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Basicmeasuringdevicesexplainedthroughcutesimple

schemes

Basic measuring devices explained through cute simple schemes

Electricalparameters//
Inthistechnicalarticle,youshouldgainabasicunderstandingofthedesirablepropertiesof
practicaldevicesforthemeasurementofelectricalparameters.Themeasurementsmostoften
ofinterestarethoseofcurrent,voltage,power,andresistance.
Inanalogywiththemodelswehavejustdevelopedtodescribethenonidealbehaviorofvoltage
andcurrentsources,wesimilarlypresentcircuitmodelsforpracticalmeasuringdevices
(instruments)suitablefordescribingthenonidealpropertiesofthesedevices.
TheOhmmeter
TheAmmeter
TheVoltmeter
TheWattmeter

TheOhmmeter

TheOhmmeter
Theohmmeterisadevicethatwhenconnectedacrossacircuitelement,canmeasurethe
resistanceoftheelement.Figure1depictsthecircuitconnectionofanohmmetertoaresistor.
Oneimportantruleneedstoberemembered:

Theresistanceofanelementcanbemeasuredonlywhentheelementis
disconnectedfromanyothercircuit.

Figure 1 Ohmmeter and


measurement of resistance

GobacktoMeasuringDevices

TheAmmeter
Theammeterisadevicethatwhenconnectedinserieswithacircuitelement,canmeasure
thecurrentflowingthroughtheelement.Figure2illustratesthisidea.
FromFigure2,tworequirementsareevidentforobtainingacorrectmeasurementof
current:
1. Theammetermustbeplacedinserieswiththeelementwhosecurrentistobemeasured
(e.g.,resistorR2)
2. Theammetershouldnotrestricttheflowofcurrent(i.e.,causeavoltagedrop),orelseitwill
notbemeasuringthetruecurrentflowinginthecircuit.Anidealammeterhaszero
internalresistance.

Figure 2 Measurement of current

GobacktoMeasuringDevices

TheVoltmeter
Thevoltmeterisadevicethatcanmeasurethevoltageacrossacircuitelement.Sincevoltage
isthedifferenceinpotentialbetweentwopointsinacircuit,thevoltmeterneedstobeconnected
acrosstheelementwhosevoltagewewishtomeasure.
Avoltmetermustalsofulfilltworequirements:
1. Thevoltmetermustbeplacedinparallelwiththeelementwhosevoltageitismeasuring.
2. Thevoltmetershoulddrawnocurrentawayfromtheelementwhosevoltageitismeasuring,
orelseitwillnotbemeasuringthetruevoltageacrossthatelement.Thus,anideal
voltmeterhasinfiniteinternalresistance.

Figure 3 Measurement of voltage

Onceagain,thedefinitionsjuststatedfortheidealvoltmeterandammeterneedtobe
augmentedbyconsideringthepracticallimitationsofthedevices.Apracticalammeterwill
contributesomeseriesresistancetothecircuitinwhichitismeasuringcurrent.

Apracticalvoltmeterwillnotactasanidealopencircuit,butwillalwaysdrawsome
currentfromthemeasuredcircuit.

Figure4depictsthecircuitmodelsforthepracticalammeterandvoltmeter.

Figure 4 Models for practical ammeter


and voltmeter

GobacktoMeasuringDevices

TheWattmeter
Alltheconsiderationsthatpertaintopracticalammetersandvoltmeterscanbeappliedtothe
operationofawattmeter,aninstrumentthatprovidesameasurementofthepowerdissipated
byacircuitelement,sincethewattmeterisineffectmadeupofacombinationofavoltmeter
andanammeter.Figure5depictsthetypicalconnectionofawattmeterinthesameseriescircuit
usedintheprecedingparagraphs.
Ineffect,thewattmetermeasuresthecurrentflowingthroughtheloadand,simultaneously,the
voltageacrossitandmultipliesthetwotoprovideareadingofthepowerdissipatedbytheload.

Figure 5 Measurement of power

Theobjectiveofthisarticlewastointroducethebackgroundneededsuccessfullunderstandingof
thefurtheranalysisoflinearresistivecircuits.
GobacktoMeasuringDevices
Reference//TextbookofElectricalTechnologyB.L.Theraja