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SIX BAR SLIDER CRANK POWER

HAMMER MECHANISM
ABSTRACT

Until now we have confined ourselves to study of hand tools used in smithy work. They certainly
perform very well so far as the hand- forging is concerned, but their use for satisfactory
production is limited to small forging only. It would not be difficult to understand that the
intensity of blows, however great one may try to achieve through hand hammering, will not be
sufficient enough to effect the proper plastic flow in a medium sized or heavy forging. For this, a
power hammer is usually employed. The hammer has two cylinders compressor cylinder and ram
cylinder. Piston of the compressor cylinder compresses air, and delivers it to the ram cylinder
where it actuates the piston which is integral with ram delivering the blows to the work. The
reciprocation of the compression piston is obtained from a crank drive which is powered from a
motor through a reducing gear. The air distribution device between the two cylinders consists of
rotary valves with ports through which air passes into the ram cylinder, below and above the
piston, alternately. This drives the ram up and down respectively.

INTRODUCTION
Concept of degrees of freedom
In the design or analysis of a mechanism, one of the most important concern is the number of
degrees of freedom (also called movability) of the mechanism. It is defined as the number of
input parameters (usually pair variables) which must be independently controlled in order to
bring the mechanism into a useful engineering purpose.
Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body in a Plane
The degrees of freedom (DOF) of a rigid body are defined as the number of independent
movements it has. Figure 1.2 shows a rigid body in a plane. To determine the DOF of this body
we must consider how many distinct ways the bar can be moved. In a two dimensional plane
such as this computer screen, there are 3 DOF. The bar can be translated along the x axis,
translated along the y axis, and rotated about its centroid.

Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body in Space


An unrestrained rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom: three translating motions along
the x, y and z axes and three rotary motions around the x, y and z axes respectively in the as
shown in the fig 1.3
Kutzbach Criterion Equation
Consider a plane mechanism with number of links. Since in a mechanism, one of the links is
to be fixed, therefore the number of movable links will be ( -1) and thus the total number of
degrees of freedom will be 3(n-1) before they are connected to any other link. In general, a
mechanism with number of links connected by j number of binary joints or lower pairs (i.e.

single degree of freedom pairs) and h number of higher pairs (i.e. two degree of freedom pairs),
then the number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by
n = 3(-1)-2j-h
This equation is called Kutzbach criterion for the movability of a mechanism having plane
motion.
If there are no two degree of freedom pairs (i.e. higher pairs), then h= 0,
substituting h= 0 in equation 1, we have
n=3(-1)-2j
Four bar chain mechanism
The simplest and the basic kinematic chain is a four bar chain or quadratic cycle chain, as shown
in below fig. It consists of four links p, q, l and s, each of them forms a turning pair. The four
links may be of different lengths. According to Grasshofs law for a four bar mechanism, the sum
of the shortest and longest link lengths should not be greater than the sum of the remaining two
link lengths if there is to be continuous relative motion between the two links.

According to Grasshofs law for a four bar mechanism, the sum of the shortest and longest link
lengths should not be greater than the sum of the remaining two link lengths if there is to be
continuous relative motion between the two links. A very important consideration in designing a
mechanism is to ensure that the input crank makes a complete revolution relative to the other
links. The mechanism in which no link makes a complete revolution will not be useful. In a four
bar chain, one of the links, in particular the shortest link, will make a complete revolution
relative to the other three links, if it satisfies the Grasshofs law. Such a link is known as crank or
driver.

WORKING PRINCIPLE
The Crank (link 1) rotates at a fixed axis at F it is joined to link 3. As the link 1 is rotated the
motion is transmitted to the link 3 which is connected at point E. The motion is further
transmitted to the connecting rod which is joined with the link 3 at D. Finally the connecting rod
transmits the motion to the Ram Die (link 2) which reciprocates at a fixed path G. The
Connecting rod (link 4) and Ram Die (link 2) are connected at C, Where a slot is provided for
getting a straight line motion of the ram Die. The crank (link 5) is provided for oscillating the
connecting rod at a fixed path.

Construction
As shown in above diagram it consists of 5 links, and one fixed link. The five links are crank
(link 1), link 3. Connecting rod (link 4), Crank (link 5) and Ram die (link 2).Column can be
considered as a fixed link. The link 1 rotates about a turning pair F, it is rotated by a pin joint
axis, the link 3 and link 1 is connected by a turning pair E. The connecting rod (link 4) and link 3
are connected by a turning pair D. The crank (link 5) is fixed at a turning pair A and oscillates
about the pin joint axis. Crank (link 5) and connecting rod (link 4) are connected by a turning
pair B. Ram Die (link 2) and connecting rod (link 4) are connected by a sliding pair C. Ram Die
and composite bush are connected by a sliding pair G. Crank (link1) is joined at turning pair F to
the column and also crank (link 5) is joined at turning pair A. Column is welded to the base, vice
(not shown in above fig) is fitted to the column for holding the work piece. All the links,
Column, Base and Vice are made up of Mild Steel, they are rigid enough to absorb the vibrations
and shocks produced during work. Composite bush is made up of two materials outer one is of
Mild Steel and the liner is made up of Gun Metal to prevent from wear, tear and corrosion
resistance. A handle is provided at point E, with the help of the handle the crank (link 1) is
rotated.

ADVANTAGES

Ease of operation.
Provide better and comfortable performance

APPLICATIONS

Forging
Forging refers as the process of plastically deforming metals or alloys to a
specific shape by a compressive force exerted by some external agency like hammer,

Press, rolls, or by an upsetting machine of some kind.Four wheeler vehicles etc.

A number of operations are used to change the shape of the raw material to the
finished form. The typical forging operations are:
1. Upsetting.
2. Fullering.
3. Drawing down.
4. Setting down.
5. Punching.
6. Bending.
7. Welding.
8. Cutting.

Press
Press working involves production of final component from sheet metal in
cold condition. The machine which is used to apply the required pressure of force in a

short duration is called press. The press consists of a frame, supporting bed and ram.
The ram is equipped with special punches and moves towards and into the die block
which is attached to a rigid body. The punch and die block assemble are generally
referred to as a die set or simply die.
Classification of Presses
Presses are classified in various ways as listed below.
(i) Mechanical press.
(ii) Hydraulic press.