You are on page 1of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001 Rev-1

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


DESIGN CRITERIA

Amendment History

No

Date

Amendment

Description

Proposed

Approved

Incorporated

DGS History

April 2009

DGS-ME-001-Rev-1

Base Reference Project


5578

TH/DDC

QAM / MAY

March 2006

DGS-ME-001-Rev-0

Previous Project / Lessons


Learnt Incorporated

TH/DDC

ETSDM / EPDM

No

Date

Description

Source

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Reviewed

Initials

Approved

Page 1 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

GENERAL ................................................................................................................................3
1.1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................3
1.2 PURPOSE.......................................................................................................................3
1.3 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................3
1.4 EXCEPTIONS .................................................................................................................3
2.0 CODES AND STANDARDS .....................................................................................................3
3.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ...................................................................................................4
4.0 DOCUMENT PRECEDENCE ...................................................................................................4
5.0 SPECIFICATION DEVIATION/CONCESSION CONTROL ......................................................4
6.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL ........................................................................5
7.0 DOCUMENTATION ..................................................................................................................5
8.0 SUBCONTRACTORS/VENDORS............................................................................................5
9.0 HANDLING ...............................................................................................................................5
10.0 DESIGN....................................................................................................................................5
10.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .........................................................................................5
10.2 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................9
11.0 MATERIALS ...........................................................................................................................20
12.0 FABRICATION........................................................................................................................21
13.0 TESTING ................................................................................................................................21
ADDENDUM SHEET .......................................................................................................................22

List of Authorized Signatures/ Initials

DGS Discipline Committee Member, ADRD

------------------------------

DGS Discipline Committee Member, RRD

------------------------------

DGS Discipline Committee Member Leader, E&PD

Taha Hussein (TH)

Engineering & Technical Services Manager, E&PD

Quazi Abdul Matin (QAM)

Engineering & Projects Division Manager, E&PD

Mohamed Al Yabhouni (MAY)

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 2 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

1.0

GENERAL

1.1

INTRODUCTION

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

This Specification establishes the criteria for the thermal design of standard TEMA type
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers for the PROJECT. It also defines the minimum process
and mechanical data required for thermal and hydraulic design and completion of Heat
Exchanger Data Sheets (hereinafter referred to as Data Sheets).
1.2

PURPOSE
The purpose of this specification is to ensure consistency in selection and design of TEMA
type shell and tube heat exchangers for the Project.

1.3

DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of the specification, the following definitions shall apply:
CONCESSION REQUEST A deviation requested by the SUBCONTRACTOR or
VENDOR, usually after receiving the contract package or purchase order. Often, it refers
to an authorization to use, repair, recondition, reclaim, or release materials, components
or equipment already in progress or completely manufactured but which does not meet or
comply with COMPANY requirements. A CONCESSION REQUEST is subject to
COMPANY approval.
SHALL Indicates a mandatory requirement.
SHOULD Denotes an action or requirement which is not mandatory but which is strongly
recommended.

1.4

EXCEPTIONS
This specification does not apply to design of Double Pipe Heat Exchangers, Plate Heat
Exchangers, Water Cooled Surface Condensers, and Brazed Aluminum Fin Heat
Exchangers. For other special applications only part of this specification may be relevant,
subject
to
mutual
agreement
between
VENDOR/MANUFACTURER
and
COMPANY/CONTRACTOR.

2.0

CODES AND STANDARDS


It shall be the VENDOR'S responsibility to be, or to become, knowledgeable of the
requirements of the referenced Codes and Standards.
The following Codes and Standards, to the extent specified herein, form a part of this
specification. The latest edition in force shall apply:
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) Standards API 660 : Shell &
Tube Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 3 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

WRC Bulletin 107 : Local stresses in spherical and cylindrical shells due to external
loadings.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO 9001 - 2000

Quality Management System Requirements

ISO 9004 - 2000

Quality Management Guidelines for Performance Improvement


System

ISO 9011

Guidelines for Quality and/or Environmental System Auditing

WRC Bulletin 297 : Local stresses in spherical and cylindrical shells due to external
loadings (Supplement to WRC Bulletin No 107).
3.0

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
The following reference documents, to the extent specified herein, form a part of this
specification. When an edition date is not indicated for a document, the latest edition in
force at the time of VENDORS/CONTRACTORS proposal submittal shall apply.
Project Specifications
DGS-MU-013

Criticality Rating System

DGS-MU-014

Minimum Shop Inspection and Certification Requirements

Standard Drawings

4.0

STD-MD-00020

Nozzles for Apparatus

STD-ME-00001

Brackets for Standard Vertical Reboilers, Nominal Diameter 350


up/including 1100 mm

STD-ME-00008

Saddles for Horizontal Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

DOCUMENT PRECEDENCE
The VENDOR shall notify the CONTRACTOR of any apparent conflict between this
specification, the related Data Sheets, the Codes and Standards and any other
specifications noted herein. Resolution and/or interpretation precedence shall be obtained
from the CONTRACTOR in writing before proceeding with the design/manufacture.
In case of conflict, the order of precedence shall be stated in the AGREEMENT or other
PROJECT documents as applicable.

5.0

SPECIFICATION DEVIATION/CONCESSION CONTROL

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 4 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

Any technical deviations to the Purchase Order and its attachments including, but not
limited to, the Data Sheets and Narrative Specifications shall be sought by the VENDOR
only through CONCESSION REQUEST format. CONCESSION REQUESTS require
CONTRACTORS and COMPANYS review/approval, prior to the proposed technical
changes being implemented. Technical changes implemented prior to COMPANY
approval are subject to rejection.
6.0

QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL


The Criticality Rating (CR) System outlined in Project Specification DGS-MU-013 shall be
used by CONTRACTOR or CONTRACTORS designee to develop the design checking
levels and minimum requirements for shop inspection, testing and material certification
given in Project Specification DGS-MU-014.

7.0

DOCUMENTATION
This section is not applicable to this specification.

8.0

SUBCONTRACTORS/VENDORS
This section is not applicable to this specification.

9.0

HANDLING
This section is not applicable to this specification.

10.0

DESIGN

10.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

10.1.1

Definitions
Clean Service shall include services where the fouling resistance is less than or equal to
0.00034 m2 hrC/kcal (0.0017 ft2 hr F/Btu).
Fouling Service shall include all services not otherwise defined as clean service, or
where mechanical cleaning is required.

10.1.2

Process Data
In addition to heat duty, fluid identity, flow rates, design pressures and temperatures,
operating pressures and temperatures, allowable pressure drops, material of construction
and exchanger type and setting, the process data shall include, but not be limited to, the
following:

10.1.2.1

Sensible Heat Transfer Service


a.

Vapour and Gas

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 5 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

Density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity at two reference


temperatures, molecular weight and hydrogen partial pressure.
b.

10.1.2.2

10.1.2.3

Liquid

Density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and viscosity at two reference


temperatures. For liquid streams having a high viscosity, a third viscosity data
point at an intermediate temperature or viscosity/temperature correlation is
desirable, except that when the viscous liquid is being cooled, the third data
point should be at the average temperature of the opposing stream.

Physical properties of hydrocarbon streams shall be weighted to include the


effect of miscible water, and shall be so specified.

Immiscible or free water shall be shown on the Data Sheet. Fluid properties
shall not be weighted to include immiscible water.

Condensing Service
a.

Physical property requirements shall be the same as for sensible heat transfer plus
the bubble point, dew point, latent heat, quantity and molecular weight of
noncondensible gas and quantity of steam when present. Vapor physical properties
shall be weighted for the entire vapor phase mixture. For cases where H2 content is
more than 10 mol percent, vapor mixture physical properties shall be given under
three referenced temperatures. Latent heat for a steam/hydrocarbon mixture shall
be for the hydrocarbon only.

b.

Data Sheets shall state if condensation is linear, unless heat release data is
provided.

c.

For nonlinear heat release services, a plot with duty, weight percent vapor and
molecular weight and liquid surface tension versus temperature shall be provided.

d.

When fluid entering exchanger is a vapor mixture at its dew point temperature,
liquid properties shall also be given at that temperature unless sensible heat is 10
percent or less of total duty.

Boiling Service
a.

Physical property requirements shall be the same as for sensible heat transfer plus
liquid surface tension, mixture bubble point and dew point, critical pressure and
temperature and latent heat.

b.

The Process Engineer shall provide tables or curves showing vapor temperature
and fraction vaporized at two constant reference pressures between bubble point
and dew point, with three additional points between. The three additional points
must be close to the operating range. For pure components or in cases with very
narrow boiling ranges only vapor pressures at two temperatures need be provided.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 6 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.1.2.4

10.1.2.5

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

c.

For non-linear heat release services, a plot with duty, molecular weight and weight
percent vapor versus temperature shall be provided.

d.

For kettle reboilers, the required entrainment ratio (kg liq/kg vapor) shall be
provided, including steam purity for steam generators.

e.

For thermosyphon reboilers complete piping geometry between the fractionating


column and the reboiler must be analyzed, together with the available static head.

Corrosion Allowance
a.

For all exchanger parts, except tubes, the materials of construction and corrosion
allowance shall be selected to give exchangers a design service life of 30 years, in
accordance with Project Specifications. Corrosion allowance shall be specified on
the Data Sheets.

b.

Tubes shall have a design life of ten years, and where necessary to achieve this,
corrosion allowance for tubes in high pressure service shall be specified.

Fouling
Fouling factors and cleaning requirements shall be specified on the Data Sheets.

10.1.2.6

Nozzle Sizes
Where practical, the exchanger nozzles shall be designed to match the line sizes provided
that the exchanger's thermal, vibration and hydraulic requirements are met, and that
TEMA entrance and exit velocity criteria are met.

10.1.2.7

Excess Heat Transfer Surface


Any requirements for excess surface must be fully explained on the Data Sheet, with
instruction on effect on flow, temperatures and pressure drops if these are to differ from
those listed on the Data Sheets. It is insufficient to add notes such as provide 10 percent
excess surface.

10.1.2.8

Design Temperature and Pressure


a.

All parts of the tube bundle including floating head shall be designed for either full
tubeside internal pressure or full shellside external pressure, whichever condition is
controlling. Differential pressure shall not be used as design basis unless specified.

b.

In selecting design temperatures for multiple exchangers in series, consideration


shall be given to the maximum or minimum temperature, on each side of each
exchanger, that results from either fouled or clean operation.

c.

The differential between the inlet and outlet operating temperatures of a shellside
fluid should not exceed 200C (360F) per shell.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 7 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

d.

The differential between the inlet and outlet operating temperatures of channels of
multipass exchangers should not exceed 120C (216F) per exchanger.

e.

For the determination of the design pressure on the low pressure side, the greater
of the initial design pressure on the low pressure side or 77% of the design
pressure on the high pressure side shall be taken.

f.

For heat exchangers in series, individual shells of a unit may have different design
temperatures for economy in material selection. Where this applies, measures shall
be taken to prevent incorrect line-up of shells within the unit.

g.

The effect of the temperature profile over a thick wall tubesheet not being linear
shall be taken into account because this may have a large consequence on the
mean metal temperature as well as on the temperature gradient and stresses
within the tubesheet.

h.

Unless otherwise specified on Data Sheets/drawings, the design pressure shall be


as follows:

i.
10.1.2.9

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE


(kg/cm2 G):

DESIGN PRESSURE
(kg/cm2 G):

Full or partial vacuum

1.05 external/3.5 internal

0 (Gauge) - 0.35

0.5 external/3.5 internal

0.36 - 1.8

3.5

1.81 - 17.2

Operating + 1.7

17.3 - 70.0

Operating + 10 %

70.0 - 140.0

Operating + 7.0

140.0 - Up

Operating + 5%

Both, Design Temperature (DT) and Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
shall be identified on Data Sheets.

Allowable Pressure Drop


Allowable pressure drop shown on the Data Sheet shall be for clean conditions.

10.1.3

Mechanical Data
The complete Data Sheets shall include the following information, as a minimum:
a.

Process data (including heat release curves, when applicable).

b.

Parameters defining exchangers thermal performance (i.e. heat transfer coefficients,


calculated pressure drops, Mean Temperature Difference, etc.).

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 8 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

c.

Definition of exchangers type and orientation.

d.

Identification of any special design considerations.

e.

Outline drawing, defining overall dimensions, required maintenance clearances,


locations of vents, drains and any other non-process connections, process nozzles
size, rating, location and projection, saddles location and projections, location and
sizing of the anchor bolts, and flow direction.

f.

Definition of internals, like baffle spacing or internal expansion joints.

g.

Tube layout including as a minimum: number of tubes, tube diameter, outer tube limit
(OTL), baffle cut, baffle orientation, sealing and sliding strips, tie rod location and
size, definition of impingement protection (if required), and schematic identification of
the shellside nozzle size.

h.

Identification of materials and corrosion allowances.

i.

Identification of special services and NDE requirements.

j.

Identification of PMI requirements.

10.2

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

10.2.1

General Requirements
a.

TEMA Class Selection


All shell and tube heat exchangers for this PROJECT shall be in accordance with
TEMA classR.

b.

The thermal design and rating shall be based on the design methods which have
been proven in practice. In this respect, the design procedures and computer
programs published by the Heat Transfer Research Institute (HTRI), and Heat
Transfer and Fluid Flow Service (HTFS) are considered proven design methods.
HTRI Methods are preferred.

10.2.2

Exchanger Type Selection

10.2.2.1

Front/Rear Head Selection


a.

Type B front head shall be used for clean service and/or for design pressure above
30.0 kg/cm2(G). For fouling service and for design pressure less than or equal to
10.15 kg/cm2 (G), Type A front head shall be used.

b.

Rear end head Type M should be used for fixed tubesheet designs. However, for
heat exchangers with a Type A front end stationary head and an odd number of tube
passes Type L shall be selected.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 9 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.2.2.2

10.2.2.3

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

c.

Rear end head Type S should be used for floating head type heat exchangers with a
nominal shell diameter of more than DN 250. Alternative construction would need to
be considered for diameters up to DN 250. Rear end head Type T shall be used for
a kettle type heat exchanger with floating head.

d.

Types P and N are not permitted.

e.

High pressure or other design requirements may justify deviation from the guidelines
shown.

Use of Fixed Tubesheet (nonremovable bundle) Exchangers


a.

Use of fixed tubesheet exchangers requires prior approval by the COMPANY.

b.

Nonremovable bundle exchangers may be used in clean shellside service where a


shellside expansion joint is not required. The use of shellside expansion joints
require prior approval by the COMPANY.

c.

The differential expansion between shell and tubes of a fixed tubesheet exchanger
shall be based on the controlling metal temperatures, either clean or one side fouled.

d.

The maximum controlling differential temperature between the tube and shellside
during operation, start-up, shutdown or steamout shall be stated on the Data Sheet
and used to determine the requirement for an expansion joint and tubesheet
thickness on a fixed tubesheet heat exchanger. If design consideration result in
expansion joint being required, a removable bundle type exchanger shall be
selected.

Use of U-Tube Bundles


U-tube bundles shall be used only for the clean service on the tubeside as defined in
paragraph 10.1.1. Other design considerations may govern, but require prior approval by
the COMPANY.

10.2.2.4

Shell Selection
The single-pass shell, Type E, shall be selected for general duties, except as indicated
below:
a.

Where the shellside pressure drop is a restricting factor, the divided flow shell Type J
or cross-flow shell Type X or double-split flow shell Type H, should be considered.

b.

For horizontal shellside thermosyphon reboilers, Types G, H, J, or X should be


selected.

c.

The kettle type shell, Type K, should be selected for boiling where almost 100%
vaporization (0-5% entrainment) or where a phase separation is required.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 10 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

d.

10.2.2.5

The use of TEMA Type F shells with removable bundles is discouraged unless there
are considerable economic savings or design advantages. Limit shellside pressure
drop to 0.49 kg/cm2 (7.0 psi) per shell and temperature differential between shell
inlet and shell outlet to 140C (252F).

Horizontal and Vertical Exchangers


a.

Heat exchangers should be of the horizontal type; however, for process


requirements or where cleaning and other maintenance will be infrequent or space
requirements make it more attractive, the vertical arrangement may be considered.

b.

For thermosyphon reboilers, vertical orientation is preferred to horizontal orientation.


However, all aspects of design, vibration, maintainability, and performance should be
evaluated when making a selection.

c.

When horizontal arrangements are preferred, the stacking of exchangers should be


considered to conserve space in the structure. Preferred stacking should be 2 (two)
shells high.

10.2.3

Tube Bundle

10.2.3.1

Design Considerations
a.

Maximum Size
Maximum sizes shall be as shown below. Larger sizes may be considered to realize
economic or design advantages. Larger sizes must be approved by the COMPANY.

b.

The maximum straight length for tubes shall be 7315 mm (24 feet).

The maximum bundle diameter for removable bundle exchanges shall be 1524
mm (60 inches).

The maximum removable bundle weight shall be 20,000 kg (44,092 lb).

Standard straight lengths for tubes shall be as follows:


Millimeters
(Feet)

2438

3048

3658

4877

6096

7315

(8)

(10)

(12)

(16)

(20)

(24)

c.

The ratio of tube length to bundle outer diameter for removable bundles shall be less
than 10:1.

d.

The maximum tube length for vertical thermosyphon reboilers shall be 6096 mm
(20 ft).

e.

Selection of different tube lengths than above for U-tubes may be considered when
economically justified.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 11 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.2.3.2

Tube Diameters and Gauges


The following table specifies bare tube diameters and minimum permissible gauges
(BWG):
Carbon Steel And Low
Alloys

Copper, Copper Alloys


And
High Alloys

(Min. Wall)

(Min. Wall)

19.05 mm
(0.75 in.)

2.11 mm
(0.083 in.)

1.65 mm
(0.065 in.)

25.4 mm
(1 in.)

2.77 mm
(0.109 in.)

2.11 mm
(0.083 in.)

*31.75 mm
(1.25 in.)

3.40 mm
(0.134 in.)

2.77 mm
(0.109 in.)

Tube OD

*
10.2.3.3

Use of 31.75 mm OD tubes requires prior approval by COMPANY.

Tube Diameter, Pitch and Layout


The following table defines criteria for selection of tube diameter, pitch and layout:
Shellside
Service

Tubeside Fouling
m2 hrC/kcal

Min. Tube
O.D.

(ft2 hrF/Btu)

mm ( in.)

Pitch, mm (in.)
and layout

Clean*

Up to and including
0.0006 (0.003)

19.05 (0.75)

25.4 (1.0) 30/45/90

Clean*

Over 0.0006 (0.003)

25.4 (1)

31.75 (1.25)
30/45/90

Fouling*

Up to and including
0.0006 (0.003)

19.05 (0.75)

25.4 (1) 45/90

Fouling*

Over 0.0006 (0.003)

25.4 (1)

31.75 (1.25) 45/90

As defined in paragraph 10.1.1.

Exceptions to the above table are as follows:


a.

The pitch and layout guidelines shown above are the minimum starting points for
economic design. Larger pitch or different layout patterns may be required to
satisfy pressure drop or boiling flux requirements.

b.

Tube pitch for heavy wall tubes shall not be less than the recommended values in
TEMA Table R-7.22.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 12 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.2.3.4

10.2.3.5

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

c.

Rotated square layouts (45) are preferable for Laminar Flow. In turbulent flow,
especially for pressure drop-limited cases, square layout (90) is preferred.

d.

Triangular or rotated triangular pitch shall be used only for nonremovable bundle
designs.

Baffles and Support Plates


a.

Permissible types of transverse baffles are segmental, double segmental and the
segmental type having no tubes in the window area.

b.

Horizontal cut segmental baffles are not acceptable for systems where the shellside
fluid is two phase or contains suspended solids.

c.

Baffle cut perpendicular to nozzle centerline (normally horizontal cut) is preferred for
single phase fluids. Where shellside inlet nozzle has 180 rotation from shellside
outlet nozzle, the number of shellside crosspasses must be odd for segmental
baffles.

d.

The minimum baffle cut for segmental baffles shall be 15 percent of the shell inside
diameter.

e.

All U-tube bundles shall have full support plate at U-bend. The full support plate
shall be trimmed to the extent defined by the baffles outline (on top and bottom) but
covering the full tube layout.

f.

All baffles shall have a V-notch at bottom to allow draining. In addition, baffles
used in 2-phase flow shall have a V-notch on top of the baffle.

Bundle Rotation
Where possible, without decreasing the thermal performance of the exchanger, the carbon
steel tube bundles shall be designed to allow their operation after being placed back into
the exchanger, following a 180 rotation around the bundle's longitudinal axis.

10.2.3.6

Tubesheet
All removable bundles used with a B type front head shall have their stationary tubesheets
extended to be equal to the shell flange outside diameter. Tubesheet thickness must be
sufficient to eliminate a need for test rings.
Removable bundles used with an A type front head do not need to have full diameter
tubesheets. Exchangers with extended tubesheets and B type front heads shall be fitted
with 100% collar bolts in order to allow shellside hydrotest with Bonnet removed.

10.2.3.7

Maximum Unsupported Tube Length


The maximum unsupported tube span shall not be more than 0.8 times the values shown
on TEMA Table R-4.52.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 13 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.2.3.8

Finned Tubes
Wolverine type S/T (or equal) low and medium height integral fin tubes are acceptable
under the following conditions, but require COMPANY approval:

10.2.3.9

a.

The shellside fouling resistance using low fin tubes does not exceed 0.00017 m2 hr
C/kcal. Medium height fin tubes are to be used only in gas services with fouling not
greater than 0.00017 m2 hr C/kcal.

b.

The shellside stream is boiling or in the turbulent flow regime.

c.

Their application is economically attractive. As a general guideline finning may be


feasible, when the unfinned heat transfer coefficients, corrected for fouling, indicates
the shellside coefficient controlling by a ratio of 2:1 or more (low fin tubes may be
feasible) and 3:1 or more (medium height fins may be feasible). To avoid fretting of
the tubes in baffle/support plates, the baffle and/or support plates shall have a
thickness in accordance with TEMA Table R-4.41; however, the minimum thickness
shall not be less than 13 mm.

d.

High-finned tubing is not permitted.

e.

Longitudinally-finned tubes are not allowed for shell and tube exchangers.

U-Tube Bundle Bend Radius


Bends with radius R < 1.5 times nominal tube OD are not permitted.

10.2.4

Water-Cooled Coolers

10.2.4.1

Cooling water shall be placed on the tubeside and should run upwards through the tubes
in order to avoid gas build-up. The tubeside velocity should be as specified in this
specification. The tubeside shall be maintained at a positive pressure so that air cannot
separate from or be sucked into the water.

10.2.4.2

Cooling Water Velocity


a.

Tubeside velocity range for seawater or brackish water shall be as follows:


Tube Material

b.

Velocity m/s (FPS)

Titanium

1.5 - 4.6

(4.9-15.1)

70-30 Cu-Ni

1.5 - 3.7

(4.9-12.1)

90-10 Cu-Ni
Al Brass, Al Bronze

1.5 - 2.7
1.5 - 2.0

(4.9-8.9)
(4.9-6.6)

Monel

1.5 - 3.7

(4.9-12.1)

Incoloy 825, Carpenter 20 CB3

1.5 - 3.7

(4.9-12.1)

Incoloy 625, Hastelloy C

1.5 - 3.7

(4.9-12.1)

Tubeside velocity range for treated/fresh cooling water shall be as follows:

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 14 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

Velocity m/s (FPS)

Tube Material

10.2.5

Carbon and Low Alloy Steel

1.0 - 2.1

(3.3-6.9)

Austenitic Stainless Steel

2.0 - 4.5

(6.6 14.8)

Titanium

1.0 - 4.5

(3.3-14.8)

Inhibited Admiralty

1.0 - 2.7

(3.3-8.9)

70-30 Cu-Ni

1.0 - 3.0

(3.3-9.8)

90-10 Cu-Ni

1.0 - 2.5

(3.3-8.2)

Aluminum, Brass, Alum. Bronze

1.0 - 2.1

(3.3-6.9)

Monel

1.8 - 3.5

(5.9 11.5)

Incoloy 825, Carpenter 20 CB3

1.5 - 3.7

(4.9-12.1)

Tubeside/Shellside Selection
In general, tubeside/shellside selection shall be made to satisfy as many as possible of the
following points, unless otherwise indicated on Data Sheets:
Service

Shellside

Tubeside

Seawater

Cooling Water

Condensing
steam)

Vapors

(except

Lower Allowable P
Larger
Flow
Properties

X
X

and

Similar

Higher Pressure Fluids

Corrosive
Construction

Fluids/Alloy

*High Fouling Factors


High Viscosity/Laminar Flow
*

X
X

If chemical cleaning can be utilized, the fouling fluid may be placed on the shellside.

10.2.6

Special Applications

10.2.6.1

Slurry Handling
Slurry services shall be routed through the tubeside of the exchanger.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 15 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

Minimum tube size shall be 25.4 mm (1 in.) OD at 2.77 mm (0.109 in.) (BWG) minimum
wall thickness.
Velocity limits for cycle oil containing catalyst fine shall be as listed below. The optimum
velocity is 1.75 m/sec (5.74 ft/sec).
Velocity m/s (FPS)
Maximum

Minimum

Straight tube

2.13

(7.0)

1.14

(3.74)

U-tube

1.75

(5.74)

1.14

(3.74)

Straight tube construction is recommended.


Slurry flow shall be horizontal or downward.
10.2.6.2

HF Acid/Lethal Service
To minimize potential of acid leakage into the process area, exchanger design shall
provide as few joint closures as practical.

10.2.6.3

Pulsating Flow on Shellside


Maximum unsupported tube length for vapor or 2-phase flow shall be 914 mm (36 inches).
Design shall include adequate impingement protection plate or a distributor belt so that
V2 into a bundle shall not exceed 744 kg/m-s2 (500 lb/ft-s2).

10.2.7

Kettle-Type Reboilers and Evaporators


The shell diameter depends on the required vapor escape area above the tube bundle.
Vapor velocities shall nowhere exceed the maximum vapor velocity determined by the
entrainment requirements.
These entrainment requirements shall be specified in Data Sheets.
The design shall take into account that frothing is likely to occur above the liquid level. An
allowance 125 mm shall be made for this frothing. The height of the escape area above
the frothing allowance shall be at least 250 mm.
Minimum of two (2) vapor outlet nozzles shall be used for bundles longer than 4877 mm
(16 ft).
The entry for vapor/liquid mixtures shall be above the boiling pool. Provision shall be
made to separate the vapor phase from the liquid phase by using a deflector plate, spider
pipe or other suitable arrangement.
A device recommended for distributing the liquid/vapor mixture above the froth bed is the
spider pipe arrangement shown in Figure 1 below:

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 16 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

Figure 1.

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

SPIDER PIPES

The requirements for spider pipes are as follows:


a.

Located at the position of lowest vapor generation

b.

The mixed vapor/liquid stream should direct downwards against the shell wall to
promote separation of the liquid and vapor

c.

No holes in the direct path from the inlet nozzle

d.

The velocity head in the inlet nozzle shall be 4000 kg/m-s2 maximum

e.

The velocity head in the spider header shall be 1000 kg/m-s2 maximum

f.

The velocity head in the holes shall be 4000 kg/m-s2 maximum

If considered necessary, provision shall be made for cleaning the spider pipes.
A vortex breaker shall be provided for the liquid outlet nozzles.
If the liquid level is to be controlled by instrumentation, a calming baffle shall be installed
to prevent boiling turbulence from affecting the level instruments.
The liquid space shall be determined by the liquid hold-up requirements.
A distance of 50 mm minimum shall be maintained between the bottom of the bundle and
the bottom inside diameter of the shell so as not to obstruct liquid recirculation into the
bundle.
Weir plate shall be located behind tube bundle, and it shall be welded tightly to the shell.
Weir plate shall have no drain holes and have sufficient height to flood top of top tubes
with a minimum of 50 mm of process fluid during normal operation.
The minimum distance between weir plate and the shell head tangent line shall be
1220 mm.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 17 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

A hold angle shall be provided and placed above the tube bundle to keep bundle in place
during shipment and handling. It shall be located directly above and close to the floating
head flanges (type T) or the full support plate (at u-bend) when u-tube construction is
used.
10.2.8

Venting and Draining of Exchangers


All shell and tube exchangers, including vertical units, shall be provided with vents and
drains allowing complete draining and venting of shellside and tubeside of exchangers,
after hydrotest in-situ.
For stacked exchangers of the same service, hydrotest in-situ can be performed in
stacked position, but each shell shall be completely drainable and ventable.
Separate vents and drains on exchangers are not necessary if hydrotest in-situ and
subsequent draining and venting of exchangers can be accomplished through piping
connections or line breaks.
Vertical units shall have vent and drain passages drilled through their stationary
tubesheets (including bottom tubesheet of nonremovable bundle), exiting out the outside
edge and provided with flanged vents and drain nozzles, with blinds and service gaskets.
In total condensing services on the shell side, a non condensibles vent shall be provided
at the opposite end to the shell inlet connection. For tubesiede condensing, the vent shall
be located on the highest point of the last tube pass of the exchanger.

10.2.9

Design for Interchangeability


Design of shell and tube heat exchangers for the PROJECT shall target maximum
interchangeability of complete units or components.

10.2.10

Shell Diameter
Up to and including a nominal diameter of 500 mm (20 in.) seamless pipe shall be used.
For shells rolled from plate, the nominal shell diameter is the shell inside diameter.
For shells rolled from plate, inside diameters should be changed in 10 mm increments
during thermal design or sizing. This requirement can be deviated from in case of high
pressure application and when it is economically justified.

10.2.11

Maximum Number of Tube Passes


The maximum number of tube passes shall be 16 for any given heat exchanger.

10.2.12

Connections
a.

The minimum size of any connection shall be 50 mm (2 inches), including vents and
drains.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 18 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.2.13

10.2.14

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

b.

Threaded connections/drains/vents are not permitted.

c.

Vents and drains shall be Class 300 minimum rating.

d.

All nozzle flanges, unless specifically noted otherwise on Data Sheets, shall have
Raised Face (RF) and Smooth Finish (SF). Smooth Finish shall be as defined
on Project Standard Drawing STD-MD-00020.

e.

Test connections on process nozzles are not permitted, except for the following two
conditions:

For vertical thermosyphon reboilers, directly connected to columns,


Temperature Indicators (TI) or Pressure Indicators (PI) are permitted or
process nozzle directly connected to the column (when needed for process
reasons).

For stacked exchangers, when TI and/or PI are required to be installed on


intermediate nozzles, they shall be placed on intermediate nozzles of lower
exchanger.

f.

For stacked S type shells, vent of lower shell cover and drain of top shell cover
shall be elbowed out 90.

g.

Reinforcing pads on shellside nozzles are not permitted, if their use will increase
inlet or outlet baffle spacings by moving the nozzles location away from the body
flanges.

h.

The minimum projections for process nozzles shall comply with Project Standard
Drawing STD-MD-00020.

i.

All flanged 2 inch connections shall be minimum rating ANSI Class 300# and shall
be braced 90 degrees apart.

Saddles/Supports
a.

Saddle design for horizontal exchangers shall comply with Project Standard Drawing
STD-ME-00008.

b.

Support design for vertical exchangers shall comply with Project Standard Drawing
STD-ME-00001.

Baffle-to-Shell Clearance
For viscous fluids on shellside, with the dynamic viscosity above 2.0 cP at inlet or outlet
temperature, the heat transfer coefficient shall be calculated with the baffle-to-shell
clearance specified as large. The shellside pressure drop, however, shall be calculated
with the baffle-to-shell clearance specified as standard/average.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 19 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

10.2.15

Impingement
a.

b.

10.2.16

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

Impingement protection, in form of impingement plate or two rows of impingement


rods, shall be specified for:

Steam heaters with steam on shellside

Two phase flow at inlet

For noncorrosive, nonabrasive fluids, nozzles shall be sized to avoid necessity of


impingement protection. For designs with nozzles sized to avoid impingement
protection, the shell entry area shall be sufficient to obtain comparable values of V2
(within 15-40%) through the nozzle and corresponding shell entry area, but with larger
deviations only permitted if V2 is low, otherwise the preferred margin is 10%-15%.

Vibration
Thermal design and sizing process shall include analysis of all aspects of design to avoid
or minimize the possibility of vibration.

10.2.17

Tubeside Performance
For gases and vapors, the V2 in tubes shall be less than 7000 kg/m-s2 (4700 lb/ft-s2).
For water, the maximum velocities shall be as listed in paragraph 10.2.4.2.
For liquids (other than water), the V2 shall not exceed 8900 kg/m-s2 (5980 lb/ft-s2).
For two-phase flow, the V2 in the tubes shall be checked carefully against the danger of
erosion of the tube ends. In such a case, the velocity and density shall be based on a
homogenous gas/liquid mixture.
V is the linear velocity in m/s (ft/s) and is the density in kg/m3 (lb/ft3).

10.2.18

Enhanced Heat Transfer Technology


Proprietary technology such as helical baffles, twisted tubes, tube inserts etc may be
considered where a significant economic or technical advantage can be realized with little
of no detrimental impact to operability and maintainability.
The use of proprietary technology of the type described must be approved by the
COMPANY. In such cases, the thermal and hydraulic design and guarantee shall be
included in the scope of the technology owner, not the equipment manufacturer (except
where the manufacturer is licensed to carry out the design by the technology owner).

11.0

MATERIALS
Materials selection shall be indicated on the Project Equipment Data Sheets.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 20 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

12.0

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

FABRICATION
Project Equipment Data Sheets shall indicate any special fabrication requirements.

13.0

TESTING
Project Equipment Data Sheets shall indicate any special testing requirements.

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Initials

Page 21 of 22

Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN CRITERIA

DGS-ME-001
Rev-1 April 2009

ADDENDUM SHEET
All revisions to this DGS subsequent to the issue of Rev Zero shall be recorded in this
addendum sheet and shall be incorporated into the DGS in the next revision.
Date

Proposed Revision

Takreer DGS-ME-001-Rev-1 April-2009 Printed 16-Apr-09 14:01:15

Remarks

Initials

Page 22 of 22