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COURSE OUTLINE

Module 1

I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

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STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Principles of Static Equilibrium


A. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Static Equilibrium
a body acted upon by a balanced force system is in equilibrium
resultant is equal to zero
action and reaction forces between two particles are always
equal and oppositely directed
Force is the action of one body upon another
due to direct contact
due to magnetic or gravitational attraction
generated by moving bodies - inertia force
Important characteristic of a force
magnitude
position or the point of application
direction
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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Principles of Static Equilibrium


A. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Resultant
is a single force, a couple, or a force and a couple which acting
alone will produce the same effect as the force system
Illustration

Force

Couple

Force/Couple

Principle of Transmissibility
states that the external effect of a force on a body acted upon is
independent of the point of application of the force but the same
for all points along its line of action.
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Teachers Village, Quezon City

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Principles of Static Equilibrium


B. FORCE SYSTEM
is an arrangement of any two or more forces that act on a body
or on a group of related bodies.
Concurrent
Coplanar

Parallel
Non-concurrent, Nonparallel

Force System

Concurrent
Spatial

Parallel
Non-concurrent, Nonparallel

Equation
F = 0
M = 0
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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Principles of Static Equilibrium


B. FORCE SYSTEM

Illustration
COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEM
Concurrent

Non-concurrent,
Non-Parallel

Parallel

y
A

T
T2

T1

T2

T1

P2
P1

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T3

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Principles of Static Equilibrium


B. FORCE SYSTEM

Illustration
SPATIAL FORCE SYSTEM
Concurrent

Non-concurrent,
Non-Parallel

Parallel

A
P2
T2

P1

T1

T2

P3

P2

P1

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z
6

Principles of Static Equilibrium

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

B. FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD)


a sketch of a body showing the forces exerted by other bodies on
the one being considered.

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Illustration
B

RBh

RBv

W
RBv

RBh

RBh

RBv
RAh

RAv
Force System

FBD of Bar AB

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FBD of Point B

Principles of Static Equilibrium

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 1
The table lamp consists of two uniform arms, each weighing 6N and
a bulb fixture weighing 8N. If = 700, calculate the couple MA that
must be supplied by the friction in joint A to maintain equilibrium.
Illustration
100

Solution

200

6N

Taking moments about point A

200

M = 0

0 = MA + 6 (x1) - 6 ( x2 ) - 8 ( x3 )

6N

8N

But,

MA
Rh
x3

x2

x0 = 400cos70
x1 = 200cos70
x2 = 200 - x0
x3 = 500 - x0

= 136.8
= 68.4
= 63.2
= 363.2

Therefore,

MA = -6(68.4) + 6 (63.2) + 8 ( 363.2 )

x1
x0

Rv

MA = 2874.4 Nmm

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Principles of Static Equilibrium

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 2
A car weighing 14 KN with boom on the rear axle was designed to
carry the 35 KN load. If the boom is 2 meters long and the center
of gravity of the car is 2.5 meter from the rear axle, determine the
smallest angle at which the boom may be safely positioned.
Illustration

Solution
Taking moments about point A

35KN

MA = 0 +
0 = 14 (2.5) - 35 ( x )
But, x = 2cos

14KN

Therefore,

2.5m
RA

RB = 0

14 (2.5) = 35( 2cos) /35


cos = 0.50
= cos-1 (0.50)
= 600

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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


A. AXIAL DEFORMATION

Load is acting parallel to member axis.


Stress is uniform for homogenous sections.

Due to tension - tends to elongate the body


Due to compression - tends to shorten the body
Illustration

= P

Where:

is the stress (MPa)

P is the force (KN)


A is the are (m2)
D2
=
for circle
4
D is the diameter (m)
L is the length (m)
is the deformation (m)

P
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I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


A. AXIAL DEFORMATION
From Hookes Law

stress, = P/A

COURSE OUTLINE

From Stress-Strain Curve


Using R&P

= E

Simplify

= E

Substitute

P = E
L
A

Simplify

strain, = /L

= P L
A E

Where:
E is the modulus of elasticity (MPa)

is the unit deformation per unit length


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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


EXAMPLE 3
The rigid bar supported by a pin at
A and a steel cable at B, is to be
designed to carry the concentrated
load of 50 KN at C. Calculate the
safe diameter of the cable if the
allowable stress is 120 MPa. Using
the computed area, calculate the
elongation of the cable.
Illustration
P
A

2m
C

Solution
Taking moments about point A

M = 0 +

0 = 50 (5 ) - P (4 )

P = 62.50 KN
Solving the area required

P Where P = 62.50
A
120 MPa
P
62.50x1000
A= =
120
D2
A = 520.83 mm2 =
4
D = 25.78 mm

Solving the maximum elongation

P L
625002000
=
A E
520.83200000
= 1.20 mm
=

4m

1m

50KN

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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


B. BENDING

Stress due to a bending moment about the


perpendicular axis of the member.
Flexural Stress

Illustration

Section a-a

NA

cF c

2
3

F c

Taking moments about the neutral axis


2
M = F 23 c + F3 c
4
M = F 3 c c
4
Mc = F 3 c2

But F is the resultant of the flexural stress


1
F = 2 f b c

2
3

also, c = 12 h

Substituting

Mc = 2 f b 12 h
f = Mc
I
1

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4
3

( 12 h)2 = f 121 bh3

13

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


C. SHEAR

Stress due to a load acting perpendicular to member axis.

A. Shear stress perpendicular to member axis


Illustration

Section a-a

b
a

V
h

= V

Where:

is the shear stress, MPa


V is the shear force, N

A is the cross sectional area, mm2


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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


C. SHEAR

Stress due to a load acting perpendicular to member axis.

B. Shear stress parallel to member axis


Illustration

Section a-a

W
W
h

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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


C. SHEAR

Stress due to a load acting perpendicular to member axis.

B. Shear stress parallel to member axis


Illustration
From the figure
V1

M = 0 +
0 = V2 x + M2 - M1

Let, -(M2 - M1) = Mo =

M2

M1

NA

I
V2 x = Mo =
c
I
x=
cV2
F = 0 +

V2

x
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V2 = V1 = V

c
I

x = I
cV

16

Stresses of Structural Members

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

C. SHEAR

Stress due to a load acting perpendicular to member axis.

B. Shear stress parallel to member axis

bx

P1

Illustration

P2

V1

F = 0+

Let, (P1 - P2) = Po

M2

M1

NA

P2

P1

V2

0 = P1 - P2 - bx

bx = Po = cb
x = cb but, x = I
b
cV
cb
I
=
b
cV
= cb cV
Ib

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= VQ
Ib

17

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


EXAMPLE 4
Solution

Calculate the dimension of the


timber beam shown. Use
fb = 16.40 MPa
fv = 3.80 MPa
fv// = 1.80 MPa
Neglect the beam weight.

Solve the maximum moment (at the support)

M = 5 (2) (1) + 2 (2)


M = 14 KNm
Solve the maximum shear (at the support)

V = 5 (2) + 2
V = 12 KN

Illustration
P = 2 KN

Flexural stress, fb 16.40 MPa

w = 5 KN/m
c

2b
2m

16.40 Mc
I
(14x106) b
16.40
(1/12) (b) (2b)3

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b 108.6 mm

18

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


EXAMPLE 4 (contd)
Solution
Shear stress to grain, fv 3.80 MPa

Calculate the dimension of the


timber beam shown. Use
fb = 16.40 MPa
fv = 3.80 MPa
fv// = 1.80 MPa
Neglect the beam weight.

3.80 V
bh
12x103
3.80
(b) (2b)
b 39.70 mm 108.6
Shear stress // to grain, fv// 1.80 MPa

Illustration

1.80 VQ
Ib
1
Q = (bb) 12 b = 2 b3
I = 121 b (2b)3 = 128 b4

P = 2 KN
w = 5 KN/m
1
2

2b
2m

3) 1 b3
(12x10
2
1.80
8
4
12 b (b)
b 70.70 mm 108.6

Therefore b 108.6 mm
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COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

Stresses of Structural Members


D. TORSION

Solution
dT = dPr

Illustration
L

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stress due to moment about the member axis.

dP = dA

= max r
R
dA = rd dr

max
r (rddr) r
R
max 3
dr d
=
r dr
R

dT =
T

max

2
r4 R
R4

=
4 0
2
0

dT

G=
dr

r
R

E
2(1 + )

max
(J)
R

max = TR
J
R

max
=
=
=
L
L
G
R
TR
=
= TL
L
JG
GJ

T =

dP

= J

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Stresses of Structural Members

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 5
The shaft with effective length of 4
meters is to be designed to carry a
60 KNm torque. If the allowable
torsional stress is 120 MPa, calculate
the required diameter of the shaft.
Using the calculated diameter, what
is the angle of twist if E = 200 GPa
and = 0.25.
Illustration
4.0 m

Solution
Solve the radius due torsion

max = TR 120 MPa


J
T = 60x106 Nmm
J = 12 R4
Substitute

(60x106) R
120
1
4

R
2
R 68.30 mm
Solve the angle of twist

200000
2(1 + 0.25)
= 80000 MPa

G=

= TL
GJ
(60x106) (4000)
=
(80000) 12 (68.30)4
= 0.08 radian

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Stresses of Structural Members

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

E. BEARING

Stress due to direct contact between two bodies.

Illustration

T/2

T/2

Section a-a
b
d

T
t = T =
A
t (b - d)
b = T = T
A
t (d)
where
t is the tensile stress, MPa
b is the bearing stress, MPa
A is the area, mm2
t is the thickness of plate, mm
b is the width of the plate, mm
d is the diameter, mm

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Stresses of Structural Members

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 6
In the figure, three steel plates with allowable tension stress of 140 MPa
and allowable bearing stress of 120 MPa were joined together using
16mm rivet with allowable shearing stress of 80 MPa. If the plates are
of the same width, b = 50 mm, thickness of plate 1, t1 = 4 mm, thickness
of plate 2, t2 = 6 mm, calculate the permissible axial load T.
Solution

Illustration
T/2

Considering plate 1 t1 = 4 mm, axial force = T/2

t1

T/2

Due to tensile stress, t 140 MPa

t2

t1
b

T/2
140 T/2 =
t (b - d)
A
T/2
140
T 38080 N
4 (50 - 16)
Considering plate 2 t2 = 6 mm, axial force = T

T
140 T =
t (b - d)
A
T
140
T 28560 N
6 (50 - 16)

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Stresses of Structural Members

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 6 (contd)
In the figure, three steel plates with allowable tension stress of 140 MPa
and allowable bearing stress of 120 MPa were joined together using
16mm rivet with allowable shearing stress of 80 MPa. If the plates are
of the same width, b = 50 mm, thickness of plate 1, t1 = 4 mm, thickness
of plate 2, t2 = 6 mm, calculate the permissible axial load T.
Illustration

Solution
Due to bearing stress, b 120 MPa

T/2

t1

T/2

t2

Considering plate 1 t1 = 4 mm, axial force = T/2

t1
b

T/2
120 T/2 =
t (d)
A
T/2
120
T 15360 N
4 (16)
Considering plate 2 t2 = 6 mm, axial force = T

T
120 T =
t (d)
A
T
120
T 11520 N
6 (16)

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Stresses of Structural Members

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 6 (contd)
In the figure, three steel plates with allowable tension stress of 140 MPa
and allowable bearing stress of 120 MPa were joined together using
16mm rivet with allowable shearing stress of 80 MPa. If the plates are
of the same width, b = 50 mm, thickness of plate 1, t1 = 4 mm, thickness
of plate 2, t2 = 6 mm, calculate the permissible axial load T.
Illustration
T/2

Due to shear stress, v 120 MPa


Considering plate 1 axial force = T/2, 1-shear plane

t1

T/2

Solution
t2

t1
b

Considering plate 2 axial force = T, 2-shear plane

T/2
80 T/2 = 2
A
4 (d)
T/2
80
T 32170 N
2
4 (16)
T
80 T =

(2) 4 (d)2
A
T
80
T 32170 N

(2) 4 (16)2
Therefore, T 11520 N

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25

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

A. TRUSS

Truss is an articulated structure composed of links or bars assumed


to be connected by frictionless pins at the joints and arranged so that
an area enclosed within the boundaries of the structure is subdivided
by the bars into geometric figures which are usually triangles.
Types of Truss
For Roofs

For Bridges

Pratt Truss

Through Pratt Truss

Howe Truss

Through Howe Truss

Fink Truss

Deck Warren Truss

Modified Fink Truss

Through Warren Subdivided

Bowstring Truss

K-Truss

Cresent Truss

Lattice/Parker/Baltimore

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Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

A. TRUSS

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

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27

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

A. TRUSS

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

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28

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

A. TRUSS
Methods of Analyzing Truss Structures
A. Method of Joints
Joints are in equilibrium
Axial forces of members enclosing a triangle forms a force polygon
Analysis must start at a joint with known external forces and must
have two members connecting that joint

B. Method of Sections
Cut a section across truss length passing members with unknown
forces that is not more than 3 to provide non-concurrent force system.
Analyze the FBD of the section with less number of forces or the
convenient one.
Assume any direction of the member force and choose an arbitrary
point to solve for one unknown using the equilibrium equation M = 0.
The positive calculated value indicates that the assumed direction is
correct. On the other hand, the negative value indicates that the
assumed direction is wrong but the magnitude is correct.

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29

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 7
In the figure shown, calculate
a) the member forces using method of joints
b) the member forces using method of sections.
Figure

10Kn

10Kn
3

2
5

8 2
2

4
4 5
3

2.0m
5

10Kn
1.5m

2.0m

FV = 0 +
2 (10)
0 = R5 + R1V - 10 - 10 - 5
R5 = 14.47 KN

2.0m

1.5m

R5

R1V

Solution
Solve the support reactions

FH = 0 +
1 (10)
0 = R1H - 5
R1H = 4.47 KN

M5 = 0 +
2 (10)
(3.5)
0 = R1V (7) - 10 (5.5) - 10 (1.5) - 5
R1V = 14.47 KN
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30

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Analysis of Structure
EXAMPLE 7 (contd)
10Kn

10Kn

a) Using Method
of Joints

F12

R1H = 4.47 KN 1

F28

2.0m

F18 F18

F78

10Kn

7
5

2
1

1.5m

2.0m

1.5m

2.0m

R5 = 14.47 KN

R1V = 14.47 KN
Consider joint 1

FV = 0 +
0 = R1V - 45 F12
F12 = 18.09 KN (C)
FH = 0 +
3
0 = 4.47 + F18 - 5 F12
F18 = 6.38 KN (T)

Consider joint 8

FV = 0 +
0 = F28
F28 = 0
FH = 0 +
0 = F78 - F18
F78 = 6.38 KN (T)

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31

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Analysis of Structure
EXAMPLE 7 (contd)
a) Using Method
of Joints
F12

10Kn

10Kn
2

F23

F12
5

R1H = 4.47 KN 1

F34

F27
F28

F23

F28

F37

8
2

2.0m

F18 F18

F78

10Kn

7
5

2
1

1.5m

2.0m

1.5m

2.0m

R5 = 14.47 KN

R1V = 14.47 KN
Consider joint 2

FV = 0 +
2
F27
0 = 45 F12 - 10 - F28 - 8
F27 = 6.32 KN (T)
FH = 0 +
2
F27
0 = 35 F12 - F23 + 8
F23 = 15.32 KN (C)

Consider joint 3

FV = 0 +
0 = F37
F37 = 0
FH = 0 +
0 = F23 - F34
F34 = 15.32 KN (C)

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32

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 7 (contd)
a) Using Method
of Joints
F12

10Kn

10Kn
F23

F12
5

R1H = 4.47 KN 1
F18 F18

F34

F27
F28

F23

F27

F28
8

F37
F37

F46

F47

F78

F78

10Kn

F67

2.0m

F67

F56

2
1

1.5m

2.0m

2.0m

R1V = 14.47 KN
Consider joint 7

FV = 0 +
2
2
2
F47 - F37 - 5 (10)
F27 + 8
0 = 8
F47 = 6.33 KN (T)
FH = 0 +
2
1
2
F47 - 8
0 = F67 + 8
F27 - F78 - 5
(10)
F67 = 10.85 KN (T)
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1.5m

R5 = 14.47 KN
Consider joint 6

FV = 0 +
0 = F46
F46 = 0
FH = 0 +
0 = F56 - F67
F56 = 10.85 KN (T)
33

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 7 (contd)
10Kn

10Kn

a) Using Method
of Joints

F23

F12
5

F12

F18 F18

F34

F34

F47
F37
F37

F27

F28

R1H = 4.47 KN 1

F27
F28

F23

F46

F47

F78

F78

10Kn

F67

F45

F46

5
3

2.0m

F45
5

F67

F56 F56

2
1

1.5m

2.0m

1.5m

2.0m

R5 = 14.47 KN

R1V = 14.47 KN

Consider joint 4

FH = 0 +
0 = F34 -

To check, isolate joint 5


2
8

F47 -

3
5

F45

FV = 0 +
R5 = 45 F45

F45 = 18.07 KN (C)

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14.47 = 14.47

34

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 7 (contd)

F12
5

R1H = 4.47 KN 1

10Kn

10Kn

a) Using Method
of Sections

2
4

2.0m

F18

10Kn
1.5m

2
1

2.0m

2.0m

1.5m

R5 = 14.47 KN

R1V = 14.47 KN

Solve F18

Solve F12

M8 = 0 +
0 = R1V (1.5) - 35 F12 (2)
F12 = 18.09 KN (C)

M2 = 0 +
0 = R1V (1.5) - R1H(2) - F18 (2)
F18 = 6.38 KN (T)

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35

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 7 (contd)
10Kn

10Kn

a) Using Method
of Sections

F23

F27
5

R1H = 4.47 KN 1

2
4

2.0m

5
8

F78

10Kn
1.5m

2
1

2.0m

1.5m

2.0m

R5 = 14.47 KN

R1V = 14.47 KN
Solve F78

M2 = 0 +
0 = R1V (1.5) - R1H(2) - F78 (2)
F78 = 6.39 KN (T)

Solve F27

M1 = 0 +
2
0 = 10 (1.5) - F23 (2) + 8 F27 (3.5)
F27 = 6.32 KN (T)

Solve F23

M7 = 0 +
0 = R1V (3.5) - 10 (2) - F23 (2)
F23 = 15.32 KN (C)
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36

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 7 (contd)

R1H = 4.47 KN 1

10Kn

10Kn

a) Using Method
of Sections

2
4

F34

F47

2.0m

10Kn
1.5m

F67

2.0m

2.0m

M7 = 0 +
0 = F34 (2) + 10 (2) - R5 (3.5)
F34 = 15.32 KN (C)

1.5m

R5 = 14.47 KN

R1V = 14.47 KN
Solve F34

Solve F47

M6 = 0 +
0 = F34 (2) - R5 (1.5) F47 = 6.32 KN (T)

2
8

F47 (2)

Solve F67

M4 = 0 +
0 = F67 (2) - R5 (1.5)
F67 = 10.85 KN (T)
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37

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Analysis of Structure
B. BEAMS AND GIRDERS
Beams and girders are usually a horizontal or nearly horizontal
element carrying a stress primarily due to shear and flexure. It usually
carry a load directly from the floor.

Determinate Structure is a structure in which the reaction components


and internal stresses can be completely determined using the
equations of static equilibrium.
Static Equations
Fx = 0
Fy = 0
M = 0
Indeterminate Structure is a stable structure in which the reaction
components and internal stress cannot be solved completely using
the equations of static equilibrium.
Degree of Indeterminacy refers to the number of unknowns over and
above the equations of static equilibrium.
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38

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 8
Solution

Draw the shear and moment


diagram of the beam loaded as
shown below.

Solve the reactions and plot the V-D diagram


For RA, MB = 0 +

0 = RA (5) - 10 (5)(2.5)
RA = 25 KN

Figure
P = 15 KN

For RB, FV = 0 +

w = 10 KN/m

5m

2m

4m

For RC, MD = 0 +

0 = RC (4) - 15 (2) - 10 (6)(3) - 25 (6)


RC = 90 KN

P = 15 KN

RB = 25

w = 10 KN/m

w = 10 KN/m
B

0 = RA + RB - 10 (5)
RB = 25 KN

C
2m

5m
RB

For RD, FV = 0 +

RD

0 = RC + RD - 10 (6) - 25 - 15
RD = 10 KN

4m

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39

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 8 (contd)

Solution
Plot the shear diagram

Figure
P = 15 KN
w = 10 KN/m

2m

5m

4m

RA = 25
A

2.5

RC = 90
E

2.5

2.0

RD = 10

1.0 1.0

2.0

+25
+10

-10
+31.25

-25
-45
+5
0

-70

+
-

10 (5)
10 (2)
RC
10 (2)
15
10 (2)

VA = +25 KN
VB = -25 KN
VCL = -45 KN
VCR = +45 KN
VFL = +25 KN
VFR = +10 KN
VD = -10 KN

Plot the moment diagram

+45
+25

VA = RA
VB = VA
VCL = VB
VCR = VCL
VFL = VCR
VFR = VFL
VD = VFB

Pinned support
MA = 0
ME = MA +
(25)(2.5) ME = +31.25
MB = ME +
(-25) (2.5) MB = 0
MC = MB +
(-25 - 45)(2) MC = -70
(25 + 45)(2) MF = 0
MF = MC +
(10)(1)
MG = MF +
MG = +5
(-10) (1)
MD = MG +
MD = 0

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Analysis Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

C. DEFLECTION
Derived deflection formula due to flexure
w

P
=

5wL4
384EI

PL3
48EI

PL3
192EI

PL3
3EI

wL4
=
384EI
L

wL4
=
8EI
L

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41

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Stresses of Structural Members


C DEFLECTION
Allowable deflections
L/240 for members supporting or attached to non-structural
elements not likely to be damaged by large deflection
L/360 for members not supporting or attached to nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections
(immediate deflection due to live load only)
L/180 for members carrying flat roofs not supporting or
attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections

L/480 for members roof or floor construction supporting or


attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections
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42

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

D. FRAMES
Rigid or Semi Rigid Frame
Frame with Shear Truss
Frame with Shear Wall
Frame with Shear Truss/Outrigger
Frame with Shear Wall/Outrigger
Exterior Diagonalized Tube
Illustration

Rigid/Semi
Rigid Frame

Frame with
Shear Truss

Frame with
Shear Wall

Frame with Shear


Truss/Outrigger

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Frame with Shear


Wall/Outrigger

Exterior
Diagonalized
Tube

43

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

D. FRAMES USING PORTAL METHOD


Assumptions:
Inflection points are at midspan of all members
Shear of interior columns is twice the shear of exterior columns
Summation of horizontal shear on columns at certain level is
equal to the sum of all horizontal forces above that level
Illustration

FRDCK
FR

2FR

2FR

FR

F4

2F4

2F4

F4

F3

2F3

2F3

F3

F2

2F2

2F2

F2

F4TH

F3RD
F2ND

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44

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9

Calculate the shear and moment of the frame shown.

Illustration
60 KN

VRD
30 KN

2VRD
F

VRD

2VRD
G

MI = 0 +

3m

0 = VRD (1.5) - VIJ (4)


VIJ = 3.75 KN

4m
A

8m

8m

Solution

Isolate Joint I

Solve VRD

60 KN

F = 0 +
0 = 60 - 6 (VRD)
VRD = 10 KN

F = 0 +
0 = 60 - VRD - AIJ
AIJ = 50 KN

8m

4m

AIJ

1.5m

VIJ
VRD

F = 0 +
0 = VIJ - AIE
AIE = 3.75 KN

AIE

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45

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN

VRD
30 KN

2VRD
F

2VRD
G

VRD

MJ = 0 +

3m

0 = 2VRD(1.5) - VIJ (4) - VJK(4)

VJK = 3.75 KN

4m
A

8m

8m

Solution

F = 0 +
0 = AIJ - 2 (VRD) - AJK
AJK = 30 KN

8m

Isolate Joint J

Solve VRD

F = 0 +
0 = 60 - 6 (VRD)
VRD = 10 KN

AIJ
VIJ

4m

4m
J

1.5m

AJK
VJK

AJF

2VRD

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# 2 Matulungin Street, House of Architects Building
Teachers Village, Quezon City

F = 0 +
0 = VJK - VIJ - AJF
AJF = 0

46

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN

VRD
30 KN

2VRD
F

2VRD
G

VRD

MK = 0 +

3m

0 = 2VRD(1.5) - VJK(4) - VKL(4)

VKL = 3.75 KN

4m
A

8m

Solution
Solve VRD

8m

F = 0 +
0 = AJK - 2 (VRD) - AKL
AKL = 10 KN

8m

Isolate Joint K

AJK

F = 0 +
0 = 60 - 6 (VRD) VJK
VRD = 10 KN

4m

4m
K

1.5m

AKL
VKL

AKG

2VRD

Center for the Designed Environment Profession


# 2 Matulungin Street, House of Architects Building
Teachers Village, Quezon City

F = 0 +
0 = VKL - VJK - AKG
AKG = 0

47

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN

VRD
30 KN

2VRD
F

VRD

2VRD
G

ML = 0 +

3m

0 = VRD (1.5) - VKL(4)


VKL = 3.75 KN

4m
A

8m

8m

Solution

F = 0 +
0 = AKL - VRD
AKL = 10 KN

8m

Isolate Joint L

Solve VRD

F = 0 +
0 = 60 - 6 (VRD)
VRD = 10 KN

AKL
VKL

4m
L

1.5m

ALH

VRD

Center for the Designed Environment Profession


# 2 Matulungin Street, House of Architects Building
Teachers Village, Quezon City

F = 0 +
0 = ALH - VKL
ALH = 3.75 KN

48

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN

ME = 0 +

3m

40 KN

V2ND
A

2V2ND
B

8m

2V2ND
C

8m

VEF = 12.08 KN

4m
D

F = 0 +

8m

Isolate Joint E

Solution

0 = VRD(1.5) +V2ND(2) - VEF(4)

V2ND

0 = VRD + 40 - AEF - V2ND


AEF = 33.33 KN

VRD AIE

Solve V2ND

4m

F = 0 +
0 = 60 + 40 - 6 (V2ND)
V2ND = 16.67 KN

1.5m

40
2.0m

AEF

V2ND

VEF

F = 0 +
0 = AIE + VEF - AEA
AEA = 15.83 KN

AEA
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Teachers Village, Quezon City

49

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN
40 KN

V2ND
A

2V2ND
B

8m

MF = 0 +

4m

0 = 2VRD(1.5) + 2V2ND (2)


- VEF(4) - VFG(4)
VFG = 12.08 KN

2V2ND

V2ND

8m

3m

8m

Isolate Joint F

Solution

2VRD AJF
4m

Solve V2ND

F = 0 +
0 = AEF + 2VRD - AFG - 2V2ND
AFG = 20 KN

4m

1.5m

F = 0 +
AEF
0 = 60 + 40 - 6 (V2ND) 2.0m V
EF
V2ND = 16.67 KN

AFG

VFG

2V2ND
AFB

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# 2 Matulungin Street, House of Architects Building
Teachers Village, Quezon City

F = 0 +
0 = AJF + VFG - AFB - VEF
AFB = 0 KN

50

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN
40 KN

V2ND
A

2V2ND
B

8m

MG = 0 +

4m

0 = 2VRD(1.5) + 2V2ND (2)


- VFG(4) - VGH(4)
VGH = 12.08 KN

2V2ND

V2ND

8m

3m

8m

Isolate Joint G

Solution

2VRD AKG
4m

Solve V2ND

F = 0 +
0 = AFG + 2VRD - AGH - 2V2ND
AGH = 6.67 KN

4m

1.5m

F = 0 +
AFG
0 = 60 + 40 - 6 (V2ND) 2.0m V
FG
V2ND = 16.67 KN

AGH

VGH

2V2ND
AGC

Center for the Designed Environment Profession


# 2 Matulungin Street, House of Architects Building
Teachers Village, Quezon City

F = 0 +
0 = AKG + VGH - AGC - VFG
AGC = 0 KN

51

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN

MH = 0 +

3m

40 KN

V2ND
A

2V2ND
B

8m

4m

8m

0 = VRD(1.5) +V2ND(2) - VGH(4)

V2ND

2V2ND

12.08 = 12.08 KN

F = 0 +
0 = AGH + VRD - V2ND
16.67 = 16.67

8m

Isolate Joint H

Solution

VRD

Solve V2ND

4m

F = 0 +
AGH
0 = 60 + 40 - 6 (V2ND)
VGH
V2ND = 16.67 KN

ALH
1.5m
H

2.0m

V2ND

F = 0 +
0 = AHD - ALH - VGH
AHD = 15.83 KN

AHD
Center for the Designed Environment Profession
# 2 Matulungin Street, House of Architects Building
Teachers Village, Quezon City

52

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
60 KN

MIE = MEI = VRD (1.5) = 15 KNm

3m

40 KN

V2ND

2V2ND

2V2ND
C

V2ND
4m

MJF = MFJ = 2VRD(1.5) = 30 KNm


MKG = MJK =2VRD(1.5) = 30 KNm
MLH = MHL = VRD (1.5) = 15 KNm

MEF = MFE = VEF (4) = 48.3 KNm


8m

8m

8m

MFG = MGF =VFG(4) = 48.3 KNm

MGH = MHG =VGH(4) = 48.3 KNm

Solution
Solve the moments

MEA = MAE =V2ND (2) = 33.3 KNm

MIJ = MJI = VIJ (4) = 15 KNm

MFB = MBF = 2V2ND(2) = 66.7 KNm

MJK = MKJ = VJK (4) = 15 KNm

MGC = MCG =2V2ND(2)= 66.7 KNm


MHD = MDH = V2ND (2) = 33.3 KNm

MKL = MLK = VKL (4) = 15 KNm

Center for the Designed Environment Profession


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Teachers Village, Quezon City

53

Analysis of Structure

COURSE OUTLINE
I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

EXAMPLE 9 (contd)
Illustration
I

3m
E

4m
A

8m

8m

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8m

54

COURSE OUTLINE

END!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

I. Principles of Static
Equilibrium
A. Definition of Terms
B. Force System
C. Free-Body Diagram
Example 1
Example 2

II. Stresses of Structural


Members
A. Axial
Example 3
B. Bending
C. Shear
Example 4
D. Torsion
Example 5
E. Bearing
Example 6
III. Analysis of Structure
A. Truss
Example 7
B. Beams and Girders
Example 8
C. Deflection
D. Frames
Example 9

Center for the Designed Environment Profession


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Teachers Village, Quezon City

55