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Excreta matters: Waste water treatment techniques and management in buildings Building Sense: Training programme for

Excreta matters:

Waste water treatment techniques and management in buildings

Building Sense: Training programme for “Sustainable Building Policies and Practices"

Chhavi Sharda Senior Research Associate Email: chhavi@cseindia.org

Water Supply Potable requirements Waste Water Waste Water (80%) (80%) Water Supply Non-potable requirements Water
Water Supply
Water Supply

Potable

Water Supply Potable requirements Waste Water Waste Water (80%) (80%) Water Supply Non-potable requirements Water

requirements

Waste Water Waste Water
Waste Water
Waste Water
(80%) (80%) Water Supply Non-potable requirements Water Supply Irrigation/Garden requirements
(80%)
(80%)
Water Supply
Non-potable
requirements
Water Supply
Irrigation/Garden
requirements
Water Sensitive Design – Building scale
Water Sensitive Design – Building scale

Reduction of mains (municipal supply) water consumption

Water Sensitive Design – Building scale Reduction of mains (municipal supply) water consumption
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse
Intake Water Treatment Storage Recycle Water Wastewater Distribution Collection Network Network River Disposal
Intake
Water Treatment
Storage
Recycle
Water
Wastewater
Distribution
Collection
Network
Network
River
Disposal
Reuse
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse The Sewer System
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse
The Sewer System
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse The Sewer System Trunk Sewer Main Sewer Branch Sewers Laterals House

Trunk Sewer Main Sewer Branch Sewers Laterals House Connections Manholes

Sewer System Trunk Sewer Main Sewer Branch Sewers Laterals House Connections Manholes 10/26/2015 Water Management Team
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse Sewers and Manholes
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse
Sewers and Manholes

Invert Level

Ground
Ground
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse Sewers and Manholes Invert Level Ground Invert Level

Invert Level

Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse Wastewater Treatment Process Schematic
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse
Wastewater Treatment Process Schematic
Bar Racks Primary or Grit Sump Equalization Sedimentation Screens Chamber Well Tank Tank Primary Treatment
Bar Racks
Primary
or
Grit
Sump
Equalization
Sedimentation
Screens
Chamber
Well
Tank
Tank
Primary Treatment
Preliminary Treatment
Reuse/Recycle
Secondary
Tertiary
Treatment
Treatment
1. ASP
7. Anaerobic + Polishing
2. TF
Treatment
3. RBC
8. Natural Systems (Ponds /
Reuse/
4. SBR
Wetlands)

Disposal

5. MBBR

6. MBR

Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse Current sewage paradigm – A journey to pollution
Conventional wastewater treatment and reuse
Current sewage paradigm – A journey to pollution
reuse Current sewage paradigm – A journey to pollution STP Water Body Centralised system serving the
STP
STP

Water Body

Centralised system serving the city centre and outskirts

A paradigm that must change, urgently
A paradigm that must change, urgently

Cannot flush – and forget

Have to find new approaches :

Affordable and Sustainable

Have to find new approaches : Affordable and Sustainable REVOLUTION – CHANGE IN MINDSET 10/26/2015 Water

REVOLUTION – CHANGE IN MINDSET

Revolution
Revolution

Treat sewage as close to the source as possible.

• Reduce water use to reduce waste discharge.

• Need to cut cost.

• Treat all sewage – from open/closed drains.

Recycle and reuse wastewater.

• Any residual waste in the drain can then be treated at the point of drainage into river.

Integration of DWWTS into existing system
Integration of DWWTS into existing system
Integration of DWWTS into existing system STP Water Body 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 11
STP
STP

Water Body

DWWT Application
DWWT Application
DWWT Application Public toilets Hospitals Markets/Offices Single house Schools/colleges Residential areas 10/26/2015

Public toilets

DWWT Application Public toilets Hospitals Markets/Offices Single house Schools/colleges Residential areas 10/26/2015
DWWT Application Public toilets Hospitals Markets/Offices Single house Schools/colleges Residential areas 10/26/2015

Hospitals

DWWT Application Public toilets Hospitals Markets/Offices Single house Schools/colleges Residential areas 10/26/2015

Markets/Offices

Single house

Public toilets Hospitals Markets/Offices Single house Schools/colleges Residential areas 10/26/2015 Water
Public toilets Hospitals Markets/Offices Single house Schools/colleges Residential areas 10/26/2015 Water

Schools/colleges

Residential areas

Water Sensitive Design – Building scale Grey water and treated effluent recycling
Water Sensitive Design – Building scale
Grey water and treated effluent recycling

Decentralised options of recycling at various scale can reduce water demand from municipal supply

Internal usage: Toilets

External usage: Gardens, Car washing, road washing etc.

Decentralised wastewater treatment system
Decentralised wastewater treatment system

How will it be acceptable?

1. Cost effective

2. Easy to operate – semi-skilled operator

3. Easy to maintain - no or low energy consumption, no addition of expensive chemicals or additives

4. Doesn’t cause any nuisance like noise pollution, bad odour to the surrounding, problems of mosquito breeding etc.

Natural Systems – Steps of treatment
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15

Reuse of

treated

water

Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
Natural Systems – Steps of treatment Reuse of treated water 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
10/26/2015 Water Management Team 15
10/26/2015
Water Management Team
15
Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System at Aravind Eye Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry
Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System at Aravind Eye
Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry
Aravind Eye Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry Parameters Details Year of Implementation 2003

Parameters

Details

Year of Implementation

2003

Type of Building

Hospital and Residential Buildings together

System’s area

2690 sq m

Capacity of the system

320 KLD

Re-use

Horticulture of 15 acres of area within the hospital premises

Capital Cost

INR 11.2 Million

(2003)

O&M Cost (per annum)

INR 250,000-500,000

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System at Aravind Eye Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry
Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System at Aravind Eye
Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry
Aravind Eye Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry Settler and Anaerobic baffled reactors Planted filter bed

Settler and Anaerobic baffled reactors

Buildings, Puducherry Settler and Anaerobic baffled reactors Planted filter bed with Canna indica Anil Agarwal Green

Planted filter bed with Canna indica

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System at Aravind Eye Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry
Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System at Aravind Eye
Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry
Aravind Eye Hospital and Residential Buildings, Puducherry P o l i s h i n g

Polishing pond

Puducherry P o l i s h i n g p o n d Treated wastewater

Treated wastewater reuse for horticulture

Settler – Primary Treatment
Settler – Primary Treatment
Settler – Primary Treatment Separates suspended solids from the incoming wastewater by providing required retention
Settler – Primary Treatment Separates suspended solids from the incoming wastewater by providing required retention

Separates suspended solids from the incoming wastewater by providing required retention time.

Settler contd.
Settler contd.
Settler contd. Two chambered settler Typical BOD and TSS removal in primary sedimentation tanks/ settler Source:

Two chambered settler

Typical BOD and TSS removal in primary sedimentation tanks/ settler Source: Metcalf& Eddy; 4 th
Typical BOD and TSS removal in primary
sedimentation tanks/ settler
Source: Metcalf& Eddy; 4 th Edition; pg 405
Three chambered settler
Settler – Primary Treatment
Settler – Primary Treatment

Purpose

Removal of settable suspended solids

Land Area Required

0.5 sq m / cu m

Retention time

2-3 hours

Desludging period

1-3 years

Specification

2 – 3 chambers

Depth - 1 to 2.5 m

2 chambered – 1 st chamber 2/3 of the total length

3 chambered- 1 st chamber ½ of the total length

Gas Scum outflow Settling particles Sludge
Gas
Scum
outflow
Settling particles
Sludge

Inflow

Improved Septic tank: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR)
Improved Septic tank: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor
(ABR)
Improved Septic tank: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) • Introduction of baffles/ pipes – Wastewater passes series

Introduction of baffles/ pipes – Wastewater passes series of upflow chambers which improves the retention time

Helps in further treatment (degradation) of suspended/ dissolved solids and decomposition of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria.

Minimum/ No sludge handling – Anaerobic bacteria responsible for sludge digestion – optimum amount is retained to maintain the livestock.

May not require de-sludging at all. However, it is suggested to clean and recommission the system every 8-10 years to maintain treatment efficiency.

Flow of water in Anaerobic Baffled Reactor
Flow of water in Anaerobic Baffled Reactor
Flow of water in Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Helps in natural biodegradation of the contaminants largely through

Helps in natural biodegradation of the contaminants largely through anaerobic biodegradation.

Baffled reactor: Anaerobic Fixed Bed Filter Source: BORDA
Baffled reactor: Anaerobic Fixed Bed Filter
Source: BORDA

Filter is made out of gravels, slags or plastic materials that are easily and locally available

Desludging is needed only if excess sludge is generated.

that are easily and locally available • Desludging is needed only if excess sludge is generated.

Filter material

Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) contd.
Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) contd.
Purpose 70 - 90 % of removal happens in reactor Treatment through Anaerobic Degradation Land
Purpose
70 - 90 % of removal happens in reactor
Treatment through
Anaerobic
Degradation
Land Area
1 sq m / cu m
Required
Retention time
21 – 24 hours
Desludging
8 - 10 years
period
Specification
• Upflow velocity to
be maintained
less than 2 m/hr
• Depth ranges
from 1.5 – 2m
Anaerobic Filter
Anaerobic Filter
Anaerobic Filter • Wastewater passes in series of upflow chambers with filter materials at the centre.

Wastewater passes in series of upflow chambers with filter materials at the centre. Filter is made out of gravels, slags, cinder or plastic materials Desludging is needed only if excess sludge is generated.

• Desludging is needed only if excess sludge is generated. Filter material 10/26/2015 Water Management Team

Filter material

Planted filter bed
Planted filter bed
Planted filter bed • Combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatment • Consists of plants (wetland) and
Planted filter bed • Combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatment • Consists of plants (wetland) and

Combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatment Consists of plants (wetland) and filter materials (gravels/ river pebbles) Retain sewage for 1 – 3 days depending on wastewater quality, area and porosity of filter media. Slope should be 1%

CW: Horizontal flow Adequate settlement before the horizontal flow bed will extend the bed's life.
CW: Horizontal flow
Adequate settlement
before the horizontal
flow bed will extend the
bed's life.
Area required : 4 sq m per cum
10/26/2015
Water Management Team
28
Type of plants for PGF: Typha
Type of plants for PGF: Typha
Rooted emergent macrophytes
Rooted emergent macrophytes
Type of plants for PGF: Typha Rooted emergent macrophytes Canna indica Typha angustata

Canna indica

Type of plants for PGF: Typha Rooted emergent macrophytes Canna indica Typha angustata

Typha angustata

Type of plants for PGF: Scirpus
Type of plants for PGF: Scirpus
Type of plants for PGF: Scirpus Scirpus littoralis

Scirpus littoralis

Type of plants for PGF: Scirpus Scirpus littoralis
Type of plants for PGF: Scirpus Scirpus littoralis
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi Source: Google Earth

Source: Google Earth

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi V-notch at the inlet Perforated inlet pipe to the

V-notch at the inlet

Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi V-notch at the inlet Perforated inlet pipe to the bed Constructed

Perforated inlet pipe to the bed

Delhi V-notch at the inlet Perforated inlet pipe to the bed Constructed wetland bed with growing

Constructed wetland bed with growing typha (wetland plant)

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi Treated water tank Physical appearance: Sewage vs Treated water

Treated water tank

Research Institute, Pusa New Delhi Treated water tank Physical appearance: Sewage vs Treated water 10/26/2015

Physical appearance: Sewage vs Treated water

CW: Vertical flow
CW: Vertical flow
Plants
Plants

Area required : 2.7 sq m per cum

Polishing Ponds: Tertiary treatment
Polishing Ponds: Tertiary treatment
Polishing Ponds: Tertiary treatment  Designed to provide 1 to 3 days retention time  Normally

Designed to provide 1 to 3 days retention time

Normally operate at a depth of 1 to 1.5 m depth

Excessive detention time will increases effluent suspended solids concentrations

Reduce E coli count (from around 2000 to below 20)

Area required : 1.2 sq m per cum

Tip: Use Gambusia to control mosquitoes

Performance of DWWT
Performance of DWWT

Underground anaerobic process 20%-30% BOD removal – Settler 70%-90% BOD removal – Baffled reactor

Above ground level aerobic process Can be designed as per requirement Nitrates and Phosphates removal

CPCB standards are met at this point, except for the smell control

Odor removal Pathogen removal

The right combination and dimension of the modules make DWWT successful

Performance of DWWT
Performance of DWWT
Performance of DWWT 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 37
Recycle and Reuse
Recycle and Reuse

Major factors for wastewater recycle / reuse are:

Opportunities to augment limited primary water sources.

Prevention of excess diversion of water from alternative uses including the natural environment.

Possibilities to manage insitu water sources.

Minimization of infrastructure costs including treatment and discharge costs.

Reduction and elimination of discharges of wastewater (treated/ untreated) into receiving environment.

Scope to overcome political, community and institution constraints.

Reuse of treatment products
Reuse of treatment products
Reuse of treatment products 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 39
Biogas 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 40
Biogas 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 40

Biogas

Biogas 10/26/2015 Water Management Team 40
10/26/2015 Water Management Team 41
10/26/2015 Water Management Team 41
Conclusions
Conclusions

Decentralised technologies adopt the science from time tested practices and improve the treatment process.

These technologies are devised after understanding the nature of wastewater and are put together in different combinations as per need.

They are designed to enhance the natural aerobic and anaerobic processes, and

Create conditions in which wastewater can be treated with the least use of energy or mechanical equipments.

Wastewater could be effectively recycled and reused at institutional or community levels.

Rainbow Society, Bengaluru
Rainbow Society, Bengaluru

Rainbow Drive is a 36 acre neighborhood with 430 plots located in south east Bangalore. The sloped land posed a challenge for the residents due to excessive flooding during monsoon. Also, due to lack of connectivity to the municipal water supply, the residents depended on ground water from bore wells for their daily consumption.

Rainbow Drive Source: Google Earth
Rainbow Drive
Source: Google Earth
their daily consumption. Rainbow Drive Source: Google Earth As a result of the scarcity and flooding,

As a result of the scarcity and flooding, they opted to conserve, reuse and recycle water through rainwater harvesting, recharge wells and a phytorid sewage treatment plant. This was done by creating a layout association that worked collaboratively.

Rainbow Society, Bengaluru contd.
Rainbow Society, Bengaluru contd.
Rainbow Society, Bengaluru contd. Treating and re-using wastewater (Black and Grey both) Recharge Structure Capturing

Treating and re-using wastewater (Black and Grey both)

Recharge Structure
Recharge
Structure

Capturing storm water

Rainbow Society, Bengaluru contd.
Rainbow Society, Bengaluru contd.
Rainbow Society, Bengaluru contd. Parameters Details Year of Implementation 2007 Type of Building

Parameters

Details

Year of Implementation

2007

Type of Building

Residential Campus with 430 plots

Re-use

Horticulture

The Phytorid system is a subsurface flow type. The hydraulics is maintained in such a manner that wastewater does not rise to the surface retaining a free board at the top of the filled media.

The reduction on the treated effluent for the Total suspended solids(TSS) varied from 70% to 80 %, BOD from 78% to 84%, Nitrogen from 70% to 75%, Phosphorus from 52% to 64% and Fecal Coliform from 90 % to 97%.

Decentralised Wastewater treatment systen at a residential Building, Sainik Farm, New Delhi
Decentralised Wastewater treatment systen at a
residential Building, Sainik Farm, New Delhi
Settler and ABR
Settler and ABR
systen at a residential Building, Sainik Farm, New Delhi Settler and ABR Planted filter bed with

Planted filter bed with Canna

10/26/2015 46
10/26/2015
46
Decentralised Wastewater treatment systen at a residential Building, Sainik Farm, New Delhi
Decentralised Wastewater treatment systen at a
residential Building, Sainik Farm, New Delhi

Parameters

Details

Year of Implementation

2013

Type of Building

Individual Residential Building

Capacity of the system

0.8 KLD

Re-use

For maintaining greenery of the garden (500 L/ day)

Capital Cost (2013)

INR 25,000/- (INR 10,000 for plumbing)

O&M Cost (per annum)

INR 4,000/-

10/26/2015 Water Management Team 48
10/26/2015 Water Management Team 48