrying beams are often milled out to create shear "webs" possessing
an area sufficient to produce shear strains in the 1,000 to 1,700 microstrain range
thereby yielding strain gage full-bridge outputs of between 2 mV/V and 3 mV/V.

Shear strain gauge patterns are often used to strain gauge dual-axis shear pin structures
by gauging the inside diameter of a hole drilled in a cylindrical member. The diameter of
the internal hole is dimensioned to result in a shear area sufficient to produce the desired
strains at rated input The central hole is readily sealed, usually by welding of a

64

hermetically sealed connector, rendering the design useful in hostile environments. In


physically realizable sensor structures, it is impossible to configure the structure to
experience pure shear without the presence of some bending. The load bearing members
must therefore communicate both forms of material loading. Due to higher-order effects
tending to couple shear and bending strains, and in the interest of minimum compliance,
it is advisable to configure the spring member for minimum bending. The reduction of
spring member length will have the effect of reducing moments and bending strains. The
geometry induces double bending where the inflection point is centered on the shear
web thereby minimizing the bending that results at the strain gauge locations.

The popular "pancake" style load cell, as shown in Figure 6c, is configured to operate in
shear, offering a very low profile in a design that is easily environmentally sealed and is
largely insensitive to off-axis loads. Generally, pancake style shear web load cells are
available in the 1,000 lbf and higher load ranges.
The pancake style load cell also easily accommodates dual electrically -separate strain
bridges for high reliability applications. The high stiffness "tension"-base serves to allow

65

the measurement of tensile forces, acts to stiffen the load cell structure in compression
and to allow the incorporation of overrange limiting stops for compression applications.
Low profile pancake load cells are not available in the under 500 lbf force range since
the shear web thickness becomes exceedingly thin and difficult to manufacture. It should
be noted that the strain gage clamping fixtures for the pancake style sensor either pinch
the shear webs to avoid overstressing them during manufacturing or all cylindrical
gaging holes shown are filled with teflon plugs which provide clamping pressure due to
volumetric expansion at elevated epoxy cure temperatures. The teflon plugs used are
closely-toleranced to the diameter of the gauging holes and tend to extrude into the holeto-hole slots reducing the clamping pressure as a function of he number of cure cycles
they have been exposed to.
A strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain of an object. Invented by Edward E.
Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of
an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is
attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate.[1] As the object is
deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. This
resistance change, usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain
by the quantity known as the gauge factor.

Physical operation
A strain gauge takes advantage of the physical property of electrical conductance and its
dependence on not merely the electrical conductivity of a conductor, which is a property
of its material, but also the conductor's geometry. When an electrical conductor is
stretched within the limits of its elasticity such that it does not break or permanently
deform, it will become narrower and longer, changes that increase its electrical
resistance end-to-end. Conversely, when a conductor is compressed such that it does not
buckle, it will broaden and shorten, changes that decrease its electrical resistance end-toend. From the measured electrical resistance of the strain gauge, the amount of applied

66

stress may be inferred. A typical strain gauge arranges a long, thin conductive strip in a
zig-zag pattern of parallel lines such that a small amount of stress in the direction of the
orientation of the parallel lines results in a multiplicatively larger strain over the
effective length of the conductorand hence a multiplicatively larger change in
resistancethan would be observed with a single straight-line conductive wire.

Gauge factor
The gauge factor GF is defined as:

where

67

RG is the resistance of the undeformed gauge,


R is the change in resistance caused by strain, and
is strain.
For metallic foil gauges, the gauge factor is usually a little over 2.[2] For a single active
gauge and three dummy resistors, the output v from the bridge is:

Where
BV is the bridge excitation voltage.
Foil gauges typically have active areas of about 2-10 mm2 in size. With careful
installation, the correct gauge, and the correct adhesive, strains up to at least 10% can be
measured.

Gauges in practice

68

Visualization of the working concept behind the strain gauge on a beam under
exaggerated bending.
Foil strain gauges are used in many situations. Different applications place different
requirements on the gauge. In most cases the orientation of the strain gauge is
significant. Gauges attached to a load cell would normally be expected to remain stable
over a period of years, if not decades; while those used to measure response in a
dynamic experiment may only need to remain attached to the object for a few days, be
energized for less than an hour, and operate for less than a second.
Strain gauge based technology is utilized commonly in the manufacture of pressure
sensors. The gauges used in pressure sensors themselves are commonly made from
silicon, polysilicon, metal film, thick film, and bonded foil.

Variations in temperature

69

Variations in temperature will cause a multitude of effects. The object will change in
size by thermal expansion, which will be detected as a strain by the gauge. Resistance of
the gauge will change, and resistance of the connecting wires will change.
Most strain gauges are made from a constantan alloy. Various constantan alloys and
Karma alloys have been designed so that the temperature effects on the resistance of the
strain gauge itself cancel out the resistance change of the gauge due to the thermal
expansion of the object under test. Because different materials have different amounts of
thermal expansion, self-temperature compensation (STC) requires selecting a particular
alloy matched to the material of the object under test.
Even with strain gauges that are not self-temperature-compensated (such as isoelastic
alloy), use of a Wheatstone bridge arrangement allows compensating for temperature
changes in the specimen under test and the strain gauge. To do this in a Wheatstone
bridge made of four gauges, two gauges are attached to the specimen, and two are left
unattached, unstrained, and at the same temperature as the specimen and the attached
gauges[2]. (Murphy's Law was originally coined in response to a set of gauges being
incorrectly wired into a Wheatstone bridge.[4])
Temperature effects on the lead wires can be cancelled by using a "3-wire bridge"[1] or a
"4-wire Ohm circuit"[5] (also called a "4-wire Kelvin connection").

Other gauge types


For measurements of small strain, semiconductor strain gauges, so called piezoresistors,
are often preferred over foil gauges. A semiconductor gauge usually has a larger gauge
factor than a foil gauge. Semiconductor gauges tend to be more expensive, more
sensitive to temperature changes, and are more fragile than foil gauges.

70

In biological measurements, especially blood flow / tissue swelling, a variant called


mercury-in-rubber strain gauge is used. This kind of strain gauge consists of a small
amount of liquid mercury enclosed in a small rubber tube, which is applied around e.g. a
toe or leg. Swelling of the body part results in stretching of the tube, making it both
longer and thinner, which increases electrical resistance.
Fiber optic sensing can be employed to measure strain along an optical fiber.
Measurements can be distributed along the fiber, or taken at predetermined points on the
fiber.
Capacitive strain gauges use a variable capacitor to indicate the level of mechanical
deformation.

Mechanical types

Mechanical strain gauge used to measure the growth of a crack in a masonry foundation.
This one is installed on the Hudson-Athens Lighthouse
Simple mechanical types (such as illustrated to the left) are used in civil engineering to
measure movement of buildings, foundations, and other structures. In the illustrated
example, the two halves of the device are rigidly attached to the foundation wall on
opposite sides of the crack. The red reference lines are on the transparent half and the
grid is on the opaque white half. Both vertical and horizontal movement can be
monitored over time. In this picture, the crack can be seen to have widened by
approximately 0.3 mm (with no vertical movement) since the gauge was installed.
More sophisticated mechanical types incorporate dial indicators and mechanisms to
compensate for temperature changes. These types can measure movements as small as
0.002 mm.

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GRAPHS

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Limitations of drill tool dynamometer


1-maximum load calibrated 150 kg (1470N)
2-weight of the bench vice and work piece should be excluded during
calibration.
3- Open loop controls hence not a self stopping device.

NEED FOR SOCIETY


1. Similar materials from different sources.
2. Investigation into the machinability of materials.
3. Comparing and selecting cutting tools.
4. Determining optimum machining conditions.
5. Analyzing causes of tool failure .
6. Investigating the most suitable cutting fluids.
7. Determining the conditions that yield the best surface quality.
8. Establishing the effects of fluctuating cutting force on tool wear and tool life.
9. Can be use in all production industries.
10. Can be use in CNC and Manual drill machines.

CONCLUSION

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The completion of our project has been a very valuable experience for all the group
members. It has taught us some very important lessons which will prove to be invaluable
in the times to come. Through this project, we got an opportunity to understand the
working of not only various mechanical components but certain electronic and software
coding. It helped us to succeed in today mechanical erne. Under the guidance of Mr.
Vineet Kumar Vasishtha, Mr. Kuldeep Gupta and all workshop staff members, we
learnt several mechanical and practical skills. The project has left us priceless insight
into the corporate world and added another dimension to our Bachelor of technology
Degree.
We were fortunate to design our project in span of six months within our college
premises. This further polished our leadership abilities and has made us more confident
as my leadership abilities were put to test while designing the project.
In application of the completion of project, we are reminded of the words once said by
ALBERT CAMUSYou cannot acquire experience by making experiments. You cannot create experience.
You must undergo it

REFRENCE
1. Beckwith TG and Lewis Buck N (1982) Mechanical measurements. 5th ed., Oxford &
IBH Publi. Co., New Delhi.
2. Bhattacharyya, A (1984) Metal cuttingtheory and practice. Central Book Publi.,
Calcutta.
3. Hassan AM (1997) the effects of ball and roller burnishing on the surface roughness
and hardness of some non-ferrous metals. J. Mat. Proces.Technol. 72, 385391.

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4. King B and Foschi RO (1969) Cross ring dynamometer for direct force resolution into
three
Orthogonal components. Int. J. Machine Toll Design Res. 4, 345-356.
5. Levi R (1972) Multi component calibration of machine tool dynamometer. J. Engg.
Industry. 11. 1067-1072. Murthy RL and Kotiveerachary B (1981) Burnishing of
metallic surfaces a review. Precision Engg. 3, 172 179.
6. Shaw MC (1969) Metal cutting principles. 3rd ed. Oxford & IBH Publ. Co., New
Delhi.
7. Shneider Yu G (1967) Characteristics of burnished components. Mech. Tooling.
38(1), 19-22.

8. Thamizhmnaii S, Bin Omar B, Saparudin S and Hassan S (2008) Surface roughness


investigation and hardness by burnishing on titanium alloy. J. Achiev. Mat. Manuf.
Engg. 28 (2), 139142.
9. J.Naga. Malleswara Rao, A. Chenna Kesava Reddy and P.V. Rama Rao, (Design and
fabrication of new type of dynamometer to measure radial component of cutting force
and experimental investigation of optimum burnishing force in roller burnishing
process) , Indian Society for Education and Environment (2010), Indian journal of
Science and Technology.
10.Machining Technology Machine tools and operations, Helmi a, youssef and Hassan
EI-Hofy, CRC press:2008, page_371,eBook:ISBN-978-1-4200-43402,Doi:10.1201/9781420043402.ch10.

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