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just go ahead and say what you wish, you will know if you are wrong because you will be ruled out of
1. *To simplify and systematize the conduct of business to enable the assembly to make fast and
legally valid decisions.
2. Parliamentary procedure is not ritualistic, as some are inclined to believe.
3. Its purpose is not to complicate the proceedings, much less to confuse the uninitiated or deceive
the unwary
4. *Its aim is to facilitate the work of any deliberative body and to help it carry out its objectives
effectively and well.
5. *Parliamentary law is designed for all people to help them in reconciling their views and in
arriving at clear solutions to the many complex problems that arise in their social life.

refers to that body of generally accepted rules, precedents, and practices commonly employed to
regulate the proceedings of deliberative assemblies, hence, the term parliamentary procedure.

Principal aim and function of parliamentary procedure is:


to maintain decorum
ascertain the will of the majority
facilitate the orderly and harmonious transaction of business of the assembly.
Fundamental Principles of Parliamentary Procedure:

1. Members have equal rights and obligations.

2. Majority Rules
Majority ordinarily means a total of at least one-half plus one of a certain number
3. Minority must be protected
Minority meant either the aggregate of members who are regularly organized to fiscalize the
actions of the majority.
4. Singularity of Subject
- Only one subject must be brought before the assembly at a time
5. Full and Free debate must be allowed
6. Every motion must be voted upon
7. Group interest must prevail
8. The presiding officer must be impartial
9. Personal remarks in debate are always out of order
10. Once a question is decided, it is not in order to bring up the same motion or one essentially like it
at the same meeting
11. A quorum must be present to do business
Quorum- is the number of members who must be present to legally transact business

Denotes a gathering or assembly of the members of an organization for any length of time during
which there is unbroken deliberation except, perhaps, for occasional and brief periods of recess.
An assemblage of the members of an organization for any length of time during which there is no
separation of the members except for brief period of recess.
Denotes either a single meeting or a series of meetings which may last from, and to, any length of
A series of meetings, held in close succession and for any length of time, such as the session of a
convention or of the Congress.
1. Regular Meeting
Held at the time provided for in the constitution or by-laws of the organization.
2. Special Meeting
May be called from time to time either by the head of the organization, its governing board, or a
certain number of the members, depending upon the rules of the organization.
3. Adjourned Meeting
Is merely a continuation of an original meeting (whether regular or special) in which any business
left pending when the original meeting was adjourned may be taken up.

Number or proportion of the members of an organization which must be present at a particular

meeting for the organization to legally transact business.
In the absence of a quorum, no business can be transacted.

What constitute a quorum?

The number or proportion of members necessary to form a quorum is purely discretionary on the
part of the organization as it may provide in its constitution or by-laws.

-is a program or outline of the things to be done during a meeting. It serves as a guide of the
proceedings to insure the orderly and efficient transaction of business.

1. Call to order
2. Invocation (optional)
3. Roll Call (optional)
4. Reading and consideration of the minutes of the previous meeting
5. Reports of standing committees
6. Reports of special committees
7. Unfinished business
8. New business
9. Announcements (optional)
10. Adjournment

Discussion on any subject for the purpose of elucidating the truth or influencing action. Inquiries
and suggestions are not debates.
Two important requirements of debate:
1. Relevancy means that all discussions must be related to the question at issue
2. Decorum courtesy in speech and propriety of action


Importance, all matters brought before the assembly can be properly disposed of only by the
vote of the members.
Five (5) kinds of votes:

1. Majority vote
is variable and may mean any of the following, depending upon the rules of the organization or
the will of the assembly:
1. Majority of the legal votes
one-half plus one of the legal votes cast , sometimes known as
simple or bare majority
2. Majority of the total votes cast
- based on the total votes cast regardless of their invalidity or
3. Majority of the members present
- computed on the basis of the number of members actually present
in a meeting regardless of the abstention of some members or their
failure to vote.
4. Majority of all the members
- majority of the entire membership is computed on the basis of the
number of members, both present and absent.

2. Percentage Vote
- means the proportion of a certain whole, for example, two-thirds of the legal votes cast or threefourths of the members present.

3. Plurality Vote
-means a vote larger by at least one over the total vote of any other candidate or proposition.
4. Tie vote
-occurs when two or more candidates or propositions each receive the same number of the highest
vote thus creating a deadlock.
5. Unanimous Vote
-results when a candidate or a proposition obtains the total number of the legal or valid vote cast.

1. By voice - the most expeditious method of voting and is generally used except where a more
accurate count of the
2. By show of hands raising the right hand
3. By rising
4. By roll call
5. By general consent connotes unanimity of opinion, through this method questions are
decided without the formality of actually taking the vote.
6. By ballot principal purpose of this method of voting is secrecy
Absentee Voting unless the by-laws or standing rules of the organization provide
otherwise, no member may vote if he is absent when a question is put.
Cumulative voting this system of voting is principally designed to protect the interest of
minority groups. It is usually adopted in the election of officers but only when allowed by the
rules of the organization.
(others, see handouts)


Nomination is the formal act of proposing to the assembly the name of a candidate for an office to be
filled. It is normally a condition precedent to the election of a person to office or the selection of a
member for some other purpose, like serving on a committee.
Importance of nomination:
1. It enables to indicate ones willingness to accept the office, if elected, or to decline

2. It enables the candidates to acquaint the voters with their respective platforms and individual
qualifications for the office
3. It insures orderliness in the elections
Methods of Nomination
The manner of making nominations is usually provided for in the constitution or by-laws of the
organization. If no provision is made to that effect, any member may vote to propose any of the methods
prescribed by parliamentary law, namely:
1. Nomination from the floor
2. By a nominating committee
3. By ballot
1. Nomination from the floor
- any member may propose the name of a candidate for an office as soon as the chair declares it in order,
as when the presiding officer says, nomination for the office of president is now in order.
A nomination need not to be seconded although a second is permissible if a member wishes to express his
approval of a candidate or nominee.
Every member is free to nominate any of his colleagues for any position in the organization, but cannot
propose more than one name for the same office unless it calls for the election of more than one
2. Nomination by a nominating committee
- This method is resorted to not only to save time but, more important, to insure the nomination of those
who are believed best fit for the different offices.
The nominating committee may be appointed by the Chair or elected by the assembly unless the by-laws
provide a specific method of appointment. The duty of the committee is to choose and present the names
of the nominees to the assembly ; it may choose one or more names for each of the elective offices.
3. Nomination by ballot
- This type of nomination allows every member to nominate any eligible person without the formality of
submitting the candidates name to the assembly.