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DNSK1

1. Design Project:
a. Use Fritzing to design an embedded system. The
project will consist of the following components:
i. 1 Arduino UNO
ii. 3 LEDs (Digital Output)
iii. 1 Servo Motor (Digital Output - PWM)
iv. 1 Ultrasonic Detector (HC_SR04) mounted to servo
v. 1 Temperature sensor LM335 (Analog Input) vi. 1
Potentiometer (Analog Input)
b. Program
i. Read /Write Serial interface with PC
ii. Case statement to select what function to run
1. Read temperature pin (A0)
a. Write to serial port
2. Read potentiometer (A1)
a. Write to serial port

3. Control servo rotation


a. Servo Left/Right panning (Pin 9)
b. Reading of Ultrasonic Sensor (Pin 7 and 8)
4. Control on off state of LEDs
a. Read input from serial port to select
which LED to turn on (Pin 2, 3, and 4).
b. Any off the LEDS can be turn on.
i. Individually
ii. Any combination of two
iii. All ON
iv. All OFF
5. Program will remember case selected and that selection
will remain enabled so that
c. Attach a printout of the schematic and
source code with completed final. In addition
provide an electronic copy (zipped format) of
the Fritzing project. The electronic copy
should include the application source code,

breadboard layout, and schematic diagram.


Make sure breadboard and schematic layout
are neat and all traces properly routed.

Assignm
ent 1: Economic Dispatch Part I Least Cost Dispatch A
power system consists of 5 generators, with cost curves
and operational limits as defined below: Unit Pmin (MW)

Pmax (MW) a (/(MW)2h) b (/MWh) c (/h) Maximum


Reserve (MW) A 30 145 0.21 53.4 1400 55 B 120
280 0.11 6.6 5500 85 C 190 315 0.06 32.0 4800 105
D 95 165 0.07 4.5 4200 65 E 60 210 0.11 33.3
3600 70 Note: The values of a, b & c correspond to
the coefficients of the quadratic cost function:
Hourlycost=aP2 +bP+c If all units are on-line, the
system demand is 785 MW, and reserve requirements can
be ignored, determine the least cost generation dispatch,
the associated generation cost (/h) and the system
marginal price (i.e. the cost of supplying an extra MW of
demand) by: (i) formulating the problem in terms of an
objective function, and equalities and inequalities, as
required, (ii) solving (by hand) a Lagrangian function, and
(iii) developing an economic dispatch program using the
GAMS modelling language with the quadratically
constrained program (QCP) solver. Comment on how the
constraints impact on the answers obtained. Hint: GAMS
automatically calculates the system marginal price as part
of the model solution (check the .lst file) Part II Reserve
Requirement If a reserve policy is now introduced such

that sufficient reserve is always available to cover the loss


of any one online generator, determine the least cost
generation dispatch, the associated generation cost, the
system marginal price and the reserve marginal price (i.e.
the cost of supplying an extra MWh of reserve) for the
same system demand level of 785 MW using a GAMS
program only.

Locational Marginal Pricing


A 3 bus locational marginal pricing (LMP) electricity market
consists of buses A, B and C: bus A is connected to bus B

by line 1; bus A is connected to bus C by line 2; and, bus


B is connected to bus C by line 3. Lines 1, 2 and 3 have
line limits of 90, 70 and 40 MW respectively. X1 = 0.25 pu,
X2 = 0.15 pu, and X3 = 0.20 pu.
Generator G1 has a capacity of 160 MW, is located at bus
A and bids 25/MWh; generator G2 has a capacity of 150
MW, is located at bus B and bids 60/MWh; and,
generator G3 has a capacity of 90 MW, is located at bus A
and bids 35/MWh. A 150 MW load is located at Bus A,
120 MW load is located at bus B and 100 MW load is
located at Bus C.
Assuming a DC load flow model, determine the optimal
dispatch subject to all constraints, the flows on the lines,
the locational marginal price at each bus, the profit for
each generator, the payment by each load, and the market
surplus using:
a) hand-worked calculations (calculate all Lagrange
multipliers) b) implementation of a GAMS formulation,
using the LP solver

Comment on the solution obtained and the significance of


the results from the perspective of the system regulator
wishing to see fair play for all market participants.
Hint: The GAMS solver only requires the problem defining
equalities and constraints to be defined, i.e. it is not
necessary to fully replicate the hand-worked approach.
Hint: The DC approximation is based on the net injection
of power (making it a useful variable to introduce for both
the hand-worked and GAMS approaches) at each bus.
Hint: The GAMS .lst file will indicate the marginal value of
each constraint. Hence, it is possible to calculate the LMP
at each bus, depending on how exactly you have
formulated the problem in GAMS.
Section II
The LMP electricity market is now expanded to consist of 3
additional buses: bus D is connected to bus A by line 4
with a line limit of 80 MW and reactance X4 = 0.25 pu, bus
E connects to bus B by line 5 (70 MW, 0.2 pu), and bus F
connects to bus C by line 6 (85 MW, 0.15 pu). In addition,

line 7 connects bus D to bus E (80 MW, 0.3 pu), line 8


connects bus E to bus F (55 MW, 0.35 pu), and line 9
connects bus F to bus D (80 MW, 0.6 pu).
Generator G4 has a capacity of 120 MW, is located at bus
D and bids 40/MWh; generator G5 has a capacity of 120
MW, is located at bus F and bids 20/MWh; and,
generator G6 has a capacity of 100 MW, is located at bus
F and bids 30/MWh. A 125 MW load is located at Bus E
and a 100 MW load is located at bus D.
Assuming a DC load flow model, determine the optimal
dispatch subject to all the constraints, the flows on the
lines, the locational marginal price at each bus, the profit
for each generator, the payment by each load, and the
market surplus through implementation of a GAMS
formulation. Comment on the solution obtained and the
significance of the results.
Hint: The expanded network consists of 4 distinct loops.
Consequently, all line flows can be expressed in terms of a
minimum of 4 independent variables.

Hint: If a lossless DC network consists of N buses, only


the power injections at N - 1 buses need be defined, since
the power injection at the remaining bus will follow as the
sum of the power injections at all the other buses.
Section III
A large industrial customer wishes to install a new factory
(25 MW demand) on the expanded 6 bus network.
Potential locations for the factory are identified at Bus C,
Bus D or Bus F.
a) Where should the factory be sited in order to minimise
electricity costs for the large industrial customer?
b)
Whereshouldthefactorybesitedinordertominimisemarketsur
plus?
How is the profitability of the individual generators and the
payments by the other loads affected for the 2 cases?
Comment on the significance of the solutions obtained
from the perspective of the regulator (ensuring fair play for
all market participants).

Section IV
Line 9 in the expanded 6 bus system is prone to faults,
and being tripped out by protection. What is the optimal
(fixed) dispatch for the system, such that no line is
overloaded for either the normal or faulted cases? It
should be assumed that the large industrial customer
decided not to build a new factory.
Comment on the solution obtained compared with that
from Section II, making reference to the impact on all
market participants.
Submission Instructions
The submission deadline is Monday 30th November 12
noon 2015, and the assignment will carry 15% of the final
module mark. The assignment (consisting of a primary
report and 4 GAMS files) is to be submitted through
SafeAssign on Blackboard. Penalties will be imposed for
late submissions and for ignoring any of the instructions
outlined below.

The primary aspect of your submission is the assignment


report which should contain detailed formulations, results
and discursive elements for the assignment. GAMS files
are submitted as supplementary material: they must
include explanatory comment on the implementation of the
required constraints and objective function, and must
possess a neat layout with clear naming conventions.
Primary submission
Assignment report submission must include a table of
contents; a detailed explanation of the formulation
(constraints and objective) used in each section is
required, including application of the DC approximation;
pictures of calculations are acceptable, but typed
calculations are preferable; all text for the summary of
results and discussion sections must be typed.