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Summer Training Report Project File

Under the Guidance of:

Er. Inderjeet Singh
Assistant Professor

Submitted By:
Enrollment No. 10127170026

This is to certify that I have completed the Project titled Study of
Customer Satisfaction at HYUNDAI MOTORS LTD. under the
guidance of Inderjeet Singh in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the award of Degree of Bachelor of Business Administration at
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies, Delhi. This is an
original piece of work & I have not submitted it earlier elsewhere.




Name: Karmvir
Enrollment No.: 10127170026

Automobiles have become an indispensable part of our lives, an extension of The
human body that provides us faster, cheaper and more convenient mobility every
passing day. Behind this betterment go the efforts of those in the industry, in the
form of improvement through technological research. The Indian automotive

component industry is dominated by around 500 players which account for more
than 85% of the production. Hyundai Motor Co. was established as an independent
Company in 1937.This project on Hyundai tells us about the satisfaction level of
consumers with The Hyundai. Firstly Introduction about The Automobile Industry
has been explained in this project. As a joint venture between Group and Hyundai
Motor Corporation, Hyundai Motor Limited (TKM) aims to play a major role in
The development of The automotive industry and The creation of employment
opportunities, not only through its dealer network, but also through ancillary
industries. Hyundai Motor Limited firmly believes that The success of this venture
depends on providing high quality products and services to all valued customers
through The efforts of its team members. Hyundai Motor Limited, along with its
dedicated dealers and suppliers, has adopted The "Growing Together" philosophy
of its parent Company TMC to create long-term business growth. In this way,
Hyundai Motor Limited aims to further contribute to progress in The Indian
automotive industry, realize greater employment opportunities for local citizens,
improve The quality of life of The team members and promote robust economic
activity in India. The next phase looks upon The research carried out for analyzing
The response towards Hyundai. This has been done by conducting a survey.
After conducting the survey it was observed that most of The Hyundai owners
were satisfied with their services and its maintenance. The designing and interiors
are most liked by The customers but few people also want it to be more affordable.

Chapter 1 Introduction about The Industry

Chapter 2 Findings and Analysis

4.1 Findings from Primary Data
Chapter 3 Conclusion
Chapter 4 Recommendations
Annexure I


Annexure II

Product Mix of Hyundai


Introduction about the Industry

The Indian automotive component industry is dominated by around 500 players
which account for more than 85% of the production. The turnover of this industry
has been growing at a mammoth 28.05% per annum from 2002-03 onwards as
illustrated in Fig which clarifies its emergence
as one of India's fastest growing manufacturing sectors. During 1990s, the auto
components market in India used to be dominated by supplies to the aftermarket
with only 35% exports sourced by global Tier 1 OEMs (Original Equipment
Manufacturers). The industry made a sustained shift to the global Tier 1 market
and today, the component manufacturers supply 75% of their exports to global Tier
1 OEMs and the remaining to the aftermarket. This is largely due to the growing
capability of The Indian component suppliers in understanding technical drawings,
conversance with global automotive standards, economically attractive costs
(manufacturing costs are 25%-30% lower than its western counterparts), flexibility
in small batch production and growing information technology application for
design, development and simulation.
Besides The burgeoning demand of auto components from global majors, the
domestic automobile industry has been showing a sparkling growth caused by
increasing customer base and affordable loans. Based on this, the turnover of The
Indian auto component industry is expected to touch US$ 18.7 billion by 2009 and
estimated to reach US$ 40 billion by 2014.

Overview of Indian Automobile Industry

The liberalized policies of The Indian Government paved towards steady evolution
of India as a stable and market driven economy with the real Gross Domestic
Product growth in excess of 8%, foreign exchange reserves crossing The $150

billion mark, growing value of Indian Rupee compared to US dollar and reducing
inflation rate. 100% Foreign Direct Investment, absence of local content
regulation, manufacturing and imports free from licensing & approvals in The
automobile sector
coupled with customs tarifforauto components reducing to 12.5% resulted in
increased number of multinationals establishing Their bases in India and with
export markets looking up, The Indian automobile industry is poised for a
phenomenal growth. The automobile production in the sub-continent has been
growing steadily @ 18.53% per annum from 2002-03 onwards with total vehicle
production standing at a mammoth 1,00,31,296 nos. in 2005-06.

Among The automobiles, 2 wheelers account for 75.77%, cars about 11.09%, 3
wheelers to the tune of 4.33%, tractors about 2.95%, buses & trucks constitute
2.19%, Multi Utility Vehicles (MUVs) to The tune of 1.96% and Light
Commercial Vehicles (LCVs) about 1.71% of The total number of automobiles
produced in the country. Presently, India is the second largest market after China
for two & three wheelers.

In tractors production, India is one of the two largest manufacturers in the world
along with China. The subcontinent stands as the 4th largest producer of trucks in
the world. Coming to The passenger car segment, the country is positioned 11th in
car production in the world. The Indian passenger car
market is far from being saturated leaving ample opportunity for volume growth
since the per capita car penetration per 1000 is only 7 compared to 500 in
Germany. The production of cars in The country has been growing at a mammoth
27.58% per annum from 2002- 03 onwards. In general, cars are broadly classified
as Mini, Compact, Mid-Size, Executive & Premium varieties. There has been a
steady rise in compact car production from 333,000 in 2002-03 to 715,000 in
2005- 06, mid-size cars from 122,000 to 204,000 nos., executive cars from 2000 to
23,000 nos. and premium variety cars from 4000 in 2002-03 to 5000 nos. in 200506. The mini car segment production reduced from 150,000 in 2002-03 to 98,000
nos. in 2005-06. These statistics vividly reveal the increasing capacity of The
Indian customer, thus driving The passenger car demand rapidly up The price
ladder. Analysts speculate car production in The sub-continent to touch 1575,000
in 2009 and 2654,000 by 2014. Cars and MUVs exports rose from 72,000 in 200203 to reach 176,000 nos. in 2005-06 with growth @ 48.155 per annum from 200203 onwards.
Out of The two wheelers produced in India, motorcycles account for 81.59%,
scooters about 13.42% and mopeds to the tune of 4.99% of the total production.
The production statistics which shows The growth of 2wheelers @ 16.58% per
annum from 2002-03 onwards. Out of this, motorcycles have exhibited production
growth @ 19.99% per annum, scooters @ 6.74% per annum & mopeds @ 2.65%
per annum from 2002-03 onwards. Two wheeler production units in India
constitute of Japanese OEMS (Original Equipment Manufacturers) which include
Hero Honda Motors, Honda Motorcycle & scooter India (P) Ltd., Yamaha Motor
India (P) Ltd. & Suzuki Motorcycle India (P) Ltd. and Indian OEMs consisting of

Bajaj Auto Ltd. , T V S M o t o r Company Ltd., LML Ltd., Kinetic Engineering

Ltd., Majestic Auto Ltd., Kinetic Motor Company Ltd. and Royal Enfield of
Eicher Ltd.
Out of the aforementioned, Hero Honda accounts for 39.55%, Bajaj Auto about
26.87%, TVS Motors 17.98%, Honda Motors 7.94%, Yamaha Motors 3.27%,
LML 1.41% and The remaining 2.98% of The total 2 wheelers production in The
country. The exports of two wheelers made a significant growth from a level of
180,000 in 2002-03 to reach 513,000 nos. in 2005-06. The latest estimates put up
production of 2 wheelers to 13.6 million by 2009.
The production of Multi Utility Vehicles (MCVs) has been showing sparkling
growth @ 23.84% per annum, Light Commercial Vehicles (LCVs) @ 35.49% and
Isuzu Motor & Nissan Motor belonging to Hitachi Ltd. Of Japan would begin
manufacturing cars in India.
Tata Motors is setting up its novel small car production facility near Kolkata.
Hyundai plans to make India an export base for small cars. Telecon is investing
about US$ 54 million for production of earth moving vehicles/components at
Kharagpur in India. Also, Honda Motorcycles & scooters have ambitious plan for
making this sub-continent a hub for two wheelers exports. All These forward
towards further increase in demand for auto components.

Auto Components Production Range In India

India is bestowed with excellent infrastructure for production of auto components.
There are various national and multinational companies in the country that have
put up state of art auto component manufacturing facilities. The production range
of auto components in India. For many of the auto components, steel remains the

dominant material due to its versatility providing a wide range of properties

through the choice of appropriate combination of composition and processing.
Along with The above, long term availability of raw materials, good recycling
ability, a relatively favourable price and The large experience based knowledge
favour steel as a choice for use in auto component manufacturing.
The steel requirements in general for engine parts such as fan, pulley, piston pin &
oil fan are met by low carbon steels, medium carbon steels/alloy steels based on
requisite mechanical properties are applied for crankshafts, connecting rods,
rocker arm shafts e t c . While low carbon/low carbon alloy case hardening steels
are u s e d f o r moderately/severely stressed components. Transmission parts such
as input shaft, output shaft, front axle, rear axle, kick down & reverse bands,
pinion shafts, clutch discs & plates, automatic transmission components etc. are
made with medium carbon/alloy steels while The gears are made of low
carbon/low carbon alloy case hardening steels. Suspension and steering parts such
as knuckle ball studs, arm sector shafts, arm parts, pitman & idler arms, struts, tie
rod ends, ball joint studs, center link etc. are either made of medium carbon steel
or alloy steel depending upon The conferred properties, spring steels for
suspension springs while low carbon case hardening steels are applied for
components that require wear resistance. Various low carbon/low carbon alloy
steels are used for rivets, bolts, nuts & other fastener items. Steel required for
chassis components are met with cold forming & wieldable low carbon/micro
alloyed steel sheets/plates while deep drawing & extra deep drawing varieties of
steel sheets are employed for body.
Steels are shaped, formed, heat treated and/or machined into automotive
components fulfilling The specific design criteria requiring critical set of
properties like strength & toughness, fatigue & fracture resistance, wear resistance,
corrosion resistance etc. Technology of machining, fabricating or forming of

engineering components has undergone rapid changes with the advent of

Aided Manufacturing systems and robotics. Consequently, the auto component
manufacturers require the highest degree of consistency in the quality of the steels
both metallurgical and dimensional. Also, the changes in customer expectations
for lighter, more powerful & fuel efficient vehicles with greater degrees of
reliability & safety will continuously drive The steel industry towards
development and manufacturing of steel with closer band of metallurgical
properties, physical properties, leaner alloy compositions, higher strength to
weight ratio etc. at The most competitive prices.
Today, automobile sector accounts for 7% of the total steel consumed in India. The
sparkling growth of the automotive component industry and the automobile
industry in India translates into a tremendous potential and opportunity for
domestic steel producers to cater to the needs of these industries where steel is the
most vital input.
India Emerging as Hub for Auto Components Indian auto component industry is
fast emerging as an attractive OEM & Tier 1 supplier. The auto component exports
from India rose from a mere US$ 0.760 billion in 2002-03 to US$ 1.8 billion in
2005-06 showing growth @ 45.61% per annum from 2002-03 onwards. In 200506, about 36% of the component exports headed for Europe, 26% for America,
16% for Asia, 10% to Africa, 10% to Middle East, 1.5% to Oceania and others
account for 0.5% of the total exports.
Based on The sparkling growth in demand for auto components, global auto
majors and domestic giants have been investing heavily in India because of India's
competitive advantage. Accordingly, the total investment in Indian auto
component industry has been showing a tremendous growth @ 22.12% per annum

from 2002-03 onwards. The investment is expected to rise further with huge
strides. Among various investments pumping in India, auto parts maker Robert
Bosch of Germany will investment US$ 201.4 million in its Indian subsidiaries
over two years with bulk of investment in Motor Industries Co. Ltd.(MICO).
Hitachi Ltd. of Japan is planning to start auto component manufacturing in India
with its O E M s - I s u z u Motor & Nissan Motor to begin manufacturing cars in
India. GKN Driveline, a wing of UK based auto c o m p o n e n t manufacturer
GKN plans to open a new manufacturing facility in India. Dubai based auto
ancillary Parts International Company plans to invest about US$ 3.6 million in
India over three years which includes setting up a manufacturing facility to service
exports to CIS & SAARC countries. Fiat India has been taking
various measures to become a global sourcing hub for components by exporting
components worth US$ 8.3 million last year to its operations in South Africa and
plans to source components worth US$ 200 million. Hyundai already invested
US$ 197 million to supply transmission system, gear boxes, axles, propeller shafts
and aluminium pressure die casting products to global operations. Delphi is
planning to source components such as piston rods, steering system, drive shafts,
catalytic converter, stampings in power train, sheet metal/stampings for chassis
and electrical parts like wiring harnesses & armature motors worth US$ 250
million by 2007. General Motors which presently is sourcing components worth
US$ 6 million from Indian suppliers intends to ship parts worth US$ 1 billion for
its global production units by 2010 and The components include crankshaft
forgings, radiator caps, gear boxes, leaf springs, wiring harnesses & cables. Ford
Motors plan to source components like steering columns, alloy wheels,
crankshafts, exhaust parts, complete engines for IKON model, radiators, springs,
castings, forgings, leaf springs, body panel, horns, dash board assembly, starters,
alternators & door trims from The present level of US$ 150 million to around US$
600 million by 2009 from India. Visteon which had already invested US$ 56

million is sourcing components for exterior, instrument, cluster assembly &

bumpers, AC system, starters, motors, alternators and panel instrument assembly
from India.
Along with this, over 20 OEMs have set up International Purchasing Offices
(IPOs) in India for components and the figure is expected to double by 2010.
Considering the above, Indian auto component manufacturers are substantially
increasing investments in production capacities, establishing partnerships in India
& abroad and have been investing in or acquiring companies overseas. In
continuation with this, global multi nationals are shifting automotive design
centers into India with India evolving as an excellent automotive R & D base for
prototyping, testing, validating and production of auto components caused by
excellent IT skills & exemplary automotive domain knowledge.

With increased role of outsourcing in an integrated global economy and India
being considered as a low cost automotive component producer possess a greater
edge in the global market aspiring to capture 10% share of the global market
which translates into an export target of US$20 billion by 2015. Also, by the
current trends in the domestic automotive industry, the indigenous demand for
auto components is estimated to reach US$20 billion in The next 10 years.

What is marketing?
There are many different definitions of marketing. Consider some of The
following alternative definitions:
The all-embracing function that links The business with customer needs and
wants in order to get The right product to The right place at The right time
The achievement of corporate goals through meeting and exceeding customer
needs better than The competition
The management process that identifies, anticipates and supplies customer
requirements efficiently and profitably
Marketing may be defined as a set of human activities directed at facilitating and
consummating exchanges
Which definition is right? In short, They all are. They all try to embody The
essence of marketing:

Marketing is about meeting The

needs and wants of customers;

Marketing is a business-wide function it is not something that operates alone





Marketing is about understanding customers and finding ways to provide

products or services which customers demand
To help put things into context, you may find it helpful to often refer to The
following diagram which summarises The key elements of marketing and Their


It is a fundamental idea of marketing that organisations survive and prosper
through meeting The needs and wants of customers. This important perspective is
commonly known as The marketing concept.
The marketing concept is about matching a Company's capabilities with customer
wants. This matching process takes place in what is called The marketing
Businesses do not undertake marketing activities alone. They face threats from
competitors, and changes in The political, economic, social and technological
environment. All These factors have to be taken into account as a business tries to
match its capabilities with The needs and wants of its target customers.
An organisation that adopts The marketing concept accepts The needs of potential
customers as The basis for its operations. Success is dependent on satisfying
customer needs.
What are customer needs and wants?
A need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy.
People have basic needs for food, shelter, affection, esteem and self-development.
Many of These needs are created from human biology and The nature of social
relationships. Customer needs are, Therefore, very broad.
Customer needs are broad, customer wants are usually quite narrow.
A want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy The underlying need.
Consider this example:

Consumers need to eat when they are hungry. What they want to eat and in what
kind of environment will vary enormously. For some, eating at McDonalds
satisfies the need to meet hunger. For others a microwave ready-meal meets the
need. Some consumers are never satisfied unless Their food comes served with a
bottle of fine Chardonnay.
Consumer wants are shaped by social and cultural forces, The media and
marketing activities of businesses.
This leads onto another important concept - that of customer demand:
Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and
willingness to pay for it.
For example, many consumers around the globe want a Mercedes. But relatively
few are able and willing to buy one.
Businesses therefore have not only to make products that consumers want, but
They also have to make Them affordable to a sufficient number to create profitable
Businesses do not create customer needs or The social status in which customer
needs are influenced. It is not McDonalds that makes people hungry. However,
businesses do try to influence demand by designing products and services that are
Are available
Businesses also try to communicate The relevant features of Their products
through advertising and other marketing promotion.

Research Methodology
Research can be defined to be search for knowledge or any systematic
investigation to establish facts. The primary purpose for applied research is
discovering interpreting and The development of methods and systems for The
advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our
world and The universe.
These classifications are made according to the objective of the research. In some
cases the research will fall into one of these categories, but in other cases different
phases of the same research project will fall into different categories.
Exploratory research has the goal of formulating problems more precisely,
clarifying concepts,

gathering explanations,




impractical ideas, and forming hypotheses. Exploratory research can be performed

using a literature search, surveying certain people about their experiences, focus
groups, and case studies. When surveying people, exploratory research studies
would not try to acquire a representative sample, but rather, seek to interview
those who are knowledgeable and who might be able to provide insight concerning
the relationship among variables. Case studies can include contrasting situations or
benchmarking against an organization known for its excellence. Exploratory
research may develop hypotheses, but it does not seek to test them. Exploratory
research is characterized by its flexibility.

Descriptive research is more rigid than exploratory research and seeks to

describe users of a product, determine the proportion of the population that uses a
product, or predict future demand for a product. As opposed to exploratory
research, descriptive research should define questions, people surveyed, and the
method of analysis prior to beginning data collection. In other words, the who,
what, where, when, why, and how aspects of the research should be defined. Such
preparation allows one the opportunity to make any required changes before the
costly process of data collection has begun.
There are two basic types of descriptive research: longitudinal studies and crosssectional studies. Longitudinal studies are time series analyses that make repeated
measurements of the same individuals, thus allowing one to monitor behavior such








representative since many people may refuse to participate because of the

commitment required. Cross-sectional studies sample the population to make
measurements at a specific point in time. A special type of cross-sectional analysis
is a cohort analysis, which tracks an aggregate of individuals who experience the
same event within the same time interval over time. Cohort analyses are useful for
long-term forecasting of product demand.

Findings and Analysis

Age Group


Upto 25 Years


26-35 Years


36-45 years




60 and above




The maximum buyers of Hyundai cars as per the survey shows that the customers
from the age group of 25-35 and 36-45.The people from age group below 25 and
above 60 are less buyers of the vehicle



22% customers thought that the car features warranty and service schedule was
excellently explained while 8% customers with dissatisfied. 52% considered them
good while 15% rated them as average.



Convenient place.
Change of genuine spare parts.
Large space
Quality service.
Better after sales service.
Attending complaints promptly.
Maintaining customer relationship.

More sales promotional activities.

Thin mechanic force
Weak competitive strategies.
Lack of latest technology
High maintenance cost.
Delay in service

Established brand name.
Increased purchasing power of Indian Consumer.
Growing demand
Launch of new products like i-30 in the pipeline.

Increased competition.
Loss in market share.
Lack of latest market information.


From the findings and analysis it is clear that Hyundai Car is highly preferred
when compared to the other brands of car in the same segment.
With the analysis through the survey conducted for a period of 2 months in Delhi
on the consumer satisfaction of Mgf Hyundai Car Dealer, the findings and analysis
shows that 80% of the consumers are happy with the dealer and also sales service
and rest 20% of them says that they are dissatisfied.
Since each customer is like an asset for an organization the company should try to
improve in the area of dissatisfaction.
We know that getting new customer is double the cost of retaining the old
customer so the company should focus on retaining the old customers whom a in
the future purchase the product or recommend others to purchase the product.
Thus they help directly or indirectly for the product sale.
Change is the only think to retain and attract the customers so the company should
identify the needs and dry to fulfill them.

1) Books
Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology, 3 rd edition, 1997, Vikas Publishing House
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Kotler, Philip Marketing Management, 13th edition, 2009, Dorling Kindersley



Ltd., South Asia.

Varshney & Gupta; Marketing Management, Sultan Chand & Sons, 2005.
Gupta, S.L., Marketing Research, Excel Books, 2004.
Kotler & Armstrong; Principles of Marketing Management, Prentice hall India,
Aaker; Marketing Research, John Willey & Sons, 2001.

2) Newspapers
Times of India, 04/05/09, New Delhi
Times of India, 06/06/09, New Delhi

Auto Parts

West Edmonton Hyundai offers an extensive inventory of Hyundai auto

parts in Edmonton. Our experienced staff can help you locate hard to find
Hyundai car parts and accessories.

Visit our parts department, located at 10120-178 St, or fill out our
convenient online parts order form. Check our site often for current specials
on auto parts and accessories! Want to personalize your vehicle? Increase it's
performance? Improve fuel-economy? Our parts department is the place to
go! Our professionals have on hand, or will work to find, your needed
Hyundai part.
While you are here, please take a look around the rest of our Edmonton
Hyundai virtual dealership. Be sure to browse our online inventory of new
and used Hyundai cars and keep abreast of the latest models and

What Happens After I Order a Part?

If you know the name or inventory number of your part, please use our
online form to place an order. Otherwise, feel free to call 1-877-838-3611
and a Parts Department expert will determine exactly what you need. Upon
submitting your information we will:

Respond to you promptly via your preferred contact method.

Ask any additional questions required to identify your parts request.
Confirm your order and pricing.

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas
compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is
the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight
by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding
gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod.
In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the
crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid
in the cylinder. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering
and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.

Piston engines
nternal combustion engines

Internal combustion engine piston, sectioned to show the gudgeon pin.

The piston of an internal combustion engine is acted upon by the pressure of
the expanding combustion gases in the combustion chamber space at the top
of the cylinder. This force then acts downwards through the connecting rod
and onto the crankshaft. The connecting rod is attached to the piston by a
swivelling gudgeon pin (US: wrist pin). This pin is mounted within the
piston: unlike the steam engine, there is no piston rod or crosshead.
The pin itself is of hardened steel and is fixed in the piston, but free to move
in the connecting rod. A few designs use a 'fully floating' design that is loose
in both components. All pins must be prevented from moving sideways and
the ends of the pin digging into the cylinder wall, usually by circlips.
Gas sealing is achieved by the use of piston rings. These are a number of
narrow iron rings, fitted loosely into grooves in the piston, just below the
crown. The rings are split at a point in the rim, allowing them to press
against the cylinder with a light spring pressure. Two types of ring are used:
the upper rings have solid faces and provide gas sealing; lower rings have
narrow edges and a U-shaped profile, to act as oil scrapers. There are many
proprietary and detail design features associated with piston rings.
Pistons are cast from aluminium alloys. For better strength and fatigue life,
some racing pistons may be forged instead. Early pistons were of cast iron,
but there were obvious benefits for engine balancing if a lighter alloy could

be used. To produce pistons that could survive engine combustion

temperatures, it was necessary to develop new alloys such as Y alloy and
Hiduminium, specifically for use as pistons.
A few early gas engines[note 1] had double-acting cylinders, but otherwise
effectively all internal combustion engine pistons are single-acting. During
World War II, the US submarine Pompano[note 2] was fitted with a prototype
of the infamously unreliable H.O.R. double-acting two-stroke diesel engine.
Although compact, for use in a cramped submarine, this design of engine
was not repeated.
Media related to Internal combustion engine pistons at Wikimedia

Piston ring

A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a
piston in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine or
steam engine.
The three main functions of piston rings in reciprocating engines are :
1. Sealing the combustion/expansion chamber.
2. Supporting heat transfer from the piston to the cylinder wall.
3. Regulating engine oil consumption.[1]

The gap in the piston ring compresses to a few thousandths of an inch when
inside the cylinder bore

The split piston ring was invented by John Ramsbottom who reported the
benefits to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1854. It soon replaced
the hemp packing hitherto used in steam engines.[2] The use of piston rings at
once dramatically reduced the frictional resistance, the leakage of steam, and
the mass of the piston, leading to significant increases in power and
efficiency and longer maintenance intervals.

Most automotive pistons have three rings: The top two while also controlling
oil are primarily for compression sealing (compression rings); the lower ring
is for controlling the supply of oil to the liner which lubricates the piston
skirt and the compression rings (oil control rings). At least two piston rings
are found on most piston and cylinder combination. Typical compression
ring designs will have an essentially rectangular cross section or a keystone
(right angled trapezoidal) cross section. The periphery will then have either a
barrel profile (top compression rings) or a taper napier form (second
compression rings or scraper rings). There are some taper faced top rings
and on some old engines simple plain faced rings were used.
Oil control rings typically are of three types:
1. single piece cast iron
2. helical spring backed cast iron or steel
3. multipiece steel
The spring backed oil rings and the cast iron oil rings have essentially the
same range of peripheral forms which consist of two scraping lands of
various detailed form. The multipiece oil control rings usually consist of two
rails or segments (these are thin steel rings) with a spacer expander spring
which keeps the two rails apart and provides the radial load.
The piston might be a fairly loose fit in the cylinder. If it were a tight fit, it
would expand as it got hot and might stick tight in the cylinder. If a piston
sticks (seizes) it could cause serious damage to the engine. On the other

hand, if there is too much clearance between the piston and cylinder walls,
much of the pressure from the burning gasoline vapour will leak past the
piston (a condition known as blow-by) and into the crankcase, and the push
on the piston from combustion will be much less effective in delivering

Wear due to ring load on the bore

Piston rings are subject to wear as they move up and down the cylinder bore
due to their own inherent load and due to the gas load acting on the ring. To
minimize this, they are made of wear-resistant materials, such as cast iron
and steel, and are coated or treated to enhance the wear resistance. Twostroke port design is critical to ring life. Newer modern motorcycle
manufacturers have many single function but serrated ports to retain the
ring. Typically, top ring and oil control rings will be coated with chromium,
or Nitrided,[4] possibly plasma sprayed [5] or have a PVD (physical vapour
deposit)[6] ceramic coating. For enhanced scuff resistance and further
improved wear, most modern diesel engines have top rings coated with a
modified chromium coating known as CKS [3] or GDC,[3] a patent coating
from Goetze which has aluminium oxide or diamond particles respectively
included in the chrome surface. The lower oil control ring is designed to
leave a lubricating oil film, a few micrometres thick on the bore, as the
piston descends. Three piece oil rings, i.e. with two rails and one spacer, are
used for four-stroke gasoline engines.


The crankshaft, sometimes abbreviated to crank, is the part of an engine

that translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation. To convert the

reciprocating motion into rotation, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or

"crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the
crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder
It typically connects to a flywheel and to reduce the pulsation characteristic
of the four-stroke cycle, and sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at
the opposite end, to reduce the torsional vibrations often caused along the
length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting
on the torsional elasticity of the metal.

A Roman iron crankshaft of yet unknown purpose dating to the 2nd century
AD was excavated in Augusta Raurica, Switzerland. The 82.5 cm long piece
has fitted to one end a 15 cm long bronze handle, the other handle being lost.

Roman Hierapolis sawmill from the 3rd century AD, the earliest known
machine to combine a crank with a connecting rod.[3]
The earliest evidence, anywhere in the world, for a crank and connecting rod
in a machine appears in the late Roman Hierapolis sawmill from the 3rd
century AD and two Roman stone sawmills at Gerasa, Roman Syria, and
Ephesus, Asia Minor (both 6th century AD).[3] On the pediment of the
Hierapolis mill, a waterwheel fed by a mill race is shown transmitting power
through a gear train to two frame saws, which cut rectangular blocks by way
of some kind of connecting rods and, through mechanical necessity, cranks.
The accompanying inscription is in Greek.[4]
The crank and connecting rod mechanisms of the other two archaeologically
attested sawmills worked without a gear train.[5][6] In ancient literature, we
find a reference to the workings of water-powered marble saws close to
Trier, now Germany, by the late 4th century poet Ausonius;[3] about the same
time, these mill types seem also to be indicated by the Christian saint
Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia, demonstrating a diversified use of waterpower in many parts of the Roman Empire.[7] The three finds push back the
date of the invention of the crank and connecting rod back by a full
millennium;[3] for the first time, all essential components of the much later
steam engine were assembled by one technological culture:

With the crank and connecting rod system, all elements for constructing a
steam engine (invented in 1712) Hero's aeolipile (generating steam
power), the cylinder and piston (in metal force pumps), non-return valves (in
water pumps), gearing (in water mills and clocks) were known in Roman

Cylinder head

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally

abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder
block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber.
This joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head also provides
space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, and that allow
the exhaust to escape. The head can also be a place to mount the valves,
spark plugs, and fuel injectors.
In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are
all contained within the block, and the head is essentially a metal plate
bolted to the top of the block; this simplification avoids the use of moving
parts in the head and eases manufacture and repair, and accounts for the
flathead engine's early success in production automobiles and continued
success in small engines, such as lawnmowers. This design, however,
requires the incoming air to flow through a convoluted path, which limits the
ability of the engine to perform at higher revolutions per minute (rpm),

leading to the adoption of the overhead valve (OHV) head design, and the
subsequent overhead camshaft (OHC) design.

Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the
fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for
exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold. In a
water-cooled engine, the cylinder head also contains integral ducts and
passages for the engines' coolant - usually a mixture of water and antifreeze
- to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, and therefore
the engine in general.
In the overhead valve (OHV) design, the cylinder head contains the poppet
valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or 'ports' for the inlet and
exhaust gases. The operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's
camshaft, which is sited within the cylinder block, and its moment of
operation is transmitted to the valves pushrods, and then rocker arms
mounted on a rocker shaft - the rocker arms and shaft also being located
within the cylinder head.
In the OHC design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and
inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now also
contained within the cylinder head. The camshaft may be seated centrally
between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, and still also utilizing
rocker arms (but without any pushrods), or the camshaft may be seated
directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing 'bucket'

Hyundai i20

Der Hyundai i20 ist ein Kleinwagen der Hyundai Motor Company. Er ist
der Nachfolger des Hyundai Getz und wurde im September 2008 auf dem
Mondial de lAutomobile erstmals vorgestellt.[1] Mit dem neuen Namen reiht
er sich exakt zwischen i10 und i30 ein. Die deutsche Hndlerpremiere fand
am 6. Mrz 2009 statt.
Seit Mai 2010 werden jhrlich ca. 80.000 Exemplare in der Trkei gefertigt.

Der i20 war anfang nur als fnftriges Steilheck erhltlich. Im April 2009
wurde der Dreitrer eingefhrt, der 750 weniger kostet.
Die Auenabmessung dieser beiden Varianten unterscheiden sich mit einer
Lnge von 3,94 m und einer Breite von 1,71 m nicht. Der Radstand betrgt
klassenbliche 2,53 m, wodurch der i20 durch relativ kurze berhnge vorn
(785 mm) und hinten (630 mm) auffllt. Das Kofferraumvolumen von Dreiund Fnftrer betrgt 295 Liter. Der Kofferraum lsst durch Umklappen der
60:40 geteilten Rcksitzbank auf 1060 Liter erweitern.
Dank guter Fugngersicherhei
t und serienmigem ESP hat der i20 im neuesten Euro NCAP-Crashtest die
Bestwertung von fnf Sternenerreicht

Ausstattung fr Deutschland
Fr den i20 stehen drei Ausstattungslinien zur Auswahl: Classic, Comfort
und Style
Die Grundausstattung Classic ist dem Einstiegsbenziner vorbehalten.
Stattdessen entfllt fr den kleinsten Benziner die Topausstattung Style. Wer
zu einem 1,6 Liter groen Motor greifen mchte, ob nun Diesel oder
Benziner, muss die Ausstattungsvariante Style whlen. Dies erklrt den
teilweise beachtlichen Preissprung zwischen den einzelnen Motoren. Fr
jede Motorisierung sind daher nur ein oder zwei Ausstattungslinien whlbar.
Der Classic zeichnet sich durch unlackierte Trgriffe und Auenspiegel aus.
Als einziges Modell steht er auf 14"-Stahlrdern der Reifendimension
175/70 R14. Fr alle anderen Modelle sind 15"-Rder (Stahlfelgen fr
Comfort, Alufelgen fr Style) auf 185/60 R15 groen Reifen Serienstandard
in Deutschland.
Der Style verfgt serienmig ber das Colorpaket, welches farbige
Sitzbezge (rot oder blau abgesetzt) und Metallic- bzw. MineraleffektLackierung beinhaltet. Nur fr ihn ist eine Klimaautomatik verfgbar.
uerlich hebt er sich durch eine Chromleiste im Khlergrill von den
anderen Varianten ab. Im Interieur wurde silbernes Alu-Zierrat an Stelle von
schwarzem Kunststoff verbaut.

Zu Beginn standen fr den i20 drei Reihenvierzylinder-Ottomotoren
zwischen 57 kW (78 PS) und 93 kW (126 PS) und ein ReihenvierzylinderDieselmotor mit 85 kW (116 PS) zur Auswahl. Der 1,2 Liter groe und
82 kg leichte 'Kappa'-Motor ist eine komplette Neuentwicklung und soll im
i20 5,2 Liter verbrauchen. Die Verbruche der beiden greren 'Gamma'Benziner mit CVVT-Ventilsteuerung fallen mit 6,0 Liter (1.4) bzw. 6,1 Liter
Super (1.6) hher aus. Der sparsamste i20 ist der 1.6 CRDi mit 4,4 Litern
Verbrauch auf 100 km.


Many high performance crankshafts are formed by the forging process, in

which a billet of suitable size is heated to the appropriate forging
temperature, typically in the range of 1950 - 2250F, and then successively
pounded or pressed into the desired shape by squeezing the billet between
pairs of dies under very high pressure. These die sets have the concave
negative form of the desired external shape. Complex shapes and / or
extreme deformations often require more than one set of dies to accomplish
the shaping.
Originally, two-plane V8 cranks were forged in a single plane, then the
number two and four main journals were reheated and twisted 90 to move
crankpins number two and three into a perpendicular plane. Later
developments in forging technology allowed the forging of a 2-plane "nontwist" crank directly (Figure 3).
Crankshafts at the upper end of the motorsport spectrum are manufactured
from billet. Billet crankshafts are fully machined from a round bar ("billet")
of the selected material (Figure 4). This method of manufacture provides
extreme flexibility of design and allows rapid alterations to a design in
search of optimal performance characteristics. In addition to the fullymachined surfaces, the billet process makes it much easier to locate the
counterweights and journal webs exactly where the designer wants them to
be. This process involves demanding machining operations, especially with
regard to counterweight shaping and undercutting, rifle-drilling main and
rod journals, and drilling lubrication passages. The availability of multi-axis,

high-speed, high precision CNC machining equipment has made the carvedfrom-billet method quite cost-effective, and, together with exacting 3D-CAD
and FEA design methodologies, has enabled the manufacture of extremely
precise crankshafts which often require very little in the way of subsequent
massaging for balance purposes. There is an old argument that a forged
crank is superior to a billet crank because of the allegedly uninterrupted
grain flow that can be obtained in the forging process. That might be true of
some components, but with respect to crankshafts, the argument fails
because of the large dislocations in the material that are necessary to move
the crankpin and counterweight material from the center of the forging blank
to the outer extremes of the part. The resulting grain structure in the typical
V8 crank forging exhibits similar fractured grain properties to that of a
machined billet. More than one crankshaft manufacturer has told me that
there is no way that a forging from the commonly used steel alloy SAE-4340
(AMS-6414) would survive in one of today's Cup engines.
Some years ago, there was an effort at Cosworth to build a Formula One
crankshaft by welding together various sections, which comprised the
journals, webs and counterweights. The purported intent was to be better
able to create exactly the shape and section of the various components,
thereby reducing MMOI while achieving the same or better stiffness. While
no one was willing to divulge details about the effort, it is rumored to have
been run once or twice then abandoned due to the high cost and complexity
compared to the measurable benefits.
In certain cases, there are benefits to the use of a built-up crankshaft.
Because of the master-rod mechanism necessary for the implementation of
the radial piston engines that powered most aircraft until well into the
second half of the 20th century, a bolted-together crankshaft configuration
was used almost exclusively. Figure 5 illustrates a typical two-row
composite radial crankshaft and master-rod layout. The loose counterweights
will be addressed later in this article.


The steel alloys typically used in high strength crankshafts have been
selected for what each designer perceives as the most desirable combination
of properties. Figure 6 shows the nominal chemistries of the crankshaft
alloys discussed here.
Medium-carbon steel alloys are composed of predominantly the element
iron, and contain a small percentage of carbon (0.25% to 0.45%, described
as 25 to 45 points of carbon), along with combinations of several alloying
elements, the mix of which has been carefully designed in order to produce
specific qualities in the target alloy, including hardenability, nitridability,
surface and core hardness, ultimate tensile strength, yield strength,
endurance limit (fatigue strength), ductility, impact resistance, corrosion
resistance, and temper-embrittlement resistance. The alloying elements
typically used in these carbon steels are manganese, chromium,
molybdenum, nickel, silicon, cobalt, vanadium, and sometimes aluminium
and titanium. Each of those elements adds specific properties in a given
material. The carbon content is the main determinant of the ultimate strength
and hardness to which such an alloy can be heat treated.

On this page we present some technical definitions that are used to describe an
internal combustion engine. The figure shows a computer animation of one
cylinder of the Wright brothers' 1903 aircraft engine. A small section of the
crankshaft is shown in red, the piston and piston rod are shown in gray, and the
cylinder which contains the piston is shown in blue. We have cut the cylinder so
that we can note the movement of the piston.
The crankshaft makes one revolution while the piston moves from the top of the
cylinder (lower left in the figure) to the bottom (upper right) and back to the top.
Since the piston is connected to the crankshaft, we can note the movement of
the piston by the angle of rotation of the crankshaft.

Zero degrees occurs when the piston is at the top of the cylinder. Since there are
360 degrees in one revolution, the piston is at the bottom when the crank angle
is 180 degrees. The distance traveled by the piston from zero degrees to 180
degrees is called the stroke - S of the piston. This explains why the Wright
engine and modern automobile engines are called four-stroke engines. The
piston makes four strokes and the crankshaft makes two revolutions between
combustion firings. The diameter of the piston, and the inside diameter of the
cylinder, is called the bore - B. So the area A of the head of the piston is pi
(3.14159) times the diameter squared divided by four.
A = pi * B^2 / 4
The volume swept out during any complete stroke is the piston area times the
V = pi * S * B^2 / 4

This volume is called the working fluid volume because the work performed by
a moving gas under pressure is equal to the pressure of the gas times the
volume of gas which is moved. For their 1903 engine, the Wright brothers
selected a bore of 4 inches and a stroke of 4 inches. The working fluid volume for
one piston is then 50.26 cubic inches. The brothers used four pistons, so the sum
of all of the working volumes is 201 cubic inches. For any internal combustion
engine, the sum of all of the working volumes of all the cylinders is called the
total displacement of the engine.