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MED201: Materials Science

& Engineering
Instructor: Dipak Maity (PhD)
Email: dipakmaity@gmail.com
dipak.maity@snu.edu.in
Ph No. 9999144850

LECTURES
Time: Mon 1 pm (EE); 4pm (ECE)
Tue 10 am (EE); 1pm (ECE)
Wed 10 am (EE); 1pm (ECE)
Location: CR102 (EE); CR108 (ECE)
Activities:
50 Lectures
Announce reading and homework
Take quizzes, midterm and final*
*Make-ups given only for emergencies.
*Discuss potential conflicts beforehand.

GRADING
Assignment / Home work

10%

1st Midsem 30%


Material covered: 6th Aug till 1st midsem
2nd Midsem 30%
Tentatively scheduled for: 17th Oct (Wed)
Material covered: After 1st midsem till 2nd midsem

Final

30%

Tentatively scheduled for: 19th Dec (Wed)


Material covered: 29th Oct to 18th Dec

Course Objective...
Introduce fundamental concepts in materials science
and engineering

You will learn about:


material structure
how structure dictates properties
how processing can change structure
This course will help you to:
use materials properly
realize new design opportunities with materials

COURSE MATERIAL
Required text:
Materials Science and Engineering

W.D. Callister, Jr., 7th edition, Wiley India


(P) Ltd. (2012).
V. Raghavan, 5th edition, PHI Learning
Pvt. Ltd. (2011).

Historical Perspective
Stone Bronze Iron Advanced materials
Beginning of the Material Science - People began to make tools
from stone Start of the Stone Age about two million years ago.
Natural materials: stone, wood, clay etc.
The Stone Age ended about 5000 years ago with introduction of
Bronze which is an alloy (copper + tin).

The Iron Age began about 3000 years ago and continues today.
iron and steel
Advanced materials: new types of materials introduced
ceramic, semiconductors, polymers, composites

What is Materials Science?


Materials Science
investigation of the relationship among processing, structure, properties,
and performance of materials.
Materials Science is an interdisciplinary area where many science
and engineering streams merge together
Composition means the chemical make-up of a material.
Structure means a description of the arrangements of atoms or ions
in a material.
Synthesis is the process by which materials are made from naturally
occurring or other chemicals.
Processing means different ways for shaping materials into useful
components or changing their properties.
Structure of material will depend on how it is processed, properties depends on
Structure and performance of the material depends on the properties.
Linear Relationship:

Processing

Structure

Properties

Performance

Materials Science Tetrahedron

Microstructure depends on the


processing route while
Performance is dictated by
properties.

Structure, Processing, & Properties


Properties depend on structure

ex: hardness vs structure of steel


(d)

Hardness (BHN)

600
500
400

(a)

(b)
4m

300

200

30m

(c)

30m

100
0.01 0.1

30m

Data obtained from Figs. 10.21(a)


and 10.23 with 4wt%C composition,
and from Fig. 11.13 and associated
discussion, Callister 6e.
Micrographs adapted from (a) Fig.
10.10; (b) Fig. 9.27;(c) Fig. 10.24;
and (d) Fig. 10.12, Callister 6e.

1
10 100 1000
Cooling Rate (C/s)

Processing can change structure

ex: structure vs cooling rate of steel

STRUCTURE
Subatomic level: Electronic structure of individual atoms that defines
interaction among atoms (interatomic bonding).
Atomic level: Arrangement of atoms in materials (for the same atoms
can have different properties, e.g. two forms of carbon: graphite and
diamond)
Microscopic structure: Arrangement of small grains of material that
can be identified by microscopy.
Macroscopic structure: Structural elements that may be viewed with
the naked eye (0.11mm).

STRUCTURE
Structure...has many dimensions...
Structural feature
atomic bonding

Dimension (m)

< 10

missing/extra atoms
crystals (ordered atoms)
second phase particles
crystal texturing

10
10
10

-8
-8

> 10

-10
-10
-10
-10

-1
-4

-6

Angstrom = 1 = 1/10,000,000,000 meter = 10-10 m


Nanometer = 1 nm = 1/1,000,000,000 meter = 10-9 m
Micrometer = 1m = 1/1,000,000 meter = 10-6 m
Millimeter = 1mm = 1/1,000 meter = 10-3 m

PROPERTIES
Properties are the way the material responds to the environment
and external forces.
Mechanical properties response to mechanical forces,
strength, etc.
Electrical and magnetic properties - response electrical and
magnetic fields, conductivity, etc.
Thermal properties - are related to transmission of heat and heat
capacity.
Optical properties - include to absorption, transmission and
scattering of light.
Chemical stability - in contact with the environment - corrosion
resistance. (Deteriorative properties: Chemical reactivity of materials)
Composition, Bonding, Crystal Structure & Microstructure DEFINE
Materials Properties

ELECTRICAL

Electrical Resistivity of Copper:

Adapted from Fig. 18.8, Callister 6e.


(Fig. 18.8 adapted from: J.O. Linde,
Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and
C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson,
Physics of Solids, 2nd edition,
McGraw-Hill Company, New York,
1970.)

Adding impurity atoms to Cu increases resistivity.


Deforming Cu increases resistivity.
4

Space Shuttle Tiles:

THERMAL
Thermal Conductivity

--Silica fiber insulation


offers low heat conduction.
Fig. 19.0, Callister 6e.
(Courtesy of Lockheed
Missiles and Space
Company, Inc.)

of Copper:

--It decreases when


you add zinc!

Adapted from
Fig. 19.4W, Callister
6e. (Courtesy of
Lockheed Aerospace
Ceramics Systems,
Sunnyvale, CA)
(Note: "W" denotes
fig. is on CD-ROM.)

Adapted from Fig. 19.4, Callister 6e.


(Fig. 19.4 is adapted from Metals Handbook:

Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys


and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker,
(Managing Editor), American Society for
Metals, 1979, p. 315.)
5

Magnetic Storage:

MAGNETIC

--Recording medium
is magnetized by
recording head.

Fig. 20.18, Callister 6e.


(Fig. 20.18 is from J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin,
Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990.)

Magnetic Permeability
vs. Composition:

--Adding 3 atomic % Si
makes Fe a better
recording medium!

Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and


A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of
Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,
1973. Electronically reproduced
by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
6

Transmittance:

OPTICAL

--Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or


opaque depending on the material structure.
single crystal

polycrystal:
low porosity

polycrystal:
high porosity
Large scattering
of light

No Scattering
Of light
Adapted from Fig. 1.2,

Callister 6e.

(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by J.
Telford.)

DETERIORATIVE
Stress & Saltwater...
--causes cracks!

Adapted from Fig. 17.0, Callister 6e.


(Fig. 17.0 is from Marine Corrosion, Causes,
and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
1975.)

slows
crack speed in salt water!

Heat treatment:

Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and


Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505,
John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O.
Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)

--material:

4m

7150-T651 Al "alloy"
(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)
Adapted from Fig. 11.24,
Callister 6e. (Fig. 11.24 provided courtesy of G.H.
Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial
Airplane Company.)

Classification of Materials

Solid materials have been grouped into four classification: Metal,


Ceramics, Polymers and Composites
Metal:

Metals are typically hard when they are in their solid form
They are usually shiny or lustrous (reflecting light).
Metals are typically heavy; that is, they have relatively high density.
They are strong, malleable (able to be formed and shaped) and ductile
(easily drawn or bent).
They are good conductors of both heat and electricity.
Forms metallic bond (electron sea' that "glues" the ions together)

Ceramic:

Compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements. (crystalline


or amorphous, ions bound by Coulomb forces (ionic bonding)
Oxides (Al2O3), nitrides (Si3N4) and carbides (SiC). Clay, cements,

porcelain, glass.
Heat resistant, insulator and chemically inert than metal and polymer
Ceramics are hard but brittle and mostly ionic solid or mixed bonding
Polymers
Covalent forces and week van der Walls forces
Organic based on C & H and have large molecular structure.

Light weight, low temp (400) decomposition & extremely flexible.


Plastic & rubbers (PVC, PS, nylon, silicone rubber etc)

Composites
Consists of more than one material type.
A composite is designed to display a combination of the best
characteristics of each of the components materials.
Fiber glass, Cermet etc. Glass fibers are embedded in polymer.

Alloy
An alloy is a solid solution or homogeneous mixture of two or more
elements (metallic and non metallic)
At least one component should be metal
Not chemically bonded
An alloy could be harder, softer, stronger, less easily corroded, and so
forth, than the individual metals composing it.
Examples: Brass is an alloy of Cu and Zn, Bronze (Cu and Sn)
Compound
A compound is a substance formed due to the chemical union (a
chemical reaction) between two or more atoms or molecules. e.g.Water

Semiconductors
Conductivity between conductor and insulator. Si, Ge, GaAs. (Covalent)
Negative resistance coefficient with temperature
Conductivity could be modulated by doping (n-type, p-type)
Biomaterials

Materials can be implanted to human body.


Biocompatible and nontoxic to living tissues (no adverse biological reactions).
Metals (Ti), ceramic (ZnO, TiO2), magnetic (IO) polymers and semiconductors (Si).
Advanced materials
Materials used for high-technology (Electronic materials, superconductors).
Advanced materials are typically traditional materials whose properties have been
enhanced or newly developed high-performance materials.

All materials. (materials used for lasers, ICs, LCD, solar cells, LEDs etc.)
Modern materials needs
Energy materials (solar cells, Li-ion batteries, fuel cells etc)

The Materials Selection Process


1.

Pick Application

Determine required Properties

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,


magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2.

Properties

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3.

Material

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape


ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.