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Works

Cited

Hill 1

Works Cited
Primary Sources
Browne, Janet. "Darwin the Young Adventurer." The Magazine of the National Endowment for
the Humanities. Last modified May 2009.
http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2009/mayjune/feature/darwin-the-young-adventurer.
Charles Darwin became famous for his publication, The Origin of Species, in which he
famously detailed the relatively unexplored concept of heredity and evolution by means
of natural selection. This website detailed Charles Darwin and his exploits and research
on the Galapagos Islands. This article helped me understand how genetics is the cause of
natural selection and evolution.

Callaway, Ewen. "UK Scientists Gain License to Edit Genes in Human Embryos." Nature,
February 1, 2016.
The field of genetics has been encountering new applications and fields of study and
research ever since the discovery of the double helix in 1953. This article detailed a
recently utilized application of genetics: editing human DNA. This article helped me
understand how the discovery of the double helix has led genetic science to encounter
new applications, even in the modern day.

Charlotte, Auerbach. Genetics in the Atomic Age. Washington DC, DC: Essential Books, 1965.
During the 1950s, the atomic age placed emphasis on the study of genetics, casting it in a
new light. This book detailed the effects of radiation on genetic mutations, and related
genetic anomalies, in response to public fear of radiation on their health. This book
helped me understand what spurred the study of genetics in the 1950s.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. "Linus Pauling's Incorrect Model of the DNA Structure, James
Watson." DNA Learning Center. https://www.dnalc.org/view/15451-linus-pauling-sincorrect-model-of-the-dna-structure-james-watson.html.
Linus Pauling was a third, relatively unknown party in the race to discover the double
helix, published a paper on his proposed triple helical model on the structure of DNA,
however, his model was similar to Watson and Crick's earlier failed model. This website
contained James Watson's commentary regarding Linus Pauling's proposition. This
website helped me understand the race to discover DNA, and how all the scientists in the
race exchanged ideas and essentially worked together.

Crick, Francis. Letter, March 19, 1953. Salk Institutue for Biomedical Studies. San Diego, CA.
Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the double helical structure of DNA, thereby
thrusting the scientific community into a new world of possibilities. This is a letter
written by Francis Crick to his son, Michael, detailing his and Watson's discoveries. This
letter helped me understand the nature of the discovery and the facets of the double helix.

Works Cited

Hill 2

. "Notes on Possible Genetic Codes." N.d. Digital file.


Shortly after helping discover the double helix, Francis Crick proposed "central dogma",
which described the translation of nucleotide bases into codons and, subsequently into
amino acids and proteins. This documents contains Crick's extensive notes on the
matter. This document helped me understand the research performed regarding genetics
following the discovery of the double helix.

. "Notes on the Structure of DNA." Last modified 1953. Digital file.


Francis Crick and James Watson worked together to uncover the structure of DNA as a
double helix. This document is a sample of notes from Francis crick regarding the
structure of DNA. This document helped me understand the early steps to uncovering the
mystery of double helix.

Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species. N.p., 1859.


Charles Darwin was the first scientist to explore the concept of genetics on a wide and
public scale. His famous publication, On the Origin of Species, details his observations
about the phenomena of natural selection, or, essentially, the concept of heredity and
genetics. This book helped me understand the beginnings of genetic science.

Franklin, Rosalind. "Specific Optical Rotation of Nucleic Acid." Last modified November 28,
1951. Digital file.
Previous to Watson and cricks' famous discovery of the double helix, Rosalind Franklin
conducted groundbreaking research to photograph the structure of DNA. This document
is a letter from Franklin discussing the rotation of DNA molecules in a helical
arrangement. This document helped me understand how Watson, Crick, and Franklin
exchanged information to discover the double helix.

Franklin, Rosalind, and Raymond Gosling. "Satirical Note Announcing the Death of the DNA
Helix." Last modified July 18, 1952. Digital file.
The first type of helix proposed by Watson and Crick was a triple helix; when showed to
Franklin, she derisively and immediately dismissed the model. This document is a
satirical note written by Franklin, mocking Watson and Crick and their three-stranded
model. This note helped me understand how scientists worked together to discover the
double helix.

"How I Discovered DNA - James Watson." Video file, 20:14. YouTube. Posted by TED-Ed, July
26, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvdxGDJogtA.
James Watson and Francis Crick exchanged ideas and information with other scientists of
the time,and compiled their information, to create an accurate model of the double helical
structure of DNA. This video is of James Watson lecturing on his discovery of the
double helix. This video helped me understand the process by which the double helix
was discovered.

Works Cited

Hill 3

King's College London. "King's and DNA." History.


http://www.kcl.ac.uk/lsm/about/history/kingsanddna.aspx.
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, two of the leading genetic scientists during the
early 1950s, conducted the majority of their genetic research at King's College. This
website detailed their work and importance in the discovery of the double helix. This
website helped me understand how James Watson and Francis Crick exchanged ideas
with several other scientists to ultimately declare the discovery of the double helix.

National Human Genome Research Institute. "A Guide to Your Genome." Last modified
October 2007. Digital file.
The 21st century has seen a plethora of advances in genetics, specifically in regards to the
human genome. This pamphlet, put out by the National Human Genome Research
Institute, provided information on what the human genome exactly is. This pamphlet
helped me understand the new fields and topics of genetics encountered following the
discovery of the double helix.

National Institutes of Health. "A Brief History of the Human Genome Project." National Human
Genome Research Institute. Last modified November 8, 2012.
http://www.genome.gov/12011239.
The discovery of the double helix allowed scientists to delve deeper into the world of
genetics of living creatures; one such project following this theme was the Human
Genome Project, which aimed to sequence the entire human genome. This website
detailed the project and provided information regarding the effects the project could have
on the world of genetics. This website helped me understand how scientists encountered
far-reaching effects of DNA following the discovery of the double helix.

. "DNA Sequencing." National Human Genome Research Institute. Last modified


December 18, 2015. https://www.genome.gov/10001177.
Sequencing a genome is a process by which all the nucleotide bases, Adenine, Thymine,
Cytosine, and Guanine, are recorded as they exist in an organisms DNA, effectively
recording their genetic traits. This website detailed the process of DNA sequencing. This
website helped me understand how genetic science continued to grow following the
discovery of the double helix.

. "The Francis Crick Papers." Profiles in Science - National Library of Medicine.


http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/SC/Views/Exhibit/narrative/doublehelix.html.
James Watson and Francis Crick famously discovered the double helix structure of DNA
by exchanging ideas with several other scientists and compiling information to complete
a double helical model. This website contains Watson and Crick's papers written
previous to the discovery. This website helped me understand the discovery of the
double helix from the point of view of the duo credited for the discovery.

Works Cited

Hill 4

. "1966: Genetic Code Cracked." National Human Genome Research Institute.


http://www.genome.gov/25520300.
in 1966, the translation of nucleotide bases to amino acids was recorded and understood
for the first time. This website discussed the process by which the genetic code was
cracked. This website helped me understand how the discovery of the double helix led to
a further more in-depth understanding of genetics.

. "The Rosalind Franklin Papers." Profiles in Science - National Library of Medicine.


https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/Narrative/KR/p-nid/187.
Rosalind Franklin, using a technique known as x-ray crystallography, essentially
discovered the double helix several months before Watson and Crick, yet didn't confirm a
model because she felt the topic needed to be researched further. Rosalind Franklin's
research and infamous Photo 51, however, gave Watson and Crick one of the final pieces
to their genetic puzzle, which enabled the discovery of the double helix. This website
detailed Rosalind Franklin's life, research, and discoveries regarding DNA. This website
helped me understand how information was exchanged and compiled by several scientists
to create an accurate model oft he structure of DNA.

. "What Is DNA?" Genetics Home Reference. Last modified February 8, 2016.


http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna.
DNA is hereditary material that carries information that determines all genetic traits in all
living organisms. This website outlined the functions of DNA and the importance of the
double helix in its functions. This website helped me understand why exploring the
structure of DNA was of paramount importance to genetic science.

The New York Times (New York City, NY). "Rapist Convicted on DNA Match." February 5,
1988.
While fingerprinting has long been a staple of forensics, the discovery of the double helix
and subsequent scientific discoveries has allowed scientists to convict criminal based on
DNA present at crime scenes. Serial rapist Tommie Lee Jones was the first criminal
convicted on the basis of genetics. This article details the convicting and arrest of
Jones. This article helped me understand how genetics encountered a plethora of new
applications as a result of discovering the double helix and gaining a further
understanding of DNA.

Sanger, Frederick, S. Nicklen, and R. Coulson. "DNA Sequencing with Chain-Terminating


Inhibitors." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, October 3, 1977.
In 1977, Frederick Sanger sequenced the DNA of a virus, thereby recording all its genetic
traits. This is an article written by Sanger and his colleagues detailing their discovery.
This article helped me understand how scientists were able to discover more far-reaching
effects of DNA following the discovery of the double helix.

Works Cited

Hill 5

Them! Produced by David Weisbart. Directed by Gordon Douglas. Warner Brother Pictures,
1954.
Following the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the public's fear of nuclear
radiation on genetic mutations was at an all time high; the scientific community
responded by lacing more emphasis on finding the structure of DNA. This movie centers
around mutant ants that gained their large size and ferocity as a result of radiation from a
nuclear bomb. This movie helped me understand the public fear of radiation following
the nuclear ending of World War II.

Turner, Leigh. "A Sheep Named Dolly." University of Winnipeg, April 15, 1997.
The cloning of the sheep named Dolly was the first instance of scientists using DNA
from a living organism to create an exact replica of that organism. This article detailed
the cloning of Dolly and its potential repercussions on genetic science. This article
helped me understand how the discovery of the double helix allowed scientists to
encounter new possibilities to explore genetics.

Watson, James. The Double Helix; A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of
DNA. New York City, NY: Atheneum, 1968.
In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick completed their model of the double helix,
following the exploration of the matter by several major scientists before them. This
book detailed the journey to discover the double helix form the account of James Watson,
one of the scientists credited for the groundbreaking discovery. This book helped me
understand the process by which the double helix was uncovered by Watson and Crick.

Watson, James, and Francis Crick. James Watson and Francis Crick to Linus Pauling, March 21,
1953. Linus Puling and the Race for DNA. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
James Watson and Francis Crick, Linus Pauling, and Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind
Franklin were the three most prominent scientists working in the early 1950s to uncover
the structure of DNA. This letter details Watson and Crick's exchange with Linus Pauling
regarding their double helical structure. This letter helped me understand how Watson
and Crick exchanged ideas to discover the double helix.

. "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids - A Structure for Deoxyribonucleic Acid."


Nature, April 25, 1953, 737-38.
James Watson and Francis Crick compiled ideas from multitudes of other scientists to
create their model of the double helix. This magazine article is their initial report
regarding their discovery of the double helix. This article helped me understand the
caliber of the duo's discovery; I embedded this article in my website.

Works Cited

Hill 6

Wilkins, Maurice. Maurice Wilkins to Francis Crick, n.d. National Library of Medicine. National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Maurice Wilkins worked closely with Rosalind Franklin at King's College, while Francis
Crick research alongside James Watson and Cambridge University's Cavendish
Laboratory. This is a letter from Maurice Wilkins to Francis Crick discussing his and
Franklin's recent research regarding the structure of DNA. This letter helped me
understand how ideas were exchanged among scientists to create the comprehensive
model of the double helix.

Works Cited

Hill 7

Secondary Sources
Blamire, John. "Semiconservative." DNA Replication. Last modified 200.
http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/REP/DR.Semi.html.
In 1958, the process of semiconservative replication was discovered, revealing how DNA
transmitted its sequences of nucleotide bases. This website discussed the process of
semiconservative replication. This website helped me understand how DNA replicates
and how the discovery of the double helix led to a more in-depth understand of genetics.

Dahm, Ralf. Friedrich Miescher and the Discovery of DNA. Tel Aviv, Israel: Tel Aviv
University, 2004.
Friedrich Miescher's research regarding DNA set a foundation for later scientists to build
upon and to discover more key elements regarding the function of DNA. This paper
detailed not only Miescher's achievements, but provided a brief insight into the
achievements of many other scientists, providing a timeline of DNA research up to the
modern day. This paper helped me understand and connects events in the history of
genetic research.

"The DNA Double Helix Discovery HHMI BioInteractive Video." Video file, 17:08.
YouTube. Posted by BioInteractive, August 26, 2014.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vm3od_UmFg.
The discovery of the double helix was rooted in the research, not only of earlier
geneticists, but also the research of scientists alongside Watson and Crick. This video
detailed the process by which the double helix was discovered in 1953. This video
helped me understand how the discovery of the double helix came from upon the
shoulders of multitudes of scientists before it.

"DNA Double Helix: How James Watson and Francis Crick Cracked the Secret of Life." Video
file, 6:13. YouTube. Posted by TheGuardian, April 29, 2013.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QWwKkGmwhsA.
James Watson and Francis Crick are credited with creating the first correct model of
DNA as a double helix structure. This video explained the discovery and model of the
double helix. This video helped me understand how the structure of DNA as a double
helix came to be and how Watson and Crick used information from several other
scientists to come to their conclusion.

DNA Learning Center. "DNA Timeline: DNA Science from Mendel to Today." DNA
Interactive. Last modified 2003. http://www.dnai.org/timeline/.
The history of genetic research is long and complex. This website provided a
comprehensive timeline of the study of DNA and genetics. This website helped me
understand how far genetics has come since the days of Mendel and Darwin, and where
genetic science is in the modern day.

Works Cited

Hill 8

. "Friedrich Miescher." DNA From the Beginning. http://www.dnaftb.org/15/bio.html.


Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher extracted DNA from pus-filled bandages gathered
from a local hospital; Miescher then referred to the unknown substance as
"nuclein". This website detailed the life and accomplishments of Miescher, especially in
relation to his impact on the field of genetic sciences. This website helped me understand
the scientists that laid the foundation for the discovery of the double helix and,
subsequently, the modern world of genetics,which remain paramount to the function of
modern society.

. "A Gene Is a Discrete Sequence of DNA Nucleotides." DNA From the Beginning.
http://www.dnaftb.org/23/bio.html.
In 1977, British biochemist Frederick Sanger sequenced the DNA of a virus;this was the
first organism's DNA to ever be sequenced. This website detailed Sanger's life and
scientific accomplishments. This website helped me understand how scientists were able
to further explore the uses and facets of DNA following the discovery of the double
helix.

. "A Half DNA Ladder Is a Template for Copying the Whole." DNA From the
Beginning. http://www.dnaftb.org/20/bio.html.
Matthew Messelson and his colleague, Franklin Stahl, discovered semiconservative
replication, the process by which DNA duplicates and passes on genetic traits. This
website detailed the life of Messelson and provided information regarding the process of
semiconservative replication. This website helped me understand how the discovery of
the double helix helped scientists explore new facets of DNA in relation to genetic
science.

DNA - The Human Race. PBS, 2001.


DNA is responsible for the genetic traits that determine individuality of all living
organisms; it has long baffled scientists that desire to understand what makes life on
Earth function the way it does. This video details the functions of DNA and the history
of genetic research. This video helped me understand the history of DNA and its
significance to life on Earth.

"Dr. Rosalind Franklin: A Life in Discovery." Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and
Science. https://rosalindfranklin.edu/about/dr-rosalind-franklin/.
Rosalind Franklin experimented heavily with x-ray crystallography, a technique which,
by her hand, would become integral to the final discovery of the double helix. This
website briefly detailed the life, accomplishments, and importance of Rosalind Franklin
and her contributions to the world of science and genetics. This website helped me
understand how important Rosalind Franklin was to the final discovery of the double
helix.

Works Cited

Hill 9

"How Does DNA and the Genetic Code Work? At Science Tutorial Video." Video file, 28:53.
YouTube. Posted by TheGuardian, February 19, 2013.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9WECD5lKiHk.
DNA contains a specifically ordered amount of phosphate groups that create amino acids,
which determine proteins that determine genetic traits. This video breaks down and
explains the function of DNA in that regard. This video helped me understand exactly
how DNA functions to determine genetic traits.

Klug, Aaron. The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix. Amherst, MA: University of
Massachusetts Amherst, 2004.
DNA is a complex molecule with functions as diverse and complicated as its functions.
This report details the functions of DNA and provides brief information regarding
methods of discovering the structure of DNA. This report helped me understand how
DNA functions and how its iconic structure came to be widespread knowledge.

"On the Human Genome Project." Santa Monica College.


http://homepage.smc.edu/hgp/history.htm.
The history of DNA has included multitudes of discoveries, scientists, and events that
have changed the world. This website provides a brief overview of the history of DNA
and some of its main functions. This website helped me understand what led up to the
discovery of the double helix and how the discovery of the double helix enabled new
field of scientific study.

Phillips, Theresa. "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Transgenic Crops and


Recombinant DNA Technology." Nature, 2008.
Genetic modification of crops and animals has enabled the increased production of
foodstuffs throughout the world, helping to decrease food prices and allowing
consumerism to flourish in the food market. This article discussed the effects of genetic
modification on food, particularly crops such as corn, cotton and soy. This article helped
me understand the effects of genetic modification on the modern world.

Pray, Leslie A. "Discovery of DNA Structure and Function: Watson and Crick." Scitable. Last
modified 2008. http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/discovery-of-dna-structureand-function-watson-397.
DNA is the self-replicating material that contains the genetic information for any and all
living organisms on Earth. This website provided information regarding the structure,
function, and history of DNA. This website helped me understand how DNA affects all
life on Earth.

Ulaby, Neda. "Movie Mutants Givea Face to Our Nuclear Fears." National Public Radio. Last
modified March 30, 2011. http://www.npr.org/2011/03/30/134950737/movie-mutantsgive-a-face-to-our-nuclear-fears.
During the 1950s, pop culture exacerbated the effects of nuclear radiation on genetics by
way of exaggerated radioactive monsters. This article detailed the views of society on
radiation in relation to the pop culture present at the time. This article helped me
understand what triggered Watson and Crick's discovery of the double helix.

Works Cited

Hill 10

University of California Berkeley. "Understanding Science." Understanding Science.


http://undsci.berkeley.edu/.
DNA is the self-replicating material that carries genetic information for all living
things. This website detailed the functions of DNA,as well as its biological
importance. This website helped me understand the functions of DNA, and it gave me
background information on the structure of DNA to help me understand why DNA is
important to life on Earth.