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OFFSHORE STANDARD

DNV-OS-C107

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF
SHIP-SHAPED DRILLING AND
WELL SERVICE UNITS
APRIL 2008

DET NORSKE VERITAS

FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy
services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research
in relation to these functions.
DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents:
Offshore Service Specifications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and consultancy services.
Offshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as
the technical basis for DNV offshore services.
Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level
Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards.
DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas:
A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology
B) Materials Technology
C) Structures
D) Systems
E) Special Facilities
F) Pipelines and Risers
G) Asset Operation
H) Marine Operations
J) Wind Turbines
O) Subsea Systems

Amendments and Corrections


This document is valid until superseded by a new revision. Minor amendments and corrections will be published in a separate
document normally updated twice per year (April and October).
For a complete listing of the changes, see the Amendments and Corrections document located at:
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Contents Page 3

CONTENTS
Sec. 1 Introduction........................................................... 5
A. General.................................................................................... 5
A 100
A 200

Objectives ......................................................................... 5
Classification .................................................................... 5

B. Assumptions and Applications ............................................... 5


B 100

General.............................................................................. 5

B. Permissible stresses ..............................................................16


B 100

General............................................................................ 16

C. Local requirements to plates and stiffeners ..........................16


C 100
C 200

Plates............................................................................... 16
Stiffeners......................................................................... 16

D. Local requirements to simple girders ...................................17

C. Definitions ............................................................................. 5

D
D
D
D
D

D. References .............................................................................. 5

E. Complex girder systems .......................................................18

Sec. 2

F. Buckling stability..................................................................18

C
C
C
C

100
200
300
400

D 100

Verbal forms ..................................................................... 5


Terms ................................................................................ 5
Symbols ............................................................................ 5
Abbreviations.................................................................... 5
DNV Offshore Standards, Rules and
Classification Notes .......................................................... 5

Structural Categorisation, Material Selection and


Inspection Principles ............................................ 7
A. Selection of Material .............................................................. 7
A 100
A 200
A 300
A 400

General.............................................................................. 7
Design temperature for elements not specified by the
DAT(-XC) notation ......................................................... 7
Structural categorisation ................................................... 7
Material Class for structural member not covered by the
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1............. 7

100
200
300
400
500

E 100
E 200
E 300
F
F
F
F

100
200
300
400

General............................................................................ 17
Minimum thickness ........................................................ 17
Effective flange............................................................... 17
Effective web .................................................................. 17
Strength requirements for simple girders ....................... 17
General description ......................................................... 18
Loads............................................................................... 18
Impact from connecting structure ................................... 18

Bars, beams, columns and frames................................... 18


Flat plated structures and stiffened panels...................... 18
Tubulars .......................................................................... 18
Capacity checks according to other codes ..................... 18

Sec. 6 Assessment of Hull Topside Interface ........... 19


A. Introduction...........................................................................19
A 100

General considerations.................................................... 19

B. Inspection Principles............................................................... 8

B. Strength assessment ..............................................................19

Sec. 3 Design Principles ................................................ 10


A. Introduction .......................................................................... 10

C. Fatigue assessment................................................................19

B 100
B 200
B 300

A
A
A
A

100
200
300
400

General.............................................................................. 8
Hull structure .................................................................... 8
Topside structure............................................................... 8

Overall design principles ................................................ 10


Operational modes .......................................................... 10
Local design loads .......................................................... 10
Still water loading conditions ......................................... 10

B. Hull Strength ........................................................................ 10


B 100

Hull girder and hull girder structural members .............. 10

C. Topside facilities and supporting structure........................... 10


C
C
C
C
C
C

100
200
300
400
500
600

C 700
C 800
C 900

General design principles................................................ 10


Load combinations.......................................................... 10
Working Stress Design method (WSD).......................... 11
Basic usage factors.......................................................... 11
Yield check ..................................................................... 11
Design accelerations, bending moments and
shear forces ..................................................................... 11
Combination of hull responses ...................................... 11
Capacity models for strength .......................................... 11
Capacity models for fatigue............................................ 12

B
B
B
B
B

100
200
300
400
500

C 100

General............................................................................ 19
Requirements to the FE model ....................................... 19
Loads............................................................................... 19
Combination of loads ..................................................... 19
Acceptance criteria ......................................................... 19
General............................................................................ 19

Sec. 7 Fatigue Capacity Assessment ........................... 20


A. Introduction...........................................................................20
A 100

General............................................................................ 20

B. Principles and methodology .................................................20


B 100
B 200

Assessment principles..................................................... 20
Methods for fatigue capacity .......................................... 20

C. Structural Details and Stress Concentration Factors ............20


C 100

General............................................................................ 20

D. Design Loads and Calculation of Stress Ranges ..................20


D 100

Local and global loads .................................................... 20

Sec. 8 Accidental Conditions ........................................ 21


A. General..................................................................................21
A 100

General............................................................................ 21

Sec. 4 Design Loads ....................................................... 13


A. Introduction .......................................................................... 13

B. Design Criteria......................................................................21

B. Local static loads in topside structure................................... 13

Sec. 9 Welding and Weld Connections........................ 22


A. Introduction...........................................................................22

A 100
A 200

B 100
B 200

General............................................................................ 13
Definitions ...................................................................... 13
Local loads on decks and bulkheads............................... 13
Liquid in tanks ................................................................ 13

B
B
B
B

100
200
300
400

C. Global static loads in topside structure................................. 13

A 100

D. Global static and dynamic loads in topside structure ........... 14

B 100
B 200

E. Combination of accelerations, bending moments and


shear forces ........................................................................... 14

B 300
B 400

C 100
D 100

E 100
E 200
E 300

General ........................................................................... 13

General............................................................................ 14
Basic responses ............................................................... 14
Transit conditions ........................................................... 14
Operating conditions....................................................... 14

F. Hull deformation................................................................... 15
F 100

General............................................................................ 15

Sec. 5 Strength of Topside Structures.......................... 16


A. Introduction .......................................................................... 16
A 100

General............................................................................ 16

General............................................................................ 21
Dropped objects .............................................................. 21
Fires ................................................................................ 21
Explosions....................................................................... 21

General requirements...................................................... 22

B. Size of Welds........................................................................22
Double continuous fillet welds ....................................... 22
Fillet welds and deep penetration welds subject to
high tensile stresses......................................................... 22
Full penetration welds..................................................... 22
Direct calculations .......................................................... 22

Sec. 10 Corrosion Control .............................................. 24


A. Hull and hull structural elements..........................................24
A 100

General............................................................................ 24

B. Topside structure ..................................................................24


B 100
B 200

Void spaces and elements in the atmospheric zone........ 24


Tanks .............................................................................. 24

App. A Cross Sectional Types .......................................... 2

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 4 Contents

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.1 Page 5

SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
A. General
A 100 Objectives
101 The objectives of this standard are to:
provide an internationally acceptable standard for design
of ship-shaped Drilling and Well Service Units
serve as a technical reference document in contractual
matters between purchaser and manufacturer
serve as a guideline for designers, purchaser, contractors
and regulators
specify procedures and requirements for units subject to
DNV classification services
base the design of the hull and topside on the same principles
and methodology for all transit and operational scenarios
provide, as far as possible, consistent loads for both topside and hull design.
The hull strength may be assessed according to DNV Rules for
Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 for all transit and operational
conditions.
A 200 Classification
201 Classification principles related to classification of offshore units are given the DNV Offshore Service Specifications
given in Table A1.
Table A1 DNV Offshore Service Specifications
Reference
Title
DNV-OSS-101 Rules for Classification of Offshore Drilling and
Support Units

202 Documentation for classification shall be in accordance


with the NPS DocReq (DNV Nauticus Production System for
documentation requirements) and Guideline No.17.

C 200 Terms
201 Standard terms are given in DNV-OS-C101.
202 Transit: Moving the unit from one geographical location
to another.
203 Drilling vessel: A unit used for drilling in connection
with exploration and/or exploitation of oil and gas. The unit is
generally operating on the same location for a limited period of
time and is normally equipped with dynamic positioning system with several thrusters. The unit follows the normal class
survey program.
204 Well stimulation vessel or well intervention vessel: A
unit equipped for performing wire-line intervention (without
riser) of subsea wells and or coiled tubing of subsea. The unit
is generally operating on the same location for a limited period
of time and is normally equipped with dynamic positioning
system with several thrusters. The unit follows the normal
class survey program.
C 300 Symbols
301 The following Latin characters are used in this standard:
Table C1 Latin characters used
V
Speed in knots
CW Wave coefficient as given in DNV Rules for Classification of
Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.4
av
Vertical accelerations
at
Transverse acceleration
al
Longitudinal accelerations
Mwv Vertical wave bending moment
Mwh Horizontal wave bending moment
Qwv Vertical wave shear force

302

The following Greek characters are used in this standard:

Table C2 Greek characters used

B. Assumptions and Applications


B 100 General
101 It is assumed that the units will comply with the requirement for retention of the Class as defined in the DNV-OSS101.
102 This standard is applicable to hull and topside of shipshaped drilling and well service units, such as well stimulation
and well intervention vessels, constructed in steel for both nonrestricted and restricted operations.

C. Definitions
C 100 Verbal forms
101 Shall: Indicates a mandatory requirement to be followed
for fulfilment or compliance with the present standard. Deviations are not permitted unless formally and rigorously justified,
and accepted by all relevant contracting parties.
102 Should: Indicates a recommendation that a certain
course of action is preferred or particularly suitable. Alternative courses of action are allowable under the standard where
agreed between contracting parties but shall be justified and
documented.
103 May: Indicates a permission, or an option, which is permitted as part of conformance with the standard.

Basic usage factor


Coefficient depending on type of structure
Permissible usage factor

C 400 Abbreviations
401 The abbreviations given in Table C3 are used in this
standard. Definitions are otherwise given in DNV-OS-C101
'Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General' (LRFD
method).
Table C3 Abbreviations
Abbreviation
In full
DFF
Design fatigue factor
NDT
Non-destructive testing
SCF
Stress concentration factors
WSD
Working Stress Design

D. References
D 100 DNV Offshore Standards, Rules and Classification Notes
101 The offshore standards and rules given in Table D1 are
referred to in this standard.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 6 Sec.1

Table D1 DNV Offshore Standards, Rules, Classification Notes and


Recommended Practice
Reference
Title
DNV-OS-C101
Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General
(LRFD method)
DNV-OS-C401
Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures
DNV-OS-B101
Metallic Materials
DNV-RP-C201
Buckling Strength of Plated Structures
Classification Note Environmental Conditions and Environmental
30.5
Loads
Classification Note Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures
30.7
DNV-RP-C203
Fatigue Strength Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.2 Page 7

SECTION 2
STRUCTURAL CATEGORISATION, MATERIAL SELECTION AND
INSPECTION PRINCIPLES
A. Selection of Material
A 100

complex connection shows a more three-dimensional stress state


due to external loading than simple connections. This stress state
may provide basis for a cleavage fracture. The fracture toughness
is dependent on temperature and material thickness. These
parameters are accounted for separately in selection of material.
The resulting fracture toughness in the weld and the heat affected
zone is also dependent on the fabrication method.

General

101 The material grade shall be selected according to DNV


Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.
102 The Design Temperature is by default -15C based on
lowest mean daily air temperature.

Thus, to avoid brittle fracture, first a material with suitable fracture toughness for the actual design temperature and thickness is
selected. Then a proper fabrication method is used. In special
cases post weld heat treatment may be performed to reduce crack
driving stresses. Inspection is carried out to detect unacceptable
planar defects. In this standard selection of material with appropriate fracture toughness and avoidance of unacceptable defects
are achieved by linking different types of connections to different
structural categories and inspection categories.

103 Lower Design Temperatures than -15C may be specified. The DNV DAT(-XC) notation is mandatory in such
cases.
104 In structural cross-joints where high tensile stresses are
acting perpendicular to the plane of the plate, the plate material
shall be tested according to DNV-OS-B101 Sec.6 to prove the
ability to resist lamellar tearing (Z-quality).
105 The steel grades selected for structural elements shall
comply with the requirements given in the DNV-OS-B101.
106 For stiffeners, the grade of material may be determined
based on the thickness of the web.
107 The grade of materials for Offshore Crane pedestals and
supporting structure shall not be less than NVE.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

302 Structural members not covered by the DNV Rules for


Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 shall be categorised according to A400.

108 Structural elements used only in temporary conditions,


e.g. fabrication, are not considered in this standard.

A 400 Material Class for structural member not covered by the DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3
Ch.1.

A 200 Design temperature for elements not specified by


the DAT(-XC) notation

401 Structural members are classified into Material Classes


according to the following criteria:

201 When the DAT(-XC) is relevant, the design temperature is used for selection of materials, ref. DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.5 Ch.1 Sec.7.
202 The topside structures shall be regarded as External
Structure according to the definition given in the DAT(-XC)
notation.

significance of member in terms of consequence of failure


stress condition at the considered detail that together with
possible weld defects or fatigue cracks may provoke brittle
fracture.
Guidance note:
The consequence of failure may be quantified in terms of residual
strength of the structure when considering failure of the actual
component.

203 Materials for structural members which are not defined


as External Structure, may be selected according to DNV
Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.
A 300

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Structural categorisation

301 In DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1


materials are categorised into Material Classes. The purpose of
the structural categorisation is to ensure adequate material and
suitable inspection to avoid brittle fracture, and to ensure sufficient fracture resistance of a material (stress intensity factor)
to avoid crack sizes which may develop into brittle fracture at
certain stress situations.
Guidance note:
Conditions that may result in brittle fracture should be avoided.
Brittle fracture may occur under a combination of:

402 The principles for determination of Material Classes are


given in Table A1.
Table A1 Material Classes
Material
Class
I and II
III

- presence of sharp defects such as cracks


- high tensile stress in direction normal to planar defect(s)
- material with low fracture toughness.
Sharp cracks resulting from fabrication may be found by inspection and repaired. Fatigue cracks may also be discovered during
service life by inspection.
High stresses in a component may occur due to welding. A complex connection is likely to provide more restraint and larger
residual stress than a simple one. This residual stress may be
partly removed by post weld heat treatment if necessary. Also a

IV

1)

Principles for determination of


structural category
Structural parts where failure
will be without significant consequence.
Structural parts where failure
will have substantial consequences
Structural parts where failure
will have substantial consequences and are subject to a
stress condition that may
increase the probability of a
brittle fracture. 1)

Equivalent structural
category in the
DNV OS- standards
Secondary
Primary

Special

In complex joints a tri-axial or bi-axial stress pattern will be present.


This may give conditions for brittle fracture where tensile stresses are
present in addition to presence of defects and material with low fracture
toughness.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 8 Sec.2

403 The material class for specific structural members is


given in Table A2.
Table A2 Material Classes
Material
Structural member
Class
Outfitting steel
Mezzanine decks, platforms
Pipe support structure
I
Letdown platforms.
Doubler plates, closer plates and support infill steels in
topside structures. 1)
Stair towers.
Module decks plates, stiffeners and girders.
Bulkheads structure (plate, web frames, and stiffeners) in
II
modules.
Longitudinal bulkheads in way of moonpool.
Offshore Crane boom rest support structure.
Main girders and columns in truss work type modules.
Topside support stools with brackets of
soft nose design 2) Ref. Figure 1
III
Pipe rack stanchions.
Drill-floor substructure.
Helicopter deck substructure.
Main girders in drill-floor.
Deck and bottom corner plates in moonpool.
IV
Topside support stools with brackets without soft nose
Derrick support structure.
1)

To have the same minimum yield strength as the material to which they
are attached.

2)

Length 'a' to be 0.35l, minimum 120 mm. 'a' need not to be bigger than
500 mm.

No uplift expected

Partly penetration weld .


IC = I

Fillet or partly
penetration weld .
IC = II

Deck
plate

Full
penetration
weld

Z- Quality

Full
penetration
weld

Z- Quality

IC = I
500 mm
each side

Figure 2
Offshore Crane pedestal

B. Inspection Principles
B 100 General
101 The purpose of inspection is to detect and remove
defects that may grow into fatigue cracks during service life.
102 When determining the locations of required nondestructive testing (NDT), consideration should be given to
relevant fabrication parameters including;

Full penetration weld .


IC = I

Partly penetration weld .


IC = I

Full penetration
weld.
IC = I

IC = II
except
as shown

Uplift expected

Fillet or partly
penetration weld .
IC = II

Fillet or partly
penetration weld .
IC = II

IC = I
IC = II

Full penetration weld .


IC = I

Figure 1
Minimum requirements to topside stool with soft nose brackets

location of block (section) joints


manual versus automatic welding
start and stop of weld.
B 200 Hull structure
201 The extent of non-destructive testing during fabrication
of the hull shall be in accordance with DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.2 Ch.3 Sec.7.
B 300 Topside structure
301 Fabrication and testing of topside structure shall comply
with the requirements in DNV-OS-C401. The requirements
are based on the consideration of fatigue damage and assessment of general fabrication quality.
302 The inspection categories are related to the structural
categories as shown in Table B1.
Table B1 Inspection categories
Inspection
Material
Equivalent structural category in the
category
Class
DNV OS- standards
I
IV
Special
II
III
Primary
III
I and II
Secondary

303 The weld connection between two components shall be


assigned inspection category according to the highest of the
joined components. For stiffened plates, the weld connection
between the plate and stiffener, stringer, and girder web to the
plate may be inspected according to inspection category III.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.2 Page 9

304 If the fabrication quality is assessed by testing, or well


known quality from previous experience, the extent of inspection required for elements within Material Class III may be
reduced, but not less than for inspection category III.
305 Fatigue critical details within Material Class II and III
shall be inspected according to requirements in inspection category I.
306 Welds in fatigue critical areas not accessible for inspection and repair during operation shall be inspected according to
requirements in inspection category I.

307 The extent of NDT for welds in block joints and erection
joints transverse to main stress direction shall not be less than
for inspection category II.
308 Topside stools, or topside - hull connections, similar to
Figure 1, Material Class III, shall be inspected according to the
requirements in inspection category I for the areas shown in
Figure 1.
309 Inspection categories for Offshore Crane pedestals and
the supporting structure are given in Figure 2.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 10 Sec.3

SECTION 3
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
A. Introduction
A 100

B. Hull Strength

Overall design principles

B 100

101 This section defines the principles for design of the hull
and topside structures.
102

The overall principles are based on the following:

the safety of the structure can be demonstrated by addressing the potential structural failure mode(s) when the unit is
subjected to loads scenarios encountered during transit,
operation and in harbour.
the structural requirements are based on a consistent set of
loads that represent typical worst possible loading scenarios
the unit has inherent redundancy. The units structure
works in a hierarchical manner and as such, failure of
structural elements lower down in the hierarchy should not
result in immediate consequential failure of elements
higher up in the hierarchy
structural continuity is ensured. The hull, topside structure
and their elements should have uniform ductility
permanent deformations are minimised. Local yielding
and permanent deformations of local panel or individual
stiffened plate members may be acceptable provided that
this does not affect the structural integrity, containment
integrity or the performance of structural or other systems
the unit has adequate structural redundancy to survive in
the event that the structure is accidentally damaged, for
example, minor impact leading to flooding of any compartment or dropped objects from crane operations.
103 Topside structural elements shall be fabricated according to the requirements given in DNV-OS-C401.
A 200

Operational modes

201 All relevant modes of operation shall be considered.


Typically, the assessment of the unit shall be based on the following operational modes:
all operating conditions, intact and damaged, at the design
location(s)
all transit conditions
dry-docking condition.
A 300

Local design loads

301 The local design loads for design of decks for within the
hull, accommodation and deck houses are given in the DNV
Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1. Local loads for topside facilities are given in Section 4.
A 400

Still water loading conditions

401 Still water loading conditions shall be given in the loading manual. All still water loading conditions in transit (at sea),
for operation and for harbour situations shall be less, or equal
to, the maximum permissible bending moments and shear
forces given in the Class Certificate (limit curves.) The global
weight of the topside facilities shall be included. The curves for
permissible bending moments and shear forces are used as basis
for the still water loads in the longitudinal strength assessment.

Hull girder and hull girder structural members

101 The hull girder and it's structural members may be


designed according to DNV Rules for Classification of Ships
Pt.3 Ch.1. Permissible still water curves for bending moments
and shear forces shall be calculated considering all relevant
load conditions in transit and operation.
102 The stress distribution in areas with global stress concentrations, such as moonpool openings, shall be derived from
Finite Element analysis and used as basis for buckling and
yield capacity assessment.
103 For units intended to operate in regions exposed to
exceptional environmental conditions, e.g. typhoons or hurricanes, the longitudinal strength of the hull shall be assessed as
a normal operating condition. The wave bending moments and
shear forces shall be derived from direct calculations based on
the environmental data for the exceptional wave data based on
100 years return period. The basic utilisation factor 0 is thus
0.8 according to load combination b) in Table C2.
104 For unit not intended to stay on location during the
exceptional environmental conditions, the longitudinal
strength of the hull unit is regarded as an accidental condition
and shall be assessed according the load combination d) in
Table C2.

C. Topside facilities and supporting structure


C 100

General design principles

101 For world wide operation of the unit, the hull girder
bending moments, shear forces and accelerations defined in
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 may be used
in the assessment of the topside structure. Alternatively the
values may be derived from direct calculations according to
C602, and used in the assessment of topside structure and topside support structure.
102 In the operating conditions, the topside loads are normally different from the transit conditions and direct calculations of the accelerations may be carried out. The assessment
shall comply with the following principles:
the heading profile of the ship shall to be taken into consideration
operational limitation profile to be established
loading conditions for each operational restriction and corresponding mass distribution to be established
direct calculations of the accelerations may be carried out.
The accelerations need not exceed the accelerations calculated according to the DNV Rules for Classification of
Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.
103 The deformations due to hull girder bending and stiffness variations of the supporting structure shall be accounted
for in the structural analyses.
C 200

Load combinations

201 Each structural member shall be designed for the most


unfavourable of the loading conditions given in Table C1.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.3 Page 11

Table C1 Load combinations


Combination Description
a)
Static loads
b)
maximum combined static and dynamic loads
c)
accidental loads and associated static loads
d)
maximum combined operational static loads and
dynamic loads from exceptional environmental situations, e.g. hurricane or typhoon
Notes:
c)
d)

represent accidental conditions with little probability of occurrence such as explosions, fire, dropped objects etc.
represent an exceptional environmental condition, e.g. hurricane or typhoon situation, with return period of 100 years. The
load combination is applicable to units not intended to stay on
location during the exceptional environmental condition.
Units intended to stay on location during the exceptional environmental condition shall be assessed according to b).

For each of the load combinations in Table C1 and for each


structural element, the combination of loads, positions and
directions giving the most unfavourable load effect shall be
used in the analyses.
C 300

Working Stress Design method (WSD)

301 In WSD the target component safety level is achieved by


comparing the calculated stress for different load combinations
with maximum permissible stress. The maximum permissible
stress is defined by multiplication of the characteristic
strength, or capacity, of the structural member with a permissible usage factors.
302 The permissible usage factors are a function of loading
condition, failure mode and importance of strength member.
303 The maximum permissible usage factor, p, is calculated by:

p = 0
where:
0 = basic usage factor
= coefficient depending on type of structure, see Table B1
in section 5
304 Stresses shall be calculated using gross thicknesses, provided the corrosion protection system prevent structural diminution throughout the design life.
C 400

Basic usage factors

401 For the topside facilities and the supporting structure,


including the supporting elements within the hull, the permissible utilisation factors for structural strength are given in
Table C2.
Table C2 Basic usage factors 0

a)
0.60

Load combination
b)
c)
0.80
1.00

d)
1.00

The basic usage factor 0 accounts for:


possible unfavourable deviations of specified or expected
loads
uncertainties in the model and analysis used for determination of load effects
possible unfavourable deviations in the resistance of materials
possible reduced resistance of the materials in the structure, as a whole, as compared to the values deduced from
test specimens
deviation from calculated responses due to fabrication.

C 500 Yield check


501 Structural members shall be cheeked for excessive
yielding.
502 Individual stress components and the von Mises equivalent stress for plated structures shall not exceed the permissible
stress specified in Section 5.
Guidance note:
For plated structures the von Mises equivalent stress is defined as
follows:

j = x 2 + 2 y x y + 3 2
where x and y are membrane stresses in x- and y-direction
respectively, is shear stress in the x-y plane, i.e. local bending
stresses in plate thickness not included.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

503 Local peak stresses by FE analysis in areas with pronounced geometrical changes, such as in moonpool corners,
frame corners etc., may exceed the permissible usage factor in
303 provided plastic mechanisms are not developed in the
adjacent structural parts.
Guidance note:
fy
2
Linear peak stress (von Mises) of 400 ----------- N/mm is generf
ally acceptable.
yNS
fyNS and fy are the yield stresses for normal steel (235 MPa) and
the minimum specified yield stress of the actual material, respectively.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

C 600 Design accelerations, bending moments and shear


forces
601 The basic responses vertical accelerations av, transverse
acceleration at, longitudinal accelerations al, wave bending
moments and shear forces shall be determined according to the
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1. The roll
radius of gyration kr and metacentric height GM used in the
calculation of roll acceleration shall be based on representative
global distribution of masses in the hull and topside.
602 Alternatively direct calculations may be used. If direct
calculations are carried out, the wave load analysis shall be
carried out based on the principles given in DNV-OS-C102.
603 The ship motions, accelerations, moments and shear
forces shall be given as extreme values (i.e. probability
level = 10-8 for North Atlantic scatter diagram assuming omnidirectional waves with equal probability of occurrence.
C 700 Combination of hull responses
The basic accelerations, hull bending moments and shear
forces may be combined accounting for joint probability of
occurrence. In principle each response parameter is in turn
maximised and combined with fraction of the other responses.
C 800 Capacity models for strength
801 The model used for yield and buckling strength assessment of the topside structure shall be capable of describing the
stress distribution in the structure to the required degree of
accuracy.
802 The following aspects are the basis for selection of
strength capacity models:
simplified models may be used for elements which are
analysed at a later stage by means of more accurate methods.
simplified models where some of the stress components
are neglected are to always give conservative results.
capability of response calculations to represent the physical behaviour of the structure up to the given load level

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 12 Sec.3

complexity of structure
complexity of loads.

culated considering the combined effects of global and local


structural responses.

C 900 Capacity models for fatigue


901 The fatigue capacity shall be documented according to
the principles and methods given in DNV Classification Note
30.7 or DNV-RP-C203.
902 Simplified fatigue methods may be used when the long
term distribution of stresses can be described by a stress range
and a Weibull shape parameter.

904 The resistance against fatigue is normally given as S-N


curves, i.e. stress range (S) versus number of cycles to failure
(N) based on fatigue tests. Fatigue failure should be defined as
when the crack has grown through the thickness.

Guidance note:
In cases where the total stress range comprises stresses from several load responses, a combined Weibull parameter should be
used.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

903 The accumulated fatigue damage from the transit and


operating conditions shall be calculated according to the operational characteristics of the unit. The fatigue life shall be cal-

905 The required fatigue life of new units shall be minimum


20 years assuming that the unit complies with the DNV
requirements for dry-docking inspection. A design fatigue factor (DFF) of 1.0 is thus acceptable for all structural elements
which are accessible for inspection and repair during docking.
Higher DFF according to DNV-OS-C102 Appendix A should
be used in case the structure is not accessible for inspection.
906 The effect of mean stresses may be accounted for
according to guidelines given in CN.30.7.
907 The stresses may be based on gross thicknesses (i.e.
without deducting the corrosion additions).

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.4 Page 13

SECTION 4
DESIGN LOADS
A. Introduction
A 100

General

101 The accelerations from the DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 shall be used for design of the topside
facilities with loads present in the transit conditions.
102 In the operational conditions, the structure shall be
assessed for a set of loading conditions containing operational
restriction and corresponding loads, ref Sec.3 Design Principles.
103 The static and dynamic loads acting on the topside facilities are determined according to the following paragraphs in
this section.
104 The combination of accelerations of drilling units of
conventional hull form used in the structural assessment of the
topside facilities and hull-topside interface are given in this
section. The combination of accelerations may alternatively be
determined by direct calculations.
A 200
201
p

Definitions
Symbols:

= design pressure in kN/m

Table B1 Local static loads


Plates and stiffeners
Evenly
Point
distributed
load
(kN)
2
load (kN/m )
Decks
Storage areas in
q
1.5 q
modules 2)
2)
Lay down areas
q
1.5 q
Lifeboat platforms
9.0
9.0
Area between
5.0
5.0
equipment
Walkways, staircases and plat4.0
4.0
forms, crew spaces
Walkways and
staircases for
3.0
3.0
inspection only
Minimum values
for areas not given
2.5
2.5
above 1)

Girders
(kN/m2)

f*q
f*q
9.0*f
5.0*f
4.0*f
3.0*f
2.5

1)

The minimum values shall be determined considering the weights of the


equipment and bulks, which may be located on the area. The minimum
values shall not be less than 2.5 kN/m2

2)

The distributed loads, q, to be evaluated for each case. Lay down areas
should not be designed for less than 15 kN/m2.

202 The load point for which the design pressure shall be calculated is defined for various strength members as follows:

Notes:

a) For plates:
midpoint of horizontally stiffened plate field. Half of the
stiffener spacing above the lower support of vertically
stiffened plate field, or at lower edge of plate when the
thickness is changed within the plate field.

wheel loads to be added to distributed loads where relevant. (Wheel loads can normally be considered acting on
an area of 300 x 300 mm.)
point load may be applied on an area 100 x 100 mm, and
at the most severe position, but not added to wheel loads
or distributed loads
the factor f may be taken as:

b) For stiffeners:
midpoint of span.
When the pressure is not varied linearly over the span the
design pressure shall be taken as the greater of:
pm and

pa + pb
2

pm, pa and pb are calculated pressure at the midpoint and


at each end respectively.
c) For girders:
midpoint of load area.

B. Local static loads in topside structure


B 100

Local loads on decks and bulkheads

101 The local static loads for decks and bulkheads in topside
facilities, which are not part of a tank, are given in Table B1
below. For areas not specifically mentioned in Table B1, relevant values in the DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3
Ch.1 may be used.

3
f = min 1. 0 ; 0.5 + --------

where A is the loaded area in m2.


B 200 Liquid in tanks
201 The local strength requirements to plates, stiffeners and
simple girders in tanks shall comply with the requirements in
DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1. The allowable stress for longitudinal members need not be less than 160
MPa.

C. Global static loads in topside structure


C 100 General
101 The static loads to be applied for the global analysis of
the topside facilities or in the still water loading conditions of
the unit are in principle determined by considering the permanent loads and realistic values for simultaneously acting variable loads.
102 The total static load of a module, excluding tank loads,

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 14 Sec.4

Positive shear force act down at aft end and up at forward end
of a part of the ship

is determined according to:


n

k =1

k =1

qS = Fs + Fek + K k Pv k A
qS
Fs
Fe
n
K 1)
Pv
m
A

102 For units with double side, the horizontal bending


moment can be ignored for design of topside structures.

=
=
=
=
=

Static global weight of module (kN)


Total steel weight of decks (kN)
Weight of equipment (kN)
Total number of heavy equipment (>50kN)
Global load reduction factor for the deck considered
to account for simultaneous acting module loads
= Evenly distributed design load (kN/m2) for the deck
considered, ref Table B1.
= Total number of decks
= Loaded area of deck considered (area covered by
equipment may be excluded)

1) Typical values are between 0.5 and 0.7

103 The tank loads within a module shall be added, if relevant.


104 The load used should include all equipment over 50 kN
plus the sum of all realistic deck loads accounting for the joint
probability of occurrence.

D. Global static and dynamic loads in topside


structure
D 100

General

101 The dynamic loads to be combined with the global static


loads are determined by multiplying the masses with the
design acceleration.

E. Combination of accelerations, bending


moments and shear forces
E 100

Basic responses

101 The basic hull girder responses according to the DNV


Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 used for design of
the topside facilities are:
av
at
al
MW
QW

=
=
=
=
=

vertical accelerations
transverse acceleration
longitudinal accelerations
wave bending moment
wave shear force

103 The vertical shear force can normally be ignored, unless


the vertical relative shear deformation of the support stools of
the module are significant.
E 200

Transit conditions

201 Referring to Table E1 one load case should be generated


for each of the maximum basic responses for the head sea,
beam sea and oblique sea. For symmetrical structures about a
longitudinal and transverse plane through the centre of gravity
of the topside structure, load combination 4 and 7 may be omitted.
Table E1 Combination of dynamic responses in transit
Combination with
Maximum
fraction of responses
Heading Load
case response
Mwv Qwv MWh av
at
Head
Sea
Beam
Sea
Oblique
Sea

Mwv

-1.0

1.0

0.0

0.5

Mwv

1.0

-1.0

0.0

at

+a

+a

-b

at

+a

+a

-b

al

0.0

-r

-0.5

0.0

+r

1.0

1.0

-c

1.0

-1.0

-c

al

+h

-h

-i

-j

0.4

1.0

at

-k

+k

-l

+m

1.0

0.9

at

-k

+k

-l

+m

-1.0

0.9

where:

a
b
c
h
i
j
k
l
m
r

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

-0.003 L + 1.3
-0.006 L + 1.5
-0.003 L + 0.7
0.002 L + 0.5
0.003 L + 0.4
-0.002 L + 0.4
-0.003 L + 0.7
-0.001 L + 1.1
-0.004 L + 1.1
-0.004 L + 1.4

Values for
L > 200 m
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.9
1.0
0
0.1
0.9
0.3
0.6

Values for
L < 100 m
1.0
0.9
0.4
0.7
0.7
0.2
0.4
1.0
0.7
1.0

L = Length of unit (m), shall not be taken higher than 200 nor
less than 100.
E 300

The sign convention is according to the coordinate system


below:

Operating conditions

301 The basic hull girder responses shall be determined for


loads present in the operating conditions provided the effect of
these loads has not been considered in the transit analysis.
302 The following heading profile of the ship shall be considered, unless documented otherwise:

Positive vertical bending moment gives longitudinal tension


stress in deck.
Positive horizontal bending moment gives longitudinal tension
stress at starboard side.

Head sea
+15 degrees
-15 degrees
+30 degrees
-30 degrees

:
:
:
:
:

60%
15%
15%
5%
5%

A cosine square energy distribution may be considered.


Based on the heading profile in 302 the load cases given in

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.4 Page 15

Table E2 shall be analysed.


Table E2 Combination of dynamic responses in operating
conditions
Combination with
Maximum
fraction of responses
Heading Load
case response
at
Mwv Qwv Mwh av
0.9 -0.9 -a
-b
-c
8
al
9
at
-d
+d -1.0 0.8 1.0
Operation
-1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 +f
10
av

al

applied loads in an integrated hull-topside model. If the topside


module is analysed separately from the hull, the hull deformation caused by the bending moments shall be applied to the
model. The deformations should be determined by finite element analysis. Within regions with no global stress concentrations, the longitudinal deformation in deck may alternatively
be determined by:
0.5 ( M 1 + M 2 )
l1
ZE

1.0
-e
-g

where:

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.002 L + 0.6
0.003 L + 0.2
-0.002 L + 0.8
0.004 L + 0.2
0.004 L + 0.2
-0.005 L + 1.3
0.004 L + 0.2

Values for Values for


L > 200 m L < 100 m
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.6
1.0
0.6
1.0
0.6
0.3
0.8
1.0
0.6

L = Length of unit (m), shall not be taken larger than 200 m nor
less than 100 m.

l1

M
Z
E
l1
1)

F. Hull deformation

= longitudinal deformation between sections 1 and 2


= design bending moment at sections 1 and 2 1)
= section modulus at the deck at the interface with topside structure
= Youngs modulus of elasticity
= distance between sections 1 and 2
The design bending moment in both a), b) and d) load combinations to be
considered, ref. Sec.3 Table C2.

F 100 General
101 The Tables E1 and E2 give combination factors for

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 16 Sec.5

SECTION 5
STRENGTH OF TOPSIDE STRUCTURES
A. Introduction

tion of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 C.

A 100 General
101 This section gives provisions for checking of ultimate
strength for typical topside structures such as:

drill-floor and substructure


derrick
modules
deck houses which carry loads from risers, mud, brine etc.

102 Local requirements to plates, stiffeners and simple girders in tanks are given in DNV Rules for Classification of Ships
Pt.3 Ch.1 and thus not covered by this section.
103 Deck houses, accommodation or superstructure, which
is not part of the load-bearing structure for typical offshore element loads, may be designed according to DNV Rules for
Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.
104 Topside structures of truss work type of structure as the
primary load-bearing elements and where the plates are not
included in assessment of the global strength, the plates with
stiffeners may comply only with the local requirements.
105 When the plates with stiffeners are part of the primary
load-bearing structure, both local and global requirements
must be complied with.

B. Permissible stresses
B 100 General
101 The maximum permissible usage factor, p, is calculated by:
p = 0

102 The plate thickness t shall not to be less than:


5
t=
+ t k (mm)
f1
where:
f1 = See DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2.
103 The thickness of plating subjected to lateral pressure
shall not be less than:
t = 15.8

P f y

+ tk

(mm)

ka = correction factor for aspect ratio of plate field


= (1.1 - 0.25 s/l)2
maximum 1.0 for s/l = 0.4
minimum 0.72 for s/l = 1.0
s = stiffener spacing in m
l = stiffener span in m
p = local design load in Sec.4 B and E
P = permissible utilisation factors as given in Sec.3
fy = minimum yield strength
tk = corrosion addition according to the Ship Rules,
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Table D1.
tk = 0 for elements which are not part of a tank.
C 200

Stiffeners

201 The section modulus Zs for longitudinals, beams, frames


and other stiffeners subjected to lateral load shall not be less
than:

0 = basic usage factor as given in Sec.3 C400


= coefficient depending on type of structure, see Table B1.
Table B1 Multiplication coefficient

ka s

ZS =

l2 s p
106
km P f y

(mm )
3

Minimum 15000 mm3

Load combination
(ref Sec.3)
a)
b)
c)
d)
Local requirements to plates and stiffeners 1.14 1.0 NA NA
Local requirements to web area of girders 0.71 1.0 1.0 1.0
and stringers
Local requirements to section modulus of 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
girders and stringers
Global strength of topside load-bearing
1.14 1.0 1.0 1.0
elements in general
Global strength of drill-floor, substruc1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
ture, flare, derrick
Global strength of support structure for
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
modules, over and under deck
Buckling stability check in general
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Items

l
s
p
km

=
=
=
=
P =
fy =

effective stiffener span in m


stiffener spacing in m, measured along the plating
local design load in Sec.4 B and E
bending moment factor, see Table D1
permissible utilisation factors as given in Sec.3
specified minimum yield stress of the material in N/mm2

202 The requirement in 201 applies to an axis parallel to the


plating. For stiffeners at an oblique angle with the plating, the
required section modulus shall be multiplied by:
1
-----------cos

= angle in degrees1) between the stiffener web plane and


the plane perpendicular to the plating.

C. Local requirements to plates and stiffeners

1) is to be taken as 90 degrees if the angle is greater or equal to 75 degrees.

C 100 Plates
101 The local requirements to end connections of stiffeners
and design of brackets are given in DNV Rules for Classifica-

203 Stiffeners with sniped ends may be accepted where


dynamic stresses are small and vibrations are considered to be
of minor importance, provided that the plate thickness t sup-

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.5 Page 17

ported by the stiffener is not less than:


( l 0.5 s ) sp
t = 1. 25 -------------------------------f1

(mm)

In such cases the required section modulus in 201 shall be


based on the following parameter values:
km = 8
The stiffeners should normally be snipped to an angle of maximum 30.

l0 =
=
=
Sg =

distance between points of zero bending moments in m


Sg for simply supported girders
0.6 Sg for girders fixed at both ends
girder span as if simply supported.

Guidance note:
For typical sniped end details as described above, a stress range
lower than 30 MPa can be considered as small dynamic stress.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

D. Local requirements to simple girders


D 100 General
101 The requirements in this sub-section give minimum
scantlings to simple girders with respect to yield. When boundary conditions for individual girders are not predictable due to
dependence of adjacent structures, direct calculations shall be
carried out.
102 The local requirements to end connections of girders and
design of brackets are given in DNV Rules for Classification
of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 C.
103 The requirements for section modulus and web area
given in D500 apply to simple girders supporting stiffeners, or
other girders, exposed to linearly distributed lateral load. It is
assumed that the girder satisfies the basic assumptions of simple beam theory, and that the supported members are approximately evenly spaced and similarly supported at both ends.
Other loads should be specially considered based on the same
beam-theory.
104 The section modulus and web area of the girder shall be
taken in accordance with particulars as given in D500. Structural modelling in connection with direct stress analysis shall
be based on the same particulars when applicable.
105 Dimensions and further references with respect to buckling capacity are given in sub-section F.
D 200 Minimum thickness
201 The thickness of web and flange plating shall not be less
than:
for longitudinal girders located lower than 4.0 m above the
upper continuous deck of the hull or up to the first deck in
modules or topside deck houses: t = 5 + 0.01 L (mm),
maximum 8 mm
for longitudinal girders at higher locations or transverse
girders:
t = 4 + 0.01 L (mm), maximum 7 mm, minimum 5 mm.
D 300 Effective flange
301 The effective plate flange area is defined as the crosssectional area of plating within the effective flange width. The
cross section area of continuous stiffeners within the effective
flange may be included. The effective flange width be is determined by:
be = Ceb (m)
Ce = parameter given in Figure 1 for various numbers of
evenly spaced point loads (Np) on the girder span
b = full breadth of plate flange in m, e.g. span of the supported stiffeners, or distance between girders

Figure 1
Graphs for the effective flange parameter Ce

D 400 Effective web


401 Cut-outs in the web of girders are generally accepted,
provided the shear stress level, buckling capacity and fatigue
life are acceptable.
D 500 Strength requirements for simple girders
501 Simple girders subjected to lateral loads and which are
not taking part in the overall strength of the unit, shall comply
with the following:
502 Minimum section modulus Section modulus Zg:
2

Zg =

503

Sg b p
km p f y

106

(mm )
3

Minimum web area after deduction of cut-outs:

AW =

k S g b p N s Pp

10 3

(mm 2 )

The web area at the middle of the span is not to be less than
0.5 AW.
Sg = girder span in m. The web height of in-plane girders may
be deducted. When bracket(s) are fitted at the end(s), the
girder span Sg may be reduced by two thirds of the bracket
arm length(s), provided the girder end(s) can be assumed
clamped, and that the section modulus at the end(s) of the
girder is satisfactory. The brackets may be included in the
calculation of section modulus.
b = breadth of load area in m (plate flange), b may be determined as:
= 0.5 (l1 + l2) where l1 and l2 are the spans of the supported
stiffeners on both sides of the girder, respectively, or distance between girders
p = local design load in Sec.4 B and E
km = bending moment factor, see Table D1
k = shear force factor, see Table D1
p = permissible utilisation factors as given in Sec.3
p = permissible shear stress in N/mm2
0.39 fy for load combination a)
0.46 fy for load combination b)
Ns = number of supported stiffeners on girder span
Pp = average point load from stiffener
fy = specified minimum yield stress of the material in N/mm2

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 18 Sec.5

504 The km value in 501 may be calculated according to general beam theory. In Table D1, km-values are given for some
defined load and boundary conditions. Note that the smallest
km-value shall be applied to simple girders. For girders where
brackets are fitted or the flange area has been partly increased
due to large bending moment, a larger km-value may be used
outside the strengthened region.
Table D1 Values of km and k
Load and boundary conditions
Positions
1
Support

2
Field

3
Support

Bending moment and shear


force factors
1
2
3
km1
km2
km3
k1
k3
12
0.5

24

12
0.5

0.38

14.2

8
0.63

0.5

0.5

15
0.3

23.3

10
0.7

0.2

16.8

7.5
0.8

0.33

7.8

0.67

F 100

101 Elements with cross sections which do not satisfy the


requirements to cross section type III defined in Appendix A,
shall be checked for local buckling.
102 Buckling analysis shall be based on the characteristic
buckling resistance for the most unfavourable buckling mode.
103 The characteristic buckling strength shall be based on
the 5th percentile of test results.
104 It shall be ensured that there is conformity between the
initial imperfections in the buckling resistance formulas and
the tolerances in the applied fabrication standard.
Guidance note:
If buckling resistance is calculated in accordance with Classification Note 30.1 for bars and frames, the tolerance requirements
given in DNV-OS-C401 should not be exceeded, unless specifically documented.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

F 200

201 The buckling stability of plated structures may be


checked according to DNV-RP-C201.
F 300

General description

103 For girder systems consisting of slender girders, the


assessment for all load combination Sec.3 Table C1 can normally be based on elastic beam theory. Due attention shall be
given to:

shear area variation, e.g. due to cut-outs


moment of inertia variation
effective flange
lateral buckling of girder flanges.

a)

Effect of local buckling of tubular members without external pressure, i.e. subject to axial force and/or bending
moment) are given in Appendix A, cross section type IV.
Section 3.8 of DNV-RP-C202 may be used.

b)

Effect of local buckling of tubular members with external


pressure need not be considered for the following diameter
Dm to thickness t ratio:

Dm
E-------- 0.5 --t
fy
where

E
fy

= modulus of elasticity and


= minimum yield strength.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

303 Tubular members with external pressure, tubular joints


and conical transitions may be checked according to API RP
2A-WSD.

Loads

201 Both global and local loads as defined in Sec.4 shall be


considered. The relevant load combinations given in Sec.3
Table C1 shall be addressed.
E 300

Tubulars

301 Tubular members may be checked according to Classification Note 30.1 or API RP 2A - WSD. For interaction
between local shell buckling and column buckling, and effect
of external pressure, DNV-RP-C202 may be considered.

102 The method used in the analysis shall be capable of


describing the physical behaviour of the structure when
exposed to the required load levels in the limit states considered.

E 200

Flat plated structures and stiffened panels

Guidance note:

101 For girders that are parts of a complex 2- or 3-dimensional structural system, a complete structural analysis shall be
carried out to demonstrate that the stresses are acceptable with
respect to yield and buckling.

Bars, beams, columns and frames

302 Cross sections of tubular member are divided into different types dependent of their ability to develop plastic hinges
and resist local buckling. Effect of local buckling of slender
cross sections shall be considered.

E. Complex girder systems


E 100

F. Buckling stability

Impact from connecting structure

301 The impact of structures connected to the part covered


by the capacity model shall be included in the assessment of
the girders.

F 400

Capacity checks according to other codes

401 Stiffeners and girders may be checked according to provisions for beams in recognised standards such as AISC-ASD.
Guidance note:
The principles and effects of cross section types are included in
the AISC-ASD.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.6 Page 19

SECTION 6
ASSESSMENT OF HULL TOPSIDE INTERFACE
A. Introduction
A 100 General considerations
101 The overall principles for assessment of hull-topside
interface are given in Sec.3, both for an integrated hull-topside
analysis and for separate capacity models for the topside structure. This section gives provisions for checking of ultimate
strength for typical hull - topside interface structure.
102 Topside supporting structure is the structural elements
of which the strength and fatigue capacities may be affected by
the presence of the topside structure. This includes elements
like support stools for topside modules, and the parts of the hull
structure where the additional stresses from the topside structure is of such a magnitude that the yield, buckling and fatigue
capacities need to be assessed.
103 In case of separate local models for hull and topside
structures, part of the topside structure may be required to be
included in the hull model to ensure that the reaction forces
from the topside model will be applied to the hull model at a
location which will have negligible impact on the stress distribution in the hull model.

B. Strength assessment
B 100 General
101 The structural strength of the supporting structure of
topside structures shall be documented by means of Finite Element (FE) analyses, or equivalent methods. Typical supporting
structures to be analysed are:

drill floor substructure


module supports
support structure for rail for cranes and other heavy equipment like BOP, X-mas trees, etc.
B 200 Requirements to the FE model
201 The extent of the model shall be based on requirements
to determine the stress distribution from:

204 When peak stress criterion is applied in the assessment,


the mesh shall be such that the area which exceeds the yield
stress of the material is determined to such a degree that it is
possible to evaluate the impact on adjacent elements.
Guidance note:
Element size of 50 by 50 mm is typically required in such areas.
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B 300

Loads

301 The hull girder bending moments and shear forces in the
sagging and hogging conditions shall be applied. The still
water values shall not be smaller than the Permissible Still
Water Bending moment values. The still water shear forces
shall be corrected according to the DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.
302 Tank pressure on elements within the model and loads
from heavy equipment shall be included provided the response
from these loads will increase the stresses in the topside supporting structure.
303 Both static loads and inertial forces from hull accelerations shall be applied. In case of separate models for the topside structure, all six reaction load components shall be applied
at the interface.
B 400

Combination of loads

401 The dynamic loads combination may account for joint


probability of occurrence. Unless direct analysis is carried out
to determine the phases between the dynamic responses, the
loads may be combined according to Table E1 and E2 in Sec.4.
B 500

Acceptance criteria

501 The yield and buckling capacity for the structural elements below and including the deck on which the topside is
connected shall comply with the requirements in DNV Rules
for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1. Alternatively the assessment may be based on the design principles given in Sec.3 in
this standard.

hull girder bending moments and shear forces


local loads from equipment, lateral pressures in tanks and
such.
202 The boundary conditions applied to the model shall not
introduce significant errors in the structural response.
203 The mesh size shall be sufficient to determine the stress
distribution in relation to the acceptance criteria used.

C. Fatigue assessment
C 100

General

101 The fatigue life of the topside supporting structure shall


be documented according to the principles and requirements
given in Sec.7 Fatigue Capacity Assessment.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 20 Sec.7

SECTION 7
FATIGUE CAPACITY ASSESSMENT
A. Introduction

C. Structural Details and Stress Concentration


Factors

101 This section gives provisions for assessment of fatigue


capacity of the structural details in the unit. The assessment
shall account for all significant loads contributing to fatigue
damage.

C 100 General
101 Fatigue sensitive details in the hull shall be documented
to have sufficient fatigue strength. Particular attention should
be given to the following details:

102 In the assessment of fatigue life, consideration shall be


given to the stress concentration factors from fabrication
imperfections which exceed the values included in the S/N
curves.

main deck, including deck penetrations, bottom structure


and side shell
hull longitudinal stiffener connections to transverse
frames and bulkheads
shell plate below the draught in full load condition
hopper tank knuckles and other relevant discontinuities
attachments, foundations, supports etc. to main deck and
bottom structure
topside and hull connections including substructure for
drill floor
openings and penetrations in longitudinal members
transverse frames.

A 100

General

B. Principles and methodology


B 100

Assessment principles

101 The accumulated fatigue damage from the transit and


operating conditions shall be calculated according to the operational characteristics of the unit. The fatigue life shall be calculated considering the combined effects of global and local
structural response.
102 The resistance against fatigue is normally given as S-N
curves, i.e. stress range (S) versus number of cycles to failure
(N) based on fatigue tests. Fatigue failure should be defined as
when the crack has grown through the thickness.
103 The required fatigue life of new units shall be minimum
20 years assuming that the unit complies with the DNV
requirements for dry-docking inspection. A design fatigue factor (DFF) of 1.0 is thus acceptable for all structural elements
which are accessible for inspection and repair during docking.
Higher DFF according to DNV-OS-C102 Appendix A should
be used in case the structure is not accessible for inspection.
104 The effect of mean stresses may be accounted for
according to guidelines given in CN.30.7.
105 The stresses may be based on gross thicknesses (i.e.
without deducting the corrosion additions).
B 200

Methods for fatigue capacity

201 The fatigue analysis should be based on S-N data, determined by fatigue testing of the considered welded detail, and
the linear damage hypothesis. When appropriate, the fatigue
analysis may alternatively be based on fracture mechanics.
202 Acceptable analysis methods for calculation of the accumulated damage are given in DNV Classification Note 30.7
and DNV-RP-C203.
Guidance note:
Requirements to fatigue assessment may be given by additional
DNV Class Notations like CSA-2 of FMS.

102 Stress concentration factors of local details may be


determined according to Classification Note 30.7. For details
not covered by Classification Note 30.7, or documented in
other recognised publications, detailed finite element analysis
should be carried out for determination of SCFs, according to
the procedure given in Classification Note 30.7.

D. Design Loads and Calculation of Stress


Ranges
D 100 Local and global loads
101 The accumulated damage in transit may be based on the
World Wide scatter diagram as given in CN 30.7.
102 In the operating conditions the site specific scatter diagram(s) should be used as basis for the calculations.
103 Typical local load effects to be considered are:

vortex shedding
external sea pressure
tank pressure.
104 Typical global loads to be considered are:

wave bending moments and shear forces


horizontal hull deformations due to wave bending moment
vertical deformation at stools due to differences in stiffness of hull supporting structure
wave induced accelerations (inertia loads).
105 The global and local load effects shall be combined
according to the procedures given in CN 30.7.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.8 Page 21

SECTION 8
ACCIDENTAL CONDITIONS
A. General
A 100 General
101 Safety assessment is carried out according to the principles given in DNV-OS-A101 for relevant accidental scenarios.
102 The overall objective for design with respect to accidental conditions is that unit's main safety functions shall not be
impaired by accidental events. Satisfactory protection against
accidental damage may be achieved by two barriers:

reduction of damage probability


reduction of damage consequences.
103 The design against accidental loads may be done by
direct calculation of the effects imposed by the loads on the
structure, or indirectly, by design of the structure as tolerable
to accidents.

B. Design Criteria
B 100 General
101 Structures shall be checked for accidental loads in two
steps, according to the loading conditions presented in Sec.3
Table C1:

resistance of the structure against design accidental loads,


i.e. loading condition c)
post accident resistance of the structure against environmental loads after accidental damage, i.e. loading conditions d) and e).
The unit shall be designed for environmental condition corresponding to 1 year return period after accidental damage.
Typical accidental loads are:
impact from dropped objects
fires
explosions.
102 Generic values of accidental loads are given in DNVOS-A101.
103 The different types of accidental loads require different
methods and analyses to assess the structural resistance. Local
exceedance of the structural capacity is acceptable provided
redistribution of forces due to yielding, buckling and fracture
is accounted for.
104 The inherent uncertainty of the frequency and magnitude of the accidental loads, as well as the approximate nature
of the methods for determination of accidental load effects,
shall be recognised. It is therefore essential to apply sound
engineering judgement and pragmatic evaluations in the

design.
105 If non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis is applied
for design, it shall be verified that all local failure modes (e.g.
strain rate, local buckling, joint overloading, and joint fracture)
are accounted for implicitly by the modelling adopted, or else
subjected to explicit evaluation.
B 200 Dropped objects
201 Critical areas for dropped objects shall be determined on
the basis of the actual movement of potential dropped objects,
e.g. crane or other lifting operation mass, relative to the structure of the unit itself. Where a dropped object is a relevant accidental event, the impact energy shall be established and the
structural consequences of the impact assessed.
202 Critical areas for dropped objects should be determined
assuming a minimum drop direction within an angle of 10
with the vertical direction.
B 300 Fires
301 The structure that is subjected to a fire shall maintain
sufficient structural strength before evacuation has occurred.
The following fire scenarios shall be considered:

jet fires
fire inside or on the hull
fire on the sea surface.
Assessment of fire may be omitted provided fire protection
requirements made in DNV-OS-D301 are met.
B 400 Explosions
401 One or more of the following main design philosophies
will be relevant:

ensure that hazardous locations are located in unconfined


(open) locations and that sufficient shielding mechanisms
(e.g. blast walls) are installed
locate hazardous areas in partially confined locations and
design utilising the resulting, relatively small overpressure
locate hazardous areas in enclosed locations and install
pressure relief mechanisms (e.g. blast panels) and design
for the resulting overpressure.
402 As far as practicable, structural design accounting for
large plate field rupture resulting from explosion actions
should be avoided due to the uncertainties of the actions and
the consequences of the rupture itself.
403 Structural support of blast walls and the transmission of
the blast action into main structural members shall be evaluated when relevant. Effectiveness of connections and the possible outcome from blast, such as flying debris, shall be
considered.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 22 Sec.9

SECTION 9
WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS
A. Introduction
A 100

B 300

General requirements

101 The technical requirements for the welding and weld


connections shall, as a minimum, comply with the Rules for
Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.11.
102 Full penetration welds shall be used if weld improvements
(e.g. grinding) is needed to achieve required design fatigue life,
unless the fatigue life at the weld root is documented.
103 Deep penetration welds are acceptable in areas where the
design load is primarily static or shear. As a guide, if the static
compression stress constitutes more than 35% of the yield stress,
deep penetration welds may be used with a root face of t/3.

Double continuous fillet welds

101 Double continuous fillet welds shall be dimensioned


according to principles given in DNV Rules for Classification
of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.11. The Table C1 has been extended to
include C factors for typical offshore members, and are shown
in Table B1 below.
Table B1 Weld factor C
Item
Local buckling stiffeners
Stiffeners, frames, beams or longitudinals to shell,
deck, oil tight or water tight girders or bulkhead
plating, except in after peaks.
Secondary stiffeners in topside structures.
Web plates of non-watertight girders except in
after peak.
Girder webs and floors in double bottom. Stiffeners and girders in after peaks.
Main girder system in topside structures of stiffened plate design type.
Horizontal stringers on transverse bulkheads.
Watertight centre line girder to bottom and inner
bottom plating.
Boundary connection of ballast and liquid cargo
bulkhead:
longitudinal bulkheads
transverse bulkheads.
Hatch coamings at corners and transverse hatch
end brackets to deck.
Top horizontal profile to coaming.
Strength deck plating to shell scuppers and discharges to deck.
Main girder system in topside structures of framework design type.
Fillet welds subject to compressive stresses only.
All other welds not specified above.

301 In addition to the full penetration welds required for


joints specified by the Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3
Ch.1 Sec.11, full penetration welds shall be used for the following connections:

crane pedestal to deck plating


topside support stools to main deck 1)
flare to hull structure
drillfloor support structure to main deck 1).

1) Ref. Section 2 for details

B 400

Direct calculations

401 The distribution of forces in a welded connection may be


calculated on the assumption of either elastic or plastic behaviour.

B. Size of Welds
B 100

Full penetration welds

402 Residual stresses and stresses not participating in the


transfer of load need not be included when checking the resistance of a weld. This applies specifically to the normal stress
parallel to the axis of a weld.
403 Welded connections shall be designed to have adequate
deformation capacity.
404 In joints where plastic hinges may form, the welds shall
be designed to provide at least the same design resistance as
the weakest of the connected parts.

60%
of span
0.14

At
ends
0.14

405 In other joints where deformation capacity for joint rotation is required due to the possibility of excessive straining, the
welds require sufficient strength not to rupture before general
yielding in the adjacent parent material.

0.16

0.26

0.20

0.32

Guidance note:
In general this will be satisfied if the design resistance of the weld
is not less than 80% of the design resistance of the weakest of the
connected parts.

0.26

0.43

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406 The design resistance of fillet welds is adequate if, at


every point in its length, the resultant of all the forces per unit
length transmitted by the weld does not exceed its design
resistance.
407 The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient
if both the following conditions are satisfied:

2 + 3 || 2 + 2

0.52

fu

and

fu 0
0.25
0.43

B 200 Fillet welds and deep penetration welds subject to


high tensile stresses

||

201 Fillet welds and deep penetration welds subject to high


tensile stresses shall be dimensioned according to principles
given in DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.11.

fu

w
0

= normal stress perpendicular to the throat


= shear stress (in plane of the throat) perpendicular to the
axis of the weld
= shear stress (in plane of the throat) parallel to the axis
of the weld, see Table B1
= nominal lowest ultimate tensile strength of the weaker
part joined
= appropriate correlation factor, see Table B1
= basic usage factor, see Sec.3 C400

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Sec.9 Page 23

Table B1 The correlation factor w

Steel grade
NV NS
NV 27
NV 32
NV 36
NV 40
NV 420
NV 460

Figure 1
Stress components in a fillet weld

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Lowest ultimate tensile strength


fu
400
400
440
490
510
530
570

Correlation factor

0.83
0.83
0.86
0.89
0.9
1.0
1.0

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 24 Sec.10

SECTION 10
CORROSION CONTROL
A. Hull and hull structural elements
A 100 General
101 The corrosion protection of the hull and its structural
members shall comply with the requirements in DNV Rules
for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.

B. Topside structure

protected by a suitable coating system proven for marine


atmospheres.
102 Tanks for fresh water shall have a suitable coating system. Special requirements will apply for coating systems to be
used for potable water tanks.
B 200 Tanks
Tanks for liquids shall have a corrosion protection system
according to DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.1.

B 100 Void spaces and elements in the atmospheric zone


101 Steel surfaces in topside structure except tanks shall be

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


App.A Page 25

APPENDIX A
CROSS SECTIONAL TYPES
A. Cross Sectional Types
A 100 General
101 Cross sections of beams are divided into different types
dependent on their ability to develop plastic hinges as given in
Table A1.
Table A1 Cross sectional types
I
Cross sections that can form a plastic hinge with the rotation
capacity required for plastic analysis
II
Cross sections that can develop their plastic moment resistance, but have limited rotation capacity
III Cross sections where the calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength,
but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance
IV Cross sections where it is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their
moment resistance or compression resistance

103 Compression elements include every element of a cross


section which is either totally or partially in compression, due
to axial force or bending moment, under the load combination
considered.
104 The various compression elements in a cross section
such as web or flange, can be in different classes.
105 The selection of cross sectional type is normally quoted
by the highest or less favourable type of its compression elements.
A 200

Cross section requirements for plastic analysis

201 At plastic hinge locations, the cross section of the member which contains the plastic hinge shall have an axis of symmetry in the plane of loading.
202 At plastic hinge locations, the cross section of the member which contains the plastic hinge shall have a rotation
capacity not less than the required rotation at that plastic hinge
location.
A 300 Cross section requirements when elastic global
analysis is used
301 When elastic global analysis is used, the role of cross
section classification is to identify the extent to which the
resistance of a cross section is limited by its local buckling
resistance.
302 When all the compression elements of a cross section are
type III, its resistance may be based on an elastic distribution
of stresses across the cross section, limited to the yield strength
at the extreme fibres.

Figure 1
Relation between moment M and plastic moment resistance Mp
and rotation for cross sectional types. (My is elastic moment resistance.)

102 The categorisation of cross sections depends on the proportions of each of its compression elements, see Table A3.

Table A2 Coefficient related to relative strain


NV Steel grade 1)
2)
NV-NS
1
NV-27
0.94
NV-32
0.86
NV-36
0.81
NV-40
0.78
NV-420
0.75
NV-460
0.72
NV-500
0.69
NV-550
0.65
NV-620
0.62
NV-690
0.58
1) For steels of improved weldability the required specified minimum yield stress is reduced for increasing material thickness,
see DNV-OS-B101

2)

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235
--------- where f y is yield strength
f
y

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C107, April 2008


Page 26 App.A

Table A3 Maximum width to thickness ratios for compression elements


Cross section part
Type I

d / tw 33

2)

d / tw 72

396
d t w ---------------13 1

when 0.5:
d = h - 3 tw

d / tw 38

d / tw 42

d / tw 83

d / tw 124

456
d t w ------------------13 1

when 0.5:

when > -1:

126
d t w ------------2+

when -1:

36
d t w --------

41.5
d t w -------------

Rolled: c t f 10

Rolled: c t f 11

Rolled: c t f 15

Welded: c t f 9
Tip in compression

Welded: c t f 10
Tip in compression

Welded: c t f 14

Rolled: c tf 10

Rolled: c t f 11
Welded: c t f 10

Welded: c t f 9
Tip in tension

1)

Type III

when > 0.5:

when > 0.5:

3)

Type II

Tip in tension

d t w 62 ( 1 )

Tip in compression

Rolled: c t f 23 C

4)

Welded: c t f 21 C
Tip in tension

10
Rolled: c tf -----------

11
Rolled: c tf -----------

Rolled: c tf 23 C

9
Welded: c t f -----------

10
Welded: c t f -----------

Welded: c t f 21 C

d / tp 50 2

d / tp 70 2

d / tp 90 2

Compression negative

2)

is defined in Table A2

3)

Valid for rectangular hollow sections (RHS) where h is the height of the profile

4)

C is the buckling coefficient. See e.g. Classification Note 30.1, Table 3.2, No. 4 and 7 or Euro code 3 Table 5.3.3 (denoted k)

5)

Valid for axial and bending, not external pressure.

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