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Ellaine Kate A.

Roquen
BSMT 1B

Embryo

Leaf
venation
Flowers

Root Pattern
Secondary
growth
Stem and
vascular
system
Pollen
Presence or
absence of
wood
# of seed
leaves
Examples

January 12, 2016

Dicot
As the name suggests, the
dicot embryo has two
cotyledons.
Leaf veins are reticulated
(branched).
Petals in multiples of four
or five. May bear fruit ( if
tree).
Taproot system
Often present

Monocot
Monocotyledons have one cotyledon in the
embryo.

Bundles of vascular tissue


arranged in a ring. The
vascular system is divided
into a cortex and stele.
Pollen with three furrows
or pores.
Both herbaceous and
woody

Bundles of vascular tissue scattered throughout


the stem with no particular arrangement, and
has no cortex.

2 seed leaves

1 seed leaf

Legumes (pea, beans,


lentils, peanuts) daisies,
mint, lettuce, tomato and
oak are examples of dicots.

Grains, (wheat, corn, rice, millet) lilies,


daffodils, sugarcane, banana, palm, ginger,
onions, bamboo, sugar, cone, palm tree, banana
tree, and grass are examples of plants that are
monocots.

MODIFIED PLANT ORGANS


Modified Shoots

Leaf veins are parallel.


Petals in multiples of three.

Fibrous roots
Absent

Pollen with a single furrow or pore.


Herbaceous

Ellaine Kate A. Roquen


BSMT 1B

Bulbs:

is any plant that stores its complete life cycle in an


underground storage structure. The primary function
of these underground storage structures is to store
nutrient reserves to ensure the plants' survival.

Thorns:

are modified branches with sharp, pointed


appearance appendage coming off a plant for
defensive purposes.

Tendrils:

is a slender stem- or petiole-like structure that is


used by vines and lianas (climbing plants) to wrap
around or to hook a support. When a tendril comes
into contact with a support, there is faster growth for
cells on the opposite side so that the tendril rapidly
forms a coil around support, and making a tendril
look like a watch spring.

Modified Stems

Rhizomes:.

are networks of plant roots that live under the


surface of the ground; they're also known as
'creeping rootstock.' Typically, rhizomes grow
horizontally, rather than vertically, extending
sideways from the main root of the plant. Rhizomes
often give the plant a higher chance of surviving in
tough environmental conditions. In many plants,
even a single section of the rhizomes is enough for a
new plant to grow

January 12, 2016

Ellaine Kate A. Roquen


BSMT 1B

Tubers:

are tools that plants use to store their nutrients and


energy. It is a modified plant structure that is
enlarged and used as a storage container for
nutrients that would be difficult to obtain during dry
periods and the winter months.

Corms:

is a swollen stem base that is modified into a mass


of storage tissue. A corm does not have visible
storage rings when cut in half. It serves as a storage
organ used by some plants to survive winter or other
adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat

Stolons:

is a specialized type of horizontal above-ground


shoot, a colonizing organ that arises from an axillary
bud near the base of the plant. The stolon,
connecting mother plant with each ramet, initially
provides the pathway for a flow of nutrients and
water to the new plantlet, or even some nutrients
from the plantlet back to the mother plant.

Cladophylls

a leaflike flattened branch that resembles and


functions as a leaf. It specializes in photosynthesis

January 12, 2016

Ellaine Kate A. Roquen


BSMT 1B

Bulb:

A rounded, fleshy underground bud that consists of a


short stem with flesh leaves.

Modified Leaves

Spine:

A modified leaf that is hard and pointed, and is


found on any desert plants. It is a leaf for protection,
such as a cactus spine.

Bract

: It is a modified leaf associated with a flower or


inflorescence but not part of the flower itself.

Tendril:

A leaf or stem that is modified for holding on or


attaching to objects

Bulb:

A rounded, fleshy underground bud that consists of a


short stem with flesh leaves.

January 12, 2016

Ellaine Kate A. Roquen


BSMT 1B

Modified Roots

Storage Roots

Tuberous roots system is a specialized root system


with a fleshy and enlarged end and contains large
quantities of starch and carbohydrates. It functions
as food storage.

Adventitious
Roots

Formation of adventitious root buds for reproduction


or propagation

Pneumatophor For gas exchange and it absorbs water and minerals


es
from the surface of the tree and from the air.

January 12, 2016

Ellaine Kate A. Roquen


BSMT 1B

Buttress Roots Big roots that look like they arise from the base of
the tree trunk and it provides considerable stability

Prop and Stilt


Roots

Grows from the lower part of a stem or trunk down


to the ground. It provides support for the plant

Epiphytic
Roots

Aerial roots that cling to some kind of support ad it


grows on the external surface of the plant

Aerial Roots

Usually green in color and it functions for


photosynthesis

January 12, 2016

Ellaine Kate A. Roquen


BSMT 1B

January 12, 2016

PLANT REPRODUCTION
Flower
Peduncle: The stalk of a flower.
Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached.
Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose a developing bud.
Petal: The parts of a flower that are often conspicuously colored.
Stamen: The pollen producing part of a flower, usually with a slender filament supporting the
anther.
Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is produced.
Pistil: The ovule producing part of a flower. The ovary often supports a long style, topped by a
stigma. The mature ovary is a fruit, and the mature ovule is a seed.
Stigma: The part of the pistil where pollen germinates.
Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are produced.

Fruit

pericarp

endocarp
mesocarp
exocarp
rind
accessory
tissue

the fruit wall (derived from the ovary of the pistil) which is composed of the
exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp (the three layers are not always recognizable,
ex. dry fruit)
the innermost layer of the pericarp (often hard, stony or papery)
the middle layer of the pericarp (often fleshy)
the outermost layer of the pericarp (often like a skin or peel). (peach)
tough, leathery covering on many fruits either composed of the exocarp (melon)
or the exocarp and mesocarp (orange).
fruit parts not directly derived from the ovary, for example, receptacle tissue of
pomes (apple) and the husks of nuts (acorn, pecan).