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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO.

6, JUNE 2015

3473

Family of Soft-Switching Single-Switch PWM


Converters With Lossless Passive Snubber
Mehdi Mohammadi, Student Member, IEEE, Ehsan Adib, and Mohammad Rouhollah Yazdani

AbstractTo increase the power conversion density, decrease switching losses and electromagnetic interference
(EMI), and provide safe operating area for a switch, applying
snubber circuits which provide soft-switching conditions is
inevitable. Among different types of snubber circuits, passive snubbers, due to their simplicity and robustness, are
preferred. These snubber circuits can obtain soft-switching
conditions without any additional switch. Thus, gate drive
and control circuits remain simple. In this paper, a simple
lossless passive snubber circuit which can be applied on
isolated and nonisolated converters is introduced. The proposed snubber circuit provides zero-current-switching and
zero-voltage-switching conditions at turn-on and turnoff
instants, respectively. The proposed snubber is applied on
a boost converter and analyzed. Also, in order to prove
the effectiveness of the proposed snubber circuit from
the converter efciency and EMI viewpoints, a 200-W prototype boost converter is implemented, and experimental
results are presented. Also, the simulation results of a
soft-switched yback converter with the proposed snubber
cell are presented.
Index TermsEfciency, electromagnetic interference
(EMI), lossless passive snubber, soft switching.

I. I NTRODUCTION

HESE days, power conversion density is one of the most


important specifications in designing a power electronic
converter which should be taken into account. Generally, increasing the switching frequency is the most effective way
to achieve this goal. If the problems related to increasing the
switching frequency such as switching losses and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are not solved, in some cases, increasing the switching frequency not only is not effective in reducing
the volume and weight of a converter but also increases the
volume too. Today, power converters are vastly used in various
applications such as power-factor-correction circuits [1], [2],
bidirectional converters as interface for battery charger and
renewable energy sources [3] and also electric vehicles [4],
photovoltaic cells [5], [6], motor drivers [7], fuel cells [8], [9]
and LED drivers [10]. The interest is to provide soft-switching
Manuscript received June 27, 2014; revised September 22, 2014;
accepted October 19, 2014. Date of publication November 20, 2014;
date of current version May 8, 2015.
M. Mohammadi and E. Adib are with the Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan
84156-83111, Iran (e-mail: mehdi.mohammadi@ec.iut.ac.ir; e.adib@
cc.iut.ac.ir).
M. R. Yazdani is with the Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Isfahan 86316-56451, Iran (e-mail: mro.yazdani@gmail.com).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2014.2371436

conditions to increase the power conversion density and to


improve the converter efficiency. In pulse width modulation
(PWM) converters, a useful circuit which is able to decrease
the switching losses is the snubber circuit. Basically, snubber
circuits are divided into two categories: active and passive
snubber circuits. In active snubber circuits, an auxiliary switch
is used to control the function of the snubber circuit [11][21].
In some converters, the auxiliary switch needs a floating gate
driver which results in the complexity of the control circuit
[11][16]. However, for the suggested converter in [16], bootstrap technique can be used which allows the converter gate
drive circuit to be implemented without any additional magnetic
element. To obtain soft-switching conditions, scheduling of the
snubber circuit switch is very important which leads to increase
the complexity of the control circuit and needs the value of
the auxiliary circuit components to be determined exactly [22].
Aside from the issues of active techniques, the most important
advantage of theses snubber circuits is that some of them are
able to provide zero voltage switching (ZVS) and zero current
switching (ZCS) conditions at turn-on and turnoff instants,
respectively [21].
In contrast, passive snubbers utilize only passive components, and they provide soft-switching conditions without any
active components. Therefore, the complexity of the control
and snubber circuits is not increased [23]. Until now, many
passive snubbers have been introduced for power converters
[24][30]. In [24], a lossless passive snubber is introduced
which uses two coupled inductors to provide soft-switching
conditions. The role of the coupled inductors is to discharge
the stored energy in the snubber capacitor. Because one of the
coupled inductors is placed in series with the converter switch,
it results in voltage ringing at the switch turnoff instant. Thus,
the converter switch is turned off under semi-ZVS condition. In
[25], a passive lossless snubber circuit which can be engaged
on some isolated and nonisolated converters is suggested. The
number of the snubber circuit components is relatively high,
and also, it uses two distinct cores for implementing the snubber
inductors. In [26], a lossless passive snubber circuit is offered
which is applied on a double ended flyback converter. However, the snubber circuit provides ZVS and ZCS conditions
at turn-on and turnoff instants, and it increases the circulation
losses. During switch-on time, the current through the snubber
inductors freewheels through the converter switches, which
causes the conductive losses to increase. Also, Fujiwara and
Nomura [27] introduce a passive snubber applied to a boost
converter in which a diode is added in series with the power
path which leads to higher conduction losses of the converter.
Moreover, two distinct inductors are used in the snubber circuit
which affects the size of the converter. In [28], the introduced
snubber circuit in [27] is modified as it saves two diodes and one

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 6, JUNE 2015

inductor compared to its counterpart. In [29], a lossless passive


snubber is proposed in which a saturable inductor is used.
Although the saturable inductor causes to obtain ZCS condition
for the converter switch, it results in voltage ringing when
turning off the converter switch. In [30], although the snubber
circuit is successful in providing ZCS condition at turn-on for
the converter switch, it cannot provide soft-switching condition
at the turnoff instant. A family of lossless passive soft-switching
methods is introduced in [31] in which the converter switch
voltage stress is not clamped. The advantage of these converters
is the wide range of duty cycle variation.
In addition to efficiency, losses, and soft-switching conditions, another important parameter of a power converter is the
EMI. Nowadays, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards such as the International Special Committee on Radio
Interference (CISPR) provide another constraint for power
electronics designers to reduce electromagnetic emissions [32].
Since dv/dt and di/dt of the main switch are reduced in
soft-switching converters, electromagnetic emissions can be
lowered with respect to hard-switching converters. However,
the reduction of electromagnetic emissions may not be sufficient in some soft-switching topologies due to the unwanted
resonances and additional components that would lead to more
parasitic elements [33]. Consequently, the EMI phenomena of
the new soft-switching converters should be evaluated, which is
considered in this paper.
In this paper, a lossless passive snubber circuit is introduced
which has this ability to be applied on a wide variety of isolated
and nonisolated converters. The proposed snubber circuit can
be applied on boost, buck, buckboost, Sepic, Zeta, Cuk, flyback, forward, isolated Sepic, isolated Zeta, and isolated Cuk.
In this snubber, the stored energy in the snubbers capacitor
is delivered to the output voltage that decreases the converter
circulation losses. Usually, passive snubber cells are adopted
for a special converter [26][30]. In this snubber, the stored
energy in the snubbers capacitor is delivered to the output
voltage that decreases the converter circulation losses. In some
cases, for example, in [26], the stored energy in the snubber cell
is delivered to the input voltage which causes the circulation
losses to increase. Another advantage is that the EMI of
the boost converter with the proposed snubber cell can be
considerably reduced by the significant reduction of the di/dt
and dv/dt of the main switch which is achieved by providing
ZCS and ZVS conditions at turn-on and turnoff instances.
Although the proposed snubber circuit can be engaged on
many converters, in this paper, to explain the function of the
snubber circuit, its behavior on a boost converter is discussed.
The operation of the proposed snubber cell on other converters
is the same as its operation on the boost converter.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the proposed snubber circuit is introduced. In Section III, to evaluate
the operation of the proposed snubber circuit, a soft-switched
boost converter which uses the snubber circuit is discussed.
Section IV provides a simple procedure to design the proposed snubber circuit. In order to show the effectiveness of
the snubber circuit, the experimental results of a 200-W boost
converter are offered in Section V. The experimental conducted
EMI measurement is presented in Section VI, and the conducted electromagnetic emissions of the proposed converter
and its hard-switching counterpart are compared. Also, other

Fig. 1.

Proposed lossless passive snubber cell.

Fig. 2. Soft-switched boost converter with the proposed lossless passive snubber.

power converters that the snubber circuit can be engaged on


are introduced in Section VII. To validate the operation of
the snubber circuit in providing soft-switching conditions in
another converter, the simulation results of an 80-W flyback
converter are offered in Section VII too.
II. T HE P ROPOSED L OSSLESS PASSIVE S NUBBER C ELL
Fig. 1 shows the proposed lossless passive snubber cell. The
snubber circuit comprises LS1 , LS2 , LS3 , CS , and four snubber
diodes DS1 through DS4 . The snubber inductors LS2 and LS3
are coupled together. The turn ratio of the coupled inductors
LS2 and LS3 can be calculated using the following equation:

LS2
na =
.
(1)
LS3
The operation of the proposed snubber circuit is based on
the operation of the flyback converter. The role of CS and LS1
is to provide ZVS and ZCS conditions at turnoff and turn-on
instants, respectively. Other snubber components are used to
recover the stored energy in the snubber capacitor.
After turning the converter switch off, CS is charged. In
the next switching period, to provide ZVS condition for the
converter switch, it is necessary to discharge the voltage of CS .
While the converter switch is on, the stored energy in CS is
transferred to LS2 under a resonant process. When the converter
switch is turned off, the stored energy in LS2 is transferred
to the output voltage. In cases where the current through LS1
is larger than the maximum current through LS2 , DS4 is not
necessary. It depends on the converter operating power. In fact,
DS4 does not allow the voltage of CS to become negative in low
output powers. The operation of the snubber cell is discussed in
detail in Section III.

MOHAMMADI et al.: FAMILY OF SOFT-SWITCHING SINGLE-SWITCH PWM CONVERTERS WITH PASSIVE SNUBBER

Fig. 3.

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Equivalent circuits of each operating mode.

III. P RINCIPLE O PERATION OF THE S OFT-S WITCHED


B OOST C ONVERTER
In this section, the operating modes of a soft-switched boost
converter using the proposed snubber circuit are explained.
Fig. 2 shows the soft-switched boost converter. LS1 , LS2 , LS3 ,
CS , and DS1 through DS4 are the snubber components. Also,
Lin , S, DO , and CO are the main components of the boost
converter. In each switching cycle, the proposed boost converter
has seven operating modes in continuous-conduction mode.
The equivalent circuits of each operating mode are shown in
Fig. 3. Also, Fig. 4 shows the key waveforms of the converter.
Prior to Mode 1, it is considered that S and all snubber diodes
are off, the stored energy in LS2 and LS3 is zero, DO is on, and
VCS is VCS (t0 ).
Mode 1 [t0 t1 ]: At t0 , the converter switch S is turned
on under ZCS due to LS1 and LS2 . By turning S on, DS1
turns on under ZCS. In this mode, since the current through
LS1 is smaller than the input current iin , DO remains on, and
thus, VO is placed across LS1 . Therefore, the current through
LS1 increases linearly with the slope of VO /LS1 . Also, since
the snubber capacitor CS was charged up to a voltage larger
than VO , turning S on starts a resonance between LS2 and CS .
During this resonance, VCS reduces, and iLS2 increases. The
important equations of this mode are as follows:
iLin (t) = iLin (t0 )

VO Vin
(t t0 )
Lin

Vo
(t t0 )
Ls1

CS
sin ((t t0 ))
iLS2 (t) = VCS (t0 )
LS2
VCS (t) = VCS (t0 ) cos ((t t0 )) .

iLS1 (t) =

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Fig. 4.

Key waveforms of the soft-switched boost converter.

Mode 2 [t1 t2 ]: At t1 , iLS1 reaches iin , and thus, DO


turns off under ZCS. Therefore, Vin places across Lin and LS1
and causes their currents to increase in a linear manner. The
resonance started in Mode 1 between LS2 and CS continues in
this mode. iLS2 and VCS can be calculated via (4) and (5), and
iLS1 can be computed with the following equation:
iLin (t) = iLS1 (t) = iLs1 (t1 ) +

Vin
(t t1 ).
Ls1 + Lin

(6)

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Mode 3 [t2 t3 ]: At t2 , the voltage of CS becomes zero.


The operation of the proposed snubber cell in this mode
depends on the converter operating power. Based on the
current which passes through LS1 , two scenarios can occur
[Mode 3 (A) and Mode 3 (B)].
Mode 3 (A): If the current through LS1 is larger than the current
through LS2 which is calculated in (4), DS2 turns on under
ZVS. Because, in this mode, both DS1 and DS2 are on
and back to back, the voltage across LS2 is zero, so its
current freewheels through DS1 and DS2 . This does not
allow the current through LS2 to reduce gradually due to
the diode forward voltage. During this mode, the voltage
of CS remains zero.
Mode 3 (B): If the current through LS1 is smaller than iLs2 (t2 ),
DS4 turns on under ZVS, and VCs remains zero. The
current through LS2 freewheels through DS4 and S.
Mode 4 [t3 t4 ]: At t3 , S is turned off under ZVS. Therefore, iin and iLS1 pass through DS2 and CS . In this mode, the
current of Lin can be considered almost constant, and thus, VCS
is charged linearly. Also, at t3 , DS3 turns on and provides an
opportunity for the stored energy in the core of the coupled
inductors LS2 and LS3 to be transferred to the output. Also,
if Mode 3 (B) occurs, at the beginning of this mode, DS4 turns
off, and DS2 turns on under ZVS. The important equations of
this mode are the following:
VCS (t) =

iin
(t t3 )
CS

iDS3 = na iLS2 (t2 )

(7)
VO
(t t3 ).
LS3

(8)

Mode 5 [t4 t5 ]: At t4 , VCS reaches Vo (1 + LS1 /Lin ), so


DO turns on under ZVS. Therefore, a voltage of Vin VO
places across Lin , and this inductor discharges in the output.
Also, at t4 , a resonance begins between CS and LS1 . Under this
resonance, the stored energy in LS1 transfers to CS . The maximum voltage of CS at t5 can be calculated by the use of (9).
In this mode, the current through DS3 can be obtained via (8)

 
LS1
LS1
iin (t4 ).
(9)
VCS (t5 ) = VO 1 +
+
Lin
CS
Mode 6 [t5 t6 ]: At t5 , the current through LS1 reaches
zero, and DS2 turns off under ZCS. In this mode, LS3 is being
discharged in the output voltage.
Mode 7 [t6 t7 ]: At t6 , the stored energy in LS3 is discharged completely, so DS3 turns off under ZCS. The operation
of the converter in this mode is the same as that of a conventional boost converter when its switch is off.
IV. D ESIGN C ONSIDERATIONS
Designing the proposed snubber circuit involves to determine
the values of CS , LS1 , LS2 , and LS3 . The main components of
the converter can be designed based on the conventional power
converters [34]. For the design procedure, it is assumed that the
values of the filter inductors and capacitors are chosen, so the
variation of the current filter inductor (I) is known. First, LS1
and CS should be calculated to obtain ZCS and ZVS conditions,
respectively. These snubber components can be computed the

TABLE I
VOLTAGE AND C URRENT S TRESSES OF THE S EMICONDUCTOR
E LEMENTS OF THE P ROPOSED B OOST C ONVERTER

same as any snubber inductor and capacitor [34]. To calculate


LS1 and CS , the following equations can be used:
Vsw tr
isw
isw tf
CS >
2Vsw

LS1 >

(10)
(11)

where Vsw , isw , tr , and tf are the maximum switch voltage and
current and the switch current rise and fall times, respectively.
To recover the stored energy in the snubber capacitor, the
value of LS2 should be chosen properly. For this purpose, the
quarter of the period of the resonance started in Mode 1 must
be smaller than the minimum switch-on time


2Tsw 2
1
LS2 <
(12)
CS

where Tsw is the minimum switch-on time.


After choosing the value of LS2 , LS3 can be computed. LS3
can be chosen with the following equation:

2
1 VO (T Tsw )
LS3 <
(13)
CS
VCs
where T is the switching period, Tsw is the maximum switchon time, and VCs is the maximum voltage of CS . Note that VCs
depends on the converter topology, and for the boost converter,
it can be calculated using (9).
Aside from calculating the inductors and capacitors of the
proposed snubber circuit, the other important parameters which
should be taken into account are the semiconductor voltage and
current stresses. For the proposed boost converter, the average
current of the converter switch, the converter switch current
stress, and also the switch voltage stress can be computed by
use of (14)(16), respectively. Also, the voltage and current
stresses of the other semiconductor elements of the proposed
boost converter are shown in Table I
PO
Vsw
+ CS
Vin D 
Tsw 

PO
LS1
1+
=
Vin D
LS2




I
LS1
CS

+ VO
1
2
LS2
LS2



LS1
PO
I
+
= (1 + na )VO +
CS Vin D
2

isw(av.) =
isw

Vsw

(14)

(15)
(16)

MOHAMMADI et al.: FAMILY OF SOFT-SWITCHING SINGLE-SWITCH PWM CONVERTERS WITH PASSIVE SNUBBER

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TABLE II
PARAMETERS OF THE I MPLEMENTED C ONVERTER

Fig. 5. (Top) Voltage and (bottom) current waveforms of (a) the converter switch S and (b) the output rectifier diode DO .

Fig. 6. Voltages and currents of the converter semiconductor elements.


(a) DS1 , (b) DS2 , and (c) DS3 .

where is the converter efficiency which, at the worst case, can


be considered as 0.8.
V. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS
The experimental results of an implemented 200-W proposed
boost converter are presented in this section. The input and
output voltages of the proposed converter are 50 and 100 V,
respectively. The switching frequency is 100 KHz. IRF640
and U F 4006 are engaged as the converter switch S and DS3 ,
respectively. MUR460 is used as the diodes DO , DS1 , and DS2 ,
and UF4004 is used for DS4 . Also, the values of the other
converters components are shown in Table II. The parasitic
capacitors of the main switch consist of intrinsic parasitics such
as Coss and the parasitic capacitor between the drain and earth
(chassis). The Coss typical value is 430 pF according to the
IRF640 data sheet.
In order to show that soft-switching conditions are achieved
via the proposed snubber circuit for the implemented boost
converter, the voltages and currents of the converter switch S,
rectifier diode DO , and snubber diodes DS1 through DS3 are
shown in Figs. 5 and 6 at the nominal output power. In Fig. 5,

it can be seen that the voltage waveforms of the semiconductor


components are a little different with the theoretical waveforms.
It is due to the imperfect behavior of these components and
their parasitic capacitors. In Fig. 5(a), it can be seen that the
switch voltage stress is higher than the output voltage. It is
because of the energy of the snubber inductor LS1 which
depends on the output power and input and output voltages.
Generally, the basic boost topology is not engaged in high stepup applications. Thus, if the output voltage is high, the input
voltage is relatively high, too. Therefore, the input current is
low, and the energy of LS1 will not result in an unreasonable
voltage stress. Also, the voltage and current of the main switch
under light load (20 W) output power are shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7 clarifies that the proposed snubber is able to provide
soft-switching conditions not only in nominal output power but
in light loads as well. To show the differences between the
proposed soft-switched boost converter and a hard-switching
conventional boost converter which is in the same condition,
in Fig. 8, the voltage and current of the conventional hardswitching boost converter switch are shown under 200- and

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Fig. 7. Voltage and current of the converter switch under 20-W output
power (volt div. = 50 V/dec; current div. = 0.5 A/dec).

Fig. 8. Voltage and current of the conventional hard-switching boost


converters switch under (a) 200 W and (b) 20 W output powers.

20-W output powers. In Fig. 9, the efficiency diagrams of the


proposed boost converter, a conventional boost converter with
an RCD snubber circuit, and a hard-switching boost converter
are shown. The diagrams depicted in Fig. 9 show that the proposed snubber improves the converter efficiency. In Fig. 10, the
photograph of the implemented soft-switching boost converter
is shown.

VI. C ONDUCTED EMI M EASUREMENT


In this section, experimental measurements of the conducted
EMI for the proposed and regular boost converter prototypes
are presented. For the conducted EMI measurement, the CISPR
22 line impedance stabilization networks (LISNs) are inserted
between input lines and the input of the prototypes as shown
in Fig. 11. The drainearth parasitic capacitor (CDE ) is an
important common-mode EMI path. In the prototype converter,

Fig. 9. Efficiency diagrams of the proposed converter, hard-switching


boost converter, and soft-switching boost converter which uses an
Resistor,Capacitor,Diode(RCD) snubber cell.

Fig. 10.

Photograph of the implemented proposed boost converter.

Fig. 11.

CISPR 22 LISN.

the heat sink voltage is floating with respect to earth, and CDE
is measured around 16 pF.
The measured total conducted EMI (on input line L1 ) of the
proposed and regular boost converters is shown in Fig. 12 using
the peak detection mode of the HAMEG-HMS1000 spectrum
analyzer. In addition to electromagnetic emissions, the CISPR
22 class A limit is shown with the dashed line for the 150-KHz
30-MHz frequency band. According to Fig. 12, the two main
EMI peaks of the conventional boost converter are 84 and
86.5 dBV at 270 kHz and 11 MHz, respectively. The corresponding values for the proposed converter are around 78.5
and 73 dBV at about 270 kHz and 15.6 MHz, respectively.
Consequently, the first and second EMI peaks are reduced by
about 6.5 and 13.5 dBV. In other words, the proposed lossless
passive snubber has the benefit of EMI reduction of up to
13.5 dBV with respect to the hard-switching boost converter.
For better comparison, the EMI peaks for various frequency

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Fig. 12. Conducted EMI measurement. (a) Hard-switching boost converter; vertical axis: 0100 dBV; horizontal axis: 0.15 M30 MHz.
(b) Proposed boost converter; vertical axis: 090 dBV; horizontal axis:
0.15 M30 MHz.

Fig. 14. Nonisolated soft-switched converters with the proposed passive snubber. (a) Buck. (b) Buckboost. (c) Cuk. (d) Sepic. (e) Zeta.

switching conditions may the EMC standards not be satisfied by


passive and active methods [33]. Thus, the EMC improvement
is another benefit of the boost converter with the proposed
snubber.

Fig. 13. Comparison between experimental results of conducted electromagnetic emissions for the regular and proposed boost converters.

ranges are shown in Fig. 13 for two prototypes. According


to this figure, conducted electromagnetic emissions are significantly decreased in many frequency ranges by the use of
the proposed lossless passive snubber due to providing softswitching conditions which leads to reduced di/dt and dv/dt
of the converter switch. Although there are boundary levels
for few frequencies with respect to the CISPR 22 class A
limit such as around 15 MHz, this standard can be satisfied
for the proposed converter. In general, only by providing soft-

VII. OTHER S OFT-S WITCHED TOPOLOGIES W ITH


THE P ROPOSED S NUBBER C ELL
The proposed snubber circuit can be applied on buck, boost,
buckboost, Sepic, Zeta, Cuk, forward, flyback, isolated Sepic,
isolated Zeta, and isolated Cuk. The operation of the proposed
snubber cell is the same as its operation on the boost converter
which is discussed in Section III. In Figs. 14 and 15, the
nonisolated and isolated converters using the proposed snubber
circuit are depicted. In isolated converters, due to the converter
transformer leakage inductor, applying Ls1 is not necessary.
In order to put the operation of the isolated soft-switching
converters into perspective, the simulation results of a softswitched flyback converter with a nominal output power of

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Fig. 16. Simulation waveforms of the soft-switched flyback converter with the proposed snubber circuit. (a) Converter switch voltage,
(b) converter switch current, (c) output rectifier diode voltage, and
(d) output rectifier diode current (time scale: 0.5 s/dec).

VIII. C ONCLUSION
Providing soft-switching conditions in power converters has
many advantages such as increasing the converter efficiency
and power conversion density and reducing EMI. In this paper,
a lossless passive snubber circuit which is able to be applied
in many isolated and nonisolated converters is introduced. The
experimental results clarify that the converters efficiency is
improved by the use of the proposed lossless snubber circuit.
Also, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed
snubber in reducing the conducted EMI, the conducted EMI of
the boost converter with the proposed snubber is measured and
is compared to its hard-switching counterpart, which shows the
significance of the conducted EMI reduction.
R EFERENCES
Fig. 15. Isolated soft-switched converters with the proposed passive
snubber. (a) Forward. (b) Flyback. (c) Isolated Cuk. (d) Isolated Sepic.
(e) Isolated Zeta.
TABLE III
VALUES OF THE F LYBACK C ONVERTER S C OMPONENTS

80 W are presented. The values of the soft-switching flyback


converters components are stated in Table III. In Fig. 16,
the simulation voltage and current waveforms of the flyback
converter switch and output rectifier diode D are shown, which
indicates the obtained soft-switching conditions.

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Mehdi Mohammadi (S14) was born in


Isfahan, Iran, in 1989. He received the Associates in electrical engineering (electronics)
from the Shahid Mohajer Technical Institution
of Isfahan, Iran, in 2008, the B.S. degree
in electrical engineering (electronics) from
the Bonyan Institute of Higher Education,
Shahinshahr, Iran, in 2010, and the M.S.
degree in electrical engineering (electronics)
from the Isfahan University of Technology (IUT),
Isfahan, in 2014. He is currently working toward
the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering at the University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, where he works on advanced
control methods for power converters and new switching topologies.
He is currently with the Power Switching Laboratory at IUT. His
research interests include advanced control schemes for power converters, high-frequency soft-switching converters, their applications, and
electromagnetic interference.

Ehsan Adib was born in Isfahan, Iran, in 1982.


He received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in electrical engineering from the Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, in 2003, 2006,
and 2009, respectively.
He is currently a Faculty Member in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology. He is the
author of more than 50 papers published in
journals and conference proceedings. His research interests include dcdc converters and
their applications and soft-switching techniques.
Dr. Adib was the recipient of the Best Ph.D. Dissertation Award from
the IEEE Iran Section in 2010.

Mohammad Rouhollah Yazdani was born in


Isfahan, Iran, in 1978. He received the B.S.
degree in electrical engineering from the Isfahan
University of Technology, Isfahan, in 2001,
the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from
the Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch,
Najafabad, Iran, in 2004, and the Ph.D. degree
in electrical engineering from the Islamic Azad
University, Sciences and Research Branch,
Tehran, Iran, in 2011.
Since 2011, he has been a Faculty Member
in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan
(Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University. His research interests
include soft-switching converters, electromagnetic interference modeling and reduction techniques, signal integrity, and electromagnetic
compatibility issues.