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FORCEMEATS AND MOUSSE


TWO of the most common which come to the mind are bologna and frankfurter. These
Favorite of the picnic and football crowd are applications of the principles of forcemeat
and mousse preparation.
FORCEMEAT

Forcemeat is ground or pureed flesh (meat, poultry or fish) which is combined with fat
and seasonings and then bound by the process of emulsification or addition of other
binders. The French term for forcemeat FARCE indicates a stuffing of meat or nonmeat types. A farce may be made of vegetables and bread too.
Most forcemeats are raw when being shaped, piped or formed.
Some are fully cooked and then pureed prior to being used.
Forcemeats can be either fresh or cured. Fresh forcemeats mean that no nitrates
are added. Cured indicates that the curing salts rich in nitrates have been added.
Forcemeats of all types are used in the hot and the cold kitchens.

USES INCLUDE
1. Stuffing of various food such as paupiettes of sole
2. Preparation of terrines
3. Seemingly endless variety of sausages.
COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

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TYPES OF FORCEMEAT
There are five primary types of forcemeat each having distinctive ingredients and
preparations.
CAMPAGNE- COUNTRY STYLE FORCEMEAT

It is the earliest type and is traditionally made of pork


The fat used is pork fatback or jowl fat
The forcemeat has a dense, coarse ground texture. The earliest forcemeat were chopped
with two knives because of the lack of grinding equipment.
It is highly seasoned as there were no refrigeration or preserving techniques. The
seasoning included onion, garlic, black pepper corns, juniper berries bay leaf and
nutmeg.
It uses extra binding agents in the form of extra eggs or panada (paste prepared from
starch product)
STRAIGHT METHOD

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This forcemeat is more refined, having less dense texture.
This came in with the improvement in the equipment wherein a more refined style of
forcemeat was possible.
Any type of meat can be used as a dominant meat, in combination with pork.
White poultry or fish is rarely used.
Pork fatback or jowl fat is used.
More delicate seasonings were incorporated as shallots, wine, brandy, allspice and
ground white pepper.
It does not use extra binding agents such as panada.

GRATIN - STYLE

The name of this forcemeat is derived from the pre-cooking some of the major
components, such as meat and fat prior to the grinding or the pureeing process.
This may entail only lightly browning the dominant meat or pork hence the use of the
word gratin.
Most types of meats (with the exception of poultry and fish) are used in the preparation of
gratin style.
Often liver of pork, veal or other meats are used.
Pork fatback or jowl fat is used.
Fat from the dominant meat can be substituted.
The texture of this meat should be very fine and ground till smooth.
The density of the meat is also lighter.
COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

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Panada is not used as the binding agent.
Seasonings are the same as above except that it has a nutty flavor because of the
browning of the meats.
MOUSSELINE-STYLE

The most distinctive feature of this forcemeat is the type of fat used in its preparation.
The use of cream as the source of fat allows the production of extremely light and smooth
product.
It is made using lean white or light meats and fish such as chicken, veal, rabbit sole,
shrimps, and well trimmed lean pork.
Panada may be added for a smoother texture.
The seasoning is very delicate such as shallots, white pepper and wine.
NOTE: Mousseline forcemeat should not be confused with a mousse.
A mousse is a mixture of fully cooked and pureed basic ingredients bound with gelatin or
fat and lightened with an aerator.
5/4/3 EMULSION FORCEMEAT
This type of forcemeat is used extensively in sausage making- bologna, frankfurters ,
knockwurst .

COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

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Its name is derived from the ratio of the components of the forcemeat.
The normal ratio is 5 parts meat, 4 parts fat and 3 parts ice.
5/4/3 emulsion forcemeat is made from any meat except fish
The mixture should be a perfect smooth paste.
By processing the components of forcemeat with ice, results in a very strong emulsion of
meat and fat when it is cooked.
A variety of binders are used for binding and water retention such as non-fat dry milk,
sodium caseinate and phosphates.
VAROIUS COMPONENTS OF FORCEMEAT
1. MEAT
The character of the forcemeat will largely depend on the type of meat chosen.
PORK Is often combined with a dominant meat in the forcemeat. It has a
neutral flavor and combines very well with other meats.
Has a high capacity for water retention which aids in the production of moist
forcemeat.
It has a traditional lower cost as compared to the other meats.
LAMB- it has a strong distinct flavor.
The high cost of the lamb is a deterrent to its usage in the forcemeat.
BEEF- is considered to be moderately expensive. The meat of the bull is
preferred. It is deep red in color and good binding ability. It is economical
also.
VEAL- is both very delicate in flavor and very expensive. It is used in the
production of extremely delicate forcemeats.

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POULTRY Is relatively inexpensive and mildly flavored. It has a softer,
lighter texture.
GAME- Wild gamey gives strong gamey flavor and farm raised will have
milder flavor. Both are expensive meats. They are more often used to make
sausages or occasionally a pate.
FISH- has a wide range of flavors and is compared expensive as compared to
the other meats.
The functions of the meat as the major component in the forcemeat are important to the
production as it gives the main body to the forcemeat as well as the texture and the flavor.
2. FAT
Fat contributes flavor, binding power and texture to the forcemeat.
PORK FAT is considered the best as it has an ideal melting point, melts in the
mouth resulting in the good mouth feel. Yet it is hard enough to stand up the
cooking temperatures.
LAMB FAT is used those forcemeat which contains lamb. The strong flavor
and hardness of this fat makes it less desirable in forcemeats.
BEEF FAT- is very hard, having a high melting point which results in a coating
affect in the mouth in the cold forcemeats.
POULTRY FAT is very soft and has a strong flavor. The low melting
temperature of the fat makes it very difficult to emulsify.
3. PANADA
It is the paste prepared from flour, bread, rice or other starch product
It aids in binding the fat. It also lightens the density of the product.
It contributes to the seasoning of the product.
Bread panada
Flour panada
Frangipane panada
Rice panada
Potato panada
They should not comprise more than 20 % of the total weight of the forcemeat.
COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

4. EGGSThe major contribution is the binding power and a firmer texture.


Eggs are not in used in the sausage making.
5. SEASONINGSSeasonings serve a far greater function than simply addition and enhancement of flavor.
SALT is the primary ingredient which facilitates the exposure of myosin, the protein
responsible for binding forcemeat. It also enhances water retention and adds to and
enhances flavor.
CURING SALT (also called TMT- tinted cure mix). It is composed of 94% salt and 6%
sodium nitrate. Curing salt is tinted pink to distinguish it from common salt.
It is used to fix the colors in the processed meats and to inhibit the growth of clostridium
botulinum.
SPICES are responsible for the distinctive flavor of the various forcemeats. The classical
pate spice is composed of white pepper, black pepper, bay leaves, paprika, marjoram,
thyme, basil, nutmeg, mace and ginger.
A few other flavorings used are wines, brandy, garlic, onions and shallots.
6. GARNISHESGarnishes may be added to the forcemeats after it is completed. There is a wide range of
possibility for this purpose including mushrooms, dried currants, nutmeats and the
traditional garnishes for classical pate of pistachios, smoked tongue and truffles. The
garnishes are best partially cooked and cooled before being added to the forcemeats.
METHODS OF PREPARATION

Carefully select the ingredients which are to be used and assemble them before
beginning.

It is important to choose the right type of equipment. The most important are the
grinder and the food processor.

COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

The preparation of the forcemeat can be broken down in the three main steps1. FABRICATION AND GRINDINGFabrication will include The meats should be trimmed off fat gristle and silver skin. The rind
should be removed.
The meats should be cut into cubes or strips
The cubed meats and the fats should be well chilled. Do not freeze.
Salt, curing salt (if being used) and any other seasonings are distributed
evenly over the meat and the fat mixture.
The mix is then allowed to marinate overnight.
Grinding procedure will vary with the size of the batch

A small batch up to 15 pounds will depend greatly upon the meat


protein being kept intact until the cooking stage for the success of the
emulsion.
Maintaining the temperature of the meats between 35-50 degrees F
during the grinding process prevents the denaturing of the proteins.
The marinated meat and the fat mixture is ground through a large
inch die on medium speed.
If finer textured forcemeat is required, the mixture is ground a second
time through a smaller die. This is called progressive grinding.
In a large scale emulsion production such as commercial sausage
making, the marinated mixture is combined in a large vertical chopper.
Ice or ice water is added to maintain the temperature during the
processing.

2. MOLDING, FORMING AND STUFFING

The forcemeat mixture should be tested by poaching a small


quenelle in lightly salted water to ascertain the correctness of the
flavors, seasoning and binding.
Forcemeats should be packed in terrine and pate molds in several
layers to minimize the possibilities of air pockets in the finished
products.
When layering, garnishes may be added, distributing them evenly.

COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

3. COOKING

Forcemeats are cooked at low temperatures, 150 to180 degrees F to


internal temperature of 140-170 degrees F
The high temperatures will denature the proteins and excessive
coagulation, forcing out the fat and producing dry crumbly
forcemeat, which is difficult to slice.
A forcemeat which is undercooked will be mushy and unstructured
when sliced

HANDLING AND STORAGE

The preparation of the wholesome product calls for strict sanitary practices.

There is a constant danger of cross contamination of the various components of


the forcemeats.

The meats should not be exposed the danger zone temperatures ( 45 -140
degrees F )

Once processed they should be quick cooled and held at safe temperatures.

Traces of forcemeats are easily overlooked in the cleaning of the processing


equipment.

Always fully dismantle the processing equipment and clean to remove all traces
of meats

Chill everything involved in the processing.

Once production is complete, store forcemeats covered and under refrigeration.

COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA

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MOUSSE

SMOKED SALMON MOUSSE


Mousse is a fully cooked basic ingredient which is pureed, bound with a form of gelatin
or fat and lightened with an aerator such as whipped cream or egg whites.
The preparations can be hot or cold.
The term is also used to describe dessert preparations which are of the same basic
structure as the cold mousse.
Mousses have 3 basic components
1. BASE can be a meat, fish, cheese or vegetables. The base provide flavor, color,
body and character to the product.
2. BINDER provides structure to the finished product. This can be done by the
inclusion of gelatin or aspic jelly which will set as the mousse is chilled. A flavorful
fat will also contribute to the structure of the cold mousse.
3. AERATION the lightening of the mousse by adding a component which
introduces air into the mixture. Whipped cream works well giving it a richer
texture. Whipped egg whites add lightness without adding extra fat to the mousse.
This results in a leaner mousse.

METHODS OF PREPARATION
1. MOLDS- molds should be prepared first to ensure that the mold can molded
before it sets. Individual molds such as ramekins or small timbales should be lined
either with aspic jelly. Decorations may be inlaid. When the mold is unmolded it
is the finished product both coated and decorated. The contemporary method calls

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for molds to be oiled. When the mousse is set it is then turned out and can be
decorated or coated individually.
2. BASE- base preparation is the next step. Fully cook the base product. Do not
overcook it will result in a dry product. The base product should be pureed. The
consistency can be corrected by veloute, mayonnaise, bchamel, sour cream or
cream. The resulting puree should have a smooth velvety texture. The pureed
mixture should be put through a fine sieve to make it refined.
3. BINDER the gelatin has to be weighed according to the proportion
4. AERATION will require the whipping of either cream or egg whites to a soft
peak.
5. WHISKING- whisk the binder into the base and the binder should be at room
temperature for this step.
6. FOLD- fold the aeration agent into the binder mixture. If the base is too thick or
cold, the aeration will be deflated before it is worked into the mousse.
Mold the mousse before it starts to set. The molded mousse should be allowed to chill
overnight.
The characteristics of a well made mousse are

Velvety smooth texture


Light and airy with no air pockets
A delicate but distinctive flavor

COMPILED BY: PROF. ANEETA MYINT, IHM PUSA