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Development Geography - Reading Guide 9

Chapter 9 (Rubenstein 8th pp. 297- 315, 9th, pp. 290- 308)

Directions: Read all the key issues of the chapter. While reading, define
the following terms and give an example/explanation/drawing of the term
in your own words or pictures.


Example/Explanation (in your own words)/Drawing

Brandt Line

Fair Trade

Gender Related
Gross Domestic
Product (GDP)

Index (HDI)
Country (LDC)
More Developed
Country (MDC)

Primary Sector
(include types of
Quaternary Sector
(include types of

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Secondary Sector
(include types of


Tertiary Sector
(include types of
World Trade
II. Short Answers: Answer the following short answer questions in complete sentences.
1. Explain why and how development varies between countries.


What four different factors does the UN consider when determining a countrys level of development, its HDI (Human
Development Index)?


How much does a typical worker in an MDC earn? How much in an LDC? What is the annual per capita GDP in an
MDC? What is it in an LDC? What has been happening to the gap between MDCs and LDCs in terms of GDP? How is
the % of workers in agriculture different in LDCs and MDCs?


What is the role of raw materials in development? How did raw materials figure into the trade flows during the colonial
period of the 19th century? List four countries that have developed, despite their lack of resources, through world trade.
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What three consumer goods are considered to be particularly good indicators of development? What is the ratio of
people to these types of goods in a typical MDC? What is it in a typical LDC? The people in LDCs who do have access
to consumer goods are usually concentrated in what regions?


How many years of schooling does a person get in an average MDC? LDC? How does gender separate MDCs and LDCs
in terms of education? What is the literacy rate in MDCs, and in LDCs?


What are three ways in which the level of health and welfare are measured in a country?


Indicate the statistic for each of the following demographic characteristics.

Life Expectancy


Infant Mortality Rate

Natural Increase Rate
Crude Birth Rate

Are all parts (cities, towns, countryside, etc.) of individual countries of one development level? Explain.

10. Explain the north south world distribution between the developed and developing worlds

11. Explain the concept of core and periphery when explaining development.

12. Explain in detail the fundamental obstacle to development in many LDCs.

13. The GDI considers what four areas as it compares the situation of women to that of men in various countries? Where are
the highest GDIs? Where are the lowest? What is the average income gap between men and women in the United
States? In LDCs, at what level of schooling does an education gap between boys and girls become very great? In what
sense is the gender gap actually greater in MDCs than in LDCs? What two things are measured in order to calculate the

APHG/RHS/Katz /2-13-2010

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14. What types of barriers restrict women from obtaining professional and technical jobs? List countries in which women
comprise a majority in the national parliament or congress. In what country/region do women comprise a larger part of
national government than anywhere else in the world? What percentage of legislators there are women? What is that
percentage in the USA?

15. How is Rostows model based on false assumptions for most developing countries?

16. What are the two principal ways in which LDCs obtain money to finance development? Identify the two main sources,
both controlled by MDCs, of loans for LDCs. What is the theory behind using loans for infrastructure projects in LDCs?
In practice, what has usually happened when loans have been used for these infrastructure projects?

17. Explain the negatives and positives of the WTO?

18. The flow of money in transnational corporations is not balanced. This is true in TWO ways. Explain.

19. On the map below, shade in RED the five countries in which most transnational corporations are headquartered. In
BLUE, shade the 11 or 12 countries that have received the bulk of the money from transnationals. Draw the Brandt Line
on the map.

After completing this chapter you should be able to:

Use examples of human welfare indicators to distinguish between MDCs and LDCs
Use examples of economic indicators to classify countries as less developed or relatively more developed
Draw the Brandt line on a world or regional map
Compare & contrast theories/models of economic development & the relationship between LDCs & MDCs
Provide examples of the different sectors of a countrys economy & explain their economic relationship
APHG/RHS/Katz /2-13-2010