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Energetic Problems in Aerospace Propulsion

Notes for Students

Chapter 11 - Appendices and Exercises


Solid Rocket Motors
Adriano Annovazzi
Avio - Space Propulsion
22 Corso Garibaldi, I-00034 Colleferro, Rome, Rm, Italy
and
Luigi T. DeLuca
SPLab, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Milano
Campus Bovisa, I-20156, Milan, Mi, Italy
Preliminary International Edition

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

Contents
1 EXERCISE No. 1: BOOST - SUSTAINER MISSION
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

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2 EXERCISE No. 2: SUSTAINER - BOOST MISSION


2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17
18

1.8

2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7

2.8

Properties of Combustion Chamber


Optimum Expansion . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluating Ballistic Data . . . . . . .
Boost or Acceleration Phase . . . . .
Sustainer or Regime Phase . . . . . .
Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.1 Thrust Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.2 Propellant Grain . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.3 Total Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eects of Initial Temperature . . . .
1.8.1 Boost or Acceleration Phase . . . .
1.8.2 Sustainer or Regime Phase . . .

Properties of Combustion Chamber


Optimum Expansion . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluating Ballistic Data . . . . . . .
Sustainer Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boost or Acceleration Phase . . . . .
Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 Thrust Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Propellant Grain . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.3 Total Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eects of Initial Temperature . . . .
2.8.1 Sustainer or Regime Phase . . . .
2.8.2 Boost or Acceleration Phase . . . .

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3 EXERCISE No. 3: PERFORATED GRAIN SIZING


3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Ugello Adattato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Soluzione Grafica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Soluzione Analitica (verifica) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Grano Propellente Solido . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Grano a Combustione Frontale . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Grano a Combustione Radiale Progressivo . . . .
3.3.3 Grano a Combustione Radiale Neutro . . . . . .
3.4 Lunghezza Totale Motore (per dmax = 60 cm) . . . . . .
3.5 Impulso Totale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Accensione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Erosione (da migliorare) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Velocit di Eusso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 Espansione Isentropica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4
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45

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

4 CONCLUSIONI

46

5 BIBLIOGRAPHY

47

List of Figures
List of Tables

Chapter 11 - Exercises

SOLID ROCKET MOTORS

This appendix to Chap.11 deals with a variety of specific matters regarding performance
and design of SRMs; matters of general interest regarding thermochemical rockets in general
are discussed in Chap. 09. Principal features of SRMs, with respect to the important class
of LREs, concern simplicity and promptness of use as well as economy of realization but
to the detriment of modest level and control of performance. Therefore, solid rocket motors
are favorite for all situations where promptness is a premium (e.g., emergency maneuvers),
military applications, and in general for civil tasks where maximum performance is not a
mandatory constraint.
Solid rocket motors are typically distinguished in three main categories: space (for space
access or navigation), ballistic, and tactical motors. This classification reflects sensible dierences in terms of size, operating ambient, and design.

EXERCISES
EXERCISE No. 1: BOOST - SUSTAINER MISSION
EXERCISE No. 2: SUSTAINER - BOOST MISSION
EXERCISE No. 3: PERFORATED GRAIN SIZING

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

EXERCISE No. 1: BOOST - SUSTAINER MISSION


Preliminary sizing of solid rocket motor of boost - sustainer type

We wish to get the preliminary sizing of a SRM capable to carry out the two-step propulsive mission sketched in the following figure:
boost 5 s
_____
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
sustainer 25 s
|
b_________________________
b ______________________________e________ time, s
The assigned input data are:
burning times for each flight segment, tb1 = 5 s and tb2 = 25 s;
thrust under optimum expansion, T1 (z0 = 2.5 104 m) = 104 + 100 C kg;
combustion chamber pressure, pc1 = 60 + N atm;
For sake of simplicity, consider a unique "cigarette" cylindrical grain consisting of
two dierent unmetallized composite propellants featuring, under the reference conditions
of Tref = 300 K and pref = 68 atm, the following steady-state ballistic properties:
PROPELLANT 1
density p1 = 1.70 g/cm3
thermal sensitivity p1 = 0.002 1/ C
p, atm
1
10
100
rb (p), cm/s 0.768 2.165 6.102
Tf (p), K
2562 2777 3010

PROPELLANT 2
density p2 = 1.60 g/cm3
thermal sensitivity p2 = 0.005 1/ C
p, atm
5
50
68
rb (p), cm/s 0.972 2.030 2.240
Tf (p), K
2499 2623 2640

1. Please perform a preliminary sizing of the whole motor (nozzle, combustion chamber,
and propellant grain) at the optimum expansion altitude of z0 . In particular, please
deduce the diameter of the "cigarette" cylindrical grain required to achieve the wanted
propulsive mission. Please evaluate how the main ballistic parameters change during
the two flight segments.
2. How would the whole propulsive mission be aected by a decrease of the initial temperature from T0 = Tref to T0 = 275 K ?
3. Draw and discuss the steady temperature profile in the solid propellant grain.
Consider a monophase gaseous mixture expanding under chemically frozen conditions.
When necessary, with due justifications assume typical values for missing properties and
make reasonable assumptions for undefined processes. Assigned data depend on the digits
C and N , that identify the alphabet position of the first letter of respectively the candidate
family name and first name.

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

1.1

Introduction

Let us assume as typical values


=

M = 25 g/gmole or kg/kmole;
k = 1.25;
g0 = 9.807 m/s2 ;
J
< = 8314.3
kmole K
<
8314.3 J/(kmole K)
J
= =
= 332.57
25
kg/kmole
kg K
M

From standard air tables, let us read [see Sutton VI [1] p. 56 or Sutton VII [2] p.730]
z = 0 m pa = 1 atm = 0.101325 MPa or MN/m2 [see Sutton VI [1] p. 50];
z = z0 = 25.000 m pa = 0.02516 atm = 0.1013 0.02516 = 2.549 103 MPa.

1.2

Properties of Combustion Chamber

At the nominal combustion chamber pressure of pc1 = 60 atm, we can evaluate at once:
Tc1 = Tf 1 (pc1 = 60) = 2970 (60/68)0.035 = 2957.0 K;
rb1 (pc1 = 60 atm) = 0.7682 600.45 = 4.8489 cm/s
1
or rb1 (pc1 = 60 101325 Pa) = 0.7682
(60 101325)0.45 = 4.848 9 cm/s;
0.45
(101325)
s
r
<
8314.3
2957 = 1108.7 (instead of 1109.1) m/s;
ac1 (pc1 = 60) = k = Tc = 1.25
25
M
c1 (pc1 = 60) =
0.006182 g/cm3 .

pc
60 0.101325 106
= 6.182 (instead of 6.1778) kg/m3 =
=
8314.3
<
2957
= Tc
25
M

We can also evaluate c , useful/needed later for a number of considerations, as


c
=

q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c
= . =
=
=
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
v
q
u
8314.34
=
u
2957
u
(</M)Tc
25
r
=u
1.25+1 = 1507.0 m/s

u
k+1
2 k1
1.251
t
2
)
k(
1.25
k+1
1.25 + 1

where
(k)

k+1
2 k1
)
k(
=
k+1

1.25

2
1.25 + 1

1.25+1

1.251

= 0.658

is known as the Vandenkerckhove function (see Cornelisse et al. [3] p. 94 and Barrre et al.
[4] p. 60).
As a quick check, Sutton VI [1] Table 6-5 p. 195 reports c = 1209 m/s for AN-based
composite propellants and, say c = 1580 m/s for several AP-based aluminized composite
propellants.

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

1.3

Optimum Expansion

z = z0 = 25,000 m At this point of the exercise we can only evaluate the nozzle transversal
shape !
For pc /pa = pc /pe = 60/0.02516 = 2384.7, we can determine for chemically frozen expansion the ideal values of both cF
s
r
k1
k+1
2 k1
k2
pe k
(
)
(cF )ideal =
2
1
(1)
k1 k+1
pc
v
v
u
u
1.25 + 1 u
1.25 1

u
u
2
t 1.25
0.02516
2
t
1.25
(
) 1.25 1 1
(2)
2
=
1.25 1 1.25 + 1
60
= 1.8483

and

(3)

= Ae /At , being

1/

1 1

k + 1 k 1 pe k
= At /Ae =
2
pc

u
u
k 1
uk + 1
pe
k
u

1
t
k1
pc

1
1.25 + 1 1.25 1 0.02516 1.25
2
60

= 3.1817 103 7.1 = 8.4779 103

u
u

1.25 1
u 1.25 + 1
0.02516
1.25
u

t 1.25 1 1
60

and thus
= Ae /At = 1/(8.4779 103 ) = 117.95
As a check, plots of optimum expansion - see Fig. 3.7 Sutton VI [1] p. 60 or Fig. 3.6 Sutton
VII [2] p.65 - read by interpolation for k = 1.25:
very good check;
- (cF )ideal = 1.85
good check.
- Ae /At = 120
For sake of simplicity, let us neglect nozzle losses (for example, a total loss of 2%) and
let us accept as eective values cF = 1.85 and = Ae /At = 118. We can now evaluate the
gravimetric specific impulse as
c cF
1507 1.85
= 284.28 s
=
g0
9.807
c cF
1507 1.85
= 284.28 s
=
computed Is (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =
g0
9.807
graphical Is (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

(4)

(a rare agreement, due to the fact that (cF )ideal is identical !) and the throat area. based on
the design thrust value, as
cF

At =

T (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m)
pc At
T (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m)
10000 9.807
= 87.196 cm2
=
pc cF
60 101325 1.85

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx


Immediately, the nozzle exit area is
Ae = (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) At = 118 90.09 = 10631 cm2
while the corresponding diameters are
r
r
4 At
87.196
= 4
= 10.54 cm
dt =

r
r
4 Ae
10631
de =
= 4
= 116.34 cm

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

1.4

Evaluating Ballistic Data

Recall that the Vieille ballistic law can equivalently be written as


rb (p, Tref ) = a(Tref ) pn

(5)
n

rb (p, Tref ) = rb (pref , Tref ) (p/pref )

(6)

while the first version is that more commonly used, the second version resorts to the nondimensional pressure p/pref instead of the dimensional value p. Likewise, it may be convenient
to write for the flame temperature as well
Tf (p, Tref ) = b(Tref ) pnT f

(7)
nT f

Tf (p, Tref ) = Tf (pref , Tref ) (p/pref )

(8)

Let us observe that the two constants or multiplicative factors in Eq. 5 and 7 represent the
values of respectively steady burning rate and steady flame temperature at the unit pressure
(p = 1 atm or 1 bar or 1 MPa...). In general, the two constants can de evaluated at any
selected pressure p of convenience as
a(Tref ) =
b(Tref ) =

rb (p, Tref )
(p)n
Tf (p, Tref )
(p)nT f

As a further alternative, comparing the two laws of Eq. 5 and 6 for burning rate or the two
laws of Eq. 7 and 8 for flame temperature, the two constants can also be evaluated at the
precise reference pressure pref as
a(Tref ) =
b(Tref ) =

rb (p, Tref )
(pref )n
Tf (p, Tref )
(pref )nT f

- Thus, the steady burning rate of propellant 1 is:


notice that a1 = 0.768 is already assigned
ln 6.102 ln 2.1652
= 0.45
evaluate
n1 =
ln 100 ln 10
0.45
evaluate
rb,1 (pref , Tref ) = 0.768 (68)
= 5.129 cm/s
0.45
= 0.768 2 (cm/s)/(atmn ) assigned
verify
a1 = 6.102/(100)
verify also
a1 = rb,ref /(pref )n1 = 5.129/(68)0.45 = 0.768 (cm/s)/(atmn ) assigned
in this instance let us use the form
rb (p, Tref ) = a(Tref ) pn = rb,ref (p/68)n rb,1 (p, Tref ) = 0.7682 p0.45
- Thus, the steady flame temperature of propellant 1 is:
notice that b1 = 2562 K is already assigned
ln 3010 ln 2777
= 0.035
evaluate
nT f,1 =
ln 100 ln 10
evaluate
Tf,1 (pref , Tref ) = 2562 (68)0.035 = 2970 K
verify
b1 = 3010/(100)0.035 = 2562 assigned
verify also
b1 = Tf,ref /(pref )nT f ,1 = 2970/(68)0.035 = 2562.2 assigned
in this instance let us use the form

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

Tf (p, Tref ) = b(Tref ) pnT f = Tf,ref (p/68)nT f Tf,1 (p, Tref ) = 2970 (p/68)0.035
- Thus, the steady burning rate of propellant 2 is:
notice that rb,2 (pref , Tref ) is already assigned
ln 2.240 ln 0.97166
evaluate
n2 =
= 0.32
ln 68 ln 5
evaluate
0.972 = a2 (p = 5 atm)0.32 a2 = 0.972/(50.32 ) = 0.581 (cm/s)/(atmn )
verify
a2 = rb,ref /(pref )n2 = 2.240/(68)0.32 = 0.580 6 (cm/s)/(atmn ) assigned
in this instance let us use the form
rb (p, T ref ) = a(T ref ) pn = rb,ref (p/68)n rb,2 (p, T ref ) = 0.581 p0.32
- Thus, the steady flame temperature of propellant 2 is:
notice that Tf,2 (pref , Tref ) = 2640 K is already assigned
ln 2640 ln 2499
evaluate
nT f,2 =
= 0.021
ln 68 ln 5
evaluate
b2 = 2499/(5)0.021 = 2416 K/(atmn ) assigned
verify
b2 = Tf,ref /(pref )nT f ,2 = 2640/(68)0.021 = 2416.1 K/(atmn ) assigned
in this instance let us use the form
Tf (p, T ref ) = b(T ref ) pnT f = Tf,ref (p/68)0.035 Tf,2 (p, T ref ) = 2640 (p/68)0.021

1.5

Boost or Acceleration Phase

For the assigned boost duration tb1 = 5 s, the cigarette cylindrical grain of propellant can be
designed as follows.
The propellant flow rate (weight in kgf or mass in kgm ) is
Is (z

T (z = z0 )
.
w
T
10000
.
= 35.177 kg/s
w=
=
Is
284.28
T
10000
.
= 35.177 kg/s
w=
=
Is
284.28

z0 ) =

graphical
computed

(9)

while the ideal total propellant amount (weight or mass) neglecting unburnt residuals, transients, and various ineciencies
.

(wp )ideal,1 = w tb,1 = 35.177 5 = 175.89 kg

(10)

For sake of simplicity, let us neglect an excess of, say 4% and thus keep for the amount (weight
or mass) of propellant required by the boost phase
wp,1 = (wp )ideal,1 = 175.89 kg

(11)

wherefrom the volume of the boost propellant grain (wp is the weight in kgf or mass in kgm
of propellant)
Vp,1 = wp,1 /p = 175.89/1.70 = 103.46 dm3 = 103460 cm3

10

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

Mass conservation, between the combustion surface Ab (produced mass) and nozzle throat
At (discharged mass), requires for the motor operation a combustion surface of
At pc
.
= w
c
1 At pc
87.196 104 (60 101325)
=
= 0.42673 m2 = 4267.3 cm2
c p rb
1507.0 1.70 10+3 4.849 102

Ab p rb = CD At pc =
Ab =

Just as a check, let us verify the produced flow rate


.

w = p rb Ab = 1.70 10+3 4.849 102 0.42673 = 35.177 kg/s


or, as another check, let us verify the combustion surface from the produced flow rate
.

p rb Ab

(12)
.

graphical Ab =

10+3

(13)

w
35.177 10+3
= 4267.3 cm2
=
p rb
1.70 4.849

(14)

w
35.177
= 4267.3 cm2
=
p rb
1.70 4.849
.

computed Ab =

The most important check regards the combustion pressure in the boost phase
pc =

1
1

10.45
Ab
4267.3
102
1 n1
+3
1.70 10 0.7682
a1 c
=
1507.0
=
At p
87.196
(101325)0.45

= 6.0793 106 Pa = 6.0793 MPa = 6.0793/0.101325 atm = 59.998 atm OK

wherefrom the characteristic velocity c can be verified as

At pc
c
4
87.196 10 60 101325
At pc
=
= 1507.0 m/s
c =
.
35.177
w
Since a cigarette grain is required, the requested boost surface combustion is easily provided by an ideally neutral cylindrical grain having diameter
r
r
Ab
4267.3
= 4
= 73.712 cm
db = 4

3.1415
while the klemmung ratio Kbt is
.

w = p rb Ab = CD At pc =

Kbt =

Ab
4267.3
= 48.939
=
At
87.196

(15)

For the boost phase the length or web thickness of the (ideally) neutral grain is
b1 = rb1 tb1 = 4.849 5 = 24.245 cm

(16)

wherefrom the boost grain volume can be verified as


Vp = Ab b = 4267.3 24.245 = 103.46 dm3 = 103.46 103 cm3

(17)

Assuming a total thickness of 1.144 cm for the liner (between propellant grain and combustion chamber case) + possible ablative protection + case wall, the external diameter dc
of the combustion chamber (max cross-section clutter) is
dmax = dc = db + 2tliner = 73.712 + 2 1.144 = 76.0 cm

(18)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

1.6

11

Sustainer or Regime Phase

Sizing the sustainer propellant grain requires first determining the new operating conditions
(sustainer phase or phase 2) in the combustion chamber, including the new pc ! If we neglect
=

the (minor) eect of pc on the ratio (Tc /M), we find again


q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c

c
= . =
=
=
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
v
q
u
8314.3
=
u
2957
u
(</M)Tc
25
=u
= r
1.25+1 = 1507.0 m/s

u
k+1
2 k1
1.251
t
2
)
k(
1.25
k+1
1.25 + 1

and thus for the new combustion pressure

At pc
in the sustainer phase (burning conditions 2)
c
1

10.32
1
Ab
4267.3
102
1 n2
+3
1.60 10 0.581
=
a2 c
=
1507.0
=
At p2
87.196
(101325)0.32

Ab p rb = CD At pc =
pc2

= 1.6858 106 Pa = 1.6858 MPa = 1.6858/0.101325 atm = 16.638 atm

The cigarette cylindrical grain of propellant, again assumed neutral, in the sustainer phase
changes as follows. For the assigned sustainer duration tb2 = 25 s, we determine
- steady burning rate
rb2 (pc2 = 16.638 atm) = 0.581 p0.32 = 0.581 16.6380.32 = 1.428 cm/s
- grain length or web thickness
b2 = rb2 tb2 = 1.428 25 = 35.70 cm

(19)

Vp2 = Ab b2 = 4267.3 35.70 = 157.34 dm3 = 152.34 103 cm3

(20)

- sustainer grain volume

- produced flow rate


.

w2 = p2 rb2 Ab = 1.60 10+3 1.428 102 0.42673 = 9.75 kg/s


- while the ideal total propellant amount (weight or mass) for the sustainer phase neglecting unburnt residuals, transients, and various ineciencies - is
.

(wp )ideal,2 = w2 tb,2 = 9.75 25 = 243.75 kg

(21)

Therefore, the expansion pressure ratio decreased from a value in the boost phase of
pc /pe = 60/0.02516 = 2384.7 to a value in the sustainer phase of pc /pe = 16.638/0.02516 =
661.29. Since the nozzle is no longer operating under optimum expansion, we can either

12

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

calculate the new non optimum gasdynamic expansion or force again optimum expansion by
a variable geometry limited to the nozzle exit area Ae . Let us take this second approach,
leading to higher performance. We need to calculate the new values of both (cF )ideal
s
r
k1
k+1
pe k
2 k1
k2
(
)
(cF )ideal =
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
s
r
1.251

1.25
1.25+1
2
1.252
0.02516
(
) 1.251 1
=
2
1.25 1 1.25 + 1
16.638
= 1.775
and

= Ae /At

1/

1 1

k + 1 k 1 pe k
= At /Ae =
2
pc
=

1.25 + 1
2

1
1.251

0.02516
16.638

1
1.25

u
u
k 1
uk + 1
pe
k
u

1
t
k1
pc

v
"
u

1.251 #
u 1.25 + 1
0.02516 1.25
t
1
1.25 1
16.638

= 8.877 6 103 6.544 = 2.271 102


and thus

= Ae /At = 1/(2.271 102 ) = 44.033


To be consistent and for sake of simplicity, let us again neglect nozzle losses (for example,
a total ineciency of 2%) and let us accept as eective values for the thrust coecient
cF = 1.775 and for the expansion geometric ratio = Ae /At = 44.0. We can now evaluate
during the sustainer phase the new (ideal) values of:
- thrust
T2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) = cF pc At

= 1.775 16.638 1.01325 105 87.196 104 = 26092.0 N = 26092.0/9.807 = 2660.5 kg

- nozzle exit area


Ae = (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) At = 44.033 87.196 = 3839.5 cm2

(22)

- gravimetric specific impulse (for c assumed invariant)


Is (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1507.0 1.775
= 272.76 s
=
g0
9.807

(23)

- and relevant diameters (for the taken approach, only the exit divergent is aected)
db = dmax = db + 2tliner = 76.0 cm
r
r
4 At
87.196
= 4
= 10.537 cm
dt =

r
r
4 Ae
3839.5
de =
= 4
= 69.92 cm

(24)
(25)
(26)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

1.7
1.7.1

13

Motor
Thrust Nozzle

For the taken approach, the total nozzle length (convergent + divergent) changes depending
on the flight segment. In the boost phase, assuming for the combustion chamber dc = dmax
and for the gasdynamic thrust nozzle a 45 convergent and a 15 divergent, we find
(dc dt )/2
(76 10.54)/2
=
= 32.73 cm
tan 45
tan 45
(de dt )/2
(116.34 10.54)/2
=
=
= 197.43 cm

tan 15
tan 15
= Lconv + Ldiv = 32.73 + 197.43 = 230.16 cm

Lconv =
Ldiv
Ltot

(27)
(28)
(29)

In the sustainer phase, under identical assumptions for the relevant geometrical parameters,
we find
(dc dt )/2
(76 10.54)/2
=
= 32.73 cm
tan 45
tan 45
(de dt )/2
(69.92 10.54)/2
=
=
= 110.80 cm
tan 15
tan 15
= Lconv + Ldiv = 32.73 + 110.80 = 143.53 cm

Lconv =
Ldiv
Ltot

(30)
(31)
(32)

Thus, in the sustainer phase the gasdynamic thrust nozzle results less cluttering in terms
of both total length (but the convergent has not changed) and exit diameter, thanks to the
reduced pressure in the combustion chamber.
1.7.2

Propellant Grain

The total length of the (ideally) neutral cylindrical grain, summing up the two burning phases,
is
(33)
Lp = Lboost + Lsustainer = 24.245 + 35.70 = 59.945 ' 60 cm
1.7.3

Total Impulse

The total impulse for each of the burning phases is by definition


Itot,1 (z = z0 ) = T1 (z = z0 ) tb1 = 10000 5 = 50.0 103 kg s
3

Itot,2 (z = z0 ) = T2 (z = z0 ) tb2 = 2660.5 25 = 66.513 10 kg s

(34)
(35)

and thus, summing up the two burning phases, we find


Itot (z = z0 ) = T1 (z = z0 ) tb1 + T2 (z = z0 ) tb2 = 50.0 103 + 66.513 103 = 116.51 103 kg s
As a check, an alternative way (Sutton VI p. 24) to evaluate the total impulse Itot resorts
to the gravimetric specific impulse Is
Itot,1 (z = z0 ) = Is,1 (z = z0 ) (wp,1 )ideal = 284.28 175.89 = 50.002 103 kg s (36)
Itot,2 (z = z0 ) = Is,2 (z = z0 ) (wp,2 )ideal = 272.76 243.75 = 66.485 103 kg s (37)

14

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

1.8

Eects of Initial Temperature

1.8.1

Boost or Acceleration Phase

We need to evaluate the new combustion chamber pressure at the assigned initial temperature
of T0 = 275 K
- via mass balance
1

1n1
Ab

pc =
p1 a1 c
=
(38)
At
1
10.45

102
4267.3
+3
1.70 10 0.7682
exp[0.002 (275 300)] 1507.0
(39)
=
87.196
(101325)0.45
= 5.551 106 Pa = 5.551 MPa = 5.551/0.101325 atm = 54.784 atm

(40)

- or via the thermal sensitivity parameter k


p,1
0.002
= 3.6364 103
=
1 n1
1 0.45
pc (To ) = pc (Tref ) exp[k,1 (To Tref )] =
k,1 =

pc (275) = 60 exp[3.6364 10

(41)
(42)

(275 300)] = 54.786 atm

(43)

Knowing the new combustion chamber pressure, for the boost phase at low initial temperature
we can immediately evaluate the new
- steady burning rate
rb1 (pc1 = 54.784 atm) = a1 (T ref ) exp[ p,1 (To Tref )] pn1
0.45

= 0.7682 exp[0.002 (275 300)] 54.784

= 4.4275 cm/s

(44)
(45)

- burning time
tb1 (pc1 = 54.784 atm) = b1 /rb1 = 24.245/4.4275 = 5.476 s

(46)

- steady flame temperature (accounting only for the dominating pressure eect)
Tc1 = Tf 1 (pc1 = 54.784) = 2970 (54.784/68)0.035 = 2947.6 K
- characteristic velocity
c
=

- thrust coecient
(cF )ideal

q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c
= . =
=
=
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
v
q
u 8314.34
=
u
2947.6
u
(</M)Tc
25
r
=u

1.25+1 = 1504.6 m/s


u
k+1
2 k1
1.251
t
2
)
k(
1.25
k+1
1.25 + 1
r

k1
pe k
2
(
)
=
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
s
r
1.251

1.25+1
2
1.252
0.02516 1.25
1.251
(
)
=
2
1
1.25 1 1.25 + 1
54.784
= 1.8438
k2

k+1
k1

(47)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

15

- gravimetric specific impulse


Is,1 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1504.6 1.8438
= 282.88 s
=
g0
9.807

- thrust
T1 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) = cF pc At = 1.8438 54.784 1.01325 105 87.196 104 = 89244 N
1.8.2

Sustainer or Regime Phase

Again, we need to evaluate the new combustion chamber pressure at the assigned initial
temperature of T0 = 275 K
- via mass balance

1
1n2
Ab

pc =
p,2 a2 c
=
At
1

10.32
4267.3
102
+3
1.60 10 (0.581
=
) exp[0.005 (275 300)] 1507.0
87.196
1013250.32
= 1.4028 106 Pa = 1.4028 MPa = 1.4028/0.101325 atm = 13.845 atm

- or via the thermal sensitivity parameter k


p,2
0.005
= 7.3529 103
=
1 n2
1 0.32
pc (To ) = pc (Tref ) exp[k,2 (To Tref )] =
k,2 =

pc (275) = 16.638 exp[7.3529 10

(48)
(49)

(275 300)] = 13.844 atm

(50)

Knowing the new combustion chamber pressure, for the sustainer phase at low initial temperature we can immediately evaluate the new
- steady burning rate
rb2 (pc2 = 16.638 atm) = a2 (T ref ) exp[ p,2 (To Tref )] pn2
0.32

= 0.581 exp[0.005 (275 300)] 13.844

= 1.189 cm/s

(51)
(52)

- burning time
tb2 (pc2 = 16.638 atm) = b2 /rb2 = 39.38/1.189 = 33.120 s

(53)

- steady flame temperature (accounting only for the dominating pressure eect)
Tc1 = Tf 1 (pc1 = 13.844) = 2970 (13.844/68)0.035 = 2809 K
- characteristic velocity
c
=

q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c
= . =
=
=
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
v
q
u
=
u 8314.34 2809
u
(</M)Tc
25
r
=u
= 1468.8 m/s
t
1.25+1
2
k+1
2 k1
1.251
)
1.25(
)
k(
1.25 + 1
k+1

(54)

16

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004


- thrust coecient
(cF )ideal

k1
2
pe k
(
)
=
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
s
r
1.251

1.25+1
0.02516 1.25
2
1.252
1.251
(
)
2
1
=
1.25 1 1.25 + 1
13.844
= 1.762
k2

k+1
k1

(55)
(56)
(57)

- gravimetric specific impulse


Is,2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1468.8 1.762
= 263.90 s
=
g0
9.807

(58)

- thrust
T2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) = cF pc At = 1.762 (13.844 1.01325 105 ) 87.196 104 = 21552 N

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

17

EXERCISE No. 2: SUSTAINER - BOOST MISSION


Preliminary sizing of solid rocket motor of sustainer - boost type

We wish to get the preliminary sizing of a SRM capable to carry out the two-step propulsive mission sketched in the following figure:

boost 5 s
|
_____
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
sustainer 25 s
|
|
| _________________________c
|
b ______________________________b________ time, s
The assigned input data are:
burning times for each flight segment, tb1 = 25 s e tb2 = 5 s;
thrust under optimum expansion, T1 (z0 = 2.5 104 m) = 5, 000 + 100 C kg;
combustion chamber pressure, pc1 = 30 + N atm;
For sake of simplicity, consider a unique "cigarette" cylindrical grain consisting of
two dierent unmetallized composite propellants featuring, under the reference conditions
of Tref = 300 K and pref = 68 atm, the following steady-state ballistic properties:
PROPELLANT 1
density p1 = 1.60 g/cm3
thermal sensitivity p1 = 0.004 1/ C
p, atm
10
50
68
rb (p), cm/s 1.213 2.030 2.240
Tf (p), K
2536 2623 2640

PROPELLANT 2
density p2 = 1.70 g/cm3
thermal sensitivity p2 = 0.000 1/ C
p, atm
1
30
68
rb (p), cm/s 0.831 3.026 4.130
Tf (p), K
2562 2886 2970

1. Please perform a preliminary sizing of the whole motor (gasdynamic thrust nozzle,
combustion chamber, and propellant grain), at the optimum expansion altitude of z0 ,
forcing the nozzle to always work under optimum expansion by using a divergent with
constant aperture d = 15 but variable length. In particular, please deduce the diameter of the "cigarette" cylindrical grain required to achieve the wanted propulsive
mission.
2. Please evaluate how the main ballistic parameters, in particular the nozzle exit area
At , change during the two flight segments.
3. How would the whole propulsive mission be aected by an increase of the initial temperature from T0 = Tref to T0 = 350 K ?
Consider a monophase gaseous mixture expanding under chemically frozen conditions.
When necessary, with due justifications assume typical values for missing properties and
make reasonable assumptions for undefined processes. Assigned data depend on the digits
C and N , that identify the alphabet position of the first letter of respectively the candidate
family name and first name.

18

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

2.1

Introduction

Let us assume as typical values:


=

M = 25 g/gmole or kg/kmole;
k = 1.25;
g0 = 9.807 m/s2 ;
J
< = 8314.3
kmole K
J
8314.3 J/(kmole K)
<
= 332.57
= =
25
kg/kmole
kg
K
M

From standard air tables, let us read [see Sutton VI [1] p. 56 or Sutton VII [2] p.730]
Note: being Sutton tables too limited, it would help to add for standard air an equation
of general use or more detailed tables.

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

2.2

19

Properties of Combustion Chamber

At the nominal combustion chamber pressure of pc1 = 30 atm, we can evaluate at once:
Tc1 = Tf 1 (pc1 = 30) = 2970 (30/68)0.035 = 2886 K;
rb1 (pc1 = 30 atm) = 0.581 300.32 = 1.7253 cm/s
1
(30 101325)0.32 = 1.7253 cm/s;
or rb1 (pc1 = 30 101325 Pa) = 0.581
0.32
(101325)
s
r
<
8314.3
2886 = 1050.6 m/s;
ac1 (pc1 = 30) = k = Tc = 1.15
25
M
c1 (pc1 = 30) =

pc
30 0.101325 106
= 3.167 1 kg/m3 = 0.003167 g/cm3 .
=
8314.3
<
2886
= Tc
25
M

We can also evaluate c , useful/needed later for a number of considerations, as


q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c

= . =
=
=
c
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
v
q
u
8314.34
=
u
2886
u
(</M)Tc
25
=u
= r
= 1534.0 m/s
u
1.15 + 1
k+1
2 k1

u
)
k(
t
2
1.15 1
k+1
1.15
1.15 + 1

where

(k)

2
)
k(
k+1

k+1
k1

1.15

2
1.15 + 1

1.15+1

1.151

= 0.639

is known as the Vandenkerckhove function (see Cornelisse et al. [3] p. 94 and Barrre et al.
[4] p. 60).
As a quick check, Sutton VI [1] Table 6-5 p. 195 reports c = 1209 m/s for AN-based
composite propellants and, say c = 1580 m/s for several AP-based aluminized composite
propellants.

2.3

Optimum Expansion

z = z0 = 25,000 m At this point of the exercise we can only evaluate the nozzle transversal
shape !
From standard air tables, let us read [see Sutton VI [1] p. 56 or Sutton VII [2] p.730]
z = 0 m pa = 1 atm = 0.101325 MPa or MN/m2 [see Sutton VI [1] p. 50];
z = z0 = 25.000 m pa = 0.02516 atm = 0.1013 0.02516 = 2.549 103 MPa.
For pc /pa = pc /pe = 30/0.02516 = 1192.4, we can also read by interpolation from the
plots of optimum expansion - see Fig. 3.7 Sutton VI [1] p. 60 or Fig. 3.6 Sutton VII [2] p.65
- for the mixture k = 1.15:
- (cF )ideal 1.93
- Ae /At 95
The recommended approach, to avoid minor discrepancies due to the necessarily approximate reading of graphical plots, we can determine calculate for chemically frozen expansion
the ideal values of both

20

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004


- (cF )ideal
(cF )ideal

k1
pe k
2
(
)
=
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
v
v
u
u
1.15 + 1 u
1.15 1
u

u
t 1.152
2
0.02516
t
1.15
(
) 1.15 1 1
=
2
1.15 1 1.15 + 1
30
k2

k+1
k1

= 1.942

= Ae /At

1/

v
"
u
k1 #
uk + 1
pe k
t
= At /Ae =
1
k1
pc
v
1
"

1 u
1.151 #

1.15 + 1
1.15 + 1 1.15 1 0.02516 1.15 u
0.02516 1.15
t
=
1
2
30
1.15 1
30

= 3.4218 103 8.6438 = 0.01006

1 1
k + 1 k 1 pe k
2
pc

and thus
= Ae /At = 1/(0.01006) = 99.404
For sake of simplicity, let us neglect nozzle losses (for example, a total loss of 2%) and let us
accept as eective values cF = 1.942 and = Ae /At = 99.4. We can now evaluate the (ideal)
gravimetric specific impulse as
Is,1 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1534 1.942
= 303.77 s
=
g0
9.807

and the nozzle throat area as


cF

At =

T (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m)
pc At
T (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m)
5000 9.807
= 83.065 cm2
=
pc cF
30 101325 1.942

Immediately, the nozzle exit area is


Ae = (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) At = 99.404 83.065 = 8257.0 cm2
while the corresponding diameters are
r
r
4 At
83.065
= 4
= 10.284 cm
dt =

r
r
4 Ae
8257.0
de =
= 4
= 102.53 cm

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

2.4

21

Evaluating Ballistic Data

- The steady burning rate of propellant 1 is:


ln 2.5342 ln 0.97166
= 0.32
compute
n1 =
ln 100 ln 5
and
0.97166 = a1 (p = 5 atm)0.32 a1 = 0.97166/(50.32 ) = 0.58056
cm/s/(atmn )
in this instance let us use the form
rb (p, T ref ) = a(T ref ) pn rb,1 (p, T ref ) = 0.581 p0.32
- The steady flame temperature of propellant 1 is:
in this instance let us use the form
Tf (p, T ref ) = b(T ref ) pnT f = Tf,ref (p/68)0.021 Tf,1 (p, T ref ) = 2640 (p/68)0.021
- The steady burning rate of propellant 2 is:
compute
a2 = 4.13 (1/68)0.38 = 0.83099
ln 4.7819 ln 1.9934
and
n2 =
= 0.38001
ln 100 ln 10
in this instance let us use the form
rb (p, T ref ) = a(T ref ) pn rb,2 (p, T ref ) = 0.831 p0.38
- The steady flame temperature of propellant 2 is:
in this instance let us use the form
Tf (p, T ref ) = b(T ref ) pnT f = Tf,ref (p/68)0.035 Tf,2 (p, T ref ) = 2970 (p/68)0.035

2.5

Sustainer Phase

For the assigned sustainer duration tb1 = 25 s, the cigarette cylindrical grain of propellant
can be designed as follows.
The propellant flow rate (weight in kgf or mass in kgm ) is
T (z = z0 )
.
w
T
5000
= 16.46 kg/s
=
Is
303.77

Is (z = z0 ) =
.

w =

(59)
(60)

while the ideal total propellant amount (weight or mass) for the sustainer phase - neglecting
unburnt residuals, transients, and various ineciencies - is
.

(wp )ideal = w tb,1 = 16.46 25 = 411.5 kg

(61)

For sake of simplicity, let us neglect an excess of, say 3.5% and thus keep for the amount
(weight or mass) of propellant required by the sustainer phase
wp,1 = (wp )ideal = 411.5 kg

(62)

22

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

wherefrom the volume of the sustainer propellant grain (wp is the weight in kgf or mass in
kgm of propellant)
Vp,1 = wp,1 /p = 411.5/1.60 103 = 257.190 10+3 cm3 = 257.19 dm3

(63)

Mass conservation, between the combustion surface Ab (produced mass) and nozzle throat
At (discharged mass), requires for the motor operation a sustainer combustion surface of
At pc
.
= w
(64)
c
1 At pc
83.065 104 (30 101325)
=
= 0.59627 m2 = 5962.7 cm2(65)
c p rb
1534.0 1.60 10+3 1.7253 102

Ab p rb = CD At pc =
Ab =

It is always safe to verify:


the produced flow rate
.

w = p rb Ab = 1.60 10+3 1.7253 102 0.59627 = 16. 46 kg/s

(66)

vice versa, from the produced flow rate definition, the combustion surface
.

w = p rb Ab
.

(67)
16.46 10+3

w
= 5962.7 cm2
=
p rb
1.60 1.7253

Ab =

(68)

the sustainer combustion pressure

pc =

1
1

10.32
Ab
5962.7
102
1 n1
+3
1.60 10 0.581
a1 c
=
1534.0
=
At p
83.065
(101325)0.32

= 3.039 6 106 Pa = 3.0396 MPa = 3.0396/0.101325 atm = 29.999 atm OK (69)


wherefrom the characteristic velocity c
.

At pc
c
4
83.065 10 30 101325
At pc
= 1534.0 m/s
=
.
16.46
w

w = p rb Ab = CD At pc =

(70)

c =

(71)

Since a cigarette grain is required, the requested sustainer surface combustion is easily provided by an ideally neutral cylindrical grain having diameter
r
r
Ab
5962.7
= 4
= 87.133 cm
(72)
db = 4

3.1415
while the klemmung ratio Kbt is
Kbt =

Ab
5962.7
= 71.784
=
At
83.065

(73)

For the sustainer phase the length or web thickness of the (ideally) neutral grain is
b1 = rb1 tb1 = 1.7253 25 = 43.133 cm

(74)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

23

wherefrom the sustainer grain volume can be verified as


Vp = Ab b1 = 5962.7 43.133 = 257.19 103 cm3 = 257.19 dm3 = 0.25719 m3

(75)

Assuming a total thickness of 0.4335 cm for the liner (between propellant grain and combustion chamber case) and neglecting possible ablative protection + case wall, the external
diameter dc of the combustion chamber (max cross-section clutter) is
dmax = db + 2tliner = 87.133 + 2 0.4335 = 88.0 cm

(76)

24

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

2.6

Boost or Acceleration Phase

Sizing the boost propellant grain requires first determining the new operating conditions
(sustainer phase or phase 2) in the combustion chamber, including the new pc ! If we neglect
=

the (minor) eect of pc on the ratio (Tc /M), we find again


c
q
=
(</M)Tc
r
k+1
2 k1
)
k(
k+1

q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c

= . =
=
=
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
v
u
1 8314.3
u
2886
u
1.15 25
= u
= 1534.0 m/s
u
1.15 + 1

u
t
2
1.15 1
1.15
1.15 + 1

and thus for the new combustion pressure

At pc
in the boost phase (burning conditions 2)
c
1
1

2
Ab
5962.7
10
1

0.38
1

n
2 =
1.70 10+3 0.831
=
p2 ac
1534.0
0.38
At
83.065
(101325)

Ab p rb = CD At pc =
pc2

= 8.2969 106 Pa = 8.2969 MPa = 8.2969/0.101325 atm = 81.884 atm

(77)

The cigarette cylindrical grain of propellant, again assumed neutral, in the boost phase
changes as follows. For the assigned boost duration tb2 = 5 s, we determine
- steady burning rate
rb2 (pc2 = 81.884 atm) = 0.831 p0.38 = 0.831 81.8840.38 = 4.432 cm/s
- grain length or web thickness
b2 = rb2 tb2 = 4.4322 5 = 22.161 cm
- produced flow rate
.

w2 = p2 rb2 Ab = 1.70 10+3 4.4322 102 0.59627 = 44.927 kg/s

(78)

- while the ideal total propellant amount (weight or mass) for the boost phase - neglecting
unburnt residuals, transients, and various ineciencies - is
.

(wp2 )ideal = w2 tb,2 = 44.927 5 = 224.64 kg

(79)

- boost grain volume


Vp,2 = Ab b2 = 5962.7 22.161 = 132.14 103 cm3 = 132.14 dm3 = 0.13214 m3

(80)

- as a check, the boost grain volume can also be computed from the boost propellant
amount
Vp,2 = wp,2 /p2 = 224.64/1.70 103 = 132.14 10+3 cm3 = 132.14 dm3

(81)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

25

Therefore, the expansion pressure ratio increased from a value in the sustainer phase of
pc /pe = 30/0.02516 = 1192.4 to a value in the boost phase of pc /pe = 81.884/0.02516 =
3254.5. Since the nozzle is no longer operating under optimum expansion, we can either
calculate the new non optimum gasdynamic expansion or force again optimum expansion by
a variable geometry limited to the nozzle exit area Ae . Let us take this second approach,
leading to higher performance. We need to calculate the new values of both (cF )ideal

(cF )ideal

and

k1
pe k
2
(
)
=
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
s
r
1.151

1.15+1
2
1.152
0.02516 1.15
1.151
(
)
=
2
1
1.15 1 1.15 + 1
81.884
= 2.0189
k2

k+1
k1

(82)
(83)
(84)

= Ae /At
1/

v
"
u
k1 #
uk + 1
pe k
t
= At /Ae =
1
k1
pc
v
1
"

1 u
1.151 #

1.15
1.15
+
1
1.15 + 1 1.15 1 0.02516 1.15 u
0.02516
t
=
1
2
81.884
1.15 1
81.884

= 1.4291 103 9.3422 = 4.368 103

1 1
k + 1 k 1 pe k
2
pc

and thus
= Ae /At = 1/(4.368 103 ) = 228.94

(85)

To be consistent and for sake of simplicity, let us again neglect nozzle losses (for example,
a total ineciency of 2%) and let us accept as eective values for the thrust coecient
cF = 2.019 and for the expansion geometric ratio = Ae /At = 228.9. We can now evaluate
during the boost phase the new (ideal) values of:
- thrust
T2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

= cF pc At = 2.0189 81.884 101325 83.065 104 = 139140 N 139140/9.807 = 14188 kg

- nozzle exit area


Ae = (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) At = 228.94 83.065 = 19017 cm2

(86)

- gravimetric specific impulse (for c assumed invariant)


Is,2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1534 2.0189
= 315.79 s
=
g0
9.807

(87)

- or (e{eable, ee late Itot ; probably because the enforced c approximation is


not used ?!)
Is,2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

T2
14188
= 315.8 s
. =
44.927
w2

(88)

26

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004


- and relevant diameters (for the taken approach, only the exit divergent is aected)
dc = dmax = db + 2tliner = 88.0 cm
r
r
4 At
83.065
dt =
= 4
= 10.284 cm

r
r
4 Ae
19017
= 4
= 155.61 cm
de =

2.7
2.7.1

(89)
(90)
(91)

Motor
Thrust Nozzle

For the taken approach, the total nozzle length (convergent + divergent) changes depending
on the flight segment. In the sustainer phase, assuming for the combustion chamber dc = dmax
and for the gasdynamic thrust nozzle a 45 convergent and a 15 divergent, we find
(dc dt )/2
(88 10.284)/2
=
= 38.858 cm

tan 45
tan 45
(de dt )/2
(102.53 10.284)/2
=
=
= 111. 35 cm

tan 15
tan 22.5
= Lconv + Ldiv = 38.858 + 111.35 = 150.21 cm

Lconv =
Ldiv
Ltot

(92)
(93)
(94)

In the boost phase, under identical assumptions for the relevant geometrical parameters, we
find
(dc dt )/2
(88 10.284)/2
=
= 38.858 cm

tan 45
tan 45
(de dt )/2
(155.61 10.284)/2
=
=
= 175.42 cm
tan 15
tan 22.5
= Lconv + Ldiv = 38.858 + 175.42 = 214.28 cm

Lconv =
Ldiv
Ltot

(95)
(96)
(97)

Thus, in the boost phase the gasdynamic thrust nozzle results more cluttering in terms of both
total length (but the convergent has not changed) and exit diameter, due to the augmented
pressure in the combustion chamber.
2.7.2

Propellant Grain

The total length of the (ideally) neutral cylindrical grain, summing up the two burning phases,
is
Lp = Lsustainer + Lboost = 43.133 + 22.161 = 65.3 cm
(98)
2.7.3

Total Impulse

The total impulse for each of the burning phases is by definition


Itot,1 (z = z0 ) = T1 (z = z0 ) tb1 = 5000 25 = 125 103 kg s
3

Itot,2 (z = z0 ) = T2 (z = z0 ) tb2 = 14188 5 = 70.940 10 kg s

(99)
(100)

and thus, summing up the two burning phases, we find


Itot (z = z0 ) = T1 (z = z0 ) tb1 + T2 (z = z0 ) tb2 = 125 103 + 70.940 103 = 195.940 103 kg s

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

27

As a check, an alternative way (Sutton VI p. 24) to evaluate the total impulse Itot resorts
to the gravimetric specific impulse Is
Itot,1 (z = z0 ) = Is,1 (z = z0 ) (wp,1 )ideal = 303.77 411.15 = 124.9 103 kg s (101)
Itot,2 (z = z0 ) = Is,2 (z = z0 ) (wp,2 )ideal = 315.8 224.64 = 70.941 103 kg s (102)

2.8

Eects of Initial Temperature

2.8.1

Sustainer or Regime Phase

We need to evaluate the new combustion chamber pressure at the assigned initial temperature
of T0 = 275 K
- via mass balance

1
Ab
pc =
a1 c 1 n1 =
At p
1

2
5962.7
10
1

0.32
1.60 10+3 0.581
=
exp[0.004 (350 300)] 1534.0
0.32
83.065
(101325)
= 4.079 106 Pa = 4.079 MPa = 4.079/0.101325 atm = 40.257 atm

- or via the thermal sensitivity parameter k


p
0.004
=
= 5.8824 103
k =
1n
1 0.32
pc (To ) = pc (Tref ) exp[k (To Tref )] =
3

pc (350) = 30 exp[5.8824 10

(350 300)] = 40.258 atm

(103)

(104)
(105)
(106)

Knowing the new combustion chamber pressure, for the sustainer phase at low initial temperature we can immediately evaluate the new
- steady burning rate
rb1 (pc1 = 40.258 atm) = 0.581 exp[0.004 (350 300)] 40.2580.32 = 2.315 cm/s

(107)

- produced flow rate


.

w1 = p1 rb1 Ab = 1.60 10+3 2.315 102 0.59627 = 22.086 kg/s

(108)

- burning time
tb1 (pc1 = 40.258 atm) = b1 /rb1 = 43.133/2.3152 = 18.63 s

(109)

- steady flame temperature (accounting only for the dominating pressure eect)
Tc1 = Tf 1 (pc1 = 40.258) = 2640 (40.258/68)0.021 = 2611.1 K
- characteristic velocity
c
q
=
(</M)Tc
r
k+1
2 k1
)
k(
k+1

q
=
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c

= . =
=
=
C
cF
cF

m
vD
u
8314.34
u
2611.1
u
25
= u
= 1459.2 m/s
u
1.15 + 1

u
t
2
1.15 1
1.15
1.15 + 1

(110)

28

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004


- thrust coecient
(cF )ideal

k1
k+1
pe k
2 k1
(
)
=
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
v
v
u
u
u
1.15
+
1
u
1.15 1

u
t 1.152
2
0.02516
t
1.15
(
) 1.15 1 1
=
2
1.15 1 1.15 + 1
40.258
k2

= 1.9659

- thrust
T1 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) = cF pc At =

= 1.9659 40.258 101325 83.065 104 = 66611 N 66611/9.807 = 6792.2 kg

- gravimetric specific impulse (a too low value; due to c approximation ?)


Is,1 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1459.2 1.9659
= 292.51 s
=
g0
9.807

- or better from the definition


Is,1 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =
2.8.2

T1
6792.2
= 307.53 s
. =
22.086
w2

(111)

Boost or Acceleration Phase

Again, we need to evaluate the new combustion chamber pressure at the assigned initial
temperature of T0 = 275 K
- via mass balance

pc =

1
Ab
1 n1
a1 c
=
At p

2
5962.7
10
1 0.38
1.70 10+3 0.831
exp[0.000 (350 300)] 1534.0
83.065
(101325)0.38

= 8.2969 106 Pa = 8.2969 MPa = 8.2969/0.101325 atm = 81.884 atm

(112)

- or via the thermal sensitivity parameter k


p
0.000
=
= 0.0
1n
1 0.45
pc (To ) = pc (Tref ) exp[k (To Tref )]
k =

pc (To ) = pc (Tref ) = 81.884 atm

(113)
(114)
(115)

Knowing the new combustion chamber pressure, for the boost phase at low initial temperature
we can immediately evaluate the new
- steady burning rate (check OK)
rb2 (pc2 = 81.884 atm) = 0.831 exp[0.000 (350 300)] 81.8840.38 = 4.4322 cm/s (116)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

29

- burning time (check OK)


tb2 (pc2 = 81.884 atm) = b2 /rb2 = 22.161/4.4322 = 5.0 s

(117)

- steady flame temperature (accounting only for the dominating pressure eect)
Tc2 = Tf 2 (pc2 = 81.884) = 2970 (81.884/68)0.035 = 2989.4 K

(118)

- characteristic velocity
c
q
=
(<m /M)Tc
r
k+1
2 k1
)
k(
k+1
- thrust coecient
(cF )ideal

q
q
=
=
(</M)Tc
(</M)Tc
Is g0
1
pc At
c

= . =
=
=r
=
k+1
CD
cF
cF
(k)
m
2 k1
)
k(
k+1
v
u
8314.34
u
2989.4
u
25
= 1561.3 m/s
= u
u
1.15 + 1

u
t
2
1.15 1
1.15
1.15 + 1
r

k1
pe k
2
(
)
=
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
v
v
u
u
1.15 + 1 u
1.15 1
u

u
t 1.152
2
0.02516
t
1.15
(
) 1.15 1 1
=
2
1.15 1 1.15 + 1
81.884
k2

k+1
k1

= 2.0189

(119)

(120)
(121)

- gravimetric specific impulse


Is (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) =

c cF
1561.3 2.0189
= 321.41 s
=
g0
9.807

(122)

- and thrust (check OK)


T2 (z = z0 = 2.5 104 m) = cF pc At =

= 2.0189 81.884 101325 83.065 104 = 139.14 103 N 139.14 103 /9.807 = 14188.1 kg

30

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

EXERCISE No. 3: PERFORATED GRAIN SIZING


ESAME DI ENDOREATTORI
Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Aerospaziale
SECONDA PARTE - 2 ore

Dimensionamento di massima solid rocket motor


Di un solid rocket motor, alle condizioni di riferimento di 300 K e 68 atm, sono assegnati:
spinta alla quota di adattamento, T (z0 = 104 m) = 5 103 kg
durata fase propulsa, tb = 10 s
pressione stazionaria in camera di combustione, pc = 76 atm
massimo diametro esterno (eccetto ugello), dmax = 60 cm
propellant composito non metallizzato avente in condizioni stazionarie:
- velocit stazionaria di combustione rb (p) = 1.25 (p/68)0.45 in cm/s;
- temperatura stazionaria adiabatica di fiamma Tf (p) = 3250 (p/68)0.02 in K;
- density p = 1.67 g/cm3 .
Si consideri una miscela monofase gassosa in condizioni di chimica congelata. Quando
necessario, assumere valori tipici per le grandezze e fare ragionevoli ipotesi (con le opportune
giustificazioni). Per comodit del candidato sono allegati due diagrammi: Fig. 3-6 e Fig. 3-7
del Sutton VI edizione.
1. Si chiede di eseguire il dimensionamento di massima per la quota di volo z = z0 di
adattamento. Calcolare in particolare la spinta ed impulsi specifici, area di gola ed uscita,
velocit in gola e di uscita, quantit iniziale e portata istantanea di propellant.
2. In condizioni nominali di progetto alla quota di adattamento z = z0 :
- esaminare la configurazione del grano;
- descrivere il transitorio di accensione;
- verificare il rischio di combustione erosiva;
- discutere i problemi di balistica interna.
3. Ripetere il calcolo alla quota z = 0 livello mare e z = z1 (
= 25000 m tale che

pc /pe = 3000), evidenziando le variazioni rispetto alla quota di volo z = z0 a seconda che
ladattamento dellugello venga o meno mantenuto.
4. Valutare per punti, alla quota di volo z = z0 , in condizioni non isentropiche (scegliendo
diverse posizioni dellonda durto normale):
- landamento della pressione e numero di Mach (candidati il cui cognome inizia con le
lettere A-C);
- landamento della density e velocit (candidati il cui cognome inizia con le lettere
D-M);
- landamento della temperatura e celerit del suono (candidati il cui cognome inizia
con le lettere N-Z).
5. Spiegare come lipotesi di chimica congelata influenzi il calcolo del processo di espansione nellugello, rispetto separatamente allipotesi di equilibrio termochimico locale e alle
condizioni reali di eusso.

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

3.1

31

Introduction

Comincio con lassumere:


=

M = 25 g/gmole;
k = 1.25;
g0 = 9.807 m/s2 ;
JK
;
< = 8314
kmole
J/kmole K
J
8314.3
<
= 332.57
= =
25 g/mole or kg/kmole
kg K
M

Leggo da tabelle aria tipo [vedi Sutton VI [1] p. 56]


z = 0 m pa = 1 atm = 0.1013 MPa ovvero MN/m2 ;
z = z0 = 10.000 m pa = 0.26151 atm = 0.1013 0.26151 MPa = .0 26491 MPa.
Valuto alla pressione nominale in camera di combustione pc = 76 atm:

Tc = Tf (pc = 76) = 3250 (76/68)0.02 = 3257 K;


0.45 = 1. 31 cm/s;
rb (pc = 76) = 1.25
s (76/68)
r
<
8314.3
ac (pc = 76) = k = Tc = 1.25
3257 = 1163.6 m/s;
25
M

pc
76 0.101325 106
= 7.109 kg/m3 = 0.007109 g/cm3 .
=
8314.3
<
3257
= Tc
25
M
Valutiamo c come
s
<
= Tc
A
g
I
1
p
c
M
c t
s 0
= . =
=
=
c
CD
cF
cF

m
s
v
<
u
8314
= Tc
u
3257
u
M
25
r
= u
1.25+1 = 1581.5 m/s

u
k+1
2 k1
1.251
t
2
)
k(
1.25
k+1
1.25 + 1

c (pc = 76) =

dove

k+1
2 k1
)
k(
=
k+1

1.25

2
1.25 + 1

1.25+1

1.251

= 0.658

talvolta nota come la funzione di Vandenkerckhove (Cornelisse et al. [3] p. 94 e Barrre et


al. [4] p. 60). Per un confronto di verifica, leggo da Table 6-5 Sutton VI [1] p. 195 c = 1209
m/s per propellenti compositi a base di AN e diciamo c = 1580 m/s per compositi a base di
AP variamente alluminizzati. Verifica positiva.

32

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

3.2

Ugello Adattato

3.2.1

Soluzione Grafica

z = z0 = 10, 000 m
Valuto pc /pa = pc /pe = 76/0.26151 = 290. 62
A ugello adattato, leggo - interpolando - da Fig. 3.7 Sutton VI [1] p. 60 per k = 1.25:
- (cF )ideal = 1.72
- Ae /At = 24
Assumendo una perdita globale allugello del 2%, leettivo coeciente di spinta cF =
1.72 0.98 = 1. 69. Assumendo perdita nulla nel combustore, posso allora valutare limpulso
specifico ponderale come
c cF
1582.5 1.72
= 277.55 s
=
g0
9.807
c cF
1582.5 1.69
= 272.71 s
=
Is (z = z0 = 103 m) =
g0
9.807
Is (z = z0 = 103 m) =

IDEALE

(123)

EFFETTIVO

(124)

e larea di gola dellugello


cF =

At =
At =

T (z = z0 = 103 m)
T (z = z0 = 103 m)
At =
pc At
pc cF

T (z = z0 )
5000 9.807
= 3.702 1 103 m2 = 37.02 1 cm2
=
pc cF
76 1.01325 105 1.72
T (z = z0 )
5000 9.807
= 3.7678 103 m2 = 37.678 cm2
=
pc cF
76 1.01325 105 1.69

(125)

IDEALE
EFFETTIVO

mentre larea di uscita, in condizioni eettive, vale


Ae = (z = z0 = 103 m) At = 24 37.678 = 904.27 cm2 = 0.090427 m2

(126)

z = z1 tale che pc /pe


= 3020. 91 = z1
= 25000 m)
Mantenendo k = 1.25 e ugello adattato, leggo:
(cF )ideal = 1.85;
Ae /At = 148 (Sutton VI [1] meglio da Fig. 3-6 p. 55, si estrapola male da Fig. 3.7 p.
60).
Mantenendo una perdita globale allugello del 2%, leettivo coeciente di spinta cF =
1.85 0.98 = 1.813. Da qui posso valutare i nuovi valori di adattamento:
- la nuova spinta eettiva in quota
T (z1 )
T (z1 ) = cF pc At = 1.813(761.01325105 )(37.678104 ) = 52604 N = 5363.9 kg
pc At
(127)
con un aumento di
cF =

S =

5363.9 5000
T (z1 ) T (z = z0 )
=
= 7.278 %
T (z = z0 )
5000

(128)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx


- il nuovo impulso specifico ponderale in quota
c cF
1582.5 1.850
= 298.52 s
IDEALE
=
Is (z1 ) =
g0
9.807
c cF
1582.5 1.813
= 292.55 s
EFFETTIVO
=
Is (z1 ) =
g0
9.807
con un aumento di
292.55 272.71
Is (z1 ) Is (z = z0 )
=
= 7.27 %
EFFETTIVO
Is =
Is (z = z0 )
272. 71

33

(129)
(130)

(131)

- e la nuova area di uscita in quota


Ae = (z1 ) At = 148 37.678 = 5576.3 cm2

(132)

con un aumento di
Ae =

5576.3 934. 32
Ae (z1 ) Ae (z = z0 )
=
= 496.83 % .
Ae (z = z0 )
934. 32

I rispettivi diametri di uscita sono


r

con un aumento di

r
Ae (z = z0 )
934.32
= 4
= 34.49 cm
de (z = z0 ) = 4

3.1415
r
r
Ae (z1 )
5576.3
de (z1 ) = 4
= 4
= 84.26 cm

3.1415

de =
3.2.2

84.26 34.49
de (z1 ) de (z = z0 )
=
= 144.3 % .
de (z = z0 )
34.49

(133)

(134)
(135)

(136)

Soluzione Analitica (verifica)

z = z0 = 10, 000 m
Sempre per pc /pa = pc /pe = 76/0.26151 = 290. 62 e per k = 1.25, a ugello adattato,
calcolo in condizioni di miscela chimicamente frozen
- (cF )ideal
s
r
k1
2
k+1
pe k
2 k1
k
(
)
(cF )ideal =
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
v
u
r
1.251

1.25+1 u
1.25
2
1.252
0.26151
t
(
) 1.251 1
=
2
1.25 1 1.25 + 1
76
= 1.714 (invece del valore letto di 1.72, verifica OK)

= Ae /At
1/

= At /Ae =

1.25 + 1
2

v
"
u
k1 #
uk + 1
pe k
t
1
k1
pc
v

1 u
1.251

u
0.26151 1.25 u 1.25 + 1
0.26151 1.25
t
1
76
1.25 1
76

1 1
k + 1 k 1 pe k
2
pc

1
1.251

= 1.713 8 102 9.0 0.678 39 = 4.234 7 102

34

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004


e quindi
= Ae /At = 1/(4.234 7 102 ) = 23.614 (invece del valore letto di 24, verifica OK)

Nelle stesse condizioni di perdita prima assunte, trovo per limpulso specifico ponderale a
z0 = 103 m
c cF
1582.5 1.714
= 276.58 s (invece di 277.55 s)
IDEALE
=
Is (z = z0 ) =
g0
9.807
c cF
1582.5 1.714 0.98
= 271.05 s (invece di 272.71 s)
EFFETTIVO
=
Is (z = z0 ) =
g0
9.807
z = z1 tale che pc /pe
= 3020. 91 = z1
= 25000 m)
Mantenendo k = 1.25, a ugello adattato, calcolo in condizioni di miscela chimicamente
frozen
- (cF )ideal
s
r
k1
2
k+1
pe k
2 k1
k
(
)
(cF )ideal =
2
1
k1 k+1
pc
v
u
r
1.251

1.25+1 u
1.25
2
1.252
1
t
1.251
(
)
=
2
1
1.25 1 1.25 + 1
3020. 91
= 1.860 (invece del valore letto di 1.85, verifica OK)

= Ae /At
1/

= At /Ae =

1.25 + 1
2

v
"
u
k1 #
uk + 1
pe k
t
1
k1
pc
v

1 u
1.251

u
1.25
1.25
1
1
u 1.25 + 1

t
1
3020. 91
1.25 1
3020. 91

1 1
k + 1 k 1 pe k
2
pc

1
1.251

= 2.633 3 103 9.0 0.798 64 = 7.059 9 103


e quindi

= Ae /At = 1/(7.059 9 103 ) = 141.65 (invece del valore letto di 148, verifica quasi OK)
Nelle stesse condizioni di perdita prima assunte, trovo per limpulso specifico ponderale a
z0 = 103 m
c cF
1582.5 1.714
= 276.58 s (invece di 277.55 s)
IDEALE
=
Is (z = z0 ) =
g0
9.807
c cF
1582.5 1.714 0.98
= 271.05 s (invece di 272.71 s)
EFFETTIVO
=
Is (z = z0 ) =
g0
9.807
mentre a z1
= 25000 m
c cF
1582.5 1.860
= 300. 14 s (invece di 298.52 s)
IDEALE
=
Is (z = z1 ) =
g0
9.807
c cF
1582.5 1.860 0.98
= 294.13 s (invece di 292.55 s)
EFFETTIVO
=
Is (z = z1 ) =
g0
9.807

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

3.3

35

Grano Propellente Solido

La portata (ponderale in kgf o massica in kgm ) di propellant vale


Is (z = z0 ) =

T (z = z0 )
T
5000
.
= 18.339 kg/s
w=
=
.
Is
272.64
w

(137)

mentre la quantit (peso o massa) totale di propellant idealmente (trascurando residui


incombusti, transitori, inecienze varie)
.

(wp )ideal = w tb = 18.339 10 = 183.39 kg

(138)

Ammettendo un eccesso di poco pi del 3.6 % (per comodit), trovo per la quantit (peso o
massa) totale
(139)
wp = (wp )ideal 1.036 = 183.39 1.036 = 190 kg
Dalla conservazione della massa tra superficie di combustione e gola dellugello, trovo
come area di combustione RICHIESTA
At pc
c
1 At pc
(37.678 104 ) (76 1.01325 105 )
= 8380.8 cm2
=
c p rb
1582.5 (1.67 10+3 ) (1.31 102 )

Ab p rb = CD At pc =
Ab =

(140)
(141)

essendo rb = rb (pc = 76) = 1.25 (76/68)0.45 = 1.31 cm/s. In altro modo, si trova di nuovo
.

w = p rb Ab Ab =

w
18.339
= 8382.8 cm2
=
p rb
(1.67 10+3 ) (1.31 102 )

(142)

Verifico
.

At pc

c
(37.678 104 ) (76 1.01325 105 )
At pc
= 1582.1 m/s
=
.
18.339
w

w = p rb Ab = CD At pc =
c =
3.3.1

(143)

Grano a Combustione Frontale

In caso di grano a sigaretta, il diametro RICHIESTO del grano assumerebbe un valore


eccessivo
r
r
Ab
8380.8
= 4
= 103.3 cm
(144)
db = 4

3.1415
mentre la lunghezza del grano (web thickness) sarebbe
Lb = rb tb = 1.31 10 = 13.1 cm

(145)

e il rapporto di serraggio (Klemmung) risulterebbe


K=

Ab
8380.8
= 222.43
=
At
37.678

ovvero avremmo un grano di propellant a mo di padella!

(146)

36

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

3.3.2

Grano a Combustione Radiale Progressivo

Certamente un grano cilindrico a combustione radiale sarebbe pi idoneo per rispettare il


vincolo della sezione trasversale:
- spessore del grano (web thickness)
b = rb tb = 1.31 10 = 13.1 cm

(147)

- volume del grano (wp peso in kgf o massa in kgm del propellant)
Vp = wp /p = 190/1.67 = 113.77 dm3 = 113770 cm3

(148)

Assumendo uno spessore di 1 cm per il rivestimento (liner) fra grano di propellant e camicia
esterna della camera di combustione e trascurando lo spessore della camicia, trovo per il
diametro interno di passaggio di un semplice cilindro internamente cavo
dint dp = dmax 2tliner 2b = 60 2 1 2 13.1 = 31.8 cm

(149)

mentre il diametro esterno vale


dext = dmax 2tliner = 60 2 1 = 58 cm

(150)

da cui la lunghezza del tubo cilindrico PROGRESSIVO (configurazione di solito non soddisfacente), con Ab (t) continuamente crescente nel tempo dal valore minimo dint Lp al valore
massimo dext Lp , risulta
Vp =

4Vp
4 113770

=
Lp (d2ext d2int ) Lp =
= 61.6 cm
2
2
4
(582 31.82 )
(dext dint )

Considerando Ap = d2int = 31.82 = 794.23 cm2 , il rapporto di serraggio (Klemmung) in


4
4
questa configurazione vale
Ap
794.23
= 21.08
(151)
K=
=
At
37.678
suciente a escludere il rischio di combustione erosiva. L0 eventuale presenza di intagli
(meglio: indentature) verso linterno della perforazione, vedi sezione successiva, spinge il
Klemmung verso valori pi bassi, esponendoci quindi a possibili pericoli di combustione erosiva.
Senza interventi esterni, la superficie di combustione fornita da un tubo cilindrico PROGRESSIVO di spessore b risulterebbe in evoluzione (continua crescita) dal valore iniziale a
quello finale, per cui la superficie eettivamente DISPONIBILE varrebbe
Ab,iniziale = dint Lp = 31.8 61.6 = 6153.8 cm2 vs. 8380.8 cm2 necessari (152)
58 31.8
Ab,average = davg Lp = (31.8 +
) 61.6 = 8688.9 cm2
(153)
2
(154)
Ab,f inale = dext Lp = 58 61.6 = 11224 cm2

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx


3.3.3

37

Grano a Combustione Radiale Neutro

Volendo realizzare un grano a combustione radiale neutro nel tempo (come di solito si auspica), diciamo con Ab (t) = Ab,neutro = Ab , posso in prima iterazione seguire la seguente
procedura. Scelgo di conseguire Ab,neutro proprio a fine combustione per d = dext , ovvero
Ab = dext Lp ; dovr invece aumentare con opportuni intagli (meglio: indentature) la superficie di combustione per dint d < dext . Trovo il nuovo valore di Lp col vincolo
Lp =

Ab
8380.8
= 46.0 cm (rispetto al valore di 61.6 cm per tubo progressivo)
=
dext
58

Abbiamo quindi bisogno di slots o intagli (meglio: indentature) per aumentare la superficie di combustione iniziale, ma dobbiamo contestualmente ridurre la lunghezza del grano
perforato per evitare che la superficie finale risulti a sua volta eccessiva. Per individuare con
precisione il tipo di grano longitudinale "a stella" determino lo spessore percentuale di grano
(web fraction) come
2 13.1
2b
(155)
=
b% =
= 0.45
dext
58
e il rapporto lunghezza/diametro del grano come
Lp
dext
Lp
dext

=
=

61.6
58
46.0
58

= 1.06

tubo progressivo [1]

(156)

= 0.79

tubo intagliato [1]

(157)

Da Sutton VI [1] Tabella 11-4 p. 395 e Table 11-5 p. 396 scelgo come geometria ottima:
b% = 0.6 1.0: internal burning tube (riempimento volumetrico tipico 0.85-0.95,
combustione neutra, piccolo spostamento centro di gravit) con estremit non inibite
per bassi rapporti di allungamento del grano, diciamo L/D < 2; oppure
b% = 0.3 0.6: star (riempimento volumetrico tipico 0.75-0.85, combustione neutra,
piccolo spostamento centro di gravit) da neutralizzare con ulteriori intagli per b% >
0.4.
Il calcolo dei dettagli della stella, e pi in generale della sezione trasversale, di norma
svolto da appositi codici di geometria 3D. In maniera rapida ma approssimata, per avere
unidea della configurazione risultante, possiamo immaginare di aggiungere N denti (o punte
di stella) sporgenti verso linterno della perforazione a partire da dint /2. Per valutare Ap
iniziale, osserviamo che larea della sezione di passaggio vale
Ap,iniziale =

2
d N Atoot
4 int

essendo Atoot larea del singolo dente sporgente. Assumendo N denti triangolari egualmente
ripartiti sulla circonferenza dint , e unaltezza del dente pari a una certa frazione h% del
raggio della perforazione dint /2, trovo
Atoot =

1 dint dint

h%
2
N
2

avendo approssimato per semplicit la base del dente triangolare col corrispondente arco
circolare dint /N . In definitiva, nelle condizioni assunte, il valore dellarea aggiuntiva dovuta

38

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

alla presenza di N denti risulta sostanzialmente indipendente da N e legato invece al valore


h% dellincisione del dente verso linterno della perforazione
Ap,iniziale =
=

2
1 d2
dint N int h%
4
4
N
2
d (1 h%)
4 int

A esempio, per h% pari al 15% di dint /2, valuto subito


Ap,iniziale =
=
=

2
d (1 h%)
4 int

31.82 1 = 794.23 cm2 senza intagli


4

31.82 0.85 = 675.09 cm2 con intagli


4

In questa configurazione leettivo ma approssimato rapporto di serraggio (Klemmung) vale


K =
=

Ap
d2int (1 h%)
=
At
4
At
675.09
= 17.92 invece di 21.08 per tubo progressivo
37.678

(158)
(159)

Anche in presenza di intagli il Klemmung risulta sucientemente alto ( 1), escludendo


quindi il pericolo di combustione erosiva.
Per valutare linterdipendenza dei parametri N e h% relativi alla configurazione a stella
assunta, impongo che larea della superficie di combustione si mantenga inalterata e pari al
valore finale assunto come riferimento per il comportamento neutro. Essendo la superficie interna necessariamente corrugata, parleremo pi in generale di perimetro interno pint
piuttosto che di dint
dext Lp = dint Lp = pint Lp
Il perimetro dovuto a N denti, sporgenti secondo triangoli isosceli verso linterno della perforazione a partire da dint /2 e distribuiti in successione regolare sulla circonferenza dint ,
applicando il teorema di Pitagora vale
s
s
2
2
2

dint
N
1 dint
h% = dint 1 +
h%
+
pint = 2N
2 N
2

Il vincolo di neutralit impone


dext Lp = pint Lp = dint Lp

1+

2
N
h%

In definitiva, nelle condizioni assunte, la geometria degli N denti sostanzialmente indipendente da Lp e legata invece al fattore N h% relativo allincisione del dente verso linterno della
perforazione, essendo
s
2

N
dext
h%
= 1+
dint

Per realizzare un certo incremento di dint rispetto a dext , posso scegliere il numero dei denti
N fissando di conseguenza la profondit percentuale del dente h% oppure, al contrario, scelgo

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

39

la profondit percentuale del dente h% fissando di conseguenza il numero delle punte N. A


esempio, nel caso in esame, per h% pari al 15% di dint /2, valuto subito
s

dext 2

N =
1
h%
dint
s

58 2

=
1 = 31.946
0.15
31.8
ovvero N
= 32. Nella realt, avrei bisogno di una seconda iterazione per anare il progetto
della dentatura del grano di propellant solido.

3.4

Lunghezza Totale Motore (per dmax = 60 cm)

Ricordo che le aree significative del divergente valgono (vedi sezione Ugello Adattato)
At =
Ae =
Ae =

T (z = z0 = 103 m)
5000 9.807
2
= 3.7678 103 m2 = 37.678 cm
=
(160)
pc cF
76 1.01325 105 1.69
(z = z0 ) At = 24 37.678 = 904.27 cm2
(161)
(z = z1 ) At = 148 37.678 = 5576.3 cm2

(162)

e quindi i diametri risultano


r

r
4 At
4 37.678
=
= 6.926 cm
Dt =

r
r
4 Ae
4 934. 32
De (z = z0 ) =
=
= 34.49 cm

r
r
4 Ae
4 5576.3
=
= 84.26 cm
De (z = z1 ) =

(163)
(164)
(165)

donde la lunghezza del divergente avendo assunto una semiapertura div = 15


(34.49 6.926)/2
(De Dt )/2
=
= 51.435 cm
tan(div )
tan(15 /180)
(84.26 6.926)/2
(De Dt )/2
=
= 144.31 cm
Ldiv (z = z1 ) =
tan(div )
tan(15 /180)

Ldiv (z = z0 ) =

(166)
(167)

La superficie laterale del divergente, da proteggere dagli intensi flussi termici in qualche modo,
vale
"
2 # s
De 2
Dt
1
Alat,div (z = z0 ) =

1+
2
2
2
tan (div )
s
(
)

34.49 2
6.926 2
1
=

1+
2
2
tan2 (15 /180)
= 3464.2 cm2

oppure seguendo lespressione riportata dal formulario CRC (vedi p. 17 [5])


Alat,div (z = z0 ) = (De + Dt ) /2 Ldiv,obliqua = (34.49/2 + 6.926/2) 52.172 = 3348.4 cm2

40

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

essendo la lunghezza obliqua del divergente per il teorema di Pitagora


q
q
Ldiv,obliqua (z = z0 ) = (De /2 Dt /2)2 + L2div = (34.49/2 6.926/2)2 + 51.4352 = 53.249 cm
Analogamente, le aree significative del convergente valgono (vedi sezione Camera di Combustione)
T (z = z0 = 103 m)
5000 9.807
2
= 3.7678 103 m2 = 37.678 cm
=
(168)
pc cF
76 1.01325 105 1.69
2
2
Dc
60
=
=
= 0.28274 m2 = 2827.4 cm2
(169)
2
2

At =
Ac

essendo i diametri, nellipotesi di dmax = 60 cm per il combustore, rispettivamente


Dt = 6.926 cm

(170)

Dc = 60 cm

(171)

donde la lunghezza del convergente avendo assunto una semiapertura con = 30


Lcon =

(60 6.926)/2
(Dc Dt )/2
=
= 45.963 cm
tan(con )
tan(30 /180)

(172)

La superficie laterale del convergente, da proteggere dagli intensi flussi termici in qualche
modo, vale
"
2 # s
Dc 2
Dt
1

Alat,con =
1+
2
2
2
tan (con )
s

!

60 2
6.926 2
1
=

1+
2
2
tan2 (30 /180)
= 5579.5 cm2

oppure seguendo lespressione riportata dal formulario CRC (vedi p. 17 [5])


Alat,con = (Dc + Dt ) /2 Lcon,obliqua = (60/2 + 6.926/2) 53.074 = 5579.5 cm2
essendo la lunghezza obliqua del convergente per il teorema di Pitagora
q
q
Lcon,obliqua = (Dc /2 Dt /2)2 + L2con = (60/2 6.926/2)2 + 45.9632 = 53.074 cm
Alla quota z = z0 , la lunghezza totale dellugello risulta

Lugello = Lcon + Ldiv (z = z0 ) = 45.963 + 51.435 = 97.398 cm


mentre la lunghezza totale del motore
Lmotore = Lc + Lcon + Ldiv (z = z0 ) = 46.0 + 45.963 + 51.435 = 143.40 cm
Il volume del convergente, se considerato parte integrante della camera di combustione, contribuisce al valore di L . Valuto allora
2

Dt
Dt
L3
Vcon =
L2con tan(con ) + con tan(con )
Lcon +
2
2
3
)
(
2

6.926
45.9632
6.926
45.963 tan(30 /180) +
tan(30 /180)
= 45.963
+
2
2
3
= 73.709 103 cm3

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

41

mentre il volume della camera di combustione vale


Vc = Ac Lc = 2827.4 46.0 = 130.06 103 cm3
In questo caso risulta Vc Vcon .

3.5

Impulso Totale

Limpulso totale eettivo per definizione vale


Itot (z = z0 ) = T (z = z0 ) tb = 5000 10 = 50.000 103 kg s

(173)

Itot (z = z1 ) = T (z = z1 ) tb = 5364.09 10 = 53.641 10 kg s

(174)

oppure posso anche scrivere


Itot (z = z0 ) = Is (z = z0 ) (wp )ideal = 272.55 183.39 = 49.983 103 kg s
3

Itot (z = z1 ) = Is (z = z1 ) (wp )ideal = 292.39 183.39 = 53.621 10 kg s

(175)
(176)

ma dovrei considerare wp eettivamente consumato.

3.6

Accensione

Seguo Sutton VI [1] e Sutton VII [2] (non usare xerox di Fig. 14-11 oppure Fig. 14-16 perch
la relativa Eq. 14-4 di calzatura dei dati riportata in maniera diversa nelle due edizioni del
Sutton).
In ogni caso, valuto il volume libero allistante dellaccensione come
Vf

=
=
=

2
d (1 h%) Lp =
(177)
4 int

31.82 46 = 36534. cm3 in assenza di intagli (h% = 0)


(178)
4

31.82 (1 0.15) 46 = 31054. cm3 in presenza di intagli (h% = 0.15) (179)


4

La formula empirica di Eq. 14-4 per espressa in in3 , per cui deduco
Vf =

cm3
2
31054
dint (1 h%) Lp =
= 1895.0 in3
4
2.543 (cm/in)3

(180)

La carica principale dellaccenditore, per Sutton VI [1] p. 493, dovr essere di almeno
mign = 0.50 (Vf )0.7 = 0.5 1895.00.7 = 98.468 g

(181)

mentre per Sutton VII [2] p. 567 basterebbe


mign = 0.12 (Vf )0.7 = 0.12 1895.00.7 = 23.632 g

(182)

Se, per prudenza o celerit di calcolo, considerassi la geometria iniziale in assenza di dentature
o intagli, troverei la carica principale dellaccenditore pi grande.

42

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

3.7

Erosione (da migliorare)

Seguo Sutton VI [1] p. 499, discussione dettagliata pp. 379-382, per verificare di essere sopra
il valore limite (di sicurezza o di non erosione) di Ap /At = 3.0.
Valuto il rapporto delle aree allistante dellaccensione: prima necessito dellarea di passaggio
dei gas (port area), gi calcolato nella Sez. Grano di Propellente in assenza dintagli, come
Ap,iniziale =
Ap
At

dint = 31.82 = 794.23 cm2


4
4
d2int (1 h%)

= 31.82 0.85 = 675.09 cm2


4
At
4

(183)
(184)

e dunque
Ap,iniziale
At

=
=

794.23
= 21.08 in assenza di intagli
37.678
675.09
= 17.92 in presenza di intagli
37.678

(185)
(186)

superiore al valore minimo di Ap = 3.0 At = 3.0 37.678 = 113.03 cm2 richiesto per evitare
fenomeni di combustione erosiva. A fine combustione trovo
Ap,f inale =

dint = 582 = 2642.1 cm2


4
4

Al momento di massimo pericolo di combustione erosiva, posso calcolo ug come


.

w = c ug Ap,iniziale ug =
ug =
ug =

w
c Ap,iniziale

18.339
= 32.480 m/s in assenza di intagli
7.109 (794.23 104 )
18.339
= 38.213 m/s in presenza di intagli
7.109 (675.09 104 )

nettamente inferiore al valore critico convenzionale di 200 m/s.


Aggiungere per confronto criterio Lengell (vedi analisi Germiniasi).

(187)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

3.8

43

Velocit di Eusso

Partendo dalla nota relazione


v
"
u
k1 #
u
<
k
pe k
ue = tu2c + 2
= Tc 1
k1M
pc

e ponendo al solito uc ' 0 (a ricordare che la camera di combustione pu essere considerata


una zona di ristagno per la massa fluida in espansione) si trova anche
s
k <
ue = 2
= Tc
k1M
dove inteso essere il rendimento di un ipotetico ciclo termodinamico a pressione costante
fra i valori pc e pe
k1
pe k
1
(188)
pc

Per i due casi considerati, valuto per il rendimento


(z = z0 ) = 1
(z = z1 ) = 1

0.26151
76
1
3020.91

1.251
1.25

1.251

= .6784

(189)

= .7986

(190)

1.25

Quindi per la velocit di eusso risulta


v
(
u

1.251 )
u
1.25
8314.3
0.26151
1.25

3257 1
ue (z = z0 ) = t2
= 2710.8
1.25 1
25
76
v
(
u

1.251 )
u
1.25
1
8314.3
1.25
= 2941.2
ue (z = z1 ) = t2

3257 1
1.25 1
25
3020.91

m
(191)
s
m
(192)
s

Posso anche procedere attraverso la velocit limite


s
k <
uL = 2
= Tc
k1M

da cui si pu scrivere in generale per un qualsiasi propulsore termico

ue = uL
e che nel nostro caso vale
uL =

8314.3
1.25

3257 = 3292.2 m/s


1.25 1
25

da cui verifico sia in termini di velocit limite


p

ue (z = z0 ) = uL (z = 0) = 3292.2 .6784 = 2711.6 m/s


p

ue (z = z1 ) = uL (z = z1 ) = 3292.2 .7986 = 2941.2 m/s

(193)

(194)
(195)

44

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

sia di impulso specifico per ugello adattato


ue (z = z0 )
2710.8
= 276.41 s
=
g0
9.807
ue (z = z1 )
2941.2
= 299.91 s
=
Is (z = z1 ) =
g0
9.807

Is (z = z0 ) =

(196)
(197)

La velocit in gola risulta


v
"
u
k1 #
u k <
pt k
t
ut =
2
= Tc 1
k1M
pc
s
k < k1
=
2
= Tc
k1M
k+1
r
r
k1
1.25 1
= uL
= 3292.3
= 1097.44 m/s
k+1
1.25 + 1
essendo il rapporto critico delle pressioni
pt
pc

e dunque
pt = pc

2
k+1

2
k+1

k
k1

2
1.25 + 1

1.25
1.251

= 0.5549

k
k1

= 76 0.5549 = 42.1724 atm

(198)

Inoltre il rapporto critico delle temperature e density valgono rispettivamente


Tt
Tc

2
2
=
= 0.889
k+1
1.25 + 1

1
1
k1
1.251
2
2
=
=
= 0.6243
k+1
1.25 + 1
=

e dunque
2
= 3257 0.89 = 2898. 73 K
k+1
1

k1
2
= c
= 7.103 0.6243 = 4. 434 kg/m3
k+1

Tt = Tc

(199)

(200)

Controllo ancora
ut =
=

<
=

Tt =

1.25

k <
= Tc
k+1M

8320
2898.73 = 1098.12 m/s
25

(201)
(202)

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

3.9

45

Espansione Isentropica

Procedo per punti, alla quota di volo z = z0 = 10, 000 m, fra le due situazioni estreme = 1
ed = 24 essendo per comodit A/At . Scelgo per convenienza una tabella in pressione,
sapendo che parto da pc e finisco con pa = pe adattato alla quota di volo z = z0 (sarebbe pi
elegante procedere con = 1, 5, 10, 15, 24 ma poco pratico). Per dettagli, vedi [6] [7].
Quadro delle relazioni isentropiche

1.25 1
k1
p
p
T = Tc ( ) k = 3257 ( ) 1.25
pc
76
1
1
p
p
= c ( ) k = 7. 103 ( ) 1.25
pc
76
r
r
T
T
= 1164
a = ac
Tc
3257
v

u
u
k1
1.25 1
u
u
u 2 pc
u
76
2
( ) k 1 = t
( ) 1.25 1
M = t
k1
p
1.25 1
p

u = aM
v
v
u
u
k+1
u
u

1.25 + 1
u
u
u 1 + k 1M2 k 1
u 1 + 1.25 1 (M )2 1.25 1
A
1u
1u

2
2
u
u
=
=

t
1.25 1
k1
At
M
Mt
1+
1+
2
2
p, atm
76
42.172
20
10
5
1
0.26151
f (p

T, K
3257.00
2895.05
2493.80
2170.98
1889.94
1369.79
1047.50

Tabella flusso
, kg/m3 a, m/s
7.103
1164.00
4.434
1097.42
2.441
1018.53
1.402
950.325
0.805
886.682
0.222
754.868
0.076
660.117

isentropico
M
u, m/s
0.000
0.000
1.000 1097.42
1.565 1593.70
2.001 1901.13
2.406 2132.96
3.320 2506.10
4.108 2711.67

= 100 atm) = 3456.23 (100)0.0177 = 3749.75 K

= A/At
(cc
= ristagno)
1
1.25077
1.82565
2.83308
8.73815
23.619
= 24

(203)
(204)
(205)

(206)
(207)

(208)

46

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

CONCLUSIONI

Solid rocket motors orono una tecnologia adabile ed economica ma poco flessibile per i
sistemi propulsivi utilizzati in propulsione aerospaziale, con prestazioni limitate in termini
di impulso specifico ponderale ma eccellenti in termini di impulso specifico volumetrico. La
prontezza dimpiego e il basso tasso dinvecchiamento ne favoriscono limpiego in tutte le
applicazioni a basso costo e modesta qualit della missione. In propulsione aerospaziale gli
solid rocket motors sono comunemente impiegati come motori di avviamento (boosters) dei
lanciatori pesanti di accesso allo spazio (Space Shuttle, Ariane, H-II, ecc.) oppure come
lanciatori leggeri (Vega). Lalto valore di impulso specifico volumetrico rende inoltre gli solid
rocket motors particolarmente adatti a tutte le missioni che sorono restrizioni di volume,
quale a esempio il trasferimento del carico pagante in orbita alta dalla stiva dello Space
Shuttle inserito in orbita bassa (motori del tipo IUS).

Chapter 11 - Solid Rocket Engines - AppEx

47

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The volumes by Sutton and coworkers [8] [2] [1] [9], Humble and coworkers [10], Hill and
Peterson [11] [12], Timnat [13], Cornelisse and coworkers [3], Barrre and coworkers [4] are
classical textbooks of systematic treatment of rocket propulsion in its generality and therefore
not necessarily deep on specific themes. The volumes by Davenas [14] [15] [16], Williams and
coworkers [17], and Sarner [18] are specifically addressed to solid rocket motors. The volume
by Glassman and Sawyer [19] is a fundamental textbook to calculate performance of chemical
propellants in general. A booklet by Brown [20] provides a wealth of practical considerations
and a very useful collection of exercises.
Per approfondimenti sono inoltre consigliati i libri editi da Boyars e Klager [21], Kuo
e Summerfield [22], De Luca, Price e Summerfield [23] specializzati rispettivamente sulla
preparazione, combustione e stabilit dei propellenti solidi e relativi sistemi propulsivi. Utili
sono anche una monografia francese [24] e una serie di articoli specializzati sui propellenti
solidi, raccolti in varie pubblicazioni a cura rispettivamente di Warren [25] e Penner &
Ducarme [26]. Una trattazione elementare in lingua italiana sui problemi connessi alla scelta
e allimpiego dei propellenti in generale stata scritta dallautore per una collana scientifica
divulgativa (Mondadori 1984, Ref. 7x).

References
[1] G.P. Sutton. Rocket Propulsion Elements. Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 6th edition,
1992.
[2] G.P. Sutton and O. Biblarz. Rocket Propulsion Elements. Wiley, New York, NY, USA,
7th edition, 2001.
[3] J.W. Cornelisse, H.F.R. Schyer, and Wakker K.F. Rocket Propulsion and Spaceflight
Dynamics. Pitman Publishing Limited, London, UK, 1979.
[4] M. Barrre, A. Jaumotte, B. Fraeijs De Veubeke, and J. Vandenkerckhove. Rocket
Propulsion. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1960.
[5] S.M. Selby. Standard Mathematical Tables. CRC, The Chemical Rubber Company,
Cleveland, OH, USA, 19th edition, 1971.
[6] H.W. Liepmann and A. Roshko. Elements of Gasdynamics. Galcit Aeronautical Series.
Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 8th printing edition, 1967.
[7] A.M. Kuethe and J.D. Schetzer. Foundations of Aerodynamics. Wiley, New York, NY,
USA, 7th printing 2nd edition, 1967.
[8] G.P. Sutton and O. Biblarz. Rocket Propulsion Elements. Wiley, New York, NY, USA,
8th edition, 2010.
[9] G.P. Sutton and D.M. Ross. Rocket Propulsion Elements. Wiley, New York, NY, USA,
4th edition, 1976.
[10] R.W. Humble, G.N. Henry, and W.J. Larson. Space Propulsion Analysis and Design.
McGraw-Hill, 1995.

48

Space Propulsion - DeLuca 2004

[11] P.G. Hill and C.R. Peterson. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, USA, 2nd edition, 1992.
[12] P.G. Hill and C.R. Peterson. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion. AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, USA, 3rd printing 1970 1st edition, 1965.
[13] Y.M. Timnat. Advanced Chemical Rocket Propulsion. Academic Press, London, UK,
1987.
[14] A. Davenas. Solid Rocket Motor Design, volume 170 of AIAA Progress in Astronautics
and Aeronautics, Tactical Missile Propulsion, edited by G.E. Jensen and D.W. Netzer,
chapter 4, pages 57113. AIAA, USA, 1996.
[15] A. Davenas. Solid Rocket Propulsion Technology. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1993.
[16] A. Davenas et Collaborateurs. Technologie des Propergols Solides. Masson, Paris, France,
1989.
[17] F.A. Williams, M. Barrre, and N.C. Huang. Fundamental Aspects of Solid Propellant
Rockets. Technivision Services, Slough, UK, 1969. AGARDograph 116.
[18] S.F. Sarner. Propellant Chemistry. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, NY,
USA, 1966.
[19] I. Glassman and R.F. Sawyer. The Performance of Chemical Propellants. Technivision
Services, Slough, UK, 1970. AGARDograph 129.
[20] C.D. Brown. Spacecraft Propulsion. AIAA Education Series. American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC, USA, 2nd edition, 1996.
[21] C. Boyars and K. Klager. Propellants Manufacture, Hazards, and Testing. ACS No. 88.
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 1969.
[22] K.K. Kuo and M. Summerfield. Fundamentals of Solid Propellant Combustion, volume 90
of AIAA Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics. AIAA, USA, 1984.
[23] L.T. DeLuca. Theory of Nonsteady Burning and Combustion Stability of Solid Propellants by Flame Models, volume 143 of AIAA Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Nonsteady Burning and Combustion Stability of Solid Propellants, edited by L.T.
DeLuca, E.W. Price, and M. Summerfield, chapter 14, pages 519600. AIAA, Washington, DC, USA, 1992.
[24] B. Crampel. Chimie des Constituants de Propergols. ONERA, chatillon, France, 1967.
ONERA NT 113.
[25] F.A. Warren. Solid Propellant Technology. AIAA Selected Reprint Series. AIAA, New
York, NY, USA, 1970.
[26] S.S. Penner and J. Ducarme. The Chemistry of Propellants. AGARD Combustion and
Propulsion Panel. Pergamon Press, 1960.