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Cellular Respiration/Photosynthesis Test Study Guide

Chp. 9 Cell Respiration


Redox Reactions
What does it mean when something is reduced? Oxidized?
o When something is reduced, electrons are added to it and the charge will decrease. When something is
oxidized, electrons are removed and the charge will increase. Reduction involves a gain of hydrogen
atoms, oxidation involves a loss of hydrogen atoms.
What is an oxidizing agent? Reducing agent?
o In redox reactions, oxidizing agents are reduced so that the other substance can be oxidized. Reducing
agents are the opposite.
Be able to apply these to the cellular respiration formula
o Oxygen is reduced, glucose is oxidized.
Aerobic Respiration
What molecules are involved? What roles do they play? Location of each step
o There are three steps of aerobic respiration. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. Glucose is broken down to
pyruvate with a G3P intermediate. NADH formed. The citric acid/Krebs cycle occurs in the
mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by the addition of coenzyme A.
NADH/FADH2 formed from NAD+/FAD+. The electron transport chain is located in the cristae
membranes of the mitochondria. Various cytochromes and ubiquinone transfer electrons to O2.
Types of phosphorylation (substrate level vs. oxidative)
o In substrate-level phosphorylation, enzymes transfer a phosphate group directly from a compound to
another compound.
o In oxidative phosphorylation, a chemiosmotic H+ gradient is used to add phosphates to ATP as H+ diffuse
through ATP synthase.
Glycolysis
What are the reactants? What are the products? How are they formed?
o REACTANTS: 1 Glucose, 2 ADP, 2 P, 2 NAD+
o PRODUCTS: 2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
Where does it occur?
o Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol, not in a membrane-bound organelle.
What is the energy yield?
o TOTAL YIELD: 4 ATP
o NET YIELD: 2 ATP
Citric Acid Cycle
What are the reactants? What are the products? How are they formed?
o 2 pyruvate first converted to 2 CO2 + 2 Acetyl CoA. 2 Acetyl CoA yields 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2
+ 2 ATP.
Where does it take place?
o The citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix, or enclosed fluid, of the mitochondria.
What is the energy yield?
o There is a yield of 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2.
Know some of the major molecules (i.e acetyl CoA)
o Pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A to yield acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA adds an acetyl group to oxaloacetate,
yielding citrate. Succinyl CoA loses its coenzyme A group, yielding succinate and 1 GTP.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
What is it?
o Oxidative phosphorylation is the addition of phosphate groups using the energy generated by a H+
gradient resulting from the action of the ETC.
What is formed?
o 26-28 ATP and H2O are formed.
What is the energy yield?
o The energy yield is all ATP, with 26-28 ATP formed.

What is the limiting factor?


o The amount of ADP present is the limiting factor. ATP is formed by the reaction ADP + P ATP,
meaning that a lack of ADP prevents ATP formation.
How does the ETC work? How are ATP produced?
o The ETC works by receiving electrons from electron carriers such as NADH/FADH2. As the electrons are
transferred from protein to protein, they lose free energy. The released free energy can be used to pump
H+ against their concentration gradient, forming a H+ gradient that forms ATP by diffusing through ATP
synthase channels.
Chemiosmosis
o Chemiosmosis is when the energy stored in a H+ gradient is used to do work by synthesizing ATP.
Anaerobic Respiration
What are the main types?
o Anaerobic respiration may occur in certain sulfur-utilizing organisms. There are two kinds of
fermentation: lactic acid and alcohol.
What goes in? What comes out?
o Lactic acid: Glucose and 2 NAD+ go in, 2 ATP and 2 lactate and 2 NAD+ yielded.
o Alcohol: Glucose and 2 NAD+ go in, 2 ATP and 2 ethanol and 2 CO2 and 2 NAD+ yielded.
Where do the products go?
o ATP is used by the cell in energy-requiring processes. CO2 is released through exhalation. NAD+ is
recycled for use in further respiration. Lactate is converted back to glucose in gluconeogenesis. Ethanol is
broken down in the liver.
Why does it occur?
o Fermentation occurs to guarantee a consjstant supply of ATP even when oxygen is not present. For some
organisms, it is the only way to generate ATP as oxygen is never present.
What process does it allow to continue?
o The oxidation of NADH to NAD+ process that follows the generation of ATP allows fermentation to
continue, as it recycles the NAD+ supply critical for fermentation to occur.
Chp. 42 Circulatory vs. Respiration Systems
Open vs. Closed Circulatory system
o Open circulatory systems feature fluid that directly bathes organs instead of traveling through closed
vessels. Found in arthropods and most molluscs.
o Closed circulatory systems feature blood that travels through vlosed vessels and is separate from
interstitial fluid. Hearts pump blood through vessels. Found in annelids, cephalopods, and vertebrates.
Evolution of heart chambers
o Frogs/other amphibians have a three-chanbered heart
Blood pressure + speed of blood
Osmotic pressure
Makeup of blood/types of cells
Counter current exchange in respiration
Evolution of respiratory systems
Negative vs. positive control breath
Reparatory pigments
How bicarbonate works in carbon dioxide elimination
Hemoglobin dissociation curve

Chp. 10 Photosynthesis
Light Reactions
What are they composed of?
Where do they occur?
What are the reactants and the products?
What molecules are used during these reactions (and what are their jobs)?
Know the role electrons make.
Know the processes involved.
What are the differences between linear and cyclical phosphorylation?
Photosystem I and II (and reaction centers)
Photolysis
Light Independent Reactions
Where do they occur?
What goes in?
What comes out?
Other Factors
Structure of a chloroplast
What is the difference between C3, C4 plants, and CAM plants?
What is photorespiration?
Know the various molecules used in photosynthesis.
The basics of chromatography