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Vol 4 Issue 3 April 2014

ISSN No : 2230-7850
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

International Multidisciplinary
Research Journal

Indian Streams
Research Journal

Executive Editor
Ashok Yakkaldevi

Editor-in-Chief
H.N.Jagtap

Welcome to ISRJ
RNI MAHMUL/2011/38595
ISSN No.2230-7850
Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English,
Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed
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Flvio de So Pedro Filho
Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil

Mohammad Hailat
Dept. of Mathematical Sciences,
University of South Carolina Aiken

Hasan Baktir
English Language and Literature
Department, Kayseri

Kamani Perera
Regional Center For Strategic Studies, Sri
Lanka

Abdullah Sabbagh
Engineering Studies, Sydney

Ghayoor Abbas Chotana


Dept of Chemistry, Lahore University of
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Janaki Sinnasamy
Librarian, University of Malaya

Catalina Neculai
University of Coventry, UK

Romona Mihaila
Spiru Haret University, Romania

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Spiru Haret University, Bucharest

Delia Serbescu
Spiru Haret University, Bucharest,
Romania

Loredana Bosca
Spiru Haret University, Romania

Anurag Misra
DBS College, Kanpur
Titus PopPhD, Partium Christian
University, Oradea,Romania

Fabricio Moraes de Almeida


Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil
George - Calin SERITAN
Faculty of Philosophy and Socio-Political
Sciences Al. I. Cuza University, Iasi

Anna Maria Constantinovici


AL. I. Cuza University, Romania
Horia Patrascu
Spiru Haret University,
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Ilie Pintea,
Spiru Haret University, Romania
Xiaohua Yang
PhD, USA
......More

Editorial Board
Iresh Swami
Pratap Vyamktrao Naikwade
ASP College Devrukh,Ratnagiri,MS India Ex - VC. Solapur University, Solapur
R. R. Patil
Head Geology Department Solapur
University,Solapur
Rama Bhosale
Prin. and Jt. Director Higher Education,
Panvel
Salve R. N.
Department of Sociology, Shivaji
University,Kolhapur
Govind P. Shinde
Bharati Vidyapeeth School of Distance
Education Center, Navi Mumbai
Chakane Sanjay Dnyaneshwar
Arts, Science & Commerce College,
Indapur, Pune
Awadhesh Kumar Shirotriya
Secretary,Play India Play,Meerut(U.P.)

N.S. Dhaygude
Ex. Prin. Dayanand College, Solapur
Narendra Kadu
Jt. Director Higher Education, Pune
K. M. Bhandarkar
Praful Patel College of Education, Gondia
Sonal Singh
Vikram University, Ujjain

Rajendra Shendge
Director, B.C.U.D. Solapur University,
Solapur
R. R. Yalikar
Director Managment Institute, Solapur
Umesh Rajderkar
Head Humanities & Social Science
YCMOU,Nashik
S. R. Pandya
Head Education Dept. Mumbai University,
Mumbai

Alka Darshan Shrivastava


G. P. Patankar
S. D. M. Degree College, Honavar, Karnataka Shaskiya Snatkottar Mahavidyalaya, Dhar
Maj. S. Bakhtiar Choudhary
Director,Hyderabad AP India.

Rahul Shriram Sudke


Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore

S.Parvathi Devi
Ph.D.-University of Allahabad

S.KANNAN
Annamalai University,TN

Sonal Singh,
Vikram University, Ujjain

Satish Kumar Kalhotra


Maulana Azad National Urdu University

Address:-Ashok Yakkaldevi 258/34, Raviwar Peth, Solapur - 413 005 Maharashtra, India
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Indian Streams Research Journal


ISSN 2230-7850
Volume-4 | Issue-3 | April-2014
Available online at www.isrj.net

MIGRATION IN SIKKIM: FACTS OR FRICTIONS


Gyaltsen Tsh. Bhutia and R. K. Srivastava
Ph.D student, Deptt of Economics, HNB Grawhal University, SRT Campus, Badshahi Thual, New Tehri.
Deptt of Economics, HNB Grawhal University, SRT Campus, Badshahi Thual, New Tehri.

Abstract:-Today's migrations become one of the important issues in the globe. The increasing influx of
migration and the illegal migration has become a great challenge to the policy maker for both the sending
and destination economy. The impact of migration on both the economy has genuine issue to be
discusses, analysis and closely study. Therefore, this study reveal to quantify the migration population in
Sikkim, to assess the impact on the socio-economy fabrics and to suggest the remedies had to cope up the
situation amicably. This study is purely based on secondary data which is collected from Census 1991,
Census 2001, Census 2011, A Statistical Profile of Sikkim 2002, State Socio-Economy Census 2006 etc.
Migration has positive as well as negative impact on both the economy. Sikkim is a small state touches
international boundary with least population and peace loving state. But after merge with the Indian
Union the influx of migration is recorded high. Therefore, an attempt has been made to highlight the
demographic pattern of Sikkim, economic activities of the migrants and their impact on Sikkim
economy.
Keywords: Migration, influx, impact, economy, amicably etc.
ABBREVIATIONS
AWL: Agriculture Wage Labour
BUSS: Business
C: Contractor
CAGR: Compound Annual Growth Rate
CG: Central Government
COI: Certificate of Identification
FM: Farmer
Govt: Government
MBC: Most Backward Classes
NAWL: Non-Agricultural Wage Labour
NGO: Non Government Organization
OBC: Other Backward Classes
OTH: Others
PSU: Public Sector Undertaking
PVT: Private
RSG: Regular Salaried (State Government)
SC: Scheduled Castes
SE: Self Employed
SSC: Sikkim Subject Certificate
SSEC: State Socio Economic Census
ST: Scheduled Tribes
STD: Students
UE: Unemployed
Gyaltsen Tsh. Bhutia and R. K. Srivastava,MIGRATION IN SIKKIM: FACTS OR FRICTIONS Indian Streams Research Journal | Volume 4 |
Issue 3 | April 2014 | Online & Print

.Migration In Sikkim: Facts Or Frictions


WC: Work Charged
INTRODUCTION
Migration is not a new phenomenon; it is a universal and continues since from the human evolution. The mobility of
people becomes the global issue and challenges to the policy maker in both the origin and host economy. According to Demko,
G.J.- Ross, H.M - Schneel, G.A. ( 1970), Migration is a dynamic process of population change, it provides an important
information factors which indicates the cause of social & economic change and also consider the adjustment into the new
economic environmental & social problems. Chapman, Keith (1979), State that migration is a good example of relocation of
people from two different places at one place. Gosal (1961) mentioned that migration cannot be considered a mere shifts of
residence of people from one place to another, as it is most fundamental process of changing of resident from one place to
another. Week, J.R. (1989), migration refers to shifting of resident from one place to another. He laid emphasis on crossing
political boundaries. IOM (international Organization for Migration) no universally accepted definition for migrant exists.
The term migrant was usually understood to cover all cases where the decision to migrate was taken freely by the individual
concerned for reasons of personal convenience without intervention the other factors. It is not merely a process of mobility
from one place to another place but it has a dynamic process of changing in the Demographic pattern, Socio-economic profile,
Political Scenario, Health, Education, Life style, Cultural & Traditional, Religious, as well as Environmental aspects. It has a
long-lasting impact on host country as well as original economy. Migration occurs when various push and pulls factors comes
together. (Bhagat & Mohanty 2009). The impact of mobility could be bear by both the economy original and destination in
many forms. Well the Skilled mobility will brings the positive impact in the destination economy at the same time lost of
quality labour & human resource in original economy. On the other hand large unskilled mobility will brings negatives impact
in various forms like demographic, economy& social changes but availability of cheap and efficient labour is plus point. It
plays an important role to change a socioeconomic profile and demographic pattern of both the economy. (Khan 2010). The
Social and Economic factor has been widely recognized for it. (Manner 2003). Therefore, a country cannot over-look the
adverse impact of migration in its economy especially when the world economy has been comforting the trap of low growth.
India is not exception and its small tiny state Sikkim is the case to be studies in a varied of reasons. Most importantly its border
touches with China, Nepal, and Bhutan.
Sikkim is a second smallest state of Indian union and its became a 22nd state on 16th may 1975, with total population
of 607688, (321661 males and 286027 females) as per the census of India 2011, which occupies a geographical area of
7096Sq.km. and having literacy rate 82.40%. Sikkim economy is driven by the secondary and tertiary sector, where tourism
sector promote as an economic growth engine. Agriculture is practice in an organic process base on terrace farming and
cultivation of crops like orange, large cardamom, tea etc. At a CAGR (2010) (compound annual growth rate) primary sector
contribute 9.9%, secondary 17.2% and tertiary 15% with the growth rate of 19.24%. These growing needs of the Sikkim
economy have attracted a large numbers of migration and immigration people in the State; it has also accounted a large number
of migration populations which has been coming from nearby States and the neighboring country. According to State Socio
Economic Census (SSEC) 2006, non-Sikkimess (migrants) people constitute 146564 person 25.20% to its total population in
Sikkim. In Sikkim migration or migrants were categorized on the basis those, who don't possess COI (certificate of
Identification), SSC (Sikkim Subject Certificate) and land registration document or Parcha, this growing migration in Sikkim
has impacting the economy. Therefore the main objectives of the article are: (I). to quantify the migration population in Sikkim.
(ii). to assess the impact on the socio-economy fabrics of Sikkim. (iii). to suggest the remedies had to cope up the situation
amicably.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study is based on secondary data which is taken from department of statistic bureau of Sikkim, socio-economic
Census 2006 Sikkim: a statistical profile 2002, Census 2001, Census 2011, Sikkim Govt website etc.
DATA ANALYSIS
The increasing influx into Sikkim is a genuine issue to be study. It may become a sensitive and controversial issue in
near future, if the policy maker cannot consider the issue seriously. Sikkim is a small state surrounded by the international
boundary from three sides. The people are peace loving and eco-friendly with rich culture & heritage and a unique identity. If
the influx continuously increases, than it may affect on culture & heritage, socio-economic and demographic pattern of local
tribe as well their identical threat. Especially, the indigenous local tribe (Lepcha & Bhutia) of Sikkim which population is
recorded least. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the changing scenario of demographic profile of the state,
economic activities of the migrants and their future impact on Sikkim economic.
TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH
The first population census of Sikkim was undertaken in 1891 during the British Raj. Sikkim during this period was a
Indian Streams Research Journal | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | April 2014

.Migration In Sikkim: Facts Or Frictions


protectorate state of the British. The State at that period was sparsely populated and most of the area was under forest covered.
During those periods Bhutia were 4894, Lepcha 5762, Limboo 3356 and Nepalese 15,458 numbers. (Source: SSEC 2006).
Table1.1. Show the Comparative Population, Sex ratio, Density, Growth Rate and percentage
of Migration in Sikkim.
Year

Population

Sex Ratio

Density

Growth Rate

1891
1901
1911
1921
1931
1941
1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011

30458
59014
87920
81721
109808
121520
137725
158589
209843
316385
406457
504851
607,688

938
916
951
970
967
920
907
904
863
835
878
875
889

4
8
12
12
15
17
19
23
30
45
57
76
86

93.76
48.98
-7.05
34.37
10.67
13.34
17.76
29.38
50.77
28.47
33.07
12.36

% of Migration in
total population
35
61
57
34.6
-

Source: 1991 census, 2001 census, 2011 census, and SSES 2006.
As per the above data shows that till 1960 data of migration is error. After merger with India the census categories the
migration data from total population. The percentage of migration is very high during 1981 and 1991 census with the growth
rate of 50.77 to 28.47 % of total population. Further the percentage also recorded high during 1971 and 2001. While, the sex
ratio recorded in decreasing from 1971 to till the latest census 2011.
The following analysis of migration data table is based on secondary data which is collected from SSES 2006 to
highlight the proportion of migration in Sikkim there percentage, working and non-working migration, age distribution, and
their economy activities.
Table 1.2. District wise Distribution of migration population and their percentage in Sikkim.
Sl.No
1
2
3
4

Districts
North
East
South
West
Total

Migrants
11557
95292
25974
13741
146564

Percentage
7.88%
65.02%
17.72%
9.38%
100%

Source: SSEC (2006)


According to the above table, 25.20% of total population of the state comprise of migration population in Sikkim. The
large proportion of migration i.e. 65.02% was residing in east district only. It is due to the located of capital of the state and the
fastest growing economy development as compare to other districts attracted large influx in this district. Follow by 17.72%,
9.38% 7.88% South, West and North respectively.
Table 1.3. Category and their percentage.
Sl.No
1

Category
ST

Male (%)
16.76

Female (%)
15.03

Total (%)
16.05

2
3
4
5
6

SC
MBC
OBC
Other
State

30.05
20.07
17.55
94.09
Total=27.06

28.09
18.86
16.12
92.38
Total=23.19

29.48
19.81
16.85
93.41
Total migrants = 25.20

Indian Streams Research Journal | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | April 2014

.Migration In Sikkim: Facts Or Frictions


Source: SSEC (2006)
As per the above data, the largest proportion of migrants belongs to other category. Out of 1,46,564 migration 50,483
(34.44%) population belongs to other community other than ST,SC,MBC and OBC. The proportion of male and female
migration was almost equal. It shows that maximum number of migration have been migrated with their family. This may
indicates that the demographic pattern of migration will further increase in the state. These lead increase of slum area, change in
demographic pattern, crime, poverty etc. On the other hand the Govt need extra expenditure to maintain all the things as usual.
This is the serious challenges and the matter of concern for the state Government in near future.
Table 1.4. Age-group and their percentage.
Sl. No

Age-Group

0-4

5-9

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65-69

70-74

<70

774

Not
Reporte
d
1535

Person

14059

16899

17384

19560

17173

13743

10834

9596

7374

6110

4320

2916

2042

1307

938

9.59

11.53

11.86

13.35

11.72

9. 38

7. 39

6.55

5.03

4. 17

2. 95

1.99

1. 39

0.89

0.64

T ota l

146564

0.53

1.05

25. 20

Source: SSEC (2006)


The age-group distribution of the migration is essential to study to know the changing pattern of migration population
at present as well as near future. As per record SSEC(2006), the age-group between 0-4, there was 51,607 child population in
the state out of which 72.76% are local child population and 27.24% are non-local (migrants population) contributed 8.63% &
9.59% among their population. The age-group from 5-19 contribute 34.8% & 36.74% local and migration population
respectively. This clearly show that the proportion of the young people of migrants population are higher than state. It may
affect the demographic, economic and social pattern of the state in near future. Further 53.41% of migration populations are in
between 15-44 age groups. It's also show that young and the working populations were dominated by the migration population.
Table 1.5. Showing the working and non-working persons of migration population and their percentage in Sikkim.
Sl.No
1
Percentage

Working
51997
24.62

Non-working
94567
25.54

Total1
146564
25.20

Source: SSEC (2006)


The above data show that, the proportion of young and non-working migrants are higher than working population. Its
means that maximum migrant are with their family and the possibility of further increases in migration population.
Table 1.6. The following table shows the economic activities of migration and their percentage in Sikkim.
Percentage distribution of migration and their Economic activities in Sikkim
STS

UE

OTH

FM

AWL

NAW
L

RSG

CG

PSU

PVT

BUSS

MR

SE

WC

24.28

25.86

27.08

12.5

31.09

61.48

6.72

42.73

57.18

50.56

60.34

9.73

47.58

9.83

13.95

Source: State socio economic census 2006


As per the above data, maximum numbers of migrants are engaged in secondary and service sector. The percentage of
migration is very high in business and allied sector. The data further reveal that the whole economy market as well as labour
market was captured by migrants. The proportion of agriculture wage labour is also high (31.09%) It shows that migrants also
engaged to boost the agriculture sector in Sikkim. Further, the proportion of students, unemployed and other were average in
percentage among the total population of migration. This shows that either there is lack of economic opportunity rather these
people doesn't need to be work. On the other hand, it is clearly show that by the nature of activities of the migration, people were
enjoying better economic status in the state.
Migration has a large benefit as well as impact to the receiving economic and departure economic too. Indian
constitution provides basic freedom to move to any part of the country, right to reside and earn livelihood of their choice. Thus,
migrants are not required to register either at the place of origin or at the place of destination. A number of economic, social,
cultural and political factors play an important role in the decision to move. Analysis of migration is important to understand
the movement which response a changes in economic, political and cultural factors within the country. (Singh, 1998).Limited
Indian Streams Research Journal | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | April 2014

.Migration In Sikkim: Facts Or Frictions


migration is benefited to receiving economic to growth in economic development but the unaccounted migration will ruin the
country economic growth and create different types of problem in different economic sector. Therefore, it is necessary to
discuss the impact of migration to show the true picture to the Govt and the policy maker of the state.
IMPACT OF MIGRATION
Large scale of migration and the consequent redistribution of population have a number of Economic, Social Political
and cultural implication on receiving country. Migration consists of different types of movements with different push and pulls
factors. The following impacts have been observed in this study.
1.Economic impact
2.Social impact
3.Cultural impact
Economic impact:Economic theory is well suited to help to understand the possible effects of migration for receiving economies. Most
papers find that migration has, at most, modest adverse effects on employment and wages of local workers. (Borjas 2003).
Following are some economic impact of migration in Sikkim:Loss of unskilled and semiskilled job: Migrants are very hardworking, efficient and loyal to the owner and always ready to
work in low wage as compare to local labour. Low wages accepted by migrant workers negatively affects wage rate of state.
Therefore people used to employ migrant's workers for their benefit and profit. This causes the losses of unskilled and semiskilled job for local unemployed in the state.
Capture unorganized sector: As per the data recorded almost maximum part of unorganized and other allied sector have
captured by migrants by doing business, working in private sector, labour market, street business etc. it will affect the local
youths who are willing to engage in this sector.
Flow of capital: Large chunk of money will flow outside the state in the form of remittances which is lost to the state revenue
and per capital income of local. It may affect the flow of liquidity during recession period.
Extra Govt expenditure: Government need to invest extra budget to arrange the migrants into proper place to develop the slum
area, provide education & all basic facilities, maintenance law and order, keeping data etc. consequently, it will affect the pace
of development.
Acceptances of low wages: Migrants labours always ready to work at low wages instead to remain ideal. It will create the fear
of losing jobs or purchasing power of local because of migrants is often widespread among the native population in the labour
market.
Social impact
Migration not only affects the economic and cultural impacts to the receiving economic but socially adversely.
Following points highlights the social impact of migration in Sikkim:Change in demographic pattern: In-Migration in Sikkim become more conspicuous after 1975. In between 1971-1981 Sikkim
recorded very high level of in-migration 35%. From 1981-1991 a decline was recorded from 61% in 1981 to 57%in 1991. In the
proportion of in-migrants from abroad 46% in 1971 to 43%in 1981 and 35% in 1991. The in-migration within the country is
recorded 54% to 65% in 1971 to 1991. In 2001, its recorded 34.6% of migrants to its total population. (Source: census 2001).
Further, in-migration was recorded as 25.20% to its total population (source: SSES 2006). This large scale of migration in the
state has definitely changed the demographic pattern of state. For example Assam.
Change in political system: By forming NGOs, Social groups and illegally obtains some document they demand their rights,
facilities and recommend them for permanent resident. Due to large scale of influx and hunger of power of politician which
seen a slowly the changing phase of politics & political system of Sikkim.
Increase slum area: Usually we observe that the large scales of migration were the poor people who have migrated from one
place to another place for their livelihood. These people were settling down around the cities, towns, market etc by making a
small tent and hut consequently increase in slum area, garbage, pollution, disease etc.
Increase violence and crime: Crime like Domestic Violence, Theft, Rape, Murder, Sexual assault, Suicide etc has been
recorded and register against migrants in different part of Sikkim. Sikkim recorded highest in Suicide, once Chief Minister
state that 50% of suicide has done by outsider (migrants) in Sikkim. (Source: Unofficial data).
Insecure among the local labour: Local labour demand high wage rate and less efficiency as compare to migrants labours. They
are more reliable, hard working, efficient, cheap which has high demand in the labour market. To promote and protect the local
labours interest Govt need to take initiative to fixed the wage rate according to the work. So that local labour may not feel
insecure and shifted to other sector for work.
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.Migration In Sikkim: Facts Or Frictions


3 Cultural impacts
Migration is a tool of cultural diffusion and social integration which create communities within community. It is also
consider being a spatial interaction too. (Srivastava 1983). Following are some points of cultural impacts of migration in
Sikkim:Cultural assimilation: Large scale of influx may assimilate a cultural diffusion of destiny country. Because when they migrate
they are migrants only and when they settle down and established together follow different cultures, traditional, custom,
religion etc, which effect the cultural environment of local area.
Language dominancy: Definitely large scale of migrants from the large community may affect in local society. For e.g. Assam,
Sikkim (In some urban schools in Sikkim students start conversation in Bhojpuri, Bengali, Hindi etc) instead of local language.
If the concern administrator and the Govt couldn't consider such issue than the local languages will be dominance by migrants'
languages.
Identity threat: The indigenous and original tribe of Sikkim especially, (Lepcha & Bhutia) has very low population around 18%
of total population. If the influx continuously increases than their identity will comes under danger.
SUGGESTION
This study is not comprehensive in the view of sample size and analysis. Therefore, before any major step is taken in this
direction. It is highly essential for Labour Department of Sikkim to conduct a comprehensive study regarding the causes of
migration and Immigration in Sikkim as well as to know status and present working condition at different economy areas. This
will provide a sound action in the direction of protecting external labour migration and immigration.
1.To checked the influx of the migration: It is clearly showed that the populations of the migration are higher and it will be
higher in future too. In order to control the influx of migration the Govt has to implement a sound policy to control the influx of
the migration. For example, if the Govt will encourage, inspire and given all the economic opportunity to the local youth than
there must seen a decreasing sign of influx.
2.Registration: Registration is necessary to check and balance the influx and proper implementation of Govt policy.
3.Youth awareness programme: The various NGOs and Govt agencies has to operate awareness programme to the local youth
regarding the dignity of labour. If failed than there must be a large impact of this migration in various economic, social and
demographic prospects.
4.Review in licenses system: Strict rule and regulation needed while issuing licenses to local entrepreneur. The Govt made it
mandatory for those who applied for any license should strictly prohibited to others on lease.
5.Migrants' worker to be allows or employed only in such occupation to which Sikkimess are not available.
6.Work permit: Workers can be employed only with proper identification, health check up and work permit.
7.Tax: leave certain tax with the income of the migrants workers.
8.Migrant's workers have access to free health checkup facilities to maintain healthy and diseases free environment.
9. Focus on programme like gradual reduction and replacement of migrants workers by locals.
10.So far, there is no foreign labour organization; therefore, it is very essential to form foreign labour organization in order to
solve their problem smoothly.
SUMMARY
This study is based on secondary data which has been collected from census data 2001, A statistical profile of Sikkim:
2002, Socio-Economic Census 2006, Census 2011, Govt website and Published & unofficial data. The study try to quantify the
migration population in Sikkim, to assess the impact on the socio-economy fabrics of Sikkim and to suggest the remedies had
to cope up the situation amicably. According to data recorded the first population census of Sikkim was done in 1891 during the
British Raj. During that census Sikkim recorded only 30,458 populations with 4person of density. Till 1970 the growth rate of
population recorded in between 10-20% and no migration population was recorded. After the merger with the Indian Union in
1975, the large amount of migration population was recorded. In 1971 census 35% of migration population was recorded, 61%
in 1981, 57% in 1991 and 34.6% on 2001 (source: census 2001). Further 25.20% was recorded during the State socio-economic
Census of Sikkim 2006. As per the data large scale of migration is recorded during 1970-1990 with the growth rate of 50.77% to
total population. The large scale of migrant population affects the demographic pattern, socio-economic profile and cultural
aspect in Sikkim. According to SSES2006, 65.02% of migration population was lived in east district. It is due to the capital
state, pace of infrastructure & buildings development etc high scale of labour was demanded in the labour market follow by
south district 17.72%, than 9.38% west district and 7.88% in north district. Among them 27.06% are male migrants and 23.19%
are female migrants. In category based migration the highest number of percentage was recorded from other category 93.41%,
follow by SC 2948%, 19.81% MBC, 16.85% OBC and 16.05% are from ST migrants. This means the high percentage of
migrants is from general category. Further, the data recorded that maximum percentage of migrants are young in between 5-30
years of age. This is the really the matter of concern. These means maximum numbers of migrants are with their family. It
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.Migration In Sikkim: Facts Or Frictions


clearly shows that the proportion of young migrants will increase further. This may impact on increasing unemployment in
Sikkim and threat of capturing the whole labour market.
The impact of migration has clearly seen in the economy activities of migration in Sikkim. More than 60% of
migrations are engaged in business activities in Sikkim. While, 61.48% were engaged in NAWL, 57.18% in PSU, 50.56% in
Private sectors and 31.09% are in AGL. The data reveal that the migrants are mostly engaged in sound economic activities in
Sikkim. They almost capture the whole economy market and labour market. This is merely a big challenge to the policy maker
and Govt of Sikkim.
The study concluded that the trends of migration and their percentage have various impacts on socio-economic and
demographic pattern in Sikkim. The study observes the following impacts:-i. Economic impact likes loss of semi skilled and
unskilled job, labour and economy market dominated low wages etc. ii. Social impact like change in demographic pattern,
change in political system, increase in slum area, crime etc and Cultural impact like cultural assimilation, languages
dominancy, identical threat epically to local indigenous tribe (Lepcha & Bhutia). Numerous studies show that the process of
migration is influenced by social, cultural and economic factors and out comes can be vastly different for man and women for
different groups and different locations (ibid).
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Gyaltsen Tsh. Bhutia


Ph.D student, Deptt of Economics, HNB Grawhal University, SRT Campus, Badshahi Thual, New Tehri.

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