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Chapter 3

Strategic Human Resource Management is the linking of human resource management with
strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop
organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility.Dessler (2000).
Effective Strategic Human Resource Management has become crucial to many sporting
organizations because of the numerous problems facing them in recent times. Strategic
Management of the human resource is important because the human resource is the most
valuable and important resource for achieving the mission, goals and objectives of any
organization. Therefore, they are concerned with how to use scarce human, financial and
material resources skillfully and efficiently to achieve the maximum benefits to the
The international trend in the management of organizations requires todays managers to be
equipped with the necessary analytical and critical thinking skills and competency along with
leadership skills that shapes the human organization in such a way that there will be congruence
between the individuals. This type of leadership should also provide opportunities for its
members to bring initiative and creativity to their tasks which will result in both individual
satisfaction effective performance and quality outcomes. Managers must also possess the ability
to make decisions, solve problems and communicate clearly in order to create an enabling
environment that motivates and maintains productivity, efficiency and employee development.
This can only be achieved through effective Strategic Human Resource Management.

The Strategic Plan of actions designed by top management is to achieve a favourable position in
a competitive environment based on set goals and sustained efforts for the future success of the
organization. Lengnick-Hall et al. (2009) cites that Strategic Human Resource Management
covers the Human Resource strategies adopted by the organization and tries to control its impact
on performance. Human Resource Management is a strategic function where recruitment,
selection, the welfare of employees, their training, development and retention is planned and the
most effective ways of putting these ideas into practice are designed in alignment with
organizations strategic goals. Therefore, the strategic effectiveness of an organization requires
four main concepts: The Mission, which is the dominant purpose, or overriding reasons of an
organizations existence. It gives the organization its own special identity and path for
development and serves as a guide. It will also determine the personality of the organization and
will be in line with its values or beliefs which drive the organizations culture and influence its
priority. The objectives are the aims of the organizations performance targets, critical success
factors, results and outcomes. These objectives are related to stakeholders, markets, services or
technological opportunities and challenges. They are what an organization must achieve within a
time frame to remain competitive and to ensure the organizations long term sustainability. The
vision is the desired future state where the organization aspires to be. It is the description of what
the organization environment would look like in the long term and it expresses the organizations
reasons for existence in an orderly and systematic way. In other words the existing environment
should be scanned to select the human resource capital with the required knowledge, skills and
attitudes (KSAs) that would reflect the best organizational fit. Attention must also be paid to
Time Management Strategies. This is of utmost importance as it allows one to assess and
prioritize achievable tasks on schedule and to manage the organizations human resources

effectively. Implementation is a fundamental practice that is vital to all organizations. First, the
right persons with the necessary competencies and skills are needed to support the strategic plan
along with sufficient funds and the allocation of time to support implementation .
Therefore, for sporting organizations to be successful there must be an understanding of the
factors, conditions, forces and circumstances that interact through human performances to
establish a productive organization.
The attention paid to Sporting Organizations today has forced managers to utilize their resources
in the best way because the performance of athletes and of those responsible for providing the
enabling environment is under intense public scrutiny. This is because leaders in sporting
organizations have been making poor decisions with very limited regards to the internal and
external stakeholders and the impact it has on outcomes. Therefore sporting organizations and
management teams have to develop plans and implement strategies that would allow for
effectiveness and achievement of desired goals. These organizations have vision and mission;
however, there is of concerned that it is not articulated or clearly stated to all stakeholders to put
the organizations on a clear path. Organizations and stakeholders need to revisit their vision and
mission statements in order to remain true to sports and the athletes in the different disciplines. It
is at this stage that I realized that effective strategic Human Resource Management is important
to give meaning full direction to sporting organizations. The vision and mission are key
components of total quality management. When all stakeholders are included in this process it
results in greater commitment and understanding of the organization. Working through various
processes of consultation where there will be sharing of views and ideas with compromises and
consensus developed will ensure the support of the stakeholders in the philosophy, values, and

beliefs which support the overall development of the athletes. All involved will be committed to
the organizations success and this can lead to productivity and performance.

Leadership is also vital for sporting organizations effectiveness. Skillful leaders influence
processes that have a direct impact on athletes. Professional Leaders should be strong, purposeful
and involved and through their members and associations, foster development of an organization
culture in which members find meaning in their work and are motivated to learn and solve
problems with a greater degree of collaboration. Sport leaders inevitably need to play a key role
as transformational leaders to facilitate paradigm shifts in sport management and governance by
trying to meet expectations and standard of transparency, accountability and performance,
thereby creating opportunities for new development for their institutions, athletes and members.
Therefore, for an Olympic Sport Organization to be more effective and efficient the management
has to be equipped with the necessary skills of time management, problem solving, decision
making, communicating, and conflict resolution.
Time Management is one of the most important factors in an organization to manage its
resources effectively and it is forever changing. It means that managers need to know what they
want to accomplish and the time frame in which it needs to be done. This can only be achieved
by developing a plan of action which involves a step by step process with continuous
adjustments that will aid in achieving this goal. For an organization to be successful it must
understand the importance of managing time and following a system that aids in it achieving its
goals as quickly and efficiently as possible.

The purpose of development planning is to improve the quality of service through support and
training programmes, performance appraisal, administration and communication for the overall
development of the organization. Therefore, organizations need to plan for development and
change and for stability and continuity of previous development. This should encompass or
generate a healthy organizational culture leading to the development of an effective and efficient
organization structure. Sporting organizations could use this process as one of the means of
changing the climate and culture of the organization into a collaborative and mutually supportive
one where athletes achievement is paramount supported by rich staff development. Members
are also encouraged to be continuing learners themselves and to collaborate by learning with and
from each other. Development planning contributes to organization effectiveness and the use of
human resource management policy and practice improves organization outcomes and provides
competitive advantage.
Employees goals determine their behavior and decisions at work. Goals with clear and explicit
outcomes are likely lead to higher performance. An employee is likely to perform if the outcome
of the task is known and clearly explained. For goals to be achieved employees must become
involved in planning and setting goals and negotiate the expected outcomes. Locke & Lathan
(2002) states that employees will be satisfied if they achieve their goals and the more difficult
these goals are to achieve, the more satisfied employees will be when they achieve them.

Adequate human resource planning promotes employees productivity and organizational

Evaluation is an integral part of any organization and can be of immense value in maintaining
and enhancing the quality of service. It can identify alignment of human resource with
organization strategies, reflect on and improve the overall climate and health of the organization,
be accountable to stakeholders and ensure employee and management accountability and
improve the human resources image within the organization by showing how much it
contributes to the organizational success. It is only by evaluating what is being done in the past
that the future can be planned with confidence. This is true not only for individuals but for the
entire organization. For an organization to be successful the differing views and perceptions will
come together and focus on ways of improving on what is being done well and also putting right
the things which are not going well for the betterment of all stakeholders. This will be achieved
through internal and external training and development programs that meet the needs of the staff
and the organization, based on existing strengths and weaknesses. Evaluation must measure
performance based on set goals, assess fundamental weaknesses and adjust by using corrective
Effective Strategic Human Resource Management is important to help an organization to attain
its goals. The effective operation depends on the mission, objectives, vision, values and human
resource. It attempts to understand human behavior, and their needs, and aspirations. Therefore,
managers need to adopt strategic approach to management. This involves taking a holistic view
of the organization and planning for the long term within a frame work of clearly articulated
values and objectives that will enable sustainability.

Bratton, J. and Gold, J. (2007) Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, 4 th ed.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Mcmillan
Lengnick-Hall (2009) Strategic Human Resource Management: The evolution of the field,
Human Resource Management Review,19,pp 64-85
Locke E A.& Lathan, G. P. (2002) Building a Practical useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task