Page 1 of 2
FALL ’10 1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set # 1
1. The average energy used for heating a 1980’s single family home is roughly 84 x 10 ^{6} kJ, 80 x 10 ^{6} BTU in a climate similar to Boston or Madison, Wisconsin. Heating is mainly needed for the six coldest months. Use the enclosed table of daily solar radiation, taken from ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 1997, to estimate, to within 15 to 20 percent accuracy, the size of a solar collector needed, in ft,or m ^{2} , to supply 75% of the heating energy for the house for the six winter months. Assume the energy collected on the collector is 50% of the total solar radiation incident on the collector.
2. 
Assume the house is a typical US home with 2000 square feet total floor area overall. Sketch a preliminary design of the appropriate sized collector integrated into the roof. The design and orientation is your choice. What if the long axis of the house is NS? 

3. 
A solar collector costs roughly $25/ft ^{2} of collector area for the entire system. A gallon of fuel oil can supply roughly 140,000 BTU, 158 x 10 ^{6} J, and costs 2.5 dollars. Compare the economics of a one square foot collector versus heating with oil. Consider how to compare building cost versus operating cost. What other alternatives should be considered? 

4 
.How big must the solar collector be to supply all of the heating energy if no back up system is included? 

5 
On same consistent basis, e.g. J, Kwhr, or BTU compare the costs of energy supplied by electricity, and by burning natural gas and heating oil. Use average consumer prices for one area, such as Boston. Obtain prices directly from utilities or from reference sources. Is there a disparity in energy prices? If so, is this a consumer rip off or is there some justification? This problem is fundamental to many energy considerations. 

6. 
You have been recently hired by MIT to perform a partial energy audit of one of the new luxury dorm rooms just built on campus. Each room comes with quite a bit of preinstalled equipment for 

the students. Your task is to estimate the electricity usage of one of these rooms. 
Among other 

items in the room are: a room air conditioner, fullsize refrigerator, microwave oven, coffee maker, 

toaster, iron, hair dryer, TV and VCR, PC, monitor and laser printer. Assume the electrical lighting is the same as in your own room. Use the kill a watt meters we will supply to make your measurements. Don’t forget the energy sued by power supplies and other items in standby mode. 

Now assume that the student has everything running at full blast at one time. How much electrical power does this room need to be supplied with (in Watts)? Make some assumptions about how long each appliance is used on a certain day. How many kilowatthours of electricity are used by this room in one day? Based on your response to Problem 5, how much does electricity cost for one day? 

Submit a table with the following information for each appliance: 

Appliance 1 
350W 
2 hours/day 
700 kWh/day Name of Source 

7. 
For your living group at MIT, list two or three strategies to make it more energy efficient. 
Your sources may include: info on the backs of appliances, the internet, and your own measurements.
Page 2 of 2
Table from ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals
Daily Solar Heat Gain Through a Single Sheet of Clear Glass at 40 N Latitude With a Clear sky
Month 
Vertical South 
Vertical East 

Horizontal Daily (W h/m2) 
Facing 
Facing 

Jan 
2234 
5130 
1621 
Feb 
3458 
5180 
2311 
Mar 
4818 
4380 
2983 
Apr 
6036 
3076 
3085 
May 
6828 
2256 
3781 
Jun 
7100 
1990 
3866 
Jul 
6790 
2220 
3752 
Aug 
5964 
2990 
3424 
Sep 
4658 
4238 
2859 
Oct 
3408 
4986 
2233 
Nov 
2230 
5030 
1601 
Dec 
1782 
4890 
1347 
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Page 1 of 2
Fall’10
1.044J, 2.66J, 4.42J Homework Set #2
1. Look at the cutaway of the EdenPure Quartz Infrared heater on
http://edenpurestore.com/bob_vila_edenpure, How would the design and materials of the cured copper tubes improve the efficiency of the heater? From an energy perspective what is the proper definition of efficiency?
2. One means proposed to conserve energy for space heating is the use of night
setback; the interior temperature of a building is reduced during the evening. The heat transferred from the building to the outside air is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the building interior and the outdoor ambient temperature. Between the hours of 8 AM and 10 PM the interior temperature in the winter should remain at
20C. At night for the remaining 10 hours, it cannot fall below 12 C when the ambient temperature is constant at 0C. a) You are asked to design a control strategy, when to turn the heater off and on, to stay within these temperature limits while minimizing the total heater energy for a 24 hour period. For a given building you will be given an Excel program that will be predict the internal temperature response and heater energy. The heater only has three setting, on low, on high and off. Setting the heater on low at steady state will just maintain the house at 12C. You can design the maximum heater size, high, the maximum heater output as a multiple of the low setting between 1 and 5. What is the minimum energy for the nighttime? b) Some people have questioned this strategy claiming that the total energy saved by night setback is reduced because of the additional energy needed to raise the interior temperature in the morning. Consider a 24hour period for a building. The internal energy of the building is proportional to the temperature. Be careful in defining the system and the heat and work interactions at the boundaries. What is the net energy change for the system over the 24hour period? How much impact does the reheating energy in the morning have on the savings due to the night setback?
3. The door to an ordinary electric home refrigerator is left open by accident (with
the power on) while the people are away for the weekend. If the kitchen doors are closed and the room is thermally well insulated, will the room be hotter than, colder than, or at the same temperature as the rest of the house when the unhappy people return? Why?
Page 2 of 2
Fall’08
1.044J, 2.66J, 4.42J Homework Set #2
4. An investigator suggests use of a heat pump to provide winter heating to a
building. Instead of using the outside air as the low temperature heat source, she proposes to use the domestic water system which enters the house at a higher temperature than the outside air. This raises the heat pump average coefficient of performance Q _{H} /W from 2.5 to 3.0. As the heat pump operates, Q _{w} is transferred from the water, lowing T _{I} , the inlet water temperature to the house. To simplify the consideration assume the initial water temperatures is T _{H} same as the interior temperature. The house temperature is constant at T _{H} . Evaluate the net energy electrical savings under two conditions:
(a) 
The water quickly flows through the house and there is no heat transfer between the water and the interior of the house. T _{D} the water drain temperature equals T _{I} with or without the heat pump. 
(b) 
The water remains in the house for a long time. Heat transfer to the water in the house raises it temperature to the interior temperature T _{H} , so that T _{D} is equal to T _{H} no matter how much T _{I} changes. 
(c) 
Comment on the feasibility of such a system. 
Drain
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Fall ‘10 1.044J, 2.66J, 4.42J Homework Set #3
1) Simmons Hall, the newest MIT student dorm on campus should be operated to minimize energy use. One proposed strategy to reduce air conditioning energy in the summer is night cooling. At 8 p.m. the windows are opened and cool night air is circulated through the room. By 8 a.m. the room air and the concrete floor slab have a temperature close to that of the outside air, 18 degrees Centigrade. The slab is four inches thick. At 8 a.m. the windows are closed and heat transfer to the cooled floor slab helps to maintain a comfortable interior temperature. Neglect any heat transfer through the closed windows. Assume that the average rate of electrical and solar energy into the room totals 500 watts over the 12 hours.
a)Sketch the room temperature vs. time for the 12 hour period between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. What is the maximum room temperature? Assume as a limiting case that the slab and the air temperature are always equal. In reality, do you expect the slab to be at a lower or higher temperature than the air? b) Can you suggest an improved strategy for window opening and closing during the day?
2) To supplement the night cooling strategy described above, it is proposed to spray liquid water droplets into the air. If the room air at 8 a.m. is completely dry what is the maximum amount of liquid water that can be evaporated into the room air at 18 degrees Centigrade? Assume that the room is closed up and there is no air circulation from the outside into the room.
3) Using both night cooling and the maximum amount of liquid water evaporation in the room, estimate the room temperature at 8 p.m. From 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. the windows are closed and the average electrical and solar energy into the room totals 500 watts. To solve, write an energy balance for a system including the floor slab, the water and the air. Take state 1 as liquid water, floor slab and air at 18 degrees Centigrade, the conditions at 8 a.m. Take state 2 as the slab and saturated air at 8 p.m.
4) What do you think about the feasibility of the proposed solutions?
5) You are interested in investigating the thermal stratification in your dorm room, which directly impacts our assumption that the slab and air temperatures are equal. Chose 4 locations in your room, 2 of which are in the immediate vicinity of your highest power consuming appliances identified in the first problem set. At each location, use the Vernier LabQuest and temperature probe to measure the floor temperature and air temperature at the following heights (1 in, 2 ft, 4 ft, 6 ft, 8 ft above floor). Allow enough time at each height for the temperature reading to reach steady state (ie to settle on a value and not change).
How justified is our assumption about the slab and air temperatures? Is the thermal stratification different at each location? If so, please justify any differences.
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1.
Fall’2010
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #4
M
amb
T amb
chiller
A room at steady state has a supply air stream of cool air entering at 60 ^{o} F. The lights, office
appliances and people transfer heat to the air so that it leaves at 75 ^{o} F. Consider only sensible heat
transfer for this problem, with all temperatures given as dry bulb temperatures. After the air leaves the room some is exhausted from the building. The remainder mixes with ambient air. The mixture
is cooled by the chiller down to 60 ^{o} F. For ventilation requirements M _{a}_{m}_{b} must be at least 20
percent of the total flow rate. The total air flow rate to the room and the entering temperature, state
1, are held constant. The amount of ambient air can be varied from 20 percent up to 100 % of
The
M _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} (with corresponding increases in the exhaust flow to keep the total flow constant). temperature changes are small so C _{p} can be considered constant.
a) For an arbitrary ambient temperature develop an expression for Q _{c}_{h}_{i}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{r}
in terms of M amb and M total .
b) As the ambient temperature varies between 50 ^{o} F and 85 ^{o} F what should M _{a}_{m}_{b} _{a}_{n}_{d} M _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l}
be to minimize Q _{c}_{h}_{i}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{r} ?
Show a diagram of the optimum M _{a}_{m}_{b} and M _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} versus T _{A}_{M}_{B} . At different ambient temperature levels, e.g., 60, 75 ^{o} F, the strategy to minimize the chiller cooling requirement may change. This is known as an economizer cycle.
Page 1 of 5
Fall’2010
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #4
2. 
An office space is to be kept at 73 ^{o} F. If cool air is co nstantly supplied to the space at 60 ^{o} F and the space can be assumed to be at a uniform temp erature, what is the required air mass flow in lb/hr and volume flow in CFM? The same flo w of air continually leaves the space. The heat transfer into the space from the outside throu gh an exterior wall is 16,000 BTU/hr. Internal "heat gains" in the office space can be taken as 2.5 W/ft ^{2} for office equipment and 

computers and 250 BTU/hr per person. 
Assume the space ft ^{2} is occupied by 40 people. 

The heat given due to people assume is only sensible heating, i.e., it neglects any evaporation or changes in the moisture level in the air. Assume steady state conditions prevail. The floor area of the office is 1500 ft ^{2} . 

2b. 
If all the heat gains are doubled what options are available for the cool air supply to keep the office space at 73 ^{o} F? What other factors must be considered in choosing an option? 

3. 
A water to air heat exchanger is used to heat the air of a home interior. The air flow rate is 2000 lbm/hr; the air enters in steady flow at 70 ^{o} F and leaves the heat exchanger at 100 ^{o} F. Heating water enters at 130 ^{o} F and leaves at 110 ^{o} F. 

a) If the heat exchanger is operating in steady state and there is negligible heat loss from the outside casing of the exchanger to its surroundings what is the required water flow rate? 

b) Do you think it's possible to design a heat exchanger with a water temperature drop from 130 ^{o} F to 110 ^{o} F while the air outlet temperature is raised to 125 ^{o} F (for suitable air and water flow rates)? 

c) Is it possible to have an air outlet temperature of 135 ^{o} F with these same water temperatures? 

4. 
An air conditioning system uses R12 (Freon12) as a working fluid. The flow rate of refrigerant is 1,000 lbm/hr and it is steady. The refrigerant is condensed in the condenser to saturated liquid at 120 ^{o} F. From the condenser, it passes through an expansion valve where the pressure is lowered and the outlet temperature is 20 ^{o} F. The expansion valve is insulated and there is no shaft work. After the expansion valve the Freon enters the evaporator where it receives heat at constant pressure corresponding to the saturation pressure of 20 ^{o} F. The heat transferred to the Freon in the evaporation provides the cooling to the air passing over the evaporator. 
a) Find the cooling capacity of the unit in BTU/hr if the outlet of the evaporator is saturated vapor. Find the cooling capacity in tons. Hint: Define a control volume around the evaporator and write the steady flow energy equation.
b) Repeat part (a) if the outlet of the evaporator is super heated by 15 ^{o} F; that is, the vapor is heated at constant pressure to 15 ^{o} F above the saturation temperature. Assume the Freon12 vapor is a perfect gas with C _{p} equal to 0.15 BTU/lbm ^{o} F.
Page 2 of 5
Fall’2010
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #4
5. An open plan office is to be cooled by natural ventilation. The long axis of the building is aligned in the EastWest direction. The depth in the NorthSouth direction is 30 m with operable windows on both the North and South sides. With open windows and negligible air flow resistance in the interior, when the wind is from the South, the air velocity at the Southern window open area can be approximately related to the wind velocity as, V _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n} _{a}_{r}_{e}_{a} = 0.35 V _{w}_{i}_{n}_{d} . Assume the North side windows have the same open area as the South windows and there is an equal air flow out of the North side windows. The interior height is 3 m and there is a combined heat input due to lights, people and office equipment of 40 W/m ^{2} of floor area.
a) What is the air change rate per hour, ACH, of the building interior as a function of the percent of the South façade used for open window area? The wind velocity is 1.5 m/s.
b) Plot the temperature rise of the interior air as a function of the percent of the South façade used for open windows. The wind velocity is still 1.5 m/s.
c) How can the building be kept cool when the wind velocity is reduced?
d) Compare the performance of natural ventilation between the upper and lower floors of a high rise building.
Page 3 of 5
Fall’2010
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #4
6. An air conditioning system uses HFC 134a as a working fluid, the refrigerant. The flow rate of refrigerant is 500 kg/hr and it is steady. The refrigerant is condensed in the condenser to saturated liquid at 45 C. From the condenser, it passes through an expansion valve, flow resistance, where the pressure is lowered and the outlet temperature is 10 C. The expansion valve is insulated and there is no shaft work. After the expansion valve the refrigerant enters the evaporator where it receives heat at constant pressure corresponding to the saturation pressure of 10 C. The heat transferred to the refrigerant in the evaporation provides the cooling to the air passing over the evaporator.
What is the enthalpy change of the refrigerant as it flows through the expansion valve?
Find the cooling capacity of the unit in W and BTU/hr if the outlet of the evaporator
is saturated vapor.
Hint: Define a control volume around the evaporator and write
the steady flow energy equation.
T= 45 C Saturated Liquid 500 kg/s flow rate
T=10C
Condensor
T=10 C,
saturated vapor
Evaporator
Page 4 of 5
Fall’2010
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #4
7. MIT has a large number of fume hoods used for wet chemistry experiments. When the hood sashes are open the air velocity, sometimes called the face velocity, must be maintained at a safe level to prevent any dangerous fumes from escaping. The air drawn into the hoods comes from the air supplied to the room. This air must be heated to acceptable temperature levels for the lab occupants. For safety reasons, all of the air flow in such a building must be exhausted and none can be recycled, a oncethrough system. Use the instruments from class to measure the air flow rate in a new and an older hood as the window is closed.
a) 
Estimate for one full sized hood at MIT the energy required to heat the air use during one winter day if the hood is left fully open for 24 hours. 
b) 
Use the instruments from class to measure the air flow rate in a new and older hood as the sash is closed. 
b) 
Estimate the amount of energy required to heat the air for the entire heating season if the hood is always open. 
c) 
Compare this to the energy required to heat an average single family house in Boston for the heating season. 
d) 
What steps would you recommend to save energy with the fume hoods at MIT? 
8. A single story shopping mall has a floor plan 50m X 100 m. All energy is supplied by electricity.
It has been designed with some advanced efficiency features so that the yearly energy use is 100 kWh/m2 of floor area. The architect proposes to use a wind turbine on the top of the building to supply all of the
electricity. The wind turbine has a horizontal axis and has an average efficiency of 35 percent.
a) Use the average wind speed in Boston (Logan Airport) to estimate what the diameter of a
single
turbine to meet the buildings energy?
b) What are the practical issues with such a system?
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4.42 F’10
Assignment #5
FOR ALL OF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS USE THE PSYCHOMETRIC CHARTS WHEN YOU CAN TO OBTAIN THE NEEDED DATA.
1. The air leaving an office space is at 78 o F dry bulb and 85% relative humidity. The leaving air is cooled to 65 o F dry bulb and 70% relative humidity and returned to the office space. This is accomplished by first sensible cooling of the air to saturation, then cooling and dehumidification along the saturation line and finally reheating without vapor addition. Show the process on the psychometric curve. Find the energy requirement for each of the three processes per pound of dry air.
2. The overall change of state described in problem 1 is to be accomplished solely by mixing the leaving air with cool air at 55 o F. What must the relative humidity of the cool air be so that the mixture can reach the 65 o F dry bulb and 70% relative humidity state? How many pounds of cool air are needed per pound of leaving air?
3. A building in the Southwest is to be cooled by use of an evaporative cooler. Cool liquid water is sprayed into outside air as it is brought into the building. The outside air is at 90 o F dry bulb temperature and 10% relative humidity. Show the cooling process on a psychometric chart assuming the enthalpy of the liquid water is negligible in the energy balance. How much water must be evaporated for each 10 o F dry bulb temperature decrease of the air?
3b. Steam, hot water vapor, is mixed with the outside air. Show the process on the psychometric chart when the enthalpy of the steam, enthalpy per mass of steam, is equal to the enthalpy of the water vapor in the outside air at 90 F, 10% RH. What happens when the steam enthalpy is greater than the enthalpy of the water vapor in the outside air?
4. Within the building considered in problem 3 the sensible heat gain is twice the latent heat gain. If the airconditions within the office space (well mixed conditions) is 80 o F and 40% relative humidity, construct the condition line for the building. The condition line is the line on the psychometric chart representing all of the possible states of the supply air which yields the desired well mixed conditions within the building. The indoor conditions are maintained by mixing the ambient air, cooled by evaporation as given in problem 3, with the exhaust from the building. What is the only state of the cooled ambient air which permits the interior conditions to be maintained, i.e. for the specified state of the interior air and the given ratio of sensible to latent heat gain?
Page 1 of 2
4.42 F’10
Assignment #5
5. A small portable dehumidifier is a single selfcontained unit that is placed inside a room. It has one air inlet and one air outlet for the entire unit (the dehumidifier does not have any direct contact with the air outside the house). Air enters at 24 C dry bulb temperature and 80 percent relative humidity. The volume flow rate of air is 245 CFM, 6.9 m 3 /min. The unit removes 40 pints of liquid water per day, approximately 19 kg/day, from the air when operated constantly at steady state. It consumes 400 W of electricity. Assume that there is negligible heat transfer from the cabinet of the unit to the surrounding air. Take the air density as 1.16 kg/m 3
a) What is the specific humidity in g/kg of the air leaving the unit?
b) What is the dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the unit? Show the state of the inlet and leaving air on the psychometric chart.
Portable
Dehumidifier
Air In 6.9 m3/min 24 C, 80% RH
Air Out Specific humidity = ? T dry bulb = ?
400 W
Liquid water
19 kg/day
Page 2 of 2
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Fall’10
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #6
1. A low density fiberglass insulation has an R value of 11 (BTU/hr ft ^{2} ^{o} F) ^{}^{1} when used in
a standard 2x4 wall cavity. To achieve a higher insulation, a contractor compresses the fiberglass so that there are two layers of the insulation in the 2 x 4 wall cavity. He states that the wall has an R value of 22. Do you agree? Explain.
2. A flat roof insulation system uses aluminum screws to hold down flat insulation
panels. The screws are 1/4 inch diameter, 2 inches long and spaced 4 inches on center in a square array. The top of the insulation uses a thin aluminum sheet as a weather barrier and a reflective layer. Underneath the insulation is a corrugated steel roof. The insulation is two inches thick and has a conductivity of 0.015 BTU/hr ft ^{o} F. The screws pass through the insulation and are anchored in the corrugated roof. The effective U value of the insulation system plus screws is defined as U=q(total)/A(total)ΔT where q(total) is the sum of the heat transfer through the aluminum screws and the insulation. Assume that the convective heat transfer coefficient on the inside of the corrugated surface and on the outside over the top of the thin aluminum sheet is 2BTU/hr ft ^{2} ^{o} F. Calculate the U value for two limiting cases: 1) There is large lateral heat transfer and the corrugated sheet and the thin aluminum are each at a uniform temperature and ; 2) there is no lateral heat transfer through the corrugated sheet and the aluminum panel, heat transfer through the screws and the insulation occur in parallel with no interaction between the heat flows in the respective crosssections.
3. A window has two vertical panes of glass separated by an one inch air gap. The glass
panes can be considered black bodies at uniform temperatures of 40 ^{o} F and 60 ^{o} F, respectively. Estimate the total heat transfer, convection plus radiation, through the window space. Note: convection through a vertical space is a very weak function of the layer height, as a first approximation this effect can be neglected.
4. How much does the result of problem 3 change if one glass pane has a low emissivity
coating which reduces its emissivity to 0.2. Instead of the low emissivity coating, a third
layer of opaque glass is placed midway between the two; how much is the convective heat transfer changed, is the radiation also changed?
5. Estimate the total heat loss from a wood frame house in the Boston area for the heating
season of one year. Boston averages 5634 degree days for a typical heating year. The walls are 2 x 4 filled with fiberglass and covered with one inch of polyurethane foam insulation sheathing. The windows are double glazed with a low e coating. The attic has 10 inches of low density fiberglass insulation. Neglect heat loss from the foundation. The house is a single story with 2000 ft ^{2} of floor area. The perimeter is 220 ft. and the outside walls are 12 feet high. Fifteen percent of the outside walls are windows. There are 0.3 air changes per hour in the house. Neglect additional losses through doorways, etc. Use values from other homework problems or reference tables to determine U values.
1
Fall’10
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #6
6. A person is seated in a room which has still air. The room surfaces are all black and at
the same temperature as the air, 70 ^{o} F. The person is now seated in front of a large window which is cold, 50 ^{o} F. The window and the person can both be considered as a black body. The rest of the room walls are still at 70 ^{o} F. Estimate how much the room air temperature must be increased for the person to have the same net heat loss from their
entire body surface as in the original case without the window? In both cases the surface temperature of the person is unchanged. You will need to estimate some values of the convective and radiative heat.
7. Estimate the surface temperatures of all of the components in a typical 2 X 4 frame
wall as seen in class. Estimate the average heat transfer rate per square foot of wall area. Take the inside air temperature as 68 ^{o} F and the outside air temperature as 30 ^{o} F. Be sure to include heat transfer through the wood stud.
8. A forced hot air system has 6 inch diameter ducts installed in an uninsulated attic.
Heated air at 100F flows through the ducts at 10 ft/s velocity. The ducts are made of
aluminum and the contractor neglects to insulate them. If the attic is at 40F estimate the
U value from the heated air inside the duct to the cold attic air. If the duct is 10 feet long
what is the rate of heat loss from the duct? Neglect radiation. How much will the air temperature inside the duct change due to this heat loss?
9. Try to determine the thermal resistance of a typical MIT window facing Killian Court.
On a cold night use the IR camera to measure the exterior surface temperature of the various window components. Then using your estimate of the radiation and convection heat transfer from the exterior surface make an estimate of the U value of the specific component, e.g, glass, frame, etc. Repeat this for the exterior surface of the masonry wall. What is your recommendation to increase the energy efficiency of the entire exterior envelope?
10. The courtyard in the center of the Gardner Museum in Boston is enclosed with a glass roof. The glass is supported by a steel frame. The steel, 2 cm thick, extends in a
solid piece from the inside to the outside as shown in the figure. The outside surface of the steel is painted black and has a convective heat transfer coefficient of 5 W/m ^{2}^{o} K. The inside air temperature is 0 ^{o} C. Assume the inside surface of the steel is painted with a silver paint that has an emissivity of 0.1. The inside convective heat transfer coefficient
is 3 W/m ^{2}^{o} K. The inside air temperature is 20 ^{o} C and the relative humidity is 45 percent.
Assume the steel surface on the inside radiates to a black body at 20 ^{o} C and the steel
surface on the outside radiates to a black body at 0 ^{o} C.
a) Draw the electric analogy for the heat transfer through the steel frame by using
the linear form for radiation heat transfer (h _{t} ).
2
Fall’10
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework Set #6
b) What is the inside temperature of the steel frame?
c) Will water condense on the inside surface of the steel frame?
d) If the inside surface of the steel is painted black, will this cause worse condensation problems?
Outside air T _{o}_{u}_{t} = 0 °C Black surface, h(convection) = 5 W/m ^{2} °K
2cm
Steel frame
Inside air T _{i}_{n} = 20 °C, RH = 45% Silver surface, emissivity = 0.1 h(convection) = 3 W/m ^{2} °K
11. A manufacturer of double glazed windows will put a low emissivity coating on either the inside surface of the interior glass layer, shown in the figure as case 1 or alternatively will put the low emissivity coating on the inside surface of the outermost glass layer, shown in the figure as case 2. You are asked to consider means to determine the relative temperature of the inside glass layer surface for both cases. Assume wintertime conditions with the interior air temperature at 24 C and the exterior surroundings is a black body at 5 C. In both cases the spacing between the two glass layers is ½ inch.
a) Sketch the electrical resistance network for the two cases.
b) Estimate the numerical values of the resistance elements.
c) Based on the relative value of the resistances can you make a qualitative judgment of which case yields a lower temperature for the inside layer of glass?
d) How would you estimate the inside glass temperature steady state? Give the relevant expressions but do not solve or evaluate numerically.
3
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FALL 10
1.044J, 2.45J, 4.42J Homework #7

Not required To be discussed
Do the following problems in Levenspiel, Understanding Engineering Thermo:
1) 
Example 18.4 
2) 
18.8 
3) 
18.9 
4) 
18.12 
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4.42J
Design Project 1 Due: November 3, 2010 In Class at 11:00 AM
MIT has undertaken a program to improve the energy efficiency of all existing buildings. Through a cooperative agreement with the electrical utility NSTAR, MIT will be rewarded for each efficiency improvement that can be documented. You are asked to pick one building or wing of an existing building on campus and focus on one or two particular inefficient energy features such as exits doors. You are asked to access the current energy use, develop redesigns of components or operations that substantially improve energy efficiency and predict the energy savings and economics of these new designs. The new concepts should an outstanding sustainable design that is also financially sound.
In Design Projects 1 and 2 you are asked to select a building and propose and assess innovative building designs, technologies and operating schemes that will yield an outstanding sustainable building. For Design Project 1 you should first collect basic information about the proposed building features you want to address. Some of this information might be available from the MIT Facilities Department. In addition, you should develop general conceptual designs and technologies for the building and site and qualitatively describe their importance. In phase 2 you will quantitatively assess the behavior of the proposed schemes and refine your designs.
Students should work on this project in teams of two and produce a written report. The report should indicate the contribution of each student. Address your report to readers who have some technical background. This report for Design Project 1 should be the preliminary assessment of the proposed scheme and additional concepts that you propose. The report should include an introduction, discussion of the above items and diagrams, and conclusions and recommendations.
The grade for this project is equivalent to one half of an hour quiz. You are required to discuss your preliminary finding with the instructor and TA (unpaid but highly knowledgeable consultants) at least once before the due date.
Your design will be graded in terms of:
Clarity and thoroughness of the report Originality Practicality Punctuality (Late reports will lose substantial credit)
Some suggestions for design projects
Control of dorm heaters Revolving doors vs swing doors vs double doors Control of shades, lights in Building E62 Stata Building daylight sensors Façade improvements for original MIT buildings Relighting potential in academic buildings, dorms Living group energy improvements Behavioral measures: design, monitoring, confirmation Your suggestions?
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Fundamentals of Energy in Buildings
Undergraduate 4.42J, 2.66J, 1.044J
Students from courses 1,2,3,4 and 10
Subject Outline
Fundamentals of
± Thermodynamics
± Heat Transfer
± Fluid Flow
Applied to the design and operation of energy efficient buildings
Issues of economics, behavior, environment
Creative design project
Hands on performance measurements
(with equipment obtained with MITEI support)
Examples of student design projects
DESIGN PROJECT 2 LIGHTING IN ARCHITECTURE STUDIO 7
For the purpose of simplicity we selected one particular desk (approxi mately) right under the desk, and decided to use that as our lighting test zone.
We used a Extech HD450 light meter to take readings at the location under different lighting circumstances. The data is shown below:
At Night (Fluoroscent Lights only) = 680 Lux During the Day (Fluoroscent Lights only/skywindows closed) = 850 Lux
During the Day with straight Glare = 11000 Lux
During the Day with straight Glare and White museum Board = 14500 Lux Mezannine with Lights off : 65 Lux
Mezannine with Lights
Image of Extech HD 540 light meter removed due to copyright restrictions.
on : 628 Lux
Estimated yearly savings for one studio
$1700 per year savings
Single Pane: Building 3
Plastic Surgery
for old buildings
nonobtrusive to currently inoperable windows
discreet
scaleable to entire building
simple to install and maintain
19.2 GJ saved per heating season
Equivalent to 20% of season heat for a single family home in Boston
Current Situation
Windows are efficient
Living Room ʹ casement windows
Dining Room ʹ doublehung windows
Before
After
477  479 Commonwealth
Dining Room Windows
Storm Windows
Leaky due to wood frames
Large and Operable
Curved to fit walls of room expensive to replace
5 inch gap between inner and outer windows
CO2 Leakage through Windows
The purpose of our experiment is to evaluate the air leakage through the windows in a controlled environment, by measuring the rate of CO2 flow out of the otherwise sealed room.
Estimated Savings of Caulking and Weather stripping
Estimated Heat loss due to old/ leaky windows: 10,348 MJ/window
By completely eliminating air leaks (ideal case) we can save:
$2164/year
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.
Experiment Setting:
Dining Room
RESULTS
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MIT Architecture L. Glicksman
4.42
FINAL
Open Book
Fall 2008
1) (25) A company that makes heat pump components had decided to use their
knowledge and some of their existing equipment to make small electric power generators
for buildings in the developing world
134a as the working fluid in the power cycle. They plan to burn natural gas as the heat source. Their initial test was disappointing as they only achieved an efficiency of 4 percent. In this test the natural gas was burned with lots of air so the combustion gas only
achieved a temperature of 50C. Heat was rejected to the environment; the environment was at 20C
They want to use their existing refrigerant, HFC
a) If we improve the heat exchangers, the boiler and condenser, by significantly
increasing their area while keeping the natural gas and environmental temperatures at 50C and 20C, respectively, what is the limit to the efficiency gain that could be achieved with the power generator?
b) One suggestion is to significantly increase the temperature of the combustion gas
while the environment remains at 20 C. They still want to use HFC134a as the working fluid within the power cycle. Reviewing the saturation properties of HC134a are there some practical limits to achieving an efficiency of 20 percent or greater?
c) What is your recommendation for major charges in the overall project concept to
achieve a practical power generation device with an efficiency above 30 percent?
4.42 Fall 08 Final Page 1 of 4
Heat from combustion gas
Boiler for HFC
134a
Condensor
Heat to environment at 20C
2) (25) The indoor conditions in a room are 21C and 50 %RH. There is still air in the
room. When the outside temperature is 0C, the inside glass surface has a temperature of 16C, measured at the center of the glass surface at night. The glass is a double glazed unit with unknown properties. The inside surface of the glass does not have a low e coating on it.
a) With these temperature measurements can you estimate the U value neglecting framing
elements?
b) 
For another window, the same inside glass temperature, 16C is measured when the sun 
is 
shining on the window and the room air conditions and the outside temperature are the 
same as part (a). Is the U value for this window the same as that in part (a)? If not, is the
U value of this window larger or smaller than the window in part a? Remember, the U
value always refers to the heat transfer through the window without the presence of solar radiation.
c) For the same conditions as part (a), condensation just begins to form on the inside of
the framing elements. Can you estimate the U value of a framing element based on its surface area?
d) Without replacing this window in parts a and c, suggest ways to improve its thermal
performance.
4.42 Fall 08 Final Page 2 of 4
3.
(25) We would like to cool a building so that the interior is maintained at 24 ºC and
50% RH. The outside conditions are 35 ºC and 50% RH. We know that 60% of the heat in the room is sensible and 40% is latent. We will supply 1200 kg/hr of air to the space.
To achieve the supply air conditions, we will use the following processes:
1. Cool the outdoor air by mixing it with some of the return interior air.
2. Sensible cooling to saturation temperature.
3. Dehumidification.
4. Sensible heating until we reach the desired supply conditions.
a. We will supply air at 18 ºC. What is the relative humidity of the supply air?
b. During step 1, we will mix 60% return air with 40% outdoor air. What are the
resulting temperature and humidity of the mixed air?
c. How much water (in kg/hr) will be removed from the air during step 3?
d. During step 4, what is the rate of sensible heat (in kJ/hr) that we will need to put into
the air?
4.42 Fall 08 Final Page 3 of 4
4. (25) A cooling tower can be used to remove heat from water. The cooling tower in the
diagram below cools water from 40 ºC to 25 ºC. Air enters the bottom of the tower at 20 ºC and 50% relative humidity. Air exits the top of the tower at 32 ºC and 95% relative humidity. The mass flow rate of the water which enters the tower is 10,000 kg per
minute.
a. Assuming steady state, write expressions for the energy and mass balance of this
system.
b. What is the mass flow rate of air entering the cooling tower?
c. What is the mass flow rate of water which leaves the cooling tower?
4.42 Fall 08 Final Page 4 of 4
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4.42 Quiz 1
An inventor proposes a refrigerator that makes ice which is then melted and used to cool a cold storage room. The refrigerator is put into a closed insulated room without any air flow into or out of the room. It is turned on when the water is liquid at 0C, the initial room temperature. It makes 10kg of ice which is then melted to liquid at 0C without any evaporation of the water.
a) Will the room temperature increase or decrease for the entire process (from the time the refrigerator is turned on to the time the ice has melted)?
b) If the refrigerator has a COP of 3 and it is only used to make the ice, how much electrical energy does the refrigerator require? Take the internal energy change from ice to liquid water at 0C as 334 kJ/kg. The COP is the rate of useful cooling to the rate of electrical energy consumed.
c) If 0.25 kg of water evaporates after all of the ice has melted, does the room temperature increase or decrease over the entire process?
An MIT fraternity holds a party in their largest common room, which is 10m long x 10m wide x 3m high. The party lasts 4 hours and 300 students attend. Because everyone is dancing, each person gives off 300 Btu/hr of sensible heat. The home theatre system uses 1000W. Two 100W lights are also on.
The room has a 0.1m concrete slab floor. The air in the space and the slab are initially at 68 ºF. Assume that the specific humidity remains constant for both problems.
a. If the room is perfectly insulated and there is no ventilation system, what is the
temperature of the air in the space at the end of the party? Assume that the air and floor
slab end up at the same temperature and that all electrical equipment is on the whole time. Is this a comfortable temperature?
b. For their second party, the frat brothers decide to naturally ventilate the space using
two windows, each 1.5m x 2m. The temperature of the air outside is 60 ºF and the wind velocity is 2 m/s. Let v _{i}_{n} be the velocity of air entering the open windows. Assume that v _{i}_{n} = 0.35 v _{w}_{i}_{n}_{d} and that all the rate of air leaving the space is the same as air entering the same. If all other conditions stay the same, what is the temperature of the air in the space at the end of the second party? Again assume that the air and floor slab end up at the same temperature and that all air is wellmixed. Is this a comfortable temperature?
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4.42
QUIZ 1
Open Book October 27, 2006
Fall 2006
1) (50) In the winter an automobile is driven into a well insulated garage with internal dimensions 4m x 5m x3m. The air in the garage is initially at 10 ^{0} C. The car is mostly steel with a mass of 1500 kg and a specific heat of 500 J/kg K. The car is initially at 0 ^{0} C except for the engine. The engine temperature is 100 ^{0} C and consists of 150 kg steel and 20 kg liquid water. Neglect heat transfer to the envelope and floor of the garage.
(a) What is the final temperature of the garage when the car, engine and air in the garage reach a single uniform temperature?
(b) If the engine has 10 kg liquid water and 10 kg saturated water vapor at 100 ^{0} C what is the final temperature if all of the water vapor has condensed to liquid?
2) (50)
A building uses cross flow natural ventilation to provide cooling. The building has two zones or rooms and the air flows at steady state through zone 1 and then flows through zone 2 in series. Each zone has the air well mixed so that each individual zone is at a uniform temperature. The outside
air flow rate entering zone 1 is
zone 2 that is exhausted to the outside. Each zone has a total rate of heat
m&
1 and this equals the air flow rate leaving
.
input Q _{1} that is the same for each portion of the problem.
Let ∆T _{1} =
.
Q
1
/
m&
1
c
p
.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
If there is no back mixing between zone 2 and 1 so that the air flows in one direction as shown; first through zone 1 and then through zone 2, what are the temperatures of zone 1 and 2 in terms of ∆T _{1} and T _{A}_{M}_{B} ?B
Now assume there is a large amount of back mixing between zones 1 and 2 so that they are both at the same temperature.
The net air flow is still
and 2?
There is a limited back mixing from zone 2 to 1 so that there is a back flow of 0.5m _{1} from zone 2 to 1 while the net flow from
zone 1 to 2 is still
case? Consider a method to find this without first evaluating
T 1 .
For case (c) what is the temperature of zone 1?
m&
1 . What is the temperature of zones 1
m&
1 . What is the temperature of zone 2 for this
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4.42 Quiz 1 Solutions
2(50)An inventor proposes a refrigerator that makes ice which is then melted and used to cool a cold storage room. The refrigerator is put into a closed insulated room without any air flow into or out of the room. It is turned on when the water is liquid at 0C, the initial room temperature. It makes 10kg of ice which is then melted to liquid at 0C without any evaporation of the water.
a) Will the room temperature increase or decrease for the entire process (from the time the refrigerator is turned on to the time the ice has melted)?
b) If the refrigerator has a COP of 3 and it is only used to make the ice, how much electrical energy does the refrigerator require? Take the internal energy change from ice to liquid water at 0C as 334 kJ/kg. The COP is the rate of useful cooling to the rate of electrical energy consumed.
c) If 0.25 kg of water evaporates after all of the ice has melted, does the room temperature increase or decrease over the entire process?
Solution:
a) For a system composed of the room plus the refrigerator and water/ ice, the net change of the internal energy of the water to ice and back to water is zero. The refrigerator operates in a cycle so there isn’t any energy change. There is only a flow of electricity into the room, an energy gain, so the room temperature will increase.
b) COP = Qcool/Welec Welec = Qcool / COP = 10x 334 /3 = 1113 kJ which is the net energy flow into the room
c) In this case the final state of the water has a higher internal energy of 0.25x2375 = 594 kJ. This is less than the electrical energy so the room temperature still rises.
An MIT fraternity holds a party in their largest common room, which is 10m long x 10m wide x 3m high. The party lasts 4 hours and 300 students attend. Because everyone is dancing, each person gives off 300 Btu/hr of sensible heat. The home theatre system uses 1000W. Two 100W lights are also on.
The room has a 0.1m concrete slab floor. The air in the space and the slab are initially at 68 ºF. Assume that the specific humidity remains constant for both problems.
a. If the room is perfectly insulated and there is no ventilation system, what is the
temperature of the air in the space at the end of the party? Assume that the air and floor
slab end up at the same temperature and that all electrical equipment is on the whole time. Is this a comfortable temperature?
b. For their second party, the frat brothers decide to naturally ventilate the space using
two windows, each 1.5m x 2m. The temperature of the air outside is 60 ºF and the wind velocity is 2 m/s. Let v _{i}_{n} be the velocity of air entering the open windows. Assume that v _{i}_{n} = 0.35 v _{w}_{i}_{n}_{d} and that all the rate of air leaving the space is the same as air entering the same. If all other conditions stay the same, what is the temperature of the air in the space at the end of the second party? Again assume that the air and floor slab end up at the same temperature and that all air is wellmixed. Is this a comfortable temperature?
Solution:
a. First find the total amount of heat gain in the room:
Q people
= 300 people * 300 Btu/hr * 1055 J/Btu * 4 hrs = 3.8 x 10 ^{8} J
Q _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{p}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} = (1000 W + 200 W) * 4 hrs * 3600 s/hr = 1.7 x 10 ^{7} J
Q total = Q people + Q equipment = 3.97 x 10 ^{8} J
To find T _{f}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} , we use the energy conservation equation:
∆U air + ∆U slab = c air m air ∆T + c slab m slab ∆T = Q total
We have seen from previous problems that in this situation we can assume that ∆U _{a}_{i}_{r} will be negligible, so we will only consider ∆U _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b}_{.}
We know that c _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} = 880 J/kgºK, ρ _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} = 2100 kg/m ^{3} , and V _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} = 100 m ^{2} x 0.1 m = 10 m ^{3}
Plugging these into the energy conservation equation, we find:
c slab m slab ∆T = Q total
880 J/kgºK * 2100 kg/m ^{3} * 10 m ^{3} * ∆T = 3.97 x 10 ^{8} J ∆T = 21.5 ºC ∆T = T _{f}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} – 20 ºC Æ T _{f}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} = 41.5 ºC or 106.7 ºF !!!
Clearly, this is not a comfortable temperature for the party.
b. We know that the total amount of heat gain in the room will be the same as in part a. For this problem, it is easier to use the rate of heat gain in W:
dQ _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} /dt = 3.97 x 10 ^{8} J / (4hrs * 3600 s/hr) = 27575 W
We can also find the rate of internal energy change in the slab:
dU _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} /dt = (880 J/kgºK*2100 kg/m ^{3} *10 m ^{3} *∆T) / (4hrs*3600 s/hr) = 1283*∆T W
Now find the mass flow rate of the air:

ρv = 0.35* 
ρ * v 
wind*Awindow 

m 
= 
= 0.35*(1.22 kg/m )*(2 m/s)*(6m ) = 5.12 kg/s
3
2
Consider the energy conservation equation with the addition of moving air into the space:
∆E = Q + Uslab + m inhin  m inhout = 0
Since we know that the rate of air entering the space is equal to that leaving, we can simplify to:
_{}
∆E = Q + Uslab + m(hin  hout) = Q + m slab * cslab * ∆Tslab + m air * cair * ∆Tair = 0
_{}
Q = m slab * cslab *(Tfinal  Tinitial) + m air * cair * (Tfinal  Tinitial)
Plugging everything in, we solve:
27575 W = 1283 W/ºK*( T _{f}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} – 20 ºC) + (5.12 kg/s)*(700 J/kgºK)*( T _{f}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} – 15.5 ºC)
T _{f}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} = 22.3 ºC or 72.1 ºF
This is clearly a much more comfortable temperature for the party.
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a.) Calculate the heat transfer in W/m ^{2} for the wall section shown in the figure below. The wood studs occupy 20% of the surface area of the wall and the insulation occupies 80%. The temperature of the air outside is 0ºC and the temperature of the air inside is 20ºC. Assume that there is no lateral heat transfer. Include convection and radiation heat transfer in your calculation. The outdoors and indoors can be considered black bodies at 0ºC and 20ºC respectively.
k _{p}_{l}_{y}_{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = 0.15 W/mK
k 
_{i}_{n}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} = 0.035 W/mK 
k 
_{g}_{y}_{p}_{s}_{u}_{m} = 0.2 W/mK 
k _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = 0.15 W/mK
T outside = 0 ºC
T inside = 20 ºC
1 in.
3.5 in
0.5 in
b.) A contractor you know suggests using steel studs instead of wood. He believes that because you need less steel than wood for structural stability, the increased insulation will decrease the total heat transfer across your wall section. Is he correct? Calculate the heat transfer in W/m ^{2} for a wall section with steel studs. Assume again that there is no lateral heat transfer. For this case, the insulation occupies 90% of the wall surface area and the steel occupies 10%. (k _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = 43 W/mK)
c.) Is the interior wall temperature the same over the insulated and stud sections? For case b, approximate the temperature of the interior wall over an insulated section. Compare this to the temperature of the interior wall over a steel stud.
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4.42J/2.66J/1.044J
Quiz 2 November 21, 2005 Open Book
1) (50) Estimate the energy performance of MIT’s traditional single pane windows per
square meter of surface area. Consider both convection and midlong range infrared radiation from both the inside and outside surfaces of the window. Neglect air leakage, the window frame, and do not include solar radiation for parts a and b.
a) If the inside air temperature is 23 C and the outside is 0 C, estimate the rate of heat
transfer through the window from inside to outside, Use typical numerical values for the heat transfer components. Assume the glass is a black body for the infrared radiation in the midlong range wavelengths.
b) What is the total heat lost through one square meter of window over a typical heating
season in Boston? Use the same assumptions used in part a.
c) Will the result in part b increase or decrease substantially when including each of the
following: the window frame, air leakage, or solar radiation? Treat each of these
individually. You do not need to do detailed calculations for part c.
2) (50) Consider what it takes to keep an indoor pool area at a comfortable temperature
and humidity during the winter.
m wide in a room that is 70 m long, 30 m wide and 10 m high. Assume that the pool room is to be kept at 28 degrees Celsius and 50 percent relative humidity and that the outdoor conditions are 0 degrees Celsius and 20 percent relative humidity.
Assume that there is one pool that is 50 m long and 20
a) (10) Calculate the latent heat load associated with evaporation of water from the pool. Because the pool water is heated and air blows over the surface, some of the water near the surface of the pool evaporates into the air, removing heat from the pool water. Assume that 10 kg of water vapor per every 100 square meters of pool evaporates every hour. What is the latent heat load associated with evaporation from the pool?
b) (10) Determine the sensible heat fraction. The latent heat and sensible heat loads are both important for determining how to condition air to keep the room at 28 degrees Celsius and 50 percent relative humidity. Assume that the latent heat load you found in part a) is the only latent load on the room. Assume that you find that there are sensible heat losses from the room that are one third the magnitude of the latent heat gains. What is the sensible heat fraction, SHF = (Sensible heat load) / (Total heat load), for the room?
c) (10) Draw the condition line on the psychrometric chart. The condition line is the line on the psychrometric chart which defines the state of air supplied to the room to maintain desired indoor conditions. In general, the supply air state can be anywhere on this line. The slope of this line can be found using the SHF and the gauge in the upper left hand corner of the psychrometric chart.
d) (20) Determine the temperature and relative humidity of the supply air delivered to the room. Draw two lines on the chart representing the process to produce this supply air. Assume that 20% of the air supplied to the room must be fresh, outdoor air. Mix the indoor air with outdoor air and sensibly heat it to achieve suitable supply air conditions in the most energy efficient way (a graphical solution is sufficient, you need not write equations). Draw the process lines on the psychrometric chart. What is the temperature and relative humidity of the supply air?
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a.) Calculate the heat transfer in W/m ^{2} for the wall section shown in the figure below. The wood studs occupy 20% of the surface area of the wall and the insulation occupies 80%. The temperature of the air outside is 0ºC and the temperature of the air inside is 20ºC. Assume that there is no lateral heat transfer. Include convection and radiation heat transfer in your calculation. The outdoors and indoors can be considered black bodies at 0ºC and 20ºC respectively.
k _{p}_{l}_{y}_{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = 0.15 W/mK
k 
_{i}_{n}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} = 0.035 W/mK 
k 
_{g}_{y}_{p}_{s}_{u}_{m} = 0.2 W/mK 
k _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = 0.15 W/mK
T outside = 0 ºC
T inside = 20 ºC
1 in.
3.5 in
0.5 in
b.) A contractor you know suggests using steel studs instead of wood. He believes that because you need less steel than wood for structural stability, the increased insulation will decrease the total heat transfer across your wall section. Is he correct? Calculate the heat transfer in W/m ^{2} for a wall section with steel studs. Assume again that there is no lateral heat transfer. For this case, the insulation occupies 90% of the wall surface area and the steel occupies 10%. (k _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = 43 W/mK)
c.) Is the interior wall temperature the same over the insulated and stud sections? For case b, approximate the temperature of the interior wall over an insulated section. Compare this to the temperature of the interior wall over a steel stud.
Solution:
a.) Approximate h _{o}_{u}_{t} ~ 20 W/m ^{2} K, h _{i}_{n} ~ 5 W/m ^{2} K hr _{o}_{u}_{t} = 4σT ^{3} = 4*5.67e8*(273 K) ^{3} = 4.6 W/m ^{2} K hr _{i}_{n} = 4σT ^{3} = 4*5.67e8*(293 K) ^{3} = 5.7 W/m ^{2} K
Calculate total resistance for insulated section:
R _{i}_{n}_{s} = [1/(h _{o}_{u}_{t} + hr _{o}_{u}_{t} )] + (L/k)ply + (L/k)ins + (L/k)gyp + [1/(h _{i}_{n} + hr _{i}_{n} )] R _{i}_{n}_{s} = [1/(20 + 4.6)] + (0.0254/0.15) + (.09/.035) + (.0127/0.2) + [1/(5 + 5.7)] R _{i}_{n}_{s} = 2.94 m ^{2} K/W
q _{i}_{n}_{s} = ∆T/R = 20 K/2.9 m ^{2} K/W = 6.8 W/m ^{2}
Calculate total resistance for wood stud section:
R _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = [1/(h _{o}_{u}_{t} + hr _{o}_{u}_{t} )] + (L/k)ply + (L/k)wood + (L/k)gyp + [1/(h _{i}_{n} + hr _{i}_{n} )] R _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = [1/(20 + 4.6)] + (0.0254/0.15) + (.09/.15) + (.0127/0.2) + [1/(5 + 5.7)] R _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = 0.97 m ^{2} K/W
q _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = ∆T/R = 20 K/0.97 m ^{2} K/W = 20.7 W/m ^{2}
Calculate total heat transfer through wall:
q _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} = q _{i}_{n}_{s} + q _{w}_{o}_{o}_{d} = (0.8*6.8) + (0.2*20.7) = 9.6 W/m ^{2}
b.) The heat transfer through the insulation section is the same.
Calculate total resistance for steel stud section:
R _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = [1/(h _{o}_{u}_{t} + hr _{o}_{u}_{t} )] + (L/k)ply + (L/k)wood + (L/k)gyp + [1/(h _{i}_{n} + hr _{i}_{n} )] R _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = [1/(20 + 4.6)] + (0.0254/0.15) + (.09/43) + (.0127/0.2) + [1/(5 + 5.7)] R _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = 0.36 m ^{2} K/W
q _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = ∆T/R = 20 K/0.36 m ^{2} K/W = 54.2 W/m ^{2}
Calculate total heat transfer through wall:
q _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} = q _{i}_{n}_{s} + q _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = (0.9*2.9) + (0.1*54.2) = 11.5 W/m ^{2}
The contractor was wrong. The steel stud wall allows more heat transfer than the wood stud wall, even though there is more insulation in the steel stud section.
c.) Case 1 – Insulated section:
q _{i}_{n}_{s} = ∆T/R = ∆T/[1/(h _{i}_{n} + hr _{i}_{n} )] 6.8 W/m ^{2} = ∆T/0.093 Æ ∆T = Tin – Twall = 0.6 ºC Twall = 20 – 0.6 = 19.4 ºC
Case 2 – Steel stud section:
q _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} = ∆T/R = ∆T/[1/(h _{i}_{n} + hr _{i}_{n} )] 54.2 W/m ^{2} = ∆T/0.093 Æ ∆T = Tin – Twall = 5 ºC Twall = 20 – 5 = 15 ºC
MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu
4.42J / 1.044J / 2.45J Fundamentals of Energy in Buildings
Fall 2010
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Heat Transfer Leon R. Glicksman © 1991, 1997, 2004, 2005, 2010
1)Introduction
Heat transfer deals with the rate of heat transfer between different bodies. While thermodynamics deals with the magnitude of heat exchanged in a process, heat transfer is necessary to determine the time required for a process or alternatively the size of a surface necessary to achieve a certain total rate of heat transfer.
Heat transfer analysis permits a calculation of the heat loss from a building surface to the surroundings for a given building size, window area and wall design, e.g. the level of insulation in the wall cavity. The comfort conditions for occupants in a room is determined by a balance of heat transfer from the person to the air surrounding him or her as well as the heat transfer to the walls of the interior. The size and cost of a heat exchanger is also determined by considering the heat transfer between the fluid streams in the exchanger.
In other fields, heat transfer plays a key role as well. The design of integrated microprocessors which contain very closely spaced elements, each with a finite amount of heat generation, is limited by the requirement for adequate cooling so that the operating temperature of the electronic components is not exceeded. Reentry of the space shuttle in the earth's atmosphere must be carefully programmed so that temperature extremes due to air friction are confined to the insulating tiles on the shuttle's surface.
Modes of Heat Transfer
Following thermodynamics, heat transfer is that energy transfer which takes place between two bodies by virtue of a temperature difference between the bodies. From the second law considerations it can be demonstrated that there is always a net positive energy transfer from the body at a high temperature to a second body at a lower temperature. Following the definition of heat, there are only two physical mechanisms for heat transfer: (1) electromagnetic waves produced by virtue of the temperature of a body, referred to as thermal radiation heat transfer and (2) atomic or molecular motion in a medium between the bodies exchanging energy, referred to as conduction heat transfer.
Sometimes conduction heat transfer takes place during the change of phase and is referred to as boiling or condensation heat transfer. Conduction heat transfer can also take place in the presence of fluid motion, which is called convection heat transfer.
The rate of heat transfer between two bodies is proportional to the temperature difference between the bodies and in some cases the temperature level of the bodies as well. In many instances the heat transfer process is analogous to the rate of transfer which appears in other fields. The analogy between heat transfer and DC electrical current flow will be used to illustrate some of the simpler heat transfer processes. Similarly, it can be shown that the rate of transfer of mass in an evaporation process follows a process very similar to that for heat transfer.
2)Conduction Heat Transfer
In a homogenous body which experiences a temperature gradient the rate of heat transfer due to microscopic motions is conduction heat transfer. In a gas the gas molecules in the higher temperature portion of the gas will have a higher kinetic energy. As the molecules of the gas randomly move through the gas volume there is a net energy transfer from the high temperature portion to the low temperature zones. In a solid, the energy transfer from high to low temperature may be due to the migration of electrons or the vibration of the molecular bonds.
Viewed as a macroscopic phenomena, the rate of heat transfer by conduction represented by the symbol q or Q is found to be directly proportional to the product of the local temperature gradient and the
crosssectional area available for heat transfer, Fig 2.1 One dimensional conduction
q ~ A gradT
(2.1)
In the case of onedimensional heat transfer normal to a plane slab, figure 1, the conduction heat transfer can be given by Fourier's Equation,
q
dT
_{d}_{x}
(2.2)
The constant k is known as the thermal conductivity. q has the dimensions of BTU/hr or Watts and k has the dimensions of BTU/hrft F or W/m K.
The thermal conductivity defined by equation 2.2 is a thermophysical property of the material. If the composition and thermodynamic state is known then the thermal conductivity can be found.
Table 2.1 lists the thermal conductivity of common solids, liquids and gases at normal temperatures. Note that these values span many orders of magnitude with electrically conductors having the highest thermal conductivity and high molecular weight gases generally having the lowest thermal conductivity.
Consider a slab with a steady conduction heat transfer across it in the x direction, fig. 2, with the temperature equal to T _{1} and T _{2} at the surfaces corresponding to x equal to 0 and L, respectively. Then q is a constant and equation 2 can be integrated to give,
q kA
L
(2.3)
Fig. 2,2 Conduction Through a Plane Wall
For this case the temperature varies linearly across the width of the slab. One can consider an analogy between the solution for steady conduction and for steady D.C. electric current flow, Ohm's Law,
I
R
(2.4)
Table 2.1 Thermal Conductivity of Common Materials
Solids 
k(BTU/hr ft F) 
(W/mK) 

Copper Aluminum Steel Brick,common Concrete Glass Glass fiber insulation Ice Plastic Wood 
219 
378 

119 
206 

25 
43 

0.2  0.1 0.5  0.8 
0.17  0.34 0.87  1.38 

0.5 
0.87 

.03 
0.05 

1.3 
2.2 

0.1 
0.17 

0.1  0.2 
0.17  0.34 

Liquids 

Ammonia 
0.3 
0.5 

Refrigerant12 
0.04 
0.07 

Light Oil 
0.08 
0.14 

Water 
0.34 
0.59 

Gases 
Mercury 
5 
8.7 

Air,dry Carbon Dioxide Helium Hydrogen Water Vapor (Steam) 
0.015 
0.026 

0.009 
0.016 

0.09 
0.16 

0.11 
0.19 

C) 
0.015(at 212 F)0.026 (at 100 

Refrigerant11 
0.005 
0.009 
1.0 (BTU/hr ft
F)= 1.73 (W/m
The rate of heat transfer q is analogous to the current flow I, the potential difference V is analogous to T and the balance of equation 2.3 is analogous to the resistance. The term thermal resistance is used; for eqn. 2.3 the thermal resistance is L/kA.
Fig. 2.3 Steady State Heat Transfer Through a Composite Wall
Consider the case of steady heat transfer through a composite
wall as shown in figure 2.3.
same heat transfer rate q through it and for each an equation similar to equation 2.3 can be written. At steady state with no
change in internal energy with time, no work, and no mass flows through each of the elements, the rate of heat transfer into and
out of each wall element must be the same.
Each element of the wall has the
For the wall board,
q
k A
L WB
This can be rewritten as,
(2.5)
T T
1
^{q} k A
WB
For the insulation
(2.6)
T T
2
^{q} k
I A
(2.7)
Similar equations can be written for the plywood, T _{3}  T _{4} and
and the siding, T _{4}  T _{5} .
intermediate temperatures T _{2} , T _{3} and T _{4} cancel and the resulting equation becomes
When these equations are summed up the
or
T T
1
(2.8)
q
(2.9)
The electrical analogy for this case is resisters in series as shown in figure 2.4.
Fig. 2.4 Electric Analogy to Steady State Heat Transfer
^{q}
(2.10)
which is identical to equation 2.9.
Then the overall solution can be easily written as,
same so that equation 9 can be rewritten as
q _{5}
(2.11)
Rvalue of that material. Note the Rvalue is independent of the surface area A while the thermal resistance R _{T} includes the surface area. For the plywood, a typical Rvalue for a one inch thickness is
(2.12)
Note in US building practice units and dimensions are still in the imperial system. residential wall constructed with 2 by 4 studs,
L
k
I
0.028
BTU
2.13)
For the composite wall in figure 2.3, the Rvalue of the insulation dominates all of the terms in equation 2.11
8
Convection Heat Transfer, Introduction
temperature on the inside wall surface, T _{1} , and the outside siding surface T _{5} are not
generally known. Rather the interior room air temperature,
T _{i} , and the exterior air
temperature, T _{e} , are the known quantities. Consider a wintertime condition, when the building is at a higher
temperature then the exterior air. The temperature through the builtup wall continuously de creases from the inside wall at
T _{1} to the outside surface at T _{5} .
This is shown in figure 5.
outside surface temperature T _{5} is higher than the exterior air temperature T _{e} . In the air layer close to the building surface the air is in motion parallel to the surface. There is heat transfer by conduction from the building surface through this air layer. Because there is also energy transfer by the motion of the fluid the temperature through the air layer does not vary linearly. Rather, there is a large temperature gradient near the surface which decreases further from the surface until the temperature reaches the constant air temperature T _{e} . The layer over which the temperature change occurs is thin, typically one quarter of an inch or less.
Fig. 2.5 Temperature Distribution with Convection at the Surfaces
The
energy transfer by fluid motion is called convection heat transfer. The rate of heat transfer is proportional to the surface area and the temperature difference between the surface and the uniform air temperature outside of the thin surface or boundary layer,
q ~
(
A T T
5
(2.14)
The expression is changed to an equality and in the process a new quantity, h, the heat transfer coefficient is defined,
9
q
surface fluid far from surface
(2.15)
where h has the units of BTU/hr ft ^{2} F or W/m ^{2} .
Equation 2.15
is of no use until some way to calculate h is established.
Generally, the heat transfer coefficient, h, is a function of the fluid properties, the fluid velocity, the surface geometry and sometimes the temperature level. A more detailed discussion of convection will be given later. For now it is sufficient to observe that h increases as the air velocity increases and it increases with fluids of higher thermal conductivity.
There are two general forms of convection. When the air motion is set up by buoyancy effects due to the applied temperature difference between the surface and the fluid, e.g. the air flow over a hot `radiator', the flow is natural or free convection. When the flow is due to an external source, e.g. the wind, a fan or by the motion of the surface, the flow is forced convection.
Rohsenow has presented a table which gives good estimates of the order of magnitude of h for convection heat transfer as well as boiling and condensation. It is reproduced in table
2.2.
Table 2.2 Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients BTU/hr ft ^{2}
Gases, Natural Convection 
0.550 
Gases, Forced Convection 
250 
Liquids, forced Convection 
301000 
Boiling Liquids 
20050,000 
Phase Change 
5005,000 
Now returning to the concept of thermal resistance, from equation 15 the equivalent thermal resistance, R _{T} for convective heat transfer is 1/hA.
10
Example
For a single glazed window what is the increase in thermal efficiency if the glass is made of plastic with
k = 0.1 BTU/hr ft
of glass with a k = 0.5
BTU/hr ft
the radiation heat transfer remains the same.
F instead
F?
Assume that
Fig. 2.6 Heat transfer through window
Figure2.7Electrical Analogy
outside air.
figure
radiation, becomes
7
and
the
steady
In this case convection heat transfer from the inside air at
T _{i} to the glass surface acts in
series with conduction through
convection to the
The equivalent electrical circuit is shown on
transfer, neglecting
the
glass and
state heat
q
(2.16)
Using table 2 the magnitudes of h _{i} and h _{e} are
11
(2.17)
For the glass, assuming it is 1/8 inch thick,
L
k
g
(2.18)
Changing to plastic decreases k _{g} to 0.1 and increases L/kg to l/10 but it will only change the overall value of q, given by equation 16 by less than 10 percent.
The overall heat transfer for composite systems such as figure 2.3 or figure 2.6, represented by equations 2.9 and 2.16, respectively is sometimes rewritten in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient U defined as
q
(2.19)
Although U has the same units as h, U can involve a combination of conduction and convection heat transfer and is not physically meaningful although it may be helpful for estimate purposes. A number of handbooks like the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals list values of U for typical built up wall and roof construction. These values of U include convection heat transfer on the inside and outside for an assumed wind velocity and interior air circulation conditions.
Twodimensional Heat Transfer
intervals in the wall cavity, fig 2.8. Clearly the heat transfer through the studs is higher than the heat transfer
through
insulation. The heat transfer through the wall cavity is due to two parallel conduction paths, one through the studs and the other
containing
an
equivalent
crosssectional
area
through the insulation.
large, i.e., the lateral conductivity of the wallboard and the plywood approaches zero, then the overall heat transfer can be modeled as two separate parallel heat flow paths from T _{i} to T _{e} ,
If the lateral resistance is very
shown in fig. 2.9.
The heat transfer through the studs is
q stud
and through the insulation,
(2.20)
13
q insulation
(2.21)
The total heat transfer rate is the sum of equations 2.20 and
2.21. The true value of the twodimensional heat transfer lies
between these two limiting cases of very small lateral conductivity and very large lateral conductivity. The electrical analogy of this, in one limit, is shown in figure 2.9 with the insulation and the studs in parallel.
It is important to note that this approximation for the two dimensional case represents one limiting case, the temperature on the inside of the wall board where it contacts the stud will be different from the temperature of the wall board in contact
Fig 2.9 Limiting Case of Small Lateral Conductivity in Wall Board and Plywood with the insulation. Similarly the temperature of the plywood will differ in the lateral direction between the stud and the insulation. These temperature differences across the wall board will cause heat to flow laterally into the stud, fig. 2.10. Similarly heat will flow laterally out from the stud
through the plywood. These lateral effects will enhance the total heat transfer through the stud. This will increase the overall heat transfer over the values calculated from the sum of equations 2.20 and 2.21.
Fig. 2.10 lateral heat Flow in the vicinity of the stud
The
difficult. We can look at the other extreme case. If the wall board and plywood were replaced by metal sheets, something sometimes seen in metal walled buildings, then the resistance to
lateral conduction through them would be reduced. In the limiting case w e could assume that the wall board and plywood would have a very high conductivity and the temperature would be uniform in the lateral direction across these elements. The electrical analogy for this case is shown on fig. 2.11. The solution shown in figure 10 is only valid when the lateral resistance is small, i.e., the y direction conductivity of the wall board and the plywood approaches infinity.
these twodimensional effects is
exact
analysis
of
In this case, the heat transfer through the studs and insulation acts in parallel between T _{2} and T _{3} , the sheet rock and plywood temperatures, respectively. The heat transfer through the two elements is summed,
q
(2.22)
and defining an equivalent resistance,
q
(2.23)
Fig 2.11 Limiting Case for Small Lateral Resistance to Heat Transfer in Sheathing
The resistance, R _{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} ,is then added in series to the remaining resistance shown in figure 2.11. This extreme case will result in a much larger overall calculated heat transfer than the other extreme shown in figure 2.9. The true value lies between the two and must be evaluated by analysis or practical judgment. Transient Heat Transfer
Conditions for Uniform Temperature
Fig. 2.12
the
When 
the temperature 
of the 

interior 
changes, 
the 
building 
structure may be sufficiently massive
thermal
storage.
naturally ventilated buildings, using
night cooling in the summer to reduce the structural temperature. During the hot daytime the cool structure will
in
to
provide
significant
is
This technique
used
help 
to 
maintain 
the interior 

temperature 
within 
a 
comfortable 
range. 
However, if the structure is 

very 
thick, 
it 
may 
require a 
substantial time interval before the temperature change is felt throughout the thickness of structure.
Consider the case of a plane homogenous slab of thickness
The y and z dimensions are large compared to L
so that the heat transfer can be assumed to be one dimensional,
Initially the slab is at a uniform
At time
zero the air temperature suddenly increases to a new temperature
level T _{e} .
At
short times, the surface temperature of the slab will increase
due to the heat transfer from the air.
transferred to the slab will be used to raise the internal
energy of the material near the
surface.
transfer will be transferred to the next layer inside the slab where the same process occurs. The temperature distribution within the slab at some
heat
both sides have convective heat transfer coefficient h.
temperature T _{0} equal to the exterior air temperature.
in the x direction only.
2L, fig. 2.12.
Both sides of the slab are in contact with the air and
The
balance
of
the
Some of the energy
Fig. 2.13
intermediate time is shown in figure 2.13. When the conduction of the slab is large and the thickness is small, it is expected that the temperature differences from the surface to the center of the slab will be small at all times. A better criterion is to compare the resistance to conduction, L/k _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} ,to the convective resistance at the surface, 1/h. When 1/h is much larger than L/k _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} it is expected that the temperature of the slab will be uniform throughout it thickness. A handy criterion is hL/k _{s}_{l}_{a}_{b} < 1/6 for uniform temperature. The term hL/k which is dimensionless is known as the Biot number.
When hl/k < 1/6, the slab temperature T only varies with time. Assuming the slab initially is at temperature T _{0} and at time t it contacts air at a different temperature T the energy equation becomes,
^{d}^{E} q
dT
(2.24)
where A is the entire surface area of the slab which is in contact with air at a constant temperature T . When there isn't any change of phase, the energy change is given as Mc T, where M is the total mass of the slab. Equation 2.24 becomes,
Mc
dT
dt
(2.25)
Since T is a constant this can be rearranged to read,
d T T
(
( T T
(2.26)
with the initial condition for the slab that
at t = 0,
T = T _{0}
The solution of equation 31 is
T T
(2.27)
where
heat transfer coefficient h and
is the thermal time constant of the slab with convective
hA
Example
(2.28)
A two inch thick steel structural beam has natural convection heat transfer over one surface; the opposite side is insulated. Find its time constant.
Solution
First it must be determined if the steel can be assumed
Since only one side
has convective heat transfer, referring to figure 2.13, L in
this case should be the full width of the steel beam. number is
The Biot
uniform in temperature across its width.
(2.29)
where h is estimated for natural convection from table 2.2. The assumption of uniform temperature is clearly justified. Note that if we were considering a two inch thick concrete section with a conductivity of about 1 BTU/hr ft F the Biot number would be 1/3 and the assumption of uniform temperature through the concrete would be questionable.
The thermal time constant for the steel beam is,
hA hA
h
2
The time constant is a function of the steel properties and the heat transfer coefficient at its surface. If air was blowing over the surface at a high velocity the time constant would be substantially reduced.
3. Convection Heat Transfer
Convective heat transfer is conduction though a gas or liquid augmented by fluid motion.
In these notes an introduction to the physics governing convection will be given along with some results for several different conditions. Consider the case of air at a uniform temperature T _{a} blown by a fan along a flat surface which is heated to a uniform temperature T _{s} , Figure 3.1. Say, this is cool air in an air conditioned room flowing over the surface of a window heated by solar radiation. The element of air closest to the heated surface has a temperature increase as it starts to move up the plate. Elements further away, at a larger y coordinate still are at T _{a} . As the element
becomes hotter it moves up and is replaced with another element at T _{a} and the process is repeated. Viewed from the point of view of the
room as a whole, room air at T _{a} approaches the plate and a given flow of air leaves the plate at an elevated temperature somewhere between T _{a} and T _{s}_{.} Thus there is a net energy transfer from the surface of the window to the room air.
The convective heat transfer coefficient is defined as,
11.2.2
^{h}
(3.1)
To get an estimate of how the rate of heat transfer is influenced by the parameters of the problems we have to look more closely at the layer of air moving along the plate surface. To make the explanation clear we will assume all of the elements of air are moving along the plate surface at uniform velocity and in straight lines. This is an instance of laminar flow. At any location (x,y) fixed relative to the stationary plate the temperature remains constant with time and there is a steady conduction heat transfer from the surface to the air in the y direction, normal to the plate surface. As the air continues up the plate the elements close to the plate increase their temperature. At the same time the elements further away start to rise in temperature due to conduction from the hotter elements at the plate surface The further along the air moves in the x direction the more elements further from the plate surface feel the conduction heat transfer
and rise in temperature as shown in figure 3.2.The maximum y
distance at which the thermal effects are felt, at any location x, will be specified as boundary layer thickness.
, the thermal
At any position x the variation of air temperature normal to the plate surface, the y axis is shown on figure 3.3. The rate of heat transfer from the plate surface is determined by the conduction into the air at y=0. This can be calculated from,
q
(3.2)
As a good first estimate we can use,
q Ck
(3.3)
where the constant C should be of order of magnitude unity. Now substituting this into the definition of the convective heat transfer coefficient,
h
(3.4)
Thus the heat transfer coefficient is proportional to the thermal conductivity of air and inversely proportional to the size of the thermal boundary layer thickness.
We can use the estimate for h to qualitatively predict how the heat transfer coefficient will vary with the main parameters
First, if the velocity of the air is increased over the plate surface then each fluid element spends a shorter time in contact with, or close to the plate. The fluid element
temperatures don’t increase as much. From figure 3.1 and 3.2, in such an instance the thermal
boundary layer,
in an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and the rate of convective heat transfer. This result
is summarized in table 3.1
Fig. 3.3 Air temperature in
Fig. 3.3 Air temperature in
thermal boundary layer
thermal boundary layer
, will be smaller at a given x value. Thus an increase in air velocity should result
Consider now an increase in the air density, say, by an increase in the air pressure, assuming all other air properties and the air velocity remains the same. For the same magnitude of heat transfer the temperature increase of the element will be less since the element has a larger mass.
A smaller temperature increase will reduce the thermal boundary layer thickness. Therefore, an
increase in the density will increase the heat transfer coefficient, one reason that liquid water has
a higher convective heat transfer rate than air. An increase in the specific heat of the fluid flowing over the plate has the same behavior as an increase in density.
As the plate length is increased the air will flow over the plate for a longer time. Heat transfer will penetrate a further distance from the plate surface. The thermal boundary layer thickness will grow larger. When averaged over the entire plate length , the average thermal boundary layer thickness will become larger and the average heat transfer coefficient will be smaller. Note, the total heat transfer will be higher for the longer plate but the heat transfer per unit area will be smaller. To augment the heat transfer when possible, designers will break a long surface up into a series of smaller surfaces. This can be done by physically separating sections of the plate or by placing an array of ribs at right angles to the flow to break up the boundary layer and restart it.
Table 3.1 Key Parameters Influence on Convective Heat Transfer
Parameter 
, thermal boundary layer thickness 
h, convective heat transfer 

coefficient 

Velocity increase 
decreases 
h 
increases 
Density increase 
decreases 
h 
increases 
Specific heat increase 
decreases 
h 
increases 
Plate length L increase 
averaged over L increases 
h 
averaged over L decreases 
Thermal conductivity k _{a} increase 
increase 
h 
increases 
Transition to turbulent flow from laminar flow 
decreases 
h 
increases 
When the thermal conductivity of the fluid passing over the plate is increased, y using a higher conductivity gas or liquid there are two elements in play. The thermal boundary layer thickness will increase because of augmented means of heat transfer through the fluid. Remember that h is proportional to the ratio of conductivity to boundary layer thickness. In this case k increases faster
than
the mechanism for heat transfer, in this case the molecular conductivity, that the rate of
convection will increase.
and the heat transfer coefficient increases. It should be expected that when we increase
Turbulent Flow
At low velocity, the fluid flows in very smooth paths about parallel to the plate surface. As the velocity is increased a point is reached where the fluid motion is much more chaotic characterized by eddies in the flow near the plate surface. This is termed turbulent flow.
Turbulent flow over a flat plate is found to occur when the Reynolds number
300,000. x is used to indicate the distance from the leading edge; the front of the flat plate can
have laminar flow while the rear experiences turbulent flow. The distinction between laminar and
Vx/ exceeds
turbulent flow is important because the eddies in the turbulent flow tend to bring fluid at the ambient temperature T _{a} much closer to the heated plate surface. In effect the eddies reduce the
distance
sometimes by an order of magnitude or more.
for conduction heat transfer and can markedly increase the heat transfer coefficient,
At can be seen that the convective heat transfer is a function of the fluid properties such as density and conductivity, the flow conditions and the surface geometry. Given below are a few dimensional expressions that can be used for specific cases. The constants in the equations already include the fluid properties.
Laminar flow expressions for h Using air properties at room temperature h for laminar flow over flat plates can be found as
while for water,
h
h
(3.5)
(3.6)
In this form h is in BTU/hrft ^{2} F, V is in ft/sec and L is in ft. Note, water gives a much higher heat transfer coefficient than air because it has a much higher thermal conductivity as well as a higher density and specific heat.
Turbulent Flow
At low velocity, the fluid flows in very smooth paths about parallel to the plate surface. As the velocity is increased a point is reached where the fluid motion is much more chaotic characterized by eddies in the flow near the plate surface. This is termed turbulent flow. Turbulent flow over a flat plate is found to occur at higher velocities and longer plate lengths. Also flowing liquids will reach turbulent flow at lower velocities than gases.
For air near room temperature turbulent flow is reached when the product of plate length and air velocity exceeds,
VL
ft
s
(3.7)
For water
h
L
(3.8)
VL
ft
s
h
L
(3.9)
Again, all of the parameters are in Imperial units.
Flow Inside Tubes
The other important flow geometry is gas or liquid flow inside tubes. A similar development exists for the convective heat transfer with the exception that h is defined based on the mean temperature T _{M} of the fluid within the tube at the location in question. For a section within the tube of axial length between x and x+ x,
^{h}
(3.10)
where T _{M} is the mean fluid temperature at x. Almost all practical cases of tube flow, the flow is turbulent. Exceptions are flows through very small tube diameters or the flow of viscous fluids such as oil. For turbulent tube at room temperature, the relationship becomes,
h
D
while for water we get,
h
D
(3.11)
(3.12)
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