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Orientation Analysis Tools for ArcGIS 10.

2 DEMO Guide
1) Download and unzip the OATools_2B_for_ArcGIS_10.2 file. Install the Add-In by double click at
OATools_2B.esriAddIn file.
2) Open OATools_DEMO.mxd. Right click in the grey space for toolbars, tick OATools_toolbar

3) OATools toolbar shows up

4) The map document contains data: met_foliation_EN (orientations of metamorphic foliation),

GM500_polygons (geological units 1 : 500 000) and GM500_faults (faults 1 : 500 000).
The sample data come from the Svratka crystalline unit, Bohemian massif (Czech Rep.). Some of the
metamorphic foliations contain also associated metamorphic lineation (fields: L_type, trend and
plunge see the attribute table structure). National projected (planar) coordinate system is SJTSK_Krovak_East_North (WKID: 5514). Its coordinates are negative values (III. quadrant). The red
box in Fig. 1 shows the data extent in the Svratka crystalline unit.

Fig. 1: Svratka crystalline unit, data extent the red box, description
of the used coordinate system

New Projection button

Use the New Projection button to add a new azimuthal equal-area projection. New Data Frame (DF)
is added and it is switched to Layout View to see both Data Frames. First time you use this button
you are prompted to select folder, where the cross.shp is saved. It is in the downloaded unzipped file
(OATools_2B_for_ArcGIS_10.2). The cross.shp is the shape of the diagram and by adding it the
reference scale and the appropriate data frame size in map units (400 x 400) are set (Fig. 2). The
directory to this shapefile is saved for the next use (Desktop, stereonet.txt).

Fig. 2: Map Data Frame and Diagram Data Frame with cross.shp in Layout View.

New Data Frame (Equal-area projection) is active. Drag the layer met_foliation_EN into it. Make
sure that the new DF is still active, because only layers from active DF are offered as an input in the
tools dialog boxes.

Plot Tool
Use Plot Tool button. Dialog box appears (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3: Plot Tool dialog box. Input data are set, averaged orientation, fold axis, shape and strength parameters are computed

Choose an Input Layer; untick the Plot only Selected featuresif no selection is made.
1. Choose fields containing: Control Point (id) identifies the control point (particular set of X, Y
coordinates), where one or more measurements of orientation were made. S structure fields
and/or L structure fields must be filled. If your data miss fields for control point id and type of
structure, adding a new blank field for them is recommended.
2. Optionally click at Remember fields if you want to save the setting for the next use (you
will use Load remembered fields then). Setting is saved as a text file to your desktop
3. Plotting Options: leave plot features as graphics option selected for a fast plot (Fig. 4a). In
this case, only graphic points are created and there is no link to original data. Select plot
features in a new shapefile to create a new point shapefile (Fig. 4b). Also attributes will be
filled, so the Link to original data will be possible. Workspace and shapefile name must be
specified in this option. The last option is plot features into an existing shapefile. Use this
option if you have already plotted points into a new shapefile and now you want to add
more. But the source data must have the same table structure as before.

Fig. 4a: Plotted points as graphics, blue: poles to planes, red: lineations; Fig. 4b: Plotted points in a shapefile. Fold axis was
calculated and plotted also in the shapefile (green point)

4. Planes can be represented as poles to planes or as arcs.

5. Use Plot as points button or Plot as arcs button to plot orientations using the set Plotting
Options. Plotting as arcs is used when you plot only a few features, for larger dataset use

plotting as points (Fig. 4c).

Fig. 4c: Planes are plotted as arcs, selection is used. Diagrams with larger number of arcs are not readable.

6. Take into account, that arcs cannot be plotted as graphics (but only in a shapefile).
7. Additional Functions.
Use Calculate button under Averaged orientation to get the averaged orientation from the
input data table or selection if selection was made. This value is informative and can be used to
learn the representative value at a control point, where more orientations were measured.
The shape and strength parameters are also computed by the use of this button. The value of
shape parameter that is higher than 1 indicates the cluster type of distribution, whereas the
value less than 1 indicates the girdle type of distribution. The strength parameter represents the
strength of distribution. The transitional distribution (partly girdle/partly cluster) is around 1. The
value near 0 means the uniform (isotropic) distribution (Fisher et al., 1987).
Use Calculate button under Fold axis to get the orientation of the fold axis. Take care of the
meaningful input! Fold axis can be plotted into the diagram with the same Plotting options as
before (graphic, existing shapefile, new shapefile). New shapefiles are added into the active
Data Frame (see Table of content in Fig. 5).

Fig. 5: Table of Content after the use of Plot Tool. Plot_met_fol and Plot_met_lin layers have the same source shapefile,
the Definition Query is set to show only foliations (resp. lineations).

Density Distribution Tool

Make sure that the Projection Data Frame is active and layer with metamorphic foliations is present.
Also plotted points in a shapefile can be the input for calculating the density distribution.
1) Use Density distribution button. Dialog box appears (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6: Density Distribution dialog box. Input data and output workspace are set

2) Choose an input layer, unselect Work with SELECTION option if no selection is made. To set
fields for dip and dip direction you can use Load fields if you have used Remember fields
before. Otherwise, choose from the drop-down menu and optionally use Remember fields
for the future use. Select workspace and the name of the output density raster. Optionally,
set the Smoothing parameter. Recommended value is offered, that depends on the size of

the dataset. This value should produce diagrams comparable to that created by the Schmidt
1% method. Smaller value means higher smoothing of the diagram, which is needed when
the dataset is small.
3) Use Start button to start the calculation. Be patient and wait until the raster layer is added in
the table of content, there is a progress bar. For the sample data it can take about 30
4) New raster layer is added to the active DF (Projection). It is recommended to export raster by
the right click at it and choose Data- Export Data and save it on the disk (original raster is
temporary, although the workspace was set). After the export, use Appearance Tab in the
Density Distribution tool dialog box to set symbology (number of color classes), Fig. 7.

Fig. 7: Raster datasets: Density distribution: A) density raster with stretched color ramp B)Classified symbology with 14
classes Appearance Tab was used.

5) Colors of classes can be also adjusted manually.

Link Back Tool

It is the most right tool on the toolbar. The tool links points in the diagram to the original data (and
vice versa).
1) Make sure you have both layers (plotted points and original data) in the same Data Frame
and this DF is active. Select plotted points in the projection (e.g. points with deviated
orientation). Use Link Back button. Dialog box shows up (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8: LinkBack tool dialog box


Select From and To layers. In this case, From is the Plot_met_fol layer (with plotted
points) and To is the original data layer met_foliation_EN. Use button corresponding to the
direction of the link (diagram-map or map-diagram). In this case it is the Link diagram to
map button.

Fig. 9: Attribute table of plotted points with one feature selected. After the use of LinkBack tool, the
corresponding feature is selected in the original data table.

3) The tool selects the corresponding orientation in the original data table. You can see, where
it is located in the map (e.g. drag the layer to the map DF), Fig. 10.

Fig. 10: Orientation selected in the diagram is highlighted in the map.

4) The link works also in the opposite direction (map to diagram).

Spatial Averaging
1) Make sure that the Map Data Frame is active (it is named Layers if it havent been
changed). Layer with the original data (met_foliation_EN) must be present. Select features if
you want to work only with selected, otherwise, clear selection if any features are selected.
2) Use Spatial Averaging button. Dialog box appears (Fig. 11). Choose an input layer and fields
with dip and dip direction (or use Load Remembered button if you have remembered them

before). Tool works with selection, if no selection is made (our case), all features are

Fig. 11: Dialog box of Spatial Averaging tool. Input data and parameters are set

3) Number of selected features is present. Fill the Interval of the grid of stations on which
averages will be calculated. Fill the Radius of influence within the orientations are involved
into the calculation, their influence is weighted by distance from the averaging station.
4) Fill the workspace and name of the output shapefile.
5) Numbers of stations in W-E and N-S directions are present as well as the area of the input
data. This is valuable information in cases when you have mistaken in coordinates, area is
then enormously large. When the area is larger than 25000 sq. km, the tool informs you
about it also during the process.
6) Use Calculate button. Calculation may take about 30 seconds for the sample dataset. After it
is done, new layer is added into the active Data Frame and symbols are set automatically
(Fig. 12).

Fig. 12: Map of spatial averages (black symbols) on the original data (grey symbols)

Map of Fold Axes tool

The workflow is the same as for Spatial Averaging, but the result is the map of fold axes.

Mathematical solution - comments

Spatial Averaging and Map of Fold Axes routines calculate the sum of orientation matrices weighted
by distance from the averaging station. Eigenvalues are calculated and the lowest one is used to get
eigenvector (fold axis) and the highest one is used to get averaged orientation.
Orientation matrix is used also for calculation of averaged orientation and fold axis in the Additional
functions section of the Plot Tool. But here is no influence of distance. Density distribution is
calculated using Watson density for axial data. The equations used are derived from Fisher et al.
(1987) and Melichar (2005).
Fisher, N. I. Lewis, T. Embleton, B. J. J. (1987): Statistical Analysis of Spherical Data. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 329pp.
Melichar, R. (2005): Structural geology and geotectonics. Orientation analysis. Masaryk Univerzity,
Brno, 178pp [in Czech].