Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Using tools from analytic geometry, one can find

the equation defining this tangent line of this circle.

UP

K E M
P

MEMBERS ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT


f

Figure 1.1: Tangent line to a circle

Our goal now is to generalise the notion of tangent lines to arbitrary curves, with emphasis on
its slope.

Math 53
2nd Long Exam Reviewer

Now, define the secant line of a curve as a line


that intersects this curve by (at least) two points.
Figure 1.2 shows an example.

J.Quintos

y
P
Q

Preface
a

The outline of this reviewer will follow that of the


Math 53 Modules by the Institute of Mathematics.

This handout is intended as a reviewer only and


should not be substituted for a complete lecture,
or used as a reference material. The goal of this
reviewer is to refresh the student on the concepts
and techniques in one reading.

Figure 1.2: A secant line from point Q to point P on the


curve

Let y = f (x), P = (xP , f (xP )) and Q = (xQ , f (xQ )).


The slope of this red secant line is then:
slope of secant line =

1
1.1

Slopes and the Derivative

f (xQ ) f (xP )
xQ xP

(1)

And the two-point form will give the equation of


this line.
f (x) f (xP )
f (xQ ) f (xP )
=
(2)
x xP
xQ xP

The Tangent Line

Recall from geometry that a tangent line to a circle intersects the circle at exactly one point. Figure 1.1 shows a circle and a tangent line at point
P.

If we let x = xQ xP , and hence xQ = xP +x,


equation (1) becomes:
slope =
1

f (x1 + x) f (x1 )
x

(3)

University of the Philippines Chemical Engineering Society, Inc. (UP KEM)


Math 53 - 2nd Long Exam
Observe what happens when we decrease x, that
is, we let point Q approach point P . That is,
QP

xQ xP

Definition. The derivative of a function f with


0
respect to x, denoted as df
dx or f (x) is the limit:
f (x + x) f (x)
df
= f 0 (x) = lim
x0
dx
x

x 0

1.3

Differentiability

P
Q
Q1

Q2
Q3 Q4

b
c

Figure 1.3: Secant lines as Q approaches P

e
g

A function is said to be differentiable at x if the


derivative f 0 (x ) exists. Some key-points for determining whether or not the function is differentiable at x are as follows:

f must be continuous at x . Otherwise, the


derivative automatically does not exist.

The secant line approaches the tangent line at


point P . We define the tangent line at point P
as a limit:
Definition. Let f be a function defined on an
open interval at x = xP . The tangent line to
the graph of f at point P , (xP , f (xP )), is a line
that passes through the point P and has a slope
of
f (xP + x) f (xP )
m = lim
(4)
x0
x
provided this limit exists.
Otherwise, it is a line defined by x = xP whenever
f (xP + x) f (xP )
= ( )
lim
x0
x

With the limit definition of the derivative,


evaluate the left- and right-hand limit. They
must be equal.

2
2.1

Techniques of Differentiation
Elementary Differentiation Rules

All of the following rules can be proven using the


limit definition of the derivative.
Let f and g be functions.

Another mathematical object of particular interest is the normal line defined as (at least for Math
53 purposes):
Definition. The normal line of a curve at point
P is a line (that passes through point P ) perpendicular to the tangent line at point P . Its slope
is given by:
mnormal =

1.2

1
mtangent

2.1.1

Derivative of a constant

Let f (x) = c where c R.


f 0 (x) = 0;

(6)

(5)
2.1.2

Definition of the Derivative

Linearity of Differentiation

Let a, b R and h be a function defined as

Suppose wed like to find a general expression that


gives the slope of the tangent line at an arbitrary
x. We now formally define the derivative of a function.

h(x) = af (x) + bg(x)


Its derivative is then,

Page 2 of 4

h0 (x) = af 0 (x) + bg 0 (x)

(7)

University of the Philippines Chemical Engineering Society, Inc. (UP KEM)


Math 53 - 2nd Long Exam

2.3

Special cases are:


(af )0 = af 0

b = 0,

Implicit Differentiation

(constant factor)
This is a neat application of the chain rule.

a = b = 1,

(f + g)0 = f 0 + g 0

(additive)
Implicit functions have the form f (x, y) = c where
c R (often 0). An example is:

2.1.3

Product rule
xy 2
(f g)0 = g f 0 + f g 0

2.1.4

(8)

Quotient rule

This is a special case of the product rule


 0
g f 0 f g0
f
=
g
g2

y
+ sin (x) cos (y) = 0
x

dy
is to isolate y in the equaOne way to find the dx
tion and differentiate accordingly. But as you can
see, its quite impossible with the elementary algebra youve learned, and it might involve ugly
inverse functions.

Notice in our example above, we can rewrite it as


(9)
x g1 (y)

1
g2 (y) + sin (x) g3 (y)
x

Differentiating with respect to x (product rule):


2.1.5

Polynomial power rule


1 g1 (y) + x

Let f (x) = axn where a R and n Z+ .


0

f (x) = n ax

n1

(10)

dg1
dx

1 dg1
1
g2 (y)
2
x
x dx

+ cos (x) g3 (y) + sin (x)

Remark. The proof of this rule involves the binomial theorem.

dg1
dx

Using equation (12) form of the chain rule, we


have the following:

2.2

The Chain Rule

dy
dg1
= 2y
dx
dx
dg2
dy
=1
dx
dx

Let h(x) = f (g(x))


h0 (x) = f 0 (g(x)) g 0 (x)

(11)

Other times, its more convenient to use the Leibniz notation:


dh
dh dg
=

(12)
dx
dg dx
For example, find

df
dv

df
= 6u2
du

dg3
dy
= sin y
dx
dx
Whats left is to substitute these derivatives redy
spectively and isolate the term dx
. Upon doing
so, and with simplification, you should arrive at:
dy
x2 y 2 + x2 cos(x) cos(y) + y
=
dx
2x3 y + x2 sin(x) sin(y) + x

if f (u) = 2u3 and u(v) = v1 .


du
1
= 2
dv
v

6 1
df
df du
6u2
=

= 2 = v2
dv
du dv
v
v

2
=

This whole process demonstrated is called implicit


differentiation.
6
v4

Page 3 of 4

University of the Philippines Chemical Engineering Society, Inc. (UP KEM)


Math 53 - 2nd Long Exam

2.4

Higher Order Derivatives

Applications of the Derivative

3.1

Local Linear Approximation

3.2

Rates of Change

3.3

Rectilinear Motion

3.4

Related Rates

References
[1] Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.

Page 4 of 4