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GRID Reference Manual 2005A
GRID Reference Manual 2005A
GRID
Reference Manual
2005A
GRID Reference Manual 2005A

0

Proprietary Notice

Copyright © 1986 - 2005 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.

No part of the "GRID Reference Manual" may be reproduced, stored in an information retrieval system, or translated in any form or retransmitted or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Use of this product is governed by the License Agreement. Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with respect

to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

Patent information

0

Schlumberger ECLIPSE reservoir simulation software is protected by US Patents 6,018,497, 6,078,869 and 6,106,561, and UK Patents GB 2,326,747 B and GB 2,336,008 B. Patents pending.

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Service mark information

The following are all service marks of Schlumberger:

The Calculator, Charisma, ConPac, ECLIPSE 100, ECLIPSE 200, ECLIPSE 300, ECLIPSE 500, ECLIPSE Office, EDIT, Extract, Fill, Finder, FloGeo, FloGrid, FloViz, FrontSim, GeoFrame, GRAF, GRID, GridSim, Nodal, NWM, Open-ECLIPSE, PetraGrid, PIPESIM, PIPESIM FPT, PIPESIM GOAL, PlanOpt, Prodman, Pseudo, PVTi, RTView, SCAL, Schedule, SimOpt, VFPi, Weltest 200.

Trademark information

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Silicon Graphics and IRIX are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. OpenGL® and the oval logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries worldwide. OpenInventor and WebSpace are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. IBM, AIX and LoadLeveler are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Sun, SPARC, Solaris, Ultra and UltraSPARC are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories. Motif is a registered trademark of the Open Software Foundation, Inc. The X Window System and X11 are registered trademarks of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. PostScript and Encapsulated PostScript are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. OpenWorks and VIP are registered trademarks of Landmark Graphics Corporation. Lotus, 1-2-3 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Internet Explorer, Intellimouse and PowerPoint are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation. AVS is a registered trademark of AVS Inc. ZEH is a registered trademark of ZEH Graphics Systems. Ghostscript and GSview are Copyright of Aladdin Enterprises, CA. GNU Ghostscript is Copyright of the Free Software Foundation, Inc. Linux is Copyright of the Free Software Foundation, Inc. IRAP is Copyright of Roxar Technologies. LSF is a registered trademark of Platform Computing Corporation, Canada. VISAGE is a registered trademark of VIPS Ltd. Cosmo is a trademark and PLATINUM technology

is a registered trademark of PLATINUM technology, inc. PEBI is a trademark of Veritas DGC Inc./HOT Engineering GmbH. Stratamodel is

a trademark of Landmark Graphics Corporation. GLOBEtrotter, FLEXlm and SAMreport are registered trademarks of GLOBEtrotter

Software, Inc. CrystalEyes is a trademark of StereoGraphics Corporation. Tektronix is a registered trade mark of Tektronix, Inc. GOCAD and JACTA are trademarks of T-Surf. Myrinet is a trade name of Myricom, Inc. This product may include software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org). Copyright (c) 1999-2001 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. MPI/Pro is a registered trademark of MPI Software Technology, Inc. The TGS logo is a trademark of TGS, Inc. POSC, the POSC logo and Epicentre are registered trademarks of Petrotechnical Open Standards Consortium, Inc. Red Hat is a registered trademeak of Red Hat, Inc. This product may include software developed using LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack/), which is copyright of its authors.

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Table of Contents - GRID Reference Manual 2005A

Table of Contents - GRID Reference Manual 2005A

3

Chapter 1 - New Developments

13

Chapter 2 - Introduction

15

Overview

15

GRID functionality

16

Mapping facilities

17

Seismic data

18

Depth conversion and volumetrics

19

Simulation grid editing

20

General facilities

21

Chapter 3 - Using GRID

23

Starting the program

24

Configuration file options

26

GRID terminology

27

File handling

28

Menus

29

X-Windows displays

31

Digitizing tables

32

Further help and advice

33

Chapter 4 - Primary Menu and Edit Model

35

Introduction

35

The

Primary menu

 

36

Edit model

P.1

37

Delete model

P.1.2

38

Delete

stratum

P.1.2.2

39

Delete

map

P.1.2.3

40

Delete

grid

P.1.2.4

41

Delete

survey

P.1.2.5

42

Change

model

P.1.3

43

Change map name

P.1.3.2

44

Change map stratum

P.1.3.3

45

Change map units

P.1.3.4

46

Change model area

P.1.3.5

47

Change number of model strata

P.1.3.6

48

Change mesh data

P.1.3.7

49

List history file

P.1.4

50

Output a model report

P.1.5

51

Chapter 5 - Edit Map

53

Introduction

53

Edit map

P.2

55

Edit

wells

P.2.2

57

Copy wells

P.2.2.2

58

Add well

P.2.2.3

59

Delete well

P.2.2.4

60

Change

wells

P.2.2.5

61

Change well name

P.2.2.5.2

62

Move well

P.2.2.5.3

63

Input wells

P.2.2.6

64

Output wells

P.2.2.7

66

Define Granite settings

P.2.2.8

68

Change Granite settings

P.2.2.9

69

Edit faults

P.2.3

70

Copy faults

P.2.3.2

71

Add fault

P.2.3.3

72

Delete faults

P.2.3.4

74

Change

fault

P.2.3.5

75

Change fault name

P.2.3.5.2

76

Change fault type

P.2.3.5.3

77

Change fault colour fill mask

P.2.3.5.4

78

Change fault segment

P.2.3.5.5

79

Change fault trace

P.2.3.5.6

80

Operate on fault traces

P.2.3.5.7

81

Clip fault trace

P.2.3.5.7.2

82

Split fault trace

P.2.3.5.7.3

83

Close fault polygons

P.2.3.5.7.4

84

Thin faults

P.2.3.5.7.5 85

Repopulate faults

P.2.3.5.7.6

86

Smooth faults

P.2.3.5.7.7

87

Join faults

P.2.3.5.7.8

88

Extend faults

P.2.3.5.7.9 89

Input faults Output faults

P.2.3.6 90 P.2.3.7 95

Define Granite settings

P.2.3.8

99

Edit contours

P.2.4

100

Copy contours

P.2.4.2

101

Add contours

P.2.4.3

102

Delete contours

P.2.4.4

104

Change contours P.2.4.5

105

Show contour value

P.2.4.5.2

106

Change contour value

P.2.4.5.3

107

Operate on contour values

P.2.4.5.4

108

Change contour line

P.2.4.5.5

109

Operate on contour lines

P.2.4.5.6

110

Clip contours

P.2.4.5.6.2

111

Split contours

P.2.4.5.6.3

112

Delete fault region

P.2.4.5.6.4

113

Thin contours

P.2.4.5.6.5

114

Repopulate contours

P.2.4.5.6.6

115

Smooth contours

P.2.4.5.6.7

116

Join contours

P.2.4.5.6.8

117

Extend contours

P.2.4.5.6.9

118

Change contour parameters

P.2.4.6

119

Show map area

P.2.4.6.2

120

Change map area

P.2.4.6.3

121

Change

contour

labels

P.2.4.6.4

122

Change

contour

interval

P.2.4.6.5

123

Define Granite settings

P.2.4.6.6

124

Input contours

 

P.2.4.7 125

Output contours

P.2.4.8 129

Sample contours. P.2.4.9 132

Test point

P.2.4.9.2 133

Test map

P.2.4.9.3

134

Test grid

P.2.4.9.4

135

Test node

P.2.4.9.4.3

136

Test block

P.2.4.9.4.4 137

Test all nodes

P.2.4.9.4.5

138

Test all blocks

P.2.4.9.4.6

139

Edit sample values

P.2.4.9.4.7

140

Show block value P.2.4.9.4.7.2

 

141

Define block value

P.2.4.9.4.7.3

142

Show corner value

P.2.4.9.4.7.4

143

Define corner value P.2.4.9.4.7.5

 

144

Output block values

P.2.4.9.4.7.6

145

Output corner values

P.2.4.9.4.7.7

146

Output

node values P.2.4.9.4.7.8

 

147

Show sampled contours

P.2.4.9.4.7.9

148

Save corner values on grid

P.2.4.9.4.8

149

Save block values as grid property

v P.2.4.9.4.9

150

Show back contours

P.2.4.9.5

151

Output back contours

P.2.4.9.6

153

Change interpolation P.2.4.9.7

 

154

Define null

P.2.4.9.7.2

155

Define

truncation values P.2.4.9.7.3

 

156

Define damping factor

P.2.4.9.7.4

157

Define

search radius P.2.4.9.7.5

 

158

Define

interpolation mode

P.2.4.9.7.6

161

Set weighting for well control points

P.2.4.9.7.7

163

Toggle faults in interpolation

P.2.4.9.7.8

164

Toggle minimum slope

P.2.4.9.7.9

165

Change back contour display

P.2.4.9.8

166

Change Granite settings

P.2.4.9.8.2

167

Change colour fill

P.2.4.9.8.3

168

Number

of styles. P.2.4.9.8.3.2

 

169

Change

index

P.2.4.9.8.3.3

170

Change limits

P.2.4.9.8.3.4

171

Set shading

P.2.4.9.8.3.5

172

Reset colours

P.2.4.9.8.3.6

174

Select variable transformation P.2.4.9.9

 

175

Edit mesh

P.2.5

176

Input mesh

P.2.5.2

177

Calculate mesh

P.2.5.3

189

Operate on a mesh

P.2.5.4

190

Mask a mesh

 

P.2.5.5

192

Change mesh parameters

P.2.5.6

193

Change

contour

labels P.2.5.6.4

 

194

Change

contour

interval P.2.5.6.5

195

Show minimum & maximum

P.2.5.6.6

196

Show

nulls

P.2.5.6.7

197

Define Granite settings P.2.5.6.8

198

Change mesh map colour fill

P.2.5.6.9

199

Change

key

P.2.5.6.9.7

200

Define mesh value

P.2.5.7

201

Output

mesh

 

P.2.5.8

202

Sample mesh

P.2.5.9

205

Change mesh interpolation

P.2.5.9.4

206

Toggle null mask boundary

P.2.5.9.4.7

207

Show search circle P.2.5.9.4.9

 

208

Edit features

P.2.6

209

Copy features

 

P.2.6.2

210

Add a feature

P.2.6.3

211

Delete features

P.2.6.4

212

Change

features . P.2.6.5

 

213

Change feature name

P.2.6.5.2

214

Change a feature line

P.2.6.5.3

215

Operate on feature lines

P.2.6.5.4

216

Clip feature line

P.2.6.5.4.2

217

Split feature line

P.2.6.5.4.3

218

Thin features

P.2.6.5.4.4

219

Repopulate features

P.2.6.5.4.5

220

Smooth features .

P.2.6.5.4.6

221

Join features

P.2.6.5.4.7

222

Extend features

P.2.6.5.4.8

223

Input features

P.2.6.6

224

Output features

P.2.6.7

228

Define Granite settings

P.2.6.8

232

Change Granite settings

P.2.6.9

233

Edit captions

P.2.7 234

Copy captions

P.2.7.2 235

Add a caption

P.2.7.3

236

Delete a caption

P.2.7.4

237

Change caption data

P.2.7.5

238

Move a caption

P.2.7.5.2 239

Change a caption

P.2.7.5.3

240

Define Granite settings

P.2.7.5.4

241

Change Granite settings

P.2.7.5.5

242

Input captions

P.2.7.6

243

Output captions

P.2.7.7

245

Edit zones

P.2.8

246

Copy zones

P.2.8.2

247

Add a zone

P.2.8.3

248

Delete zones

P.2.8.4

249

Change a zone

P.2.8.5

250

Input zones

P.2.8.6

251

Output zones

P.2.8.7 254

Define Granite settings

P.2.8.8

257

Change Granite settings

P.2.8.9

258

Edit legend

P.2.9

259

Copy legend

P.2.9.2

260

Add a legend item

P.2.9.3

261

Delete a legend item

P.2.9.4

262

Move an item

P.2.9.5 263

Change

an item

P.2.9.6

264

Change

legend

P.2.9.7

265

Define Granite settings

P.2.9.8

266

Chapter 6 - Edit Grid

267

Introduction

267

Edit grid

P.3

271

Vector grid

P.3.0.2 273

N x M grid

P.3.0.3

274

Irregular grid

P.3.0.4 275

Add control column

P.3.0.4.1

277

Add control row

P.3.0.4.2

278

Delete

control

column

P.3.0.4.3

279

Delete control row

P.3.0.4.4

280

Change

control

column

P.3.0.4.5

281

Change control row

P.3.0.4.6

282

Make grid

P.3.0.4.7

283

Output control lines

P.3.0.4.8

284

Input control lines

P.3.0.4.9 285

Mark

axes

P.3.0.5 286

Input grid

P.3.0.6

287

Copy grid

P.3.0.7

290

Merge grids

P.3.0.8

291

Cross-section grid

P.3.0.9

293

Edit layer

P.3.2

294

Define depth of layer

P.3.2.2

295

Define thickness of layer

P.3.2.3

297

Add a grid layer

P.3.2.4

298

Delete a grid layer

P.3.2.5

299

Divide a grid layer

P.3.2.6

300

Split a layer

P.3.2.7

301

Join

layers

P.3.2.8

302

Edit

area

P.3.3

303

Equalize area

P.3.3.2

304

Equalize

columns

P.3.3.3

305

Equalize

rows

P.3.3.4

306

Define depth of an area

P.3.3.5

307

Define thickness of an area

P.3.3.6

308

Split area

P.3.3.7

309

Join an area

P.3.3.8

310

Verticalise an area

P.3.3.9

311

Edit

lines

P.3.4

312

Add rows

P.3.4.2

313

Add columns

P.3.4.3

314

Delete a row

P.3.4.4

315

Delete a column

P.3.4.5

316

Move a row

P.3.4.6

317

Move a column

P.3.4.7

318

Straighten a line

P.3.4.8

319

Equalize a line

P.3.4.9

320

Edit nodes

P.3.5

321

Move a node

P.3.5.2

322

Move node to node

P.3.5.3

323

Define node depth

P.3.5.4

324

Mark node depth. P.3.5.5

325

Define node thickness

P.3.5.6

326

Split nodes

P.3.5.7

327

Join nodes

P.3.5.8

329

Move a coordinate line

P.3.5.9

330

Edit fault lines

P.3.6

331

Move row to a fault

P.3.6.2

332

Move column to a fault

P.3.6.3

333

Move node to fault

P.3.6.4

334

Move row to a sloping fault

P.3.6.5

335

Move column to a sloping fault

P.3.6.6

336

Define a sloping line

P.3.6.7

337

Define

line depth. P.3.6.8

338

Show

values

P.3.7

339

Show

x,y,z

P.3.7.2

340

Show

I,J,K

P.3.7.3

341

Show thickness

P.3.7.4

342

Highlight

depth range P.3.7.5

343

Highlight thickness range

P.3.7.6

344

Check grid orthogonality

P.3.7.7

345

Calculate grid orthogonality

P.3.7.7.2

346

Show orthogonality for a grid block

P.3.7.7.3

347

Show orthogonality colour fill

P.3.7.7.4

348

Display orthogonality report

P.3.7.7.8

349

Edit blocks

P.3.8

350

Refine grid

P.3.8.2

351

Create local grid refinement

P.3.8.2.2

352

Radial local grid refinement

P.3.8.2.3

353

Delete local grid refinement

.3.8.2.4

354

Delete all local grid refinements

P.3.8.2.5

355

Input LGR

P.3.8.2.6 356

Show local grid refinement

P.3.8.2.7

358

Edit active cells

P.3.8.3359

Define active layer P.3.8.3.2 360

Define active area

 

P.3.8.3.3

361

Define active blocks P.3.8.3.4

362

Show active

P.3.8.3.5 363

Input active cell numbers

P.3.8.3.6

364

Output active cell numbers

P.3.8.3.7

365

Operate on active cells P.3.8.3.8

366

Show total active cells P.3.8.3.9

367

Edit region numbers

P.3.8.4

368

Define region layer P.3.8.4.2

369

Define region area

P.3.8.4.3

370

Define region blocks

P.3.8.4.4

371

Show region numbers P.3.8.4.5

372

Input region numbers P.3.8.4.6

373

Output region numbers P.3.8.4.7

374

Operate on region numbers

P.3.8.4.8

375

Display region numbers

P.3.8.4.9

376

Edit properties

P.3.8.5

377

Define

property

layer P.3.8.5.2

378

Define

property

area

P.3.8.5.3

379

Define

property

blocks P.3.8.5.4

380

Show property

 

P.3.8.5.5

381

Input property

P.3.8.5.6

382

Output property

P.3.8.5.7

384

Operate on properties P.3.8.5.8

385

Display property values

P.3.8.5.9

386

Show property fill P.3.8.5.9.2 387 Move property key P.3.8.5.9.4 388

Change property key P.3.8.5.9.5

389

Show property contours

P.3.8.5.9.6

390

Edit fluids-in-place

P.3.8.6

391

Calculate fluids-in-place

P.3.8.6.2

392

Show fluids-in-place

P.3.8.6.3

393

Output fluids-in-place

P.3.8.6.4

394

Delete regions

P.3.8.7

395

Delete property

P.3.8.8

396

Coarsen grid

P.3.8.9 397

Create grid coarsening P.3.8.9.2

 

398

Delete grid coarsening

P.3.8.9.3

399

Input grid coarsening P.3.8.9.4

 

400

Grid utilities

P.3.9

401

Output grid

Operate on grid geometry P.3.9.3

P.3.9.2 402

408

Move origin

P.3.9.3.2 409

Relocate grid

 

P.3.9.3.3

410

Rotate grid

P.3.9.3.4

411

Scale grid

P.3.9.3.5

412

Order grid blocks. P.3.9.3.6

413

Split grid

P.3.9.4

414

Rejoin split grid nodes P.3.9.5

415

Calculate

properties by map

averaging

P.3.9.6

416

Calculate pore volumes and transmissibilities

P.3.9.7

421

Convert grid data to map data

 

P.3.9.8

428

Chapter 7 - Simulation Results

433

Introduction

433

Simulator results. P.4

434

Edit solutions

 

P.4.2

435

Load solutions

P.4.2.2

436

Display solutions. P.4.2.3

437

Show solution fill.

 

P.4.2.3.2

438

Show

contour

sequence

P.4.2.3.9

439

Create a solution

P.4.2.4

440

Create differences

P.4.2.5

441

Output

solution

 

P.4.2.6

442

Clear a solution

P.4.2.7

443

Load active cell numbers from INIT file

P.4.2.8

444

Chapter 8 - Edit Survey

445

Introduction

 

445

Edit survey

 

P.5

446

Edit

shot lines

P.5.2

448

Add a shot line

P.5.2.2

449

Delete a shot line

P.5.2.3

451

Digitize a section

P.5.2.4

452

Operate on horizon

P.5.2.5

454

Show value

P.5.2.6

455

Define value

P.5.2.7

456

Sample horizon

P.5.2.8

457

Input survey

P.5.3

458

Output survey

P.5.4

460

Sample survey

P.5.5

461

Test survey

P.5.5.3

462

Set interpolation debug

P.5.5.6.7

463

Output misties

P.5.5.9

464

Change survey parameters

P.5.6

465

Change horizon numbers

P.5.7

466

Define Granite settings

P.5.8

467

Chapter 9 - Map Utilities

469

Introduction

 

469

Map utilities

 

P.6

471

ECLMap options

P.6.2

472

Depth conversion

P.6.2.2

473

Convert a point on a map

P.6.2.2.2

478

Convert

map

P.6.2.2.3

479

Convert a shot point

P.6.2.2.4

480

Convert a shot line

P.6.2.2.5

481

Convert

horizon

P.6.2.2.6

482

Volumetrics

P.6.2.3

483

Calculate volumes

P.6.2.3.2

484

Operate on volumes

P.6.2.3.3 486

Show volumes

P.6.2.3.4

487

Sample volumes . P.6.2.3.5

488

Show zone area

 

P.6.2.3.6

489

Calculate water saturation

P.6.2.4

490

Import

map data . P.6.3

492

Import one or more mesh maps

P.6.3.2

493

Import Stratamodel data

P.6.3.3

497

Import

EarthVision data P.6.3.4

504

Import / export DXF files

P.6.3.5

509

Import DXF data . P.6.3.5.2 510

Export DXF

data . P.6.3.5.3 514

Export maps

P.6.4

516

Copy map data Process well data

P.6.5 518 P.6.6 519

Input well trajectory data

P.6.6.2

520

Output well connection data

P.6.6.3

524

Delete well trajectory data

P.6.6.4

526

Input CLAN

P.6.6.5 527

Chapter 10 - Change Settings

529

Introduction

529

Change settings

P.7

532

Chapter 11 - Clear Workspace

535

Introduction

535

Clear workspace .

P.8

536

Chapter 12 - Run Files

537

Run files

R

537

Execute a run file

R.2

541

Open a run file

R.3

542

Close a run file

R.4

543

Path

R.5

544

Set option

R.6

545

Show coordinate position

R.7

546

Chapter 13 - Display

547

Introduction

547

Display

D

549

Refresh

D.2

550

Unzoom

D.3

551

Define zoom

D.4

552

Increase display

D.5

553

Change

display

D.6

554

Change

box

D.6.2

555

Change coordinate box

D.6.2.2

556

Change coordinate level

D.6.2.2.2

557

Change coordinate ticks

D.6.2.2.3

558

Toggle coordinate box labels

D.6.2.2.4

559

Change coordinate box labels

D.6.2.2.5

560

Change Granite settings

D.6.2.2.6

561

Change graticule box

D.6.2.3

562

Change graticule level

D.6.2.3.2

563

Change graticule ticks

D.6.2.3.3

564

Toggle graticule labels D.6.2.3.4

565

Change graticule labels

D.6.2.3.5

566

Change Granite settings

D.6.2.3.6

567

Toggle seconds on graticule labels

D.6.2.3.7

568

Change map display

D.6.3

569

Change

wells

D.6.3.2

570

Change faults

D.6.3.3

571

Change

contours D.6.3.4

572

Change mesh

D.6.3.5

573

Change

features . D.6.3.6

574

Change

captions. D.6.3.7

575

Change

zones

D.6.3.8

576

Change

grid

D.6.4

577

Change

grid display

D.6.4.2

578

Change display box

D.6.4.3

579

Change display plane D.6.4.4

 

580

Change Granite settings

D.6.4.5

581

Show grid contours D.6.4.6

 

582

Change survey display D.6.5

583

Change

menu

D.6.6

584

Change

header

D.6.6.2

585

Change

advice

D.6.6.3

586

Change option

 

D.6.6.4

587

Move options menu D.6.6.5

588

Change colour representation

D.6.7

589

Change

locator

D.6.8

590

Change hard copy plot options

D.6.9

591

Change

view

D.7

592

Edit

XY-plane

 

D.7.2

593

Edit

XZ-plane

D.7.3

594

Edit

YZ-plane

D.7.4

595

Display 3D grid

D.7.5

596

Rotate view

D.7.6

597

Edit shot line section D.7.7

598

Map view options D.7.8

599

Overlay maps

 

D.7.8.2

600

Show 3D map

D.7.8.3

601

Change 3D map display D.7.8.3.8

603

Change 3D picture D.7.8.3.9

605

Arbitrary cross-section

D.7.8.4

606

Map cross-section on grid XZ/YZ view

D.7.8.5

607

Display map gradient data

D.7.8.6

608

Change text for high & low points

D.7.8.6.5

610

Display well trajectory data

D.7.8.7

611

Edit local grid refinement

D.7.9

613

Set up digitizing table D.8

 

614

Plot display

D.9

615

Appendix A - Menu Template

617

Appendix B - File Names

619

Appendix C - Granite Settings

621

Introduction

621

Pens

622

Markers

623

Wells

625

Fill areas

627

Text

629

Appendix D - Thickness Correction Factor

633

Appendix E - Digitizing Tables

635

Connecting

digitizing

tables

635

Configuring

digitizing

tables

637

Setting up a table from GRID

643

Appendix F - Map Projections

645

Definitions of common terms

645

Choice of map projection

647

Projection

facilities

648

Spheroids

(Ellipsoids)

655

Appendix G - Arithmetic Formulae

659

Appendix H - Dictionary of Abbreviations

669

Introduction

669

Verbs

670

Nouns

672

Appendix I - Glossary of Terms

679

Appendix J - Unit Conversion Factors

685

Introduction

685

Sampling values for simulation grids

688

Appendix K - UKOOA Formats

689

Appendix L - ConPac Interpolation & Contouring

691

Appendix M - Use of Configuration Files

697

Introduction

697

SYSTEM section

701

GRID section

702

HELP section

709

GRANITE section

710

Appendix N - History of Development

711

Introduction

711

New Developments for 2003A

712

New Developments for 2002A

713

New Developments for 2001A

714

New Developments for 2000A

715

New Developments for 99A

717

New Developments for 98A

721

New developments for 97A

723

New developments for 96A

727

Appendix O - Index of Options

731

Index

New Developments

Chapter 1

Changes for 2004A

No major modifications have been implemented in GRID since the 2003A release was announced. The following changes have been made for maintenance purposes.

EGRID file export

When exporting a grid containing LGRs, the parent grid was reported incorrectly as GRID0001 instead of GLOBAL. This problem has been corrected.

GRID display header

The display header has been modified slightly, to ensure that the grid size can be read for models with >99 layers.

Introduction

Chapter 2

Overview

GRID is an interactive package providing integrated mapping and gridding facilities for use by geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers. The map editing and contouring options, together with options for editing and mapping seismic data, depth conversion and volumetrics, and options for editing and displaying simulation grids, provide a complete environment for model development from exploration mapping right through to simulation grid generation.

GRID users should note that many of the functions provided here are being replaced and extended by the latest GeoQuest product developments:

• A new generation of 3D automatic simulation gridding and upscaling facilities is available in FloGrid. Refer to the "FloGrid User Guide" for more details.

• Additional simulation pre-processing functions are available through ECLIPSE Office. See the "ECLIPSE Office User Guide".

• GeoQuest’s GeoFrame software provides a full suite of geological and geophysical applications, mapping and 3D geologic modelling. Contact your local sales and support representative for information.

GRID functionality

The GRID program provides four principal groups of modules:

• Map editing and contouring

• Interpreted seismic data editing

• Volumetrics and depth conversion

• Simulation grid generation

Maps can be digitized from hand drawn or computer drawn maps or can be input as control points, contour lines or regular grid meshes from other mapping packages. Many options are available for editing and manipulating the map data. All editing facilities are fully interactive. A comprehensive selection of map projections is available.

GRID provides facilities for producing quality contour maps from interpreted seismic data, from digitized contour lines or from scattered data points. Options include time- depth conversion of data either at shot point locations or on regular grid meshes. Volumetric analysis is available on structure or isopach maps.

Options for simulation grid generation enable the user to construct a reservoir grid in a form suitable for input to a simulator. Grids can be constructed using conventional block centred geometry, or corner point geometry can be used to construct complex irregular grids.

Mapping facilities

Maps can be built up using the fully interactive facilities for digitizing and editing or by importing data from third party mapping packages. Map data consist of:

• Contours (i.e. contour lines, control points or gridded contour data held in a regular mesh)

• Faults (vertical, sloping, regional and boundary faults)

• Wells

• Features (e.g. fluid contacts, international boundaries, coastlines etc.)

• Captions

(text annotation)

• Zones (polygonal areas, depicting lease boundaries, blocks etc.)

Options are available for gridding and contouring back digitized or scattered data at any required contour interval, using contour lines or colour-filled contours. GRID offers full control over sampling and interpolation parameters, to handle problems due to complex surfaces, discontinuities and poorly distributed data. Extensive facilities are provided for arithmetic and logical operations on mesh data.

3-D and cross-section views can be displayed, and high quality hard copy output can be produced on a wide range of plotters.

Additional options include use of different map projections and picture-building facilities, allowing several maps to be overlaid on one display.

Seismic data

Options for handling interpreted seismic data include:

• Interactive digitizing and editing of shot lines and seismic sections.

• Input of data from third party interpretation workstations.

• Gridding and contouring of seismic times and depths.

The full power of the sampling and interpolation facilities can be used when creating time and depth maps from a seismic survey.

Depth conversion and volumetrics

GRID includes a variety of methods for time-depth conversion for the following types of data:

• Shot points

• Shot lines

• Seismic horizons

• Time maps

Missing data due to pinch-outs or eroded surfaces can be handled by the depth conversion process.

The volumetric analysis facilities can be used with depth or thickness maps. The numerical integration routines can calculate volumes within irregular regional boundaries and can handle vertical or sloping faults. Oil-water contacts and other cut- off levels can be accounted for accurately.

Simulation grid editing

GRID enables 3D reservoir simulation grids to be constructed interactively, using background maps as an aid to the grid design, and provides sampling facilities for defining the grid structure and properties from mapped data.

Simulation grids are constructed using the concepts of coordinate lines and corner depths, allowing block centre or corner point grids to be generated and manipulated. The coordinate line framework allows 3-dimensional grids to be generated with vertical or sloping faults, while maintaining the integrity of the grid.

Facilities for building and editing grids include:

• Regular grid creation (e.g. By specifying vectors of DX and DY values, by marking a boundary box and specifying the number of columns and rows, or by marking a box and entering the column and row positions).

• Corner point grid creation (By manipulating a regular grid or by creating an irregular grid directly).

• Display of background maps, e.g. for the identification of fault traces and feature lines and for ensuring that wells are appropriately separated.

• Interactive display and editing of grids, using an areal view of any layer or a cross- section through any row or column.

• 3-D displays of grid structure.

• Sampling depth and thickness maps for structural definition.

• Splitting grid nodes to model faults, and subdivision and separation of grid layers to represent different strata.

• Sampling maps to obtain block properties, such as porosity, permeability and saturation distributions.

• Colour fill displays and contouring of grid block properties.

• Construction and display of cartesian and radial local grid refinements.

• Definition of regions.

• Definition of active/inactive cells.

• Grid data output to files for direct input to ECLIPSE or other simulation packages (or to the auxiliary program, Fill).

GRID also provides facilities for reading and displaying simulation results. Grid block values can be shown over a sequence of time steps, using block colour fill or contour displays. Alternatively, contours of a particular solution value can be shown at a sequence of time steps on one display (e.g. to show the progress of a water flood front or water coning).

The well trajectory options allow the user to read in well deviation survey data, display well positions overlaid on a simulation grid, and compute the well connection positions. Connection data can be exported as a list of pro-forma WELSPEC and COMPDAT keywords, to be edited for input to ECLIPSE. Alternatively, a trajectory file can be output for use with the Schedule program.

General facilities

The GRID menu system was designed to work on interactive graphical terminals supported by GeoQuest’s Granite graphics package, including X-windows workstations and PCs. It also allows the program to run in fully interactive mode during digitizing. On-line Help is available from the menu system.

The graphical display facilities allow 3D displays of mesh maps and simulation grids on any terminal. As well as providing interactive displays, GRID can produce output to a wide range of plotters, including Calcomp, Versatec, HP and colour PostScript devices. CGM metafile output is also supported.

Run files, representing a sequence of interactive operations, can be written and executed by the program. The run files which are created by GRID can be edited using any text editor to allow repetitive tasks (such as sampling a series of maps) to be performed easily. Run files may also be used to set up batch runs.

Using GRID

Chapter 3

This chapter gives a short introduction to starting and running GRID. It is recommended that this section of the manual is read before attempting to use the program for the first time. Details on how to perform specific tasks within GRID are given in later sections of this manual.

Starting the program

Depending on the installation, GRID may be started up from a program launcher window or from a command line. To execute the program from a command line, type the start-up command, e.g. @grid, $grid, or the equivalent for your system. (If you are unsure about the command, contact the person responsible for the program installation at your site.)

The installation may be set up to start automatically in “interactive, with graphics” mode. Otherwise, on start-up, a “pre-menu” will be displayed, as described below. This may be preceded by prompts to select the program version (e.g. 2000A or 2001A).

The “pre-menu” offers the following options:

GRID Version 2001A Baseline: /gss/bsl/source/2001a_w52

Locked - Expiry Date 1-jan-2002

Please choose type of run :

1 : Interactive, no graphics

2 : Interactive, with graphics

3 : Execute run file only

4 : Show version size and dates X : Exit

Interactive, no graphics

Option 1 allows use of the menus and commands in text form, without a graphical

display. It gives access to the usual menu options, but pictures can be obtained only via

a plotter. (This option was originally intended for use with non-graphical terminals.)

Interactive, with graphics

Interactive, with graphics is the usual mode of execution for GRID. After this option is selected, a simple menu of available graphical devices will appear, and the user should type in the appropriate number for the terminal or workstation being used. The GRID Primary Menu is then displayed, and the user can select options as required.

Execute run file only

Option 3 may be useful for sampling a series of maps or sending a series of pictures to

a plotter.

Show version size and dates

Option 4 provides a display showing the maximum workspace available for this version of the program, and the last date of change for GRID and the main software annexes which make up the program.

Exit

Option X may also be selected from the pre-menu. This will immediately return the user to the host operating system.

Note that on start-up, the program will search the current directory for a PROFILE.RF file. If it exists this run file will be executed. This facility is very useful for setting up the session defaults (e.g. to load in a particular model).

Configuration file options

To run GRID, the following information must be present in the configuration file:

• A valid password.

• The name of the directory where the GRID help files are kept, together with the full name of the file containing the GRID menu definitions.

• A Granite sub-section defining all the available graphical devices.

The password controls the expiry date for the program.

Further details of configuration file usage are given in Appendix M. If you require assistance in setting configuration file options, please contact customer support.

GRID terminology

When using the GRID package, it is important to understand the terminology used to refer to data entities. The most fundamental term is the term ‘model’, which is used to refer to all the data, maps, surveys and simulation grids, associated with a particular study. Normally, a separate model, preferably in its own directory, should be created for each project undertaken.

A great deal of confusion is caused by the multiple use made of the term ‘grid’ in the

oil industry. In the GRID program, three different types of data grid are encountered.

These are simulation grids, regular grids for maps, and coordinate grids. To make it

apparent which type of grid is being referred to at any time, the program always refers

to a simulation grid as a ‘grid’, but refers to a map grid as a ‘mesh’. (Coordinate grids

are rarely mentioned as such.)

A full alphabetical list of the meaning of the terms used in the GRID program is given

in the "Glossary of Terms" on page 679 at the end of this manual.

File handling

GRID handles all aspects of file creation and deletion for the files corresponding to the maps, surveys and grids available in a GRID model. The user should never need to edit or delete files which are internal to GRID. However, some maintenance of the files used to transfer data between other packages and GRID may be necessary from time to time. A full list of the files which may be created is given in Appendix B.

Use of unformatted model files is recommended, to reduce disk space requirements and speed up model I/O. Unformatted storage may be selected interactively via menu P.7.3, or by using a PROFILE.RF run file to set the file format on start-up. Alternatively, the default file format can be defined by including the following section in the configuration file:

SECTION GRID

FORMATTED FALSE

The Convert utility program can be used to convert GRID model files from unformatted to formatted, or vice versa. It also provides an option to list the physical file names corresponding to the map strata in a GRID model.

Converting pre-98A unformatted PC files to 98A readable unformatted PC files

The PC versions of 98A GRID, GRAF and ECLIPSE are based on the DEC Visual Fortran compiler and can read unformatted UNIX files. However they can not read unformatted files created for earlier PC versions of the same programs, which were based on the Salford Fortran compiler. These unformatted (binary) files must first be updated using the Bin9798 utility which can be run from an MS-DOS window.

> cd c:\example\data

> $bin9798

The first step is to change to the directory containing the data, in this example it is called “c:\example\data”. Bin9798 renames this directory, by adding “_BAK_97A” to its name, e.g. “c:\example\data_BAK_97A” will contain pre-98A compatible files. A new directory is created with the original name containing 98A compatible files.

Formatted files and UNIX systems are not affected by this compiler change.

If you require further details on the format and contents of the GRID model files, or on use of the Convert program, please contact customer support.

Menus

A menu consists of a series of options displayed down the right hand side of the screen.

There are normally up to 9 menu options plus 5 general options which remain the same on each menu. Option 1 is usually the “Return” option which returns the user to the previous level in the menu tree. An exception to this rule is the Primary Menu for which “Exit” is the last option, to prevent the user from exiting the program accidentally.

The general options are:

• “P

- (Primary)

Return to primary menu

• “R

- (Run file)

Enter run file option

• “D

- (Display)

Enter display options (See Chapter 13)

• “A

- (Abandon)

Abandon edits made during this menu entry

• “H

- (Help)

Show Help on selected option

A menu option may be selected either by moving the graphics cursor or mouse pointer

over the box and sending the location or by pressing the appropriate key on the keyboard. Note that no carriage return is necessary when a menu option is selected - GRID responds immediately to the keystroke.

In addition, the following special keys can be used for fast selection of frequently-used

options:

C

- (P.7)

Chg

settings

I

- (D.7.4)

Edt YZ-plane

J

- (D.7.3)

Edt XZ-plane

K

- (D.7.2)

Edt XY plane

L

- (D.7.9)

Edt LGR

M

- (D.7.8)

Map view opts

S

- (P.3.7)

Sho

values

U

- (D.3)

Unzoom

Z

- (D.2)

Zoom

+

- increment current plane number

-

- decrement current plane number.

These special keys are not shown on the menu, but the user can choose to type the appropriate character when prompted to select a menu option.

Note

Some users have special run files, e.g. I.RF for single-key selection. If such a run file is present in the current model directory, it will override the hidden key definition (see Chapter 12).

Advice is given at the bottom of the screen, along with prompts for input data. Information will also be displayed at the bottom of the screen ending with the & character. The & means “Type RETURN to continue”, so that displayed information is held until the user has read it.

Information about the current GRID session is continuously updated in the header box at the top of the screen. The current menu position in the program hierarchy is indicated in the top right hand corner of the screen (e.g. P.2.4.3). When some options are selected, e.g. adding a contour, the header information is temporarily overwritten by information about the current option.

X-Windows displays