Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Anthroposophy

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Anthroposophy,aphilosophyfoundedbyRudolfSteiner,postulatestheexistenceofanobjective, intellectuallycomprehensiblespiritualworldthatisaccessiblebydirectexperiencethroughinner development.Morespecifically,itaimstodevelopfacultiesofperceptiveimagination,inspirationand intuitionthroughthecultivationofaformofthinkingindependentofsensoryexperience, [1][2] andto presenttheresultsthusderivedinamannersubjecttorationalverification.Anthroposophyaimstoattain initsstudyofspiritualexperiencetheprecisionandclarityattainedbythenaturalsciencesintheir investigationsofthephysicalworld. [1] ThephilosophyhasdoublerootsinGermanidealismandGerman mysticism [3] andwasinitiallyexpressedinlanguagedrawnfromTheosophy.

Modernanalysts,includingMichaelShermer,havetermedanthroposophy'sapplicationinareassuchas medicine,biologyandbiodynamicagriculturepseudoscience. [8][9][10]

Contents

1 History

Contents 1 History 1.1 Etymology 2 Centralideas 2.1 Spiritualknowledgeandfreedom 2.2 Natureofthehumanbeing 2.2.1 Evolution

1.1 Etymology

2 Centralideas

2.1 Spiritualknowledgeandfreedom

2.2 Natureofthehumanbeing

2.1 Spiritualknowledgeandfreedom 2.2 Natureofthehumanbeing 2.2.1 Evolution 2.3 Ethics 3 Applications   3.1

2.2.1 Evolution

2.3 Ethics

3 Applications

  3.1 Steiner/Waldorfeducation   3.2 Biodynamicagriculture   3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine   3.4
 

3.1 Steiner/Waldorfeducation

  3.1 Steiner/Waldorfeducation   3.2 Biodynamicagriculture   3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine   3.4
 

3.2 Biodynamicagriculture

Steiner/Waldorfeducation   3.2 Biodynamicagriculture   3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine   3.4
 

3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine

Biodynamicagriculture   3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine   3.4 Specialneedseducationandservices   3.5
 

3.4 Specialneedseducationandservices

  3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine   3.4 Specialneedseducationandservices   3.5 Architecture
 

3.5 Architecture

  3.3 Anthroposophicalmedicine   3.4 Specialneedseducationandservices   3.5 Architecture

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

3.6 Eurythmy

  3.7 Socialfinance   3.8 Organizationaldevelopment,counsellingandbiographywork
 

3.7 Socialfinance

  3.7 Socialfinance   3.8 Organizationaldevelopment,counsellingandbiographywork
 

3.8 Organizationaldevelopment,counsellingandbiographywork

  3.7 Socialfinance   3.8 Organizationaldevelopment,counsellingandbiographywork

3.9 Speechanddrama

4 Socialgoals   5 Esotericpath     5.1 Pathsofspiritualdevelopment     5.2

4 Socialgoals

 
4 Socialgoals   5 Esotericpath     5.1 Pathsofspiritualdevelopment     5.2

5 Esotericpath

 
 
 

5.1 Pathsofspiritualdevelopment

 
 
 

5.2 Prerequisitestoandstagesofinnerdevelopment

 
 
 

5.3 Spiritualexercises

    5.3 Spiritualexercises 6 PlaceinWesternphilosophy     6.1

6 PlaceinWesternphilosophy

 
 
 

6.1

Unionofscienceandspirit

    6.1 Unionofscienceandspirit 7 Relationshiptoreligion     7.1

7 Relationshiptoreligion

 
 
 

7.1 Christasthecenterofearthlyevolution

 
 
 

7.2 DivergencefromconventionalChristianthought

 
 
 

7.3 Judaism

 
 
 

7.4 ChristianCommunity

  7.3 Judaism     7.4 ChristianCommunity 8 Reception       8.1 Supporters  

8 Reception

 
 
 
 

8.1 Supporters

 
 
 

8.2 Scientificbasis

 
 
 

8.3 Religiousnature

 
 
 

8.4 Statementsonrace

    8.3 Religiousnature     8.4 Statementsonrace 9 Seealso   10 References  

9 Seealso

 
    8.3 Religiousnature     8.4 Statementsonrace 9 Seealso   10 References  

10 References

 
    8.3 Religiousnature     8.4 Statementsonrace 9 Seealso   10 References  

11 Externallinks

    8.4 Statementsonrace 9 Seealso   10 References   11 Externallinks 11.1 Societies

11.1 Societies

History

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Theearlyworkofthefounderofanthroposophy,RudolfSteiner, culminatedinhisPhilosophyofFreedom(alsotranslatedasThe PhilosophyofSpiritualActivityandIntuitiveThinkingasaSpiritual Path).Here,Steinerdevelopedaconceptoffreewillbasedoninner experiences,especiallythosethatoccurinthecreativeactivityof independentthought. [1]

Bythebeginningofthetwentiethcentury,Steiner'sintereststurnedto explicitlyspiritualareasofresearch.Hisworkbegantointerestothers interestedinspiritualideas;amongthesewastheTheosophicalSociety.

From1900on,thankstothepositivereceptiongiventohisideas,Steiner

focusedincreasinglyonhisworkwiththeTheosophicalSociety

becomingthesecretaryofitssectioninGermanyin1902.Duringthe

yearsofhisleadership,membershipincreaseddramatically,fromafew individualstosixty­nineLodges. [11]

By1907,asplitbetweenSteinerandthemainstreamTheosophical

Societyhadbeguntobecomeapparent.WhiletheSocietywasoriented towardanEasternandespeciallyIndianapproach,Steinerwastryingtodevelopapaththatembraced Christianityandnaturalscience. [12] ThesplitbecameirrevocablewhenAnnieBesant,thenpresidentof theTheosophicalSociety,begantopresentthechildJidduKrishnamurtiasthereincarnatedChrist. SteinerstronglyobjectedandconsideredanycomparisonbetweenKrishnamurtiandChristtobe nonsense;manyyearslater,Krishnamurtialsorepudiatedtheassertion.Steiner'scontinuingdifferences withBesantledhimtoseparatefromtheTheosophicalSocietyAdyar;hewasfollowedbythegreat majorityofthemembershipoftheTheosophicalSociety'sGermanSection,aswellasmembersofother

nationalsections. [11][12]

Bythistime,Steinerhadreachedconsiderablestatureasaspiritualteacher. [13] Hespokeaboutwhathe consideredtobehisdirectexperienceoftheAkashicRecords(sometimescalledthe"Akasha Chronicle"),thoughttobeaspiritualchronicleofthehistory,pre­history,andfutureoftheworldand mankind.Inanumberofworks, [14] Steinerdescribedapathofinnerdevelopmenthefeltwouldlet anyoneattaincomparablespiritualexperiences.Soundvisioncouldbedeveloped,inpart,bypracticing rigorousformsofethicalandcognitiveself­discipline,concentration,andmeditation;inparticular,a person'smoraldevelopmentmustprecedethedevelopmentofspiritualfaculties. [1]

organicfarmsandmedicalclinicswereestablished,allinspired

byanthroposophy.

In1923,facedwithdifferencesbetweenoldermembersfocusing

oninnerdevelopmentandyoungermemberseagertobecome

activeinthesocialtransformationsofthetime,Steinerrefounded

theSocietyinaninclusivemannerandestablishedaSchoolfor

SpiritualScience.Asaspiritualbasisfortherefounded

movement,Steinerwrotea"FoundationStoneMeditation"which

remainsacentralmeditativeexpressionofanthroposophicalideas.

Second Goetheanum ,seatofthe AnthroposophicalSociety

SecondGoetheanum,seatofthe

AnthroposophicalSociety

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Steinerdiedjustoverayearlater,in1925.TheSecondWorldWartemporarilyhinderedthe

anthroposophicalmovementinmostofContinentalEurope,astheAnthroposophicalSocietyandmost ofitsdaughtermovements(e.g.Steiner/Waldorfeducation)werebannedbytheNationalSocialists (Nazis); [15] virtuallynoanthroposophistseverjoinedtheNationalSocialistParty. [16]

By2007,nationalbranchesoftheAnthroposophicalSocietyhadbeenestablishedinfiftycountries,and

about10,000institutionsaroundtheworldwereworkingonthebasisofanthroposophy. [17] Inthesame year,theAnthroposophicalSocietywascalledthe"mostimportantesotericsocietyinEuropean history." [18]

Etymology

AnthroposophyisanamalgamoftheGreektermsἄνθρωπος(anthropos="human")andσοφία(sophia

="wisdom").ItislistedbyNathanBailey(1742)asmeaning"theknowledgeofthenatureofman"

(OED).AuthorswhoseusageofthetermpredatesSteiner'sincludeoccultistAgrippavonNettesheim,

alchemistThomasVaughan(AnthroposophiaTheomagica),andphilosopherRobertZimmermann.

Steinerbeganusingthetermintheearly1900sasanalternativetothetermtheosophy(divinewisdom),

atermcentraltotheTheosophicalSociety,withwhichSteinerwasassociatedatthetime,andtoalong traditionofEuropeanesotericists.Steinerprobablyfirstencounteredtheword"anthroposophy"inthe workofZimmermann,someofwhoselecturesintheUniversityofViennahehadattendedwhilea student. [19]

Centralideas

Spiritualknowledgeandfreedom

Anthroposophicalproponentsaimtoextendtheclarityofthescientificmethodtophenomenaofhuman soul­lifeandtospiritualexperiences.Thisrequiresdevelopingnewfacultiesofobjectivespiritual perception,whichSteinermaintainedwaspossibleforhumanitytoday.Thestepsofthisprocessofinner developmentheidentifiedasconsciouslyachievedimagination,inspirationandintuition. [6] Steiner believedresultsofthisformofspiritualresearchshouldbeexpressedinawaythatcanbeunderstood andevaluatedonthesamebasisastheresultsofnaturalscience: [4] "Theanthroposophicalschoolingof thinkingleadstothedevelopmentofanon­sensory,orso­calledsupersensoryconsciousness,whereby thespiritualresearcherbringstheexperiencesofthisrealmintoideas,concepts,andexpressivelanguage inaformwhichpeoplecanunderstandwhodonotyethavethecapacitytoachievethesupersensory experiencesnecessaryforindividualresearch." [20]

Steinerhopedtoformaspiritualmovementthatwouldfreetheindividualfromanyexternalauthority:

"Themostimportantproblemofallhumanthinkingisthis:tocomprehendthehumanbeingasa personalitygroundedinhimorherself." [20] ForSteiner,thehumancapacityforrationalthoughtwould allowindividualstocomprehendspiritualresearchontheirownandbypassthedangerofdependencyon anauthority. [20]

Steinercontrastedtheanthroposophicalapproachwithbothconventionalmysticism,whichhe

consideredlackingtheclaritynecessaryforexactknowledge,andnaturalscience,whichheconsidered

arbitrarilylimitedtoinvestigatingtheouterworld.

Natureofthehumanbeing

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

InTheosophy,Steinersuggestedthathumanbeingsuniteaphysicalbody

ofanaturecommonto(andthatultimatelyreturnsto)theinorganic

world;alifebody(alsocalledtheethericbody),incommonwithall

livingcreatures(includingplants);abearerofsentienceorconsciousness

(alsocalledtheastralbody),incommonwithallanimals;andtheego,

whichanchorsthefacultyofself­awarenessuniquetohumanbeings.

Anthroposophydescribesabroadevolutionofhumanconsciousness. Earlystagesofhumanevolutionpossessanintuitiveperceptionof reality,includingaclairvoyantperceptionofspiritualrealities.Humanity hasprogressivelyevolvedanincreasingrelianceonintellectualfaculties andacorrespondinglossofintuitiveorclairvoyantexperiences,which havebecomeatavistic.Theincreasingintellectualizationof consciousness,initiallyaprogressivedirectionofevolution,hasledtoan excessiverelianceonabstractionandalossofcontactwithbothnatural andspiritualrealities.However,togofurtherrequiresnewcapacitiesthat combinetheclarityofintellectualthoughtwiththeimagination,and beyondthiswithconsciouslyachievedinspirationandintuitive insights. [21]

TheRepresentativeof Humanity ,detailofa sculptureinwoodbyRudolf SteinerandEdithMaryon.

TheRepresentativeof

Humanity,detailofa

sculptureinwoodbyRudolf

SteinerandEdithMaryon.

Anthroposophyspeaksofthereincarnationofthehumanspirit:thatthehumanbeingpassesbetween stagesofexistence,incarnatingintoanearthlybody,livingonearth,leavingthebodybehindand enteringintothespiritualworldsbeforereturningtobebornagainintoanewlifeonearth.Afterthe deathofthephysicalbody,thehumanspiritrecapitulatesthepastlife,perceivingitseventsastheywere experiencedbytheobjectsofitsactions.Acomplextransformationtakesplacebetweenthereviewof thepastlifeandthepreparationforthenextlife.Theindividual'skarmicconditioneventuallyleadstoa choiceofparents,physicalbody,disposition,andcapacitiesthatprovidethechallengesand opportunitiesthatfurtherdevelopmentrequires,whichincludeskarmicallychosentasksforthefuture life. [21]

Steinerdescribedsomeconditionsthatdeterminetheinterdependenceofaperson'slives,or

karma. [22][23]

Evolution

Theanthroposophicalviewofevolutionconsidersallanimalstohaveevolvedfromanearly, unspecializedform.Astheleastspecializedanimal,humanbeingshavemaintainedtheclosest connectiontothearchetypalform; [24] contrarytotheDarwinianconceptionofhumanevolution,all otheranimalsdevolvefromthisarchetype. [25] Thespiritualarchetypeoriginallycreatedbyspiritual beingswasdevoidofphysicalsubstance;onlylaterdidthisdescendintomaterialexistenceonEarth. [26] Inthisview,humanevolutionhasaccompaniedtheEarth'sevolutionthroughouttheexistenceofthe Earth.

Theevolutionofman,Steinersaid,hasconsistedinthegradualincarnationofaspiritual

beingintoamaterialbody.Ithasbeenatrue"descent"ofmanfromaspiritualworldintoa

worldofmatter.Theevolutionoftheanimalkingdomdidnotprecede,butrather

accompaniedtheprocessofhumanincarnation.Manisthusnottheendresultofthe

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

evolutionoftheanimals,butisratherinacertainsensetheircause.Inthesuccessionof

typeswhichappearsinthefossilrecord­thefishes,reptiles,mammals,andfinallyfossil

remainsofmanhimself—thestagesofthisprocessofincarnationarereflected.

[27]

AnthroposophytookoverfromTheosophyacomplexsystemofcyclesofworlddevelopmentand

humanevolution.Theevolutionoftheworldissaidtohaveoccurredincycles.Thefirstphaseofthe

worldconsistedonlyofheat.Inthesecondphase,amoreactivecondition,light,andamorecondensed,

gaseousstateseparateoutfromtheheat.Inthethirdphase,afluidstatearose,aswellasasounding,

formingenergy.Inthefourth(current)phase,solidphysicalmatterfirstexists.Thisprocessissaidto

havebeenaccompaniedbyanevolutionofconsciousnesswhichleduptopresenthumanculture.

Ethics

Theanthroposophicalviewisthatgoodisfoundinthebalancebetweentwopolar,generallyevil influencesonworldandhumanevolution.Twospiritualadversariesendeavourtotemptandcorrupt humanity:theseareoftendescribedthroughtheirmythologicalembodiments,Luciferandhis counterpartAhriman,whichhavebothpositiveandnegativeaspects.Luciferisthelightspirit,which "playsonhumanprideandoffersthedelusionofdivinity",butalsomotivatescreativityandspirituality; Ahrimanisthedarkspirit,whichtemptshumanbeingsto" deny[their]linkwithdivinityandtolive entirelyonthematerialplane",butalsostimulatesintellectualityandtechnology.Bothfiguresexerta negativeeffectonhumanitywhentheirinfluencebecomesmisplacedorone­sided,yettheirinfluences arenecessaryforhumanfreedomtounfold. [1][4]

Eachhumanbeinghasthetasktofindabalancebetweentheseopposinginfluences,andeachishelped inthistaskbythemediationoftheRepresentativeofHumanity,alsoknownastheChristbeing,a spiritualentitywhostandsbetweenandharmonizesthetwoextremes. [4]

Applications

Applicationsofanthroposophyinclude:

Phenomenologicalapproachestoscience, [1] Newapproachestopaintingandsculpture. [1] JohnWilkes'fountain­likeflowforms.Thesesculptural formsguidewaterintorhythmicmovementandareused bothinwater­purificationprojectsanddecoratively.

Steiner/Waldorfeducation

school,foundedinStuttgartin1919)locatedinsome60

countries;thegreatmajorityoftheseareindependent(private) schools. [28] Sixteenoftheschoolshavebeenaffiliatedwiththe UnitedNations'UNESCOAssociatedSchoolsProjectNetwork, whichsponsorseducationprojectsthatfosterimprovedqualityof educationthroughouttheworld,inparticularintermsofits

Flowformsin Darmstadt , Germany

FlowformsinDarmstadt,Germany

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ethical,cultural,andinternationaldimensions. [29] Waldorfschoolsreceivefullorpartialgovernmental fundinginsomeEuropeannations,AustraliaandinpartsoftheUnitedStates(asWaldorfmethodpublic orcharterschools).

Theschoolsarelocatedinawidevarietyofcommunitiesandcultures:fromtheimpoverishedfavelasof SãoPaulo [30] tothewealthysuburbsofNewYorkCity; [30] inIndia,Egypt,Australia,theNetherlands, MexicoandSouthAfrica.ThoughmostoftheearlyWaldorfschoolswereteacher­founded,theschools todayareusuallyinitiatedandlatersupportedbyanactiveparentcommunity. [31] Waldorfeducationis oneofthemostvisiblepracticalapplicationsofananthroposophicalviewandunderstandingofthe humanbeing [32] andhasbeencharacterizedas"theleaderoftheinternationalmovementforaNew Education," [31]

Biodynamicagriculture

Biodynamicagriculture,thefirstintentionalformoforganicfarming, [33] beganinthe1920swhen RudolfSteinergaveaseriesoflecturessincepublishedasAgriculture.Steinerisconsideredoneofthe foundersofthemodernorganicfarmingmovement. [34][35]

Anthroposophicalmedicine

Steinergaveseveralseriesoflecturestophysiciansandmedicalstudents.Outofthosegrewa complementarymedicalmovementintendingto"extendtheknowledgegainedthroughthemethodsof thenaturalsciencesofthepresentagewithinsightsfromspiritualscience." [36] Thismovementnow includeshundredsofM.D.s,chieflyinEuropeandNorthAmerica,andhasitsownclinics,hospitals,and medicalschools. [1]

Oneofthemoststudiedapplicationshasbeentheuseofmistletoeextractsincancertherapy. [37] The extractsaregenerallynolongerusedtoreduceorinhibittumorgrowth,forwhichverifiableresultshave beenfoundinvitroandinanimalstudiesbutnotinhumans,butinsteadtoimprovethepatients'quality oflifeandtoreducetumor­inducedsymptomsandtheside­effectsofchemotherapyand radiotherapy. [38] AccordingtotheNationalCancerInstitute,"Mistletoeextracthasbeenshowntokill cancercellsinthelaboratoryandtoaffecttheimmunesystem.However,thereislimitedevidencethat mistletoe'seffectsontheimmunesystemhelpthebodyfightcancer [39] Atpresent,theuseofmistletoe cannotberecommendedoutsidethecontextofwell­designedclinicaltrials." [40]

Severalpharmaceuticalcompanieshavegrownoutofanthroposophicalmedicine,includingWeleda,

Wala,andDr.Hauschka.

Specialneedseducationandservices

In1922,ItaWegmanfoundedananthroposophicalcenterforspecialneedseducation,theSonnenhof,in

Switzerland.In1940,KarlKönigfoundedtheCamphillMovementinScotland.Thelatterinparticular

hasspreadwidely,andtherearenowoverahundredCamphillcommunitiesandotheranthroposophical homesforchildrenandadultsinneedofspecialcareinabout22countriesaroundtheworld. [41] Both KarlKönig,ThomasWeihsandothershavewrittenextensivelyontheseideasunderlyingSpecial education. [42][43]

Architecture

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Steinerhimselfdesignedaroundthirteenbuildings,manyofthem significantworksinaunique,organic—expressionist architecturalstyle. [44] Foremostamongthesearehisdesignsfor thetwoGoetheanumbuildingsinDornach,Switzerland. Thousandsoffurtherbuildingshavebeenbuiltbylater generationsofanthroposophicarchitects. [45][46]

Eurythmy

Inthearts,Steiner'snewartofeurythmygainedearlyrenown. [51] Eurythmyseekstorenewthespiritual foundationsofdance,revealingspeechandmusicinvisiblemovement.Therearenowactivestage groupsandtrainingcenters,mostlyofmodestproportions,inapproximately16countries. [52]

Socialfinance

Aroundtheworldtodayareanumberofbanks,companies,charities,andschoolsfordevelopingco­ operativeformsofbusinessusingSteiner'sideasabouteconomicassociations,aimingatharmoniousand sociallyresponsiblerolesintheworldeconomy. [1] Thefirstanthroposophicbankwasthe GemeinschaftsbankfürLeihenundSchenkeninBochum,Germany,foundedin1974. [53] Socially responsiblebanksfoundedoutofanthroposophyintheEnglish­speakingworldincludeTriodosBank,

foundedin1980andactiveintheUK,Netherlands,Germany,Belgium,andSpain.CulturaSparebank

datesfrom1982whenagroupofNorwegiananthroposophistsstarttogrowtheideaofhavingethical

bankingbutonlyinthelate90sthebankstartstooperateasasavingsbankinNorway.LaNefinFrance

andRSFSocialFinance [54] inSanFranciscoareotherexamples.

Organizationaldevelopment,counsellingandbiographywork

BernardLievegoed,apsychiatrist,foundedanewmethodofindividualandinstitutionaldevelopment orientedtowardshumanizingorganizationsandlinkedwithSteiner'sideasofthethreefoldsocialorder. ThisworkisrepresentedbytheNPIInstituteforOrganizationalDevelopmentintheNetherlandsand sisterorganizationsinmanyothercountries. [1] Variousformsofbiographicandcounsellingworkhave beendevelopedonthebasisofanthroposophy.

Speechanddrama

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Therearealsoanthroposophicalmovementstorenewspeechanddrama,themostimportantofwhich arebasedintheworkofMarieSteiner­vonSivers(speechformation,alsoknownasCreativeSpeech) andtheChekhovMethodoriginatedbyMichaelChekhov(nephewofAntonChekhov). [55]

Socialgoals

ForaperiodafterWorldWarI,SteinerwasextremelyactiveandwellknowninGermany,inpart becausehelecturedwidelyproposingsocialreforms.Steinerwasasharpcriticofnationalism,whichhe sawasoutdated,andaproponentofachievingsocialsolidaritythroughindividualfreedom. [1] Apetition proposingaradicalchangeintheGermanconstitutionandexpressinghisbasicsocialideas(signedby HermanHesse,amongothers)waswidelycirculated.HismainbookonsocialreformisTowardSocial Renewal. [1]

Anthroposophycontinuestoaimatreformingsocietythroughmaintainingandstrengtheningthe independenceofthespheresofculturallife,humanrightsandtheeconomy.Itemphasizesaparticular idealineachofthesethreerealmsofsociety: [1]

1.Freedominculturallife

2.Equalityofrights,thesphereoflegislationandthejudiciary

Esotericpath

Pathsofspiritualdevelopment

AccordingtoSteiner,arealspiritualworldexists,outofwhichthematerialonegraduallycondensed andevolved.Steinerheldthatthespiritualworldcanberesearchedintherightcircumstancesthrough directexperience,bypersonspracticingrigorousformsofethicalandcognitiveself­discipline.Steiner describedmanyexerciseshesaidweresuitedtostrengtheningsuchself­discipline;themostcomplete expositionoftheseisfoundinhisbookHowToKnowHigherWorlds.Theaimoftheseexercisesisto develophigherlevelsofconsciousnessthroughmeditationandobservation.Detailsaboutthespiritual world,Steinersuggested,couldonsuchabasisbediscoveredandreported,thoughnomoreinfallibly thantheresultsofnaturalscience. [6]

Anthroposophyisapathofknowledge,toguidethespiritualinthehumanbeingtothe

spiritualintheuniverse….Anthroposophistsarethosewhoexperience,asanessentialneed

oflife,certainquestionsonthenatureofthehumanbeingandtheuniverse,justasone

experienceshungerandthirst.

[56]

Steinerregardedhisresearchreportsasbeingimportantaidstoothersseekingtoenterintospiritual experience.Hesuggestedthatacombinationofspiritualexercises(forexample,concentratingonan objectsuchasaseed),moraldevelopment(controlofthought,feelingsandwillcombinedwith openness,toleranceandflexibility)andfamiliaritywithotherspiritualresearchers'resultswouldbest furtheranindividual'sspiritualdevelopment.Heconsistentlyemphasisedthatanyinner,spiritual practiceshouldbeundertakeninsuchawayasnottointerferewithone'sresponsibilitiesinouterlife. [6] Steinerdistinguishedbetweenwhatheconsideredweretrueandfalsepathsofspiritualinvestigation. [57]

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Inanthroposophy,artisticexpressionisalsotreatedasapotentiallyvaluablebridgebetweenspiritual andmaterialreality. [58]

Prerequisitestoandstagesofinnerdevelopment

Apersonseekinginnerdevelopmentmustfirstofallmaketheattempttogiveupcertain

formerlyheldinclinations.Then,newinclinationsmustbeacquiredbyconstantlyholding

thethoughtofsuchinclinations,virtuesorcharacteristicsinone'smind.Theymustbeso

incorporatedintoone'sbeingthatapersonbecomesenabledtoalterhissoulbyhisown

will­power.Thismustbetriedasobjectivelyasachemicalmightbetestedinan

experiment.Apersonwhohasneverendeavoredtochangehissoul,whohasnevermade

theinitialdecisiontodevelopthequalitiesofendurance,steadfastnessandcalmlogical

thinking,orapersonwhohassuchdecisionsbuthasgivenupbecausehedidnotsucceedin

aweek,amonth,ayearoradecade,willneverconcludeanythinginwardlyaboutthese

truths.

— RudolfSteiner,"OntheInnerLife", [59]

Steiner'sstatedprerequisitestobeginningonaspiritualpathincludeawillingnesstotakeupserious cognitivestudies,arespectforfactualevidence,andaresponsibleattitude.Centraltoprogressonthe pathitselfisaharmoniouscultivationofthefollowingqualities: [60]

Controloverone'sownthinking

Controloverone'swill[ 6 0 ] Controloverone'sownthinking Composure Positivity Impartiality

Composure] Controloverone'sownthinking Controloverone'swill Positivity Impartiality

PositivityControloverone'swill Composure Impartiality

ImpartialityControloverone'swill Composure Positivity

Steinerseesmeditationasaconcentrationandenhancementofthepowerofthought.Byfocusing consciouslyonanidea,feelingorintentionthemeditantseekstoarriveatpurethinking,astate exemplifiedbybutnotconfinedtopuremathematics.InSteiner'sview,conventionalsensory­material knowledgeisachievedthroughrelatingperceptionandconcepts.Theanthroposophicpathofesoteric trainingarticulatesthreefurtherstagesofsupersensoryknowledge,whichdonotnecessarilyfollow strictlysequentiallyinanysingleindividual'sspiritualprogress. [60][61]

Byfocusingonsymbolicpatterns,images,andpoeticmantras,themeditantcanachieve consciouslydirectedImaginationsthatallowsensoryphenomenatoappearastheexpressionof underlyingbeingsofasoul­spiritualnature. Bytranscendingsuchimaginativepictures,themeditantcanbecomeconsciousofthemeditative activityitself,whichleadstoexperiencesofexpressionsofsoul­spiritualbeingsunmediatedby sensoryphenomenaorqualities.SteinercallsthisstageInspiration. Byintensifyingthewill­forcesthroughexercisessuchasachronologicallyreversedreviewofthe day'sevents,themeditantcanachieveafurtherstageofinnerindependencefromsensory experience,leadingtodirectcontact,andevenunion,withspiritualbeings("Intuition")without lossofindividualawareness. [60]

Spiritualexercises

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Steinerdescribednumerousexerciseshebelievedwouldbringspiritualdevelopment;other anthroposophistshaveaddedmanyothers.Acentralprincipleisthat"foreverystepinspiritual perception,threestepsaretobetakeninmoraldevelopment."AccordingtoSteiner,moraldevelopment revealstheextenttowhichonehasachievedcontroloverone'sinnerlifeandcanexerciseitinharmony withthespirituallifeofotherpeople;itshowstherealprogressinspiritualdevelopment,thefruitsof whicharegiveninspiritualperception.Italsoguaranteesthecapacitytodistinguishbetweenfalse perceptionsorillusions(whicharepossibleinperceptionsofboththeouterworldandtheinnerworld) andtrueperceptions:i.e.,thecapacitytodistinguishinanyperceptionbetweentheinfluenceof subjectiveelements(i.e.,viewpoint)andobjectivereality. [6]

PlaceinWesternphilosophy

SteinerbuiltuponGoethe'sconceptionofanimaginativepowercapableofsynthesizingthesense­ perceptibleformofathing(animageofitsouterappearance)andtheconceptwehaveofthatthing(an imageofitsinnerstructureornature).Steineraddedtothistheconceptionthatafurtherstepinthe developmentofthinkingispossiblewhenthethinkerobserveshisorherownthoughtprocesses."The organofobservationandtheobservedthoughtprocessarethenidentical,sothattheconditionthus arrivedatissimultaneouslyoneofperceptionthroughthinkingandoneofthoughtthrough perception." [6]

Thus,inSteiner'sview,wecanovercomethesubject­objectdividethroughinneractivity,eventhough allhumanexperiencebeginsbybeingconditionedbyit.Inthisconnection,Steinerexaminesthestep fromthinkingdeterminedbyouterimpressionstowhathecallssense­freethinking.Hecharacterizes thoughtsheconsiderswithoutsensorycontent,suchasmathematicalorlogicalthoughts,asfreedeeds. Steinerbelievedhehadthuslocatedtheoriginoffreewillinourthinking,andinparticularinsense­free thinking. [6]

SomeoftheepistemicbasisforSteiner'slateranthroposophicalworkiscontainedintheseminalwork, PhilosophyofFreedom. [62] Inhisearlyworks,Steinersoughttoovercomewhatheperceivedasthe dualismofCartesianidealismandKantiansubjectivismbydevelopingGoethe'sconceptionofthe humanbeingasanatural­supernaturalentity,thatis:naturalinthathumanityisaproductofnature, supernaturalinthatthroughourconceptualpowersweextendnature'srealm,allowingittoachievea reflectivecapacityinusasphilosophy,artandscience. [63] SteinerwasoneofthefirstEuropean philosopherstoovercomethesubject­objectsplitinWesternthought. [63] Thoughnotwellknownamong philosophers,hisphilosophicalworkwastakenupbyOwenBarfield(andthroughhiminfluencedthe Inklings,anOxfordgroupofChristianwritersthatincludedJ.R.R.TolkienandC.S.Lewis). [64]

ChristianandJewishmysticalthoughthavealsoinfluencedthedevelopmentofanthroposophy. [65][66]

Unionofscienceandspirit

Steinerbelievedinthepossibilityofapplyingtheclarityofscientificthinkingtospiritualexperience, whichhesawasderivingfromanobjectivelyexistingspiritualworld. [67] Steineridentifiedmathematics, whichattainscertaintythroughthinkingitself,thusthroughinnerexperienceratherthanempirical observation, [68] asthebasisofhisepistemologyofspiritualexperience. [69]

Relationshiptoreligion

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Christasthecenterofearthlyevolution

Steiner'swriting,thoughappreciativeofallreligionsandculturaldevelopments,emphasizesWestern traditionashavingevolvedtomeetcontemporaryneeds. [12] HedescribesChristandhismissiononearth ofbringingindividuatedconsciousnessashavingaparticularlyimportantplaceinhumanevolution, [1] whereby: [4]

Christianityhasevolvedoutofpreviousreligions;

ThebeingwhichmanifestsinChristianityalsomanifestsinallfaithsandreligions,andeach

religionisvalidandtrueforthetimeandculturalcontextinwhichitwasborn;

AllhistoricalformsofChristianityneedtobetransformedconsiderablytomeetthecontinuing

evolutionofhumanity.

SpiritualsciencedoesnotwanttousurptheplaceofChristianity;onthecontraryitwould

liketobeinstrumentalinmakingChristianityunderstood.Thusitbecomescleartous

throughspiritualsciencethatthebeingwhomwecallChrististoberecognizedasthe

centeroflifeonearth,thattheChristianreligionistheultimatereligionfortheearth'swhole

future.Spiritualscienceshowsusparticularlythatthepre­Christianreligionsoutgrowtheir

one­sidednessandcometogetherintheChristianfaith.Itisnotthedesireofspiritual

sciencetosetsomethingelseintheplaceofChristianity;ratheritwantstocontributetoa

deeper,moreheartfeltunderstandingofChristianity.

[70]

Thus,anthroposophyconsiderstheretobeabeingwhounifiesallreligions,andwhoisnotrepresented byanyparticularreligiousfaith.Thisbeingis,accordingtoSteiner,notonlytheRedeemeroftheFall fromParadise,butalsotheuniquepivotandmeaningofearth'sevolutionaryprocessesandofhuman history. [4] Todescribethisbeing,Steinerperiodicallyusedtermssuchasthe"Representativeof Humanity"orthe"goodspirit" [71][72] ratherthananydenominationalterm.

DivergencefromconventionalChristianthought

Steiner'sviewsofChristianitydivergefromconventionalChristianthoughtinkeyplaces,andinclude

gnosticelements:

OnecentralpointofdivergenceisSteiner'sviewsonreincarnationandkarma.

SteinerdifferentiatedthreecontemporarypathsbywhichhebelieveditpossibletoarriveatChrist:

Throughheart­filledexperiencesoftheGospels;Steinerdescribedthisasthehistorically dominantpath,butbecominglessimportantinthefuture. Throughinnerexperiencesofaspiritualreality;thisSteinerregardedasincreasinglythe pathofspiritualorreligiousseekerstoday. ThroughinitiatoryexperienceswherebytherealityofChrist'sdeathandresurrectionare experienced;Steinerbelievedthisisthepathpeoplewillincreasinglytake. [4] SteineralsobelievedthatthereweretwodifferentJesuschildreninvolvedintheIncarnationofthe Christ:onechilddescendedfromSolomon,asdescribedintheGospelofMatthew,theotherchild fromNathan,asdescribedintheGospelofLuke. [1] (Thegenealogiesgiveninthetwogospels divergesomethirtygenerationsbeforeJesus'birth,and'Jesus'wasacommonnameinbiblical times.) HisviewofthesecondcomingofChristisalsounusual;hesuggestedthatthiswouldnotbea physicalreappearance,butthattheChristbeingwouldbecomemanifestinnon­physicalform,

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

visibletospiritualvisionandapparentincommunitylifeforincreasingnumbersofpeople beginningaroundtheyear1933. [73] HeemphasizedhisbeliefthatinthefuturehumanitywouldneedtobeabletorecognizetheSpirit ofLoveinallitsgenuineforms,regardlessofwhatnamewouldbeusedtodescribethisbeing.He alsowarnedthatthetraditionalnameoftheChristmightbemisused,andthetrueessenceofthis beingofloveignored.

Judaism

RudolfSteinerwroteandlecturedonJudaismandJewishissuesformuchofhislife.Inthe1880sand

1890s,hetookpartindebatesonanti­semitismandonassimilation.Hewasafierceopponentofanti­

semitismandsupportedtheunconditionalacceptanceandintegrationoftheJewsinEurope. [74] Healso supportedÉmileZola'spositionintheDreyfusaffair. [74] Inhislaterlife,Steinerwasaccusedbythe NazisofbeingaJew,andAdolfHitlercalledanthroposophy"Jewishmethods".Theanthroposophical institutionsinGermanywerebannedduringNaziruleandseveralanthroposophistssenttoconcentration camps. [75]

SteineremphasizedJudaism'scentralimportancetotheconstitutionofthemoderneraintheWestbut suggestedthattoappreciatethespiritualityofthefutureitwouldneedtoovercomeitstendencytoward abstraction.ImportantearlyanthroposophistswhowereJewishincludedtwocentralmembersonthe executiveboardsoftheprecursorstothemodernAnthroposophicalSociety, [76] andKarlKönig,the founderoftheCamphillmovement.MartinBuberandHugoBergmann,whoviewedSteiner'ssocial ideasasasolutiontotheArab–Jewishconflict,werealsoinfluencedbyanthroposophy. [77]

ThereareseveralanthroposophicalorganisationsinIsrael,includingtheanthroposophicalkibbutz

Harduf,foundedbyJesaiahBen­Aharon.Anumberoftheseorganizationsarestrivingtofosterpositive

relationshipsbetweentheArabandJewishpopulations:TheHardufWaldorfschoolincludesboth

JewishandArabfacultyandstudents,andhasextensivecontactwiththesurroundingArab

communities.InHilfnearHaifa,thereisajointArab­JewishWaldorfkindergarten,thefirstjointArab­

JewishkindergarteninIsrael.

ChristianCommunity

TowardstheendofSteiner'slife,agroupoftheologystudents(primarilyLutheran,withsomeRoman Catholicmembers)approachedSteinerforhelpinrevivingChristianity,inparticular"tobridgethe wideninggulfbetweenmodernscienceandtheworldofspirit." [1] TheyapproachedanotableLutheran pastor,FriedrichRittelmeyer,whowasalreadyworkingwithSteiner'sideas,tojointheirefforts.Outof theirco­operativeendeavor,theMovementforReligiousRenewal,nowgenerallyknownasThe ChristianCommunity,wasborn.Steineremphasizedthatheconsideredthismovement,andhisrolein creatingit,tobeindependentofhisanthroposophicalwork, [1] ashewishedanthroposophytobe independentofanyparticularreligionorreligiousdenomination. [4]

Reception

Supporters

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Anthroposophy'ssupportersincludePulitzerPrize­winningandNobelLaureateSaulBellow, [78] Nobel prizewinnerSelmaLagerlöf, [79] AndreiBely, [80][81] JosephBeuys, [82] OwenBarfield,architectWalter BurleyGriffin,WassilyKandinsky, [83][84] AndreiTarkovsky, [85] BrunoWalter, [86] andRightLivelihood AwardwinnersSirGeorgeTrevelyan [87] andIbrahimAbouleish. [88] AlbertSchweitzerwasafriendof Steiner'sandwassupportiveofhisidealsforculturalrenewal. [89]

Scientificbasis

ThoughRudolfSteinerstudiednaturalscienceattheViennaTechnicalUniversityattheundergraduate level,hisdoctoratewasinepistemologyandverylittleofhisworkisdirectlyconcernedwiththe empiricalsciences.Inhismaturework,whenhedidrefertoscienceitwasoftentopresent phenomenologicalorGoetheanscienceasanalternativetowhatheconsideredthematerialisticscience ofhiscontemporaries. [90]

Hisprimaryinterestwasinapplyingthemethodologyofsciencetorealmsofinnerexperienceandthe spiritualworlds(Steiner'sappreciationthattheessenceofscienceisitsmethodofinquiryisunusual amongesotericists [90] ),andSteinercalledanthroposophyGeisteswissenschaft(lit.:Scienceofthemind, orculturalorspiritualscience),atermgenerallyusedinGermantorefertothehumanitiesandsocial sciences; [91] infact,theterm"science"isusedmorebroadlyinEuropeasageneraltermthatrefersto anyexactknowledge. [92]

[Anthroposophy's]methodologyistoemployascientificwayofthinking,buttoapplythis

methodology,whichnormallyexcludesourinnerexperiencefromconsideration,insteadto

thehumanbeingproper.

[61]

Whetherthisisasufficientbasisforanthroposophytobeconsideredaspiritualsciencehasbeena matterofcontroversy. [4][90] AsFredaEastonexplainedinherstudyofWaldorfschools,"Whetherone acceptsanthroposophyasasciencedependsuponwhetheroneacceptsSteiner'sinterpretationofa sciencethatextendstheconsciousnessandcapacityofhumanbeingstoexperiencetheirinnerspiritual world." [93] SvenOveHanssonhasdisputedanthroposophy'sclaimtoascientificbasis,statingthatits ideasarenotempiricallyderivedandneitherreproduciblenortestable. [94]

CarloWillmannpointsoutthatas,onitsownterms,anthroposophicalmethodologyoffersnopossibility ofbeingfalsifiedexceptthroughitsownproceduresofspiritualinvestigation,nointersubjective validationispossiblebyconventionalscientificmethods;itthuscannotstanduptopositivisticscience's criticism. [4] PeterSchneidercallssuchobjectionsuntenableonthegroundsthatifanon­sensory,non­ physicalrealmexists,thenaccordingtoSteinertheexperiencesofpurethinkingpossiblewithinthe normalrealmofconsciousnesswouldalreadybeexperiencesofthat,anditwouldbeimpossibleto excludethepossibilityofempiricallygroundedexperiencesofothersupersensorycontent. [6]

OlavHammersuggeststhatanthroposophycarriesscientism"tolengthsunparalleledinanyother Esotericposition"duetoitsdependenceuponclaimsofclairvoyantexperience,itssubsumingnatural scienceunder"spiritualscience",anditsdevelopmentofwhatHammercalls"fringe"sciencessuchas anthroposophicalmedicineandbiodynamicagriculturejustifiedpartlyonthebasisoftheethicaland ecologicalvaluestheypromote,ratherthanpurelyonascientificbasis. [90]

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ThoughSteinersawthatspiritualvisionitselfisdifficultforotherstoachieve,herecommendedopen­ mindedlyexploringandrationallytestingtheresultsofsuchresearch;healsourgedotherstofollowa spiritualtrainingthatwouldallowthemdirectlytoapplythemethodsheusedeventuallytoachieve comparableresults. [6] SomeresultsofSteiner'sresearchhavebeeninvestigatedandsupportedby scientistsworkingtofurtherandextendscientificobservationindirectionssuggestedbyan anthroposophicalapproach. [95]

AnthonyStorrstatedaboutRudolfSteiner'sAnthroposophy:"Hisbeliefsystemissoeccentric,so unsupportedbyevidence,somanifestlybizarre,thatrationalskepticsareboundtoconsiderit delusional But,whereasEinstein'swayofperceivingtheworldbythoughtbecameconfirmedby experimentandmathematicalproof,Steiner'sremainedintenselysubjectiveandinsusceptibleof objectiveconfirmation." [96]

Religiousnature

Asanexplicitlyspiritualmovement,anthroposophyhassometimesbeencalledareligious philosophy. [97] In2005,aCaliforniafederalcourtruledthatagroupallegingthatanthroposophyisa religionforEstablishmentClausepurposesdidnotprovideanylegallyadmissibleevidenceinsupportof

thisview;thecaseisunderappeal.In2000,aFrenchcourtruledthatagovernmentminister's

descriptionofanthroposophyasacultwasdefamatory. [98]

Statementsonrace

Anthroposophicalideashavebeencriticizedfrombothsidesintheracedebate:

Fromthemid­1930son,NationalSocialistideologuesattackedtheanthroposophicalworld­view

asbeingopposedtoNaziracistandnationalisticprinciples;anthroposophyconsidered"Blood, RaceandFolk"asprimitiveinstinctsthatmustbeovercome. [99][100]

"Anaiveversionoftheevolutionofconsciousness,atheoryfoundationaltobothSteiner's anthroposophyandWaldorfeducation,sometimesplacesoneracebelowanotherinoneoranother dimensionofdevelopment". [101]

TheAnthroposophicalSocietyinAmericahasstated:

WeexplicitlyrejectanyracialtheorythatmaybeconstruedtobepartofRudolfSteiner's writings.TheAnthroposophicalSocietyinAmericaisanopen,publicsocietyanditrejects anypurportedspiritualorscientifictheoryonthebasisofwhichtheallegedsuperiorityof oneraceisjustifiedattheexpenseofanotherrace. [102]

Seealso

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

References

1.RobertMcDermott,TheEssentialSteiner,ISBN0­06­065345­0,pp.3–11,392–5

2."Anthroposophy"(http://library.eb.com/eb/article­9007798),EncyclopædiaBritannicaonline,accessed

10/09/07

3.ChristianClement(ed.),RudolfSteiner:SchriftenüberMystik,MysterienwesenundReligionsgeschichte.

Frommann­holzboogVerlag,Stuttgart­BadCannstatt,2013.ISBN978­3­7728­2635­1.p.xlii

4.CarloWillmann,Waldorfpädagogik:TheologischeundreligionspädagogischeBefunde,ISBN3­412­16700­2,

Chap.1

Prospects:thequarterlyreviewofcomparativeeducation(Paris,UNESCO:InternationalBureauof

Education),vol.XXIV,no.3/4,1994,p.555–572.

6.PeterSchneider,EinführungindieWaldorfpädogogik,ISBN3­608­93006­X

7.Ullrich,Heiner(2010).RudolfSteiner:LebenundLehre.Munich:C.H.Beck.p.9.

9.Flynn,Tom;Dawkins,Richard(2007).TheNewEncyclopediaofUnbelief.PrometheusBooks,Publishers.

pp.75–.ISBN9781615922802.Retrieved21June2015.

10.Ruse,Michael(2013­09­25).TheGaiaHypothesis:ScienceonaPaganPlanet.UniversityofChicagoPress.

pp.128–.ISBN9780226060392.Retrieved21June2015.

11.Ofthese,55Lodges–about2,500people–weretosecedewithSteinertoformhisnewAnthroposophical

p.43

12.GaryLachman,RudolfSteiner,NewYork:Tarcher/PenguinISBN978­1­58542­543­3

13.Ahern,Geoffrey.(1984):SunatMidnight:theRudolfSteinermovementandtheWesternesoterictradition

14.especiallyHowtoKnowHigherWorldsandAnOutlineofEsotericScience

15.IngeHansen­SchabergandBrunoSchonig(eds.),Waldorf­Pädogogik,ISBN3­8340­0042­6

16.HelmutZander,AnthroposophieinDeutschland,ISBN978­3­525­55452­4.P.250

17."Goetheanum".Goetheanum.Retrieved2013­12­31.

GermanRadiointerview8August2007

19.RobertZimmermannGeschichtederAesthetikalsphilosophischeWissenschaft.Vienna,1858.

AnthroposophieimUmriss­EntwurfeinesSystemsidealerWeltansichtaufrealistischerGrundlage.(Vienna,

20.PeterSchneider,EinführungindieWaldorfpädogogik,pp.20­1;SchneiderquotesherefromSteiner's

dissertation,TruthandKnowledge

21.RobertA.McDermott,"RudolfSteinerandAnthroposophy",inFaivreandNeedleman,ModernEsoteric

Spirituality,ISBN0­8245­1444­0,p.299–301;288ff

22.RudolfSteiner,Theosophy,ISBN0­85440­269­1

23.RudolfSteiner,AnOutlineofEsotericScience,ISBN0­88010­409­0

25.GeorgeTrevelyanOperationRedemption1981,pp.117­118

26.Steiner,ManasSymphonyoftheCreativeWordandOccultScience

27.JohnWatermanEvolutionandTheImageofManinA.C.HarwoodThefaithfulthinker:Centenaryessayson

theworkandthoughtofRudolfSteinerHodderandStoughton,1961,p.45

2014attheWaybackMachine

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

(FreundederErziehungskunst),isoneofthe26non­governmentalorganizationsworldwidetomaintain

"Prospects:thequarterlyreviewofcomparativeeducation,UNESCO:InternationalBureauofeducation,vol

XXIV,no.3/4,1994,pp.8–92000

34.Apples:Botany,ProductionandUsesByDavidCurtisFerree,IanJ.Warrington,ISBN0­85199­357­5,p.

553

36.Steiner,GA27,Chapter1

2013­12­31.

38.Kienle,KieneandAlbonico,AnthroposophicMedicine,Schattauer2006ISBN3­7945­2495­0,Chapter3and

6

39."NationalCancerInstitutewebsite".Cancer.gov.Retrieved2013­12­31.

40."MistletoeExtracts(PDQ®)­NationalCancerInstitute".Cancer.gov.2002­12­21.Retrieved2013­12­31.

42.KarlKönigTheChildwithSpecialNeeds:LettersandEssaysonCurativeEducationPublisher:FlorisBooks

43.ThomasJ.Weihs‘’ChildreninNeedofSpecialCare’’ACondorbookHumanHorizonsseries.Editors:

44.Sharp,Dennis,RudolfSteinerandtheWaytoaNewStyleinArchitecture,ArchitecturalAssociationJournal,

June1963

45.RaabandKlingborg,Waldorfschulebaut,VerlagFreiesGeistesleben,2002.

46.Sokolina,Anna,ed.,co­author,ArchitectureandAnthroposophy.(ArkhitekturaiAntroposofiia.bilingualed.)

4.

47.Heathcote,Edwin(2011­09­28)."ImreMakovecz(1935–2011)".Bdonline.co.uk.Retrieved2013­12­31.

48.Raab,KlingborgandFånt,EloquentConcrete,London:1979.

49.Pearson,David,NewOrganicArchitecture.UniversityofCaliforniaPress,2001,ISBN978­1­85675­102­5

50.MeyerenvanSchooten,Architect,Urbika,archivedfromtheoriginalon14September2010,retrieved

2010­12­08

51.ThomasPoplawskiEurythmy,p.67,SteinerBooks,1998ISBN978­0­88010­459­3

53."GemeinschaftsbankfürLeihenundSchenken".Gls.de.Retrieved2013­12­31.

54."EarthTimes".EarthTimes.Retrieved2013­12­31.

UniversityofToronto,AcademicElectronicJournalinSlavicStudies.

56.Steiner,AnthroposophicalLeadingThoughts(1924)

PublishingCompanyISBN9781162592510

58.Lindenberg,p.97

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

59."TheInnerDevelopmentofMan".Fremont,Michigan:Rsarchive.org.1904­12­15.Retrieved2013­12­31.

60.CarloWillmann,Waldorfpädagogik,ISBN3­412­16700­2,pp.10–13

61.Stein,W.J.,DiemodernenaturwissenschaftlicheVorstellungsartunddieWeltanschauungGoethes,wiesie

RudolfSteinervertritt,reprintedinMeyer,Thomas,W.J.Stein/RudolfSteiner,pp.267–75;256–7.

62.EllenPifer,"SaulBellowAgainsttheGrain",UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1990;seealsoSteiner's

doctoralthesis,TruthandScience

63.RichardTarnas,ThePassionoftheWesternMind,ISBN0­7126­7332­6

64.DorisT.Myers,"C.S.LewisinContext."KentStateUniversityPress,1994.

65.Hans­JürgenBader,LorenzoRavagli,RudolfSteineralsaktiverGegnerdesAntisemitismus,BundderFreien

Waldorfschulen,2005

66.Paddock,F.andSpiegler,M.,JudaismandAnthroposophy,2003

67.ChristophLindenberg,RudolfSteiner,Rowohlt1992,ISBN3­499­50500­2,pp.77ff

69.RudolfSteiner,AnthroposophyandScience,lectureofMarch16,1921

72.Steiner,Rudolf(December16,1908)."AChapterofOccultHistory".

75.LorenzoRavagli,UnterHammerundHakenkreuz:Dervölkisch­nationalsozialistischeKampfgegendie

Anthroposophie,VerlagFreiesGeistesleben,ISBN3­7725­1915­6

77.Paddock&Spiegler2005

78.RobertFulford,"Bellow:thenovelistashomespunphilosopher",TheNationalPost,October23,2000

79.WalterKugler,FeindbildSteiner,2001,P.61

80.Liukkonen,Petri."AndreyBely".BooksandWriters(kirjasto.sci.fi).Finland:KuusankoskiPublicLibrary.

Archivedfromtheoriginalon10February2015.

81.Elsworth,J.D.(1983)."AndrejBely:ACriticalStudyoftheNovels".Cambridge.

82.JohnF.Moffitt,"OccultisminAvant­GardeArt:TheCaseofJosephBeuys",ArtJournal,Vol.50,No.1,

(Spring,1991),pp.96–98

83.PegWeiss,"KandinskyandOldRussia:TheArtistasEthnographerandShaman",TheSlavicandEast

EuropeanJournal,Vol.41,No.2(Summer,1997),pp.371–373

84.DavidHier."ArtsAblaze,''Kandinsky:ThePathtoAbstraction1908–1922''".Gbh­Chs:Artsablaze.co.uk.

Retrieved2013­12­31.

2013­12­31.

86.BrunoWalter,"MeinWegzurAnthroposophie".In:DasGoetheanum52(1961),418–2

GeorgeTrevelyan:thoughtsandwritings

88.IbrahimAbouleish,Sekem:ASustainableCommunityintheEgyptianDesert,ISBN0­86315­532­4

89.WolfgangVögele,DerAndereRudolfSteinerDornach,Switzerland:PforteVerlag,2005

90.OlavHammer,ClaimingKnowledge:StrategiesofEpistemologyfromTheosophytotheNewAge,Brill2004,

pp.243,329,204,225–8

91."Philolexentry".Philolex.de.Retrieved2013­12­31.

92.JacquesBarzun,Science:TheGloriousEntertainment,HarperandRow1964.P.191

93.FredaEaston,TheWaldorfImpulseinEducation,ColumbiaUniversitydissertation1995

94.SvenOveHansson,IsAnthroposophyScience?,Professor,PhilosophyUnitoftheSwedishRoyalInstituteof

Technology,inConceptusXXV(1991),No.64,pp.37–49.

95.GeneticsandtheManipulationofLife,TheForgottenFactorofContext,bybiologistCraigHoldrege;The

WholenessofNature,Goethe'sWaytowardAScienceofConsciousParticipationinNature,byphysicist HenriBortoft;DevelopmentalDynamicsinHumansandOtherPrimates,bytheoreticalchemistJosVerhulst.

96.Storr,Anthony(1997)[1996]."IV.RudolfSteiner".FeetofClay:Saints,Sinners,andMadmen:AStudyof

Gurus.NewYork:FreePressPaperbacks,Simon&Schuster.pp.69–70.ISBN0­684­83495­2.

7/2/2016

Anthroposophy­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

98."GuyardGuiltyofDefamation".Cesnur.2000­03­23.Archivedfromtheoriginalon11December2006.

Retrieved2006­11­13.

99.JakobWilhelmHauer,7.Februar1935.BADR4901–3285.

100.ReportoftheSD­HauptamtesBerlin:"Anthroposophy”,May1936,BADZ/BI904.

1996,pp.119–140

Externallinks

MB)

Lookup spiritual in Wiktionary,thefree dictionary.

Lookupspiritualin

Wiktionary,thefree

dictionary.

WikimediaCommonshas mediarelatedto Anthroposophy .

WikimediaCommonshas

mediarelatedto

Societies

Lookup anthroposophy in Wiktionary,thefree dictionary.

Lookupanthroposophyin

Wiktionary,thefree

dictionary.

EsotericChristianity Occult Esotericschoolsofthought RudolfSteiner Spirituality Philosophicalmovements

Thispagewaslastmodifiedon1February2016,at20:05.

TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttribution­ShareAlikeLicense;additionalterms

mayapply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipedia®isa

registeredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anon­profitorganization.