Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 117

Effects of feeding Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on growth performance of

chicken, physico- chemical shelf-life indicators, fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation of
broiler meat

By
Wapi Cwayita

Dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


Masters of Science in Agriculture (Animal Science)
in the
Department of Livestock and Pasture Science
Faculty of Science and Agriculture

Alice, South Africa


5700
Supervised by : Miss T. Nkukwana
: Prof. V. Muchenje

Declaration
I, Cwayita Wapi, vow that this dissertation has not been submitted to any University and that
it is my original work conducted under the supervision of Miss T.T. Nkukwana and Prof V.
Muchenje. All assistance towards the production of this work and all the references contained
herein have been duly accredited.

.......................................

...............................

Cwayita Wapi

Date

...................................................

.....................................................

Miss T.T. Nkukwana (Supervisor)

Prof V. Muchenje (Co-supervisor)

ii

Abstract
Effects of feeding Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on growth performance of
chicken, physico- chemical shelf-life indicators, fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation of
broiler meat
The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of M.oleifera leaf meal (MOLM)
as an additive on growth performance, carcass characteristics, physico-chemical shelf-life
indicators (colour, ultimate pH, driploss), fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation of meat from
broilers. A total of 432 1day old unsexed broiler chicks (Aviane 48) were randomly allocated
to four dietary treatments (TRTS) in 72 cages. There were 18 cages per treatment and each cage
allocated 6 chicks. Water and feed was provided at ad libitum. The feeding phases were,

prestarter (0-7 Days), starter (8-18 Days), grower (19-28 Days), finisher (29-35 Days). The
four TRTS contained graded levels of MOLM at 1000g/ton, 750g/ton, 500g/ton, and 0g/ton
(control), respectively. The birds were slaughtered at 35 days of age. Breast muscles were
sampled for meat, ultimate pH (pHu ), colour, drip loss over a 7 days shelf-life test. After each
days test sub-samples were dipped in liquid nitrogen and kept at -180 C for thiobarbituric
acid reactive substances determination. On Day1 and Day 7 extra sub-samples were also kept
at -180 C for fatty acids analysis.The TRTS had no effect on average feed intake (AFI), feed
conversion efficiency (FCE), and on average daily gain (ADG). Slaughter weight (SW),
carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (%) and gizzard weight (GW) values were similar
in all TRTS. Liver weight (LW), heart weight (HW), and gastro-intestinal fat (GIF) differed
in all the TRTS, with treatment 2 having the highest value of HW (28.32.55), and LW
(44.21.60) was the highest on treatment 4 . The pH values in all TRTS were constant from
Day1 to Day5, reached peak on Day6, and then declined on Day7. Meat from broilers given
treatment 1 with MOLM (1000g/ton) had the highest lightness (L*) values. The redness (a*)
iii

values were the highest in meat from treatment 2 (750g/ton MOLM). Treatments had no
effect on yellowness (b*) values and on drip loss of the breasts. During storage L* values
were high from Day1 to Day5 and decreased from Day6 to Day7. Drip loss increased with
storage time as expected. Treatment 4 (control) had the highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (30.31.87). Treatment 1 (1000g/ton) had the highest
proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (60.91.87). Treatment 1 (1000g/ton) had the
highest proportion of SFA (60.94.30). Treatment 2 (750g/ton) had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio
than other TRTS. Days had no effect (P>0.05) on PUFA, SFA, and n-6/n-3 ratio. Treatment 1
had a highest amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), treatment 4 had no effect (P>0.05) on
MDA . Storage time had an effect (P<0.05) on MDA levels, except for on Day1 and Day7.
Day2 had the highest amount of MDA (0.70.08). The use of MOLM as an additive in
broiler diets reduced lipid oxidation in meat, and maintained the quality of the broiler meat
during storage. It also did not have any adverse effects on the growth performance of broilers.
Therefore, it has the potential to be used as an additive in broiler diets.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, growth performance, meat colour, ultimate pH, driploss,
storage time, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation

iv

List of abbreviations
a*

Redness of meat

ADG

Average daily gain

AFI

Average feed intake

b*

Yellowness of meat

CW

Carcass weight

D%

Dressing percentage

FCE

Feed conversion efficiency

GIF

Gastro-intestinal fat

GW

Gizzard weight

HW

Heart weight

L*

Lightness of meat

LW

Liver weight

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MOLM

Moringa oleifera leaf meal

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

SFA

Saturated fatty acids

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

Acknowledgements

I owe sincere thankfulness to my Lord and saviour Jesus Christ who strengthened me through
this study. My sincere gratitude goes to my supervisors Miss T.T. Nkukwana and Prof V.
Muchenje they made me believe in myself and guided me through the whole process of
dissertation writing. Their support, understanding and encouragement I felt when writing this
dissertation. It is with great pleasure to thank Mr T. Mabusela and Dr B.Moyo for their ideas
during this study. I would also like to thank Stellenbosch University for allowing me to
conduct my experiments using their facilities. Thank you to Mr O. Tada and Mr P.O. Fayemi
for assisting me with data analysis.
I would like to show my gratitude to my mom (Somikazi), sister (Funeka) and my baby
brother (Sive) for their moral support and encouragement up until now. I am also thankful to
my fellow colleagues and caring friends for their help, support and helpful ideas.

vi

Contents
Declaration .................................................................................................................................. i
Abstract .................................................................................................................................... iii
List of abbreviations .................................................................................................................. v
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................... vi
List of Table ............................................................................................................................... x
List of Figure............................................................................................................................. xi
Chapter 1: Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background of the study .................................................................................................. 1
1.2. Problem statement ........................................................................................................... 4
1.3. Justification ..................................................................................................................... 4
1.5. Hypothesis ....................................................................................................................... 6
1.6. References ....................................................................................................................... 7
Chapter 2: Literature review .................................................................................................... 11
2.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 11
2.2. Nutritional composition of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves ............................................ 14
2.3. Growth promoting properties on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler
chickens. ............................................................................................................................... 16
2.4. Medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera .............................................................................. 14
2.4.1. Antioxidants ............................................................................................................ 14
2.5. Meat quality characteristics of broiler meat .................................................................. 19
2.5.1. pH, colour and drip loss ......................................................................................... 19
2.5.2. Fatty acids profiles in meat quality ........................................................................ 21
2.6. References ..................................................................................................................... 23
Chapter 3: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on growth performance and
carcass characteristics of broilers............................................................................................. 31
vii

Abstract .................................................................................................................................... 31
3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 32
3.2. Materials and Methods .................................................................................................. 34
3.2.1. Study site description .............................................................................................. 34
3.2.2.Experimental setup, housing and feeding ................................................................ 36
3.3. Statistical analysis ......................................................................................................... 45
3.4. Results and discussion................................................................................................... 46
3.6. References ..................................................................................................................... 56
Chapter 4: Physico-chemical shelf life indicators of meat from broilers given Moringa
oleifera leaf meal as an additive. ............................................................................................. 61
Abstract .................................................................................................................................... 61
4.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 62
4.2.Material and Methods..................................................................................................... 65
4.2.1.Study site and management of broiler chickens. ..................................................... 65
4.2.2. Procedures after slaughter ..................................................................................... 65
4.3. Meat quality measurements ........................................................................................... 65
4.3.1. Drip loss measurements.......................................................................................... 65
4.3.2. Ultimate pH ............................................................................................................ 66
4.3.3. Determination of colour ......................................................................................... 66
4.4. Statistical analysis ......................................................................................................... 66
4.5. Results and discussion................................................................................................... 67
4.6. Conclusion..................................................................................................................... 72
4.7. References .................................................................................................................. 74
Chapter 5: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on fatty acids profile of
broiler meat .............................................................................................................................. 79
Abstract .................................................................................................................................... 79
5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 80
viii

5.2. Materials and methods .................................................................................................. 83


5.2.1. Study site and management of broiler chickens ..................................................... 83
5.2.2. Determination of fatty acid content ........................................................................ 83
5.2.3. Estimation of lipid peroxidation ............................................................................. 84
5.3. Statistical analysis ......................................................................................................... 85
5.4. Results and Discussion .................................................................................................. 86
5.5. Conclusion..................................................................................................................... 93
5.6. References ..................................................................................................................... 94
Chapter 6: General discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations .................................... 101
6.1. General discussion....................................................................................................... 101
6.2. Conclusion................................................................................................................... 103
6.3. Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 103
6.4. References ................................................................................................................... 104

ix

List of Table
Table 3.1: Treatment structure ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 3.2: The ingredient (kg) and chemical composition of pre-starter, starter, grower and
finisher ..................................................................................................................................... 40
Table 3.3: Nutrient composition (%) of the treatments on prestarter phase ............................ 41
Table 3.4: Nutirent composition (%) of the treatments on starter phase ................................. 42
Table 3.5: Nutrient composition (%) of treatments on grower phase ...................................... 43
Table 3.6: Nutrient composition (%) of treatments on finisher phase ..................................... 44
Table 3.7: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on feed conversion efficiency
(FCE) of broilers at 7, 18, 28 and 35 days ............................................................................... 47
Table 3. 8: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on feed intake (FI) of
broilers at 7, 18, 28, and 35 days ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 3.9: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on average daily gain (ADG) of
broilers at 7, 18, 28 and 35 days .............................................................................................. 51
Table 3.10: Effect of treatments on meat portions of broilers 24hours after slaughter ........... 52
Table 3.11: Effect of Moringa oleifera as an additive on carcass characteristics of broilers .. 54
Table 4.1: Least square means and standard errors for L*, a*, b* and pH, Drip loss of chicken
meat as affected by days .......................................................................................................... 70
Table 4.2: Least square means and standard errors for L*, a*, b* and drip loss of meat
samples (chicken) as affected by treatment ............................................................................. 72
Table 5.1: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on fatty acid profile of chicken
meat .......................................................................................................................................... 87
Table 5.2: Effect of days on fatty acids profiles of chicken meat............................................ 89
Table 5.3: Means (SE) for average TBARS (mg MDA/kg meat) of chicken breasts as
affected by treatments .............................................................................................................. 92
Table 5.4: Means (SE) for average TBARS (mg MDA/kg meat) of chicken breasts as
affected by days ....................................................................................................................... 92

List of Figure
Figure 3.1: Effect of treatment overtime (days) on the pH levels of chicken .......................... 69

xi

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background of the study

Growth in broilers is a very complex phenomenon which is influenced by genotype as well as


by environmental factors, including nutrition. Genotype plays a major role in carcass fatness
and the quality of meat (Jaturasitha et al., 2004; Musa et al., 2006). Therefore, as the genetic
potential and the characteristics of poultry have evolved, so has the manipulation of diet
specifications to suit market needs and meet the nutrient requirements of birds, for purposes
of optimizing immune responsiveness, rather than simply growth rate or classical feed
efficiency. Developments in poultry nutrition have generally been driven by the need to
sustain genetic potential within the confines of ever evolving systems of poultry production
(Leeson, 2008). Owing to genetic selection, the modern broiler has lower feed intake per unit
of body weight (BW) gain, with the potential to increase recognition of white meat in
comparison to commercial broilers of the past (Dozier et al., 2008). Consequently, over the
last fifty years nutritionists have developed quite sophisticated systems for quantifying the
available nutrients in both ingredients and diets, thus providing birds with precise levels of
nutrients required for production (Leeson, 2008).
Additives in poultry diets are primarily included to improve efficiency of the birds growth,
prevent diseases and improve feed utilisation. This leads to improved production, such as
meat quality. For an example, antimicrobials which are common feed additive used in poultry
diets, have been used extensively in intensive poultry operations in order to minimise
diseases, and improve growth and feed utilisation.

The prophylactic use of antibiotics (as growth promoters) in animal feeds has made intensive
farming possible and improved feed conversion in these animals (Hernandez et al., 2004).
Until recently, gain in protein deposition (based on an improved feed conversion rate
enhanced by antibiotic usage) has facilitated improvements in production efficiency, thereby
allowing the consumer to purchase (at a reasonable cost) high quality meat and eggs
(Donoghue, 2003). Antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry has been banned
because of harmful effects on human health. This was observed by the development of
microbial resistance to these products (Botsoglou and Fletouris, 2001; Williams and Losa,
2001; McCartney, 2002).
Consequently; herbs, spices, and various plant extracts considered to be natural products that
consumers would accept have received increased attention as possible feed additives such as
antibiotic growth promoter replacements following their ban by the European Union in 2006
(Shahid et al., 1992; Hernandez et al., 2004).
Several alternatives to these growth promoters have been proposed and organic acids,
medicinal plants as natural feed additives are now recently used in poultry diet to enhance the
performance of the immune response of birds (Ali Asghar Saki et al., 2012). One such plant
is Moringa oleifera, commonly known as the drumstick tree (Makker and Becker, 1997;
Sarwatt et al., 2002). This plant is widely cultivated in Africa, Thailand, Burma, Singapore,
India, Sri-Lanka (Reyes-Sanchezi et al., 2006), in South Africa this plant is a bit scarce,
especially in the Eastern Cape province. It is only available in few provinces which makes it
difficult and quite expensive to get it.
However Moringa Oleifera has been reported to posses quality sources of several nutrients
including protein, calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C, Vitamin
2

E (Foidl et al., 2001; Marcu and Pharm., 2005; Rweyemamu, 2006). The presence of vitamin
C, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids and selenium make M.oleifera a potential antioxidant
(Moyo et al., 2012). The antioxidant compounds (phenols, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotene,
zinc, selenium, flavonoids) in M. oleifera have been reported (in some studies) to improve
shelf-life and the quality of meat products in the pre-slaughter or post-slaughter stages
(Valeria and Williams, 2011); that is incorporating natural antioxidants in animal diets or
onto the meat surface or active packaging.
According to Sarwatt et al. (2004), M.oleifera foliages are a potential inexpensive source for
livestock feeding. Aregheore (2001) reported that the use of M. oleifera as a supplement can
improve voluntary feed intake, digestibility and animal performance. It is also reported to
have some health benefits in terms of healing and prevention in humans, such as diabetes
relief, healthy skin, decreased depression and anxiety (Donovan., 2007), improved immune
system, encourages balanced metabolism, healthy digestion (Life in Health., 2011). Its
medicinal properties in animals has also been tested on previous studies for instance in goats
by Moyo et al., (2012) and in broiler chickens by Qwele et al., (2013). Equally important is
the fact that few parts of the tree contain any toxins and other anti-nutritional factors that
might decrease its potential as a source of food for animals or humans. For instance its bark
contains tannins, alkaloids, saponnins and inhibitors (Makkar, Singh and Negi, 1990). This
then make this plant to be similar to some plant extracts, hence essential oils wich contain
same factors. In monogastric animals, saponins are reported to be bound to cholesterol, thus
hampering its absorption in the intestine (Sidhu and Dakenfull,1986) and that they could
reduce the accumulation of cholesterol in meat (Brogna et al., 1985). Condensed tannins are
said to have a positive influence on the meat fatty acids composition (Min et al., 2005; Vasta
et al, 2009).
3

Despite the high nutritional composition of M.oleifera leaf meal, there is little information
available on the use of this feed resource, especially on its potential antioxidant properties of
when used as an additive in broiler diets. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect
of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM), as an additive on growth performance, carcass
characteristics, physico-chemical shelf-life indicators and fatty acids profiles of broiler
chickens.
1.2. Problem statement
There is little information regarding the utilisation of Moringa leaves as an additive in poultry
feeding for both growth and health benefits, as well as meat quality. The problem is further
worsened by the fact that chicken, particularly those reared by small scale producers in
communal areas are susceptible to nutritional deficiency and other diseases, such that their
performance and productivity is lowered.

Another problem is that some additives such as vitamin E and selenium, which are usually
added in mono-gastric feeds, are very expensive. However, due to high feeding costs and low
revenue generated, there is often inadequate funds to buy drugs, which are expensive but may
be mandatory, especially if antibiotics were to be banned in South Africa. Therefore, these
farmers can benefit more from plants with immense nutritional value and medicinal
properties such as M.oleifera leaves.
1.3. Justification
Despite the high nutritional content of M.oleifera, there is little information regarding its
utilisation in poultry feeding as an additive for growth performance, physico-chemical shelflife indicators of chicken meat, fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation. Such information is
4

needed in identifying feeding strategies to improve growth and meat quality of broilers in
limited resource farmers, especially since other additives have been banned because of their
toxicity and their counterparts on meat products. Since chickens tend to suffer from
nutritional deficiency and other diseases, which lower their performance and productivity,
and also due to high prices of animal feeds, there is a need to identify alternative feed
resources. This is even more crucial for small-scale farmers undertaking farm-based feed
formulation, who are constantly finding it hard to produce with commercial feeds.
However, with the removal of antibiotics as feed additives, plants have been identified to
have both antibiotics and antioxidants properties. Wood and Enser (1997) recommended the
use of dietary antioxidants to reduce lipid peroxidation in the feed and animal, so as to
preserve product quality.

Therefore, research on the use of M. oleifera as an additive in broiler diets and its effect on
growth performance, meat characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens; will be of
importance. The widespread claim of M. oleiferas nutritional and medicinal properties on
humans can be extended and further investigated as an additive in chickens. This research
will also improve small-scale production systems by providing evidence for the use of
M.oleifera in chicken diet that will produce better carcass characteristics and meat quality of
broilers,that is also affordable to consumers, thus leading to higher returns.
1.4. Objectives
The broad objective of the study was to determine the effects of M. oleifera leaf meal on
growth performance, carcass characteristics, shelf-life indicators and fatty acids profiles and
lipid oxidation of meat from broilers. The specific objectives were to:

1. Determine the effect of feeding M. Oleifera leaf meal to broilers on feed intake, growth
rate, and feed conversion efficiency.
2. To determine the effect of feeding M. Oleifera leaf meal to broilers on slaughter weight,
carcass weight, dressing percentage and physico-chemical shelf-life indicators (pHu, colour,
drip loss ) of the meat.
3. To determine the anti-oxidant effect of M.oleifera leaf meal fed as an additive on fatty
acids profiles and lipid oxidation of meat from broilers.
1.5. Hypothesis
The hypothesis tested were:
1. Feeding of M.oleifera leaf meal as an additive to broilers has no effect on feed intake,
growth rate and feed conversion efficiency.
2. Feeding M.oleifera leaf meal as an additive to broilers has no effect on slaughter weight,
carcass weight, dressing percentage and physico-chemical shelf-life indicators (pHu, colour,
drip loss) of the meat.
3. Moringa oleifera leaf meal fed as an additive to broilers has no effect on fatty acids
profiles and lipid oxidation of the meat.

1.6. References
Ali Asghar Saki., Reza Nassein Harcini., Enayat Rahmatnejad., and Jalal Salary., 2012.
Herbal additives and organic acids as antibiotic alternatives in broiler chickens diet for
organic production. Afric. J. of Biotech. 11:2139-2145.
Aregheore, E.M., 2001. Nutritive value and utilization of three grass species by crossbred.
J.Anim.Sci. 14: 1389-1393.
Botsoglou, N.A., Fletouris, D.J., 2001. Drug resistant in foods pharmacology. Food safety
and analysis. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York. Pp541-548.
Botsoglou, N.A., Florou-Paneri, P., Christaki, E., Fletouris, D.J. and Spasis, A.B., 2002.
Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and iron-induced
lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues. British Poult. Sci. 43:223230.
Brogna, D.M.R., Nasri, S., Ben salem, N., Mele, M., Serra, A., Bella, M., Priolo, A., Makkar,
Dahot, M.U., and Memon, A.R., 1985. Nutritive significance of oil extracted from Moringa
oleifera seeds. J. of pharmacy, University of Karachi. 3: 75-79.
Donoghue, D.J., 2003. Antibiotic residues in poultry tissues and eggs: Human health
concerns. Poult.Sci. 82:618-621.
Donovan, P., 2007. Moringa oleifera: The miracle tree. www.naturalnews.com (Accessed 19
February 2013).

Dozier, W.A.III., Corzo, A., Kidd, K.T., Schilling, M.W., 2008. Dietary digestible lysine
requirements of male and female broilers from forty-nine to sixty-three days of age.
Poult. Sci. 87: 1385-1391.
Ferrao, A.M.B., and Ferrao, J.E.M., 1970. Acidos gordos em oleo de moringuerio.
Agronomia Angolana (Luanda). 30:3-16.
Foidl, N., Makkar, H.P.S and Becker, K., (2001). Potential of Moringa oleifera for
agricultural and industrial uses. In: The Miracle Tree. The Multiple Attributes of
Moringa. Fugile, L.G. (ed). 31:45-76.
Hernandez, F., Madrid, J., Garcia, V., Orengo, J., and Megias, M.D., 2004. Influence of two
plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poult.
Sci. 83:169-174.
Jaturasitha, S., R. Khiaosaard, A. Pongpaew, A. Leawtharakul, S. Saitong, T.
Apichatsarangkul, V. Leaungwunta, and N. Langani.,2004. The effects of strain, sex,
weight, and muscle fat quality of Thai and crossbred chickens (Kai Baan Thai).42nd
Annual Conference. Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok, Thailand. (In Thai). 137146.
Kamel, C., 2001. Tracing modes of action and the roles of plant extracts in non-ruminants.
IN:Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Eds. Garnsworthy. P.C. and Wisdom. J.
Nottingham University Press, UK. Pp.135-150.
Kolodziej-Skalska, A., Rybarezyk, A., Matysiak, B., Jacyno, E., Pietruszka, A., Kawecka,
M., 2011. Effect of dietary plant extracts mixture on pork meat quality. Acta.Agric.
Scandinavica Sec. A61:80-85.
Leeson, S., 2008. Predictions for commercial poultry nutrition. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 17: 315322.
8

Life in Health., 2011. Moringa oleifera. www.lifeinhealth.org (Accessed 19 february 2013).

Makkar, H.P.S., Singh, B., Negi, S., 1990. Tannin levels of their degree of polymerization
and specific activity in some agro-industrial by products. Biol. Wastes. 31:137-144.
Marcu, M.G. and Pharm, D., 2005. Miracle Tree. KOS Health Publications, 466 Foothill
Blvd number 251, La Canada, CA. 91011.
Marker,H.P.S., and Becker, K., 1997. Nutrients and antiquality factors in different
morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. J. in Agric. Sci.128:311-322.
Mc Carteny, E., 2002. The natural empire strcks book. Poult. Int. 41:36-42.
Min, B.R., Attwood, G.T., Mc Nabb,W.C., Molan, A.I., Barry, T.N., 2005. The effect of
condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus on the Proteolytic activities and growth of
rumen bacteria. Anim.feed. Sci. and Tech.121:45-58.
Moyo, B., Oyedemi, S., Masika, P.J., and Muchenje, V., 2012. Polyphenolic content and
antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf meal extracts and enzymatic activity of
liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera/Sunflower cake. Meat Sci.02:29.
Musa,H.H., G.H. Chen, B.C.Cheng, and D.M. Mekki., 2006. Study on Carcass
Characteristics of Chicken breeds raised under the Intensive condition. International J.
Poult. Sci. 5:530-533.
Rweyemamu, L.M.P., 2006. Challenges in the development of micronutrient-rich food
ingredients from Soya beans and Moringa oleifera leaves: Moringa and other highly
nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on
nutrition in Africa, Accra, Ghana. 16-18.

Sarwatt, S.V., Kapange, S.S. and Kakengi, A.M., 2002. Substituting sunflower seed cake
with Moringa oleifera leaves as supplemental goat feed in Tanzania. Agro forestry
systems, 56:241-247.
Sarwatt, S.V., Milangha, M.S., Lekule, F.P. and Madalla, N., 2004. Moringa oleifera and
cotton seed cake as supplements for smallholder dairy cows fed napier grass.
Livestock Research for Rural Development. 16:38.www.google.com, Accessed (28
November 2012).
Shahidi, F., Janitha, P.K., and Wanasundara, P.1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Critical reviews
in Food Sci. and Nutrition.32:67-102.
Sidhu, G.S., Oakenfull, D.G.,1986. A mechanism for the hypocholesterolaemic activity of
saponnins. Brit. J. Nutrition. 55:643-649.
Valeria, V., and Williams, P.2011. Improving meat quality through natural antioxidants.
Chilean J. Agric.Res.71:2.
Vasta, H.P.S., 2011. Effect of dietary saponins from Quilaja saponaria L. on fatty acid
composition and cholesterol content in muscle Longissimus dorsi of lambs.
Anim.7:1124-1130.
Vasta, V., Mele, M., Serra, A., Scerra, M., Luciano, G., Lanza, M., Priolo, A., 2009.
Metabolic fate of fatty acids involved in ruminal biohydrogenenation in sheep fed
concentrate or herbage with or without tannins. J.of Anim.Sci.87:2674.
William, P., and Losa, R., 2001. The use of essential oils and their compounds in poultry
nutrition. Wrld. Poult. 17:14-15.
Wood, J.D., and Enser, M., 1997. Factors influencing fatty acids in meat and the role of
antioxidants in improving meat quality. Brit. J.of Nutr.78:s49s60.
10

Yami, A., 1995. Poultry production in Ethiopia. World poult. Sci. J. 51: 197-201.

Chapter 2: Literature review


2.1. Introduction
Poultry in the world, is the most abundant livestock species and is reported to account for
more than 90% of the total poultry population of the world (Biswas et al. 2011). It contributes
as the source of income and employment among people of Africa (Yami, 1995; Food and
Agriculture Organisation, 2009). In South Africa, over the past ten years the estimated
number of birds in the South African poultry industry has increased from 107.065 million in
2001 by 49.190million birds (+45.9%) to 156.255 million in 2011 (Strydom et al., 2012).
However over the last few years the poultry industry in South Africa has experienced a major
crisis of over-supply from big exporters (like Argentina, Brazil, the EU etc) at about 20 000
tons per month level (Lovell, 2012). Therefore that is the problem since grain costs are also
high and broiler chickens are reported to have a high feed intake and fast growth rate
(Richards, 2003).
Moreover there is an emphasis on improving growth and carcass yield, mainly by increasing
breast proportion and reducing abdominal fat (Musa et al., 2006). Fat in chickens reduces
carcass quality and feed efficiency (Oyedeji and Atteh, 2005). Improved feeding strategies in
growing broiler chickens should be aimed at optimising lean carcass tissue, feed conversion
efficiency (FCE) and body weight gain (Gous and Cherry, 2004).

11

2.2. Use of plant extracts as feed additives


The addition of plants and their extracts into diets is aimed at improving the productivity of
livestock through amelioration of undesired feed properties, promotion of the animals
production performance and improving the quality of food derived from those animals
(Kolodziej-Skalska et al., 2011). Herbs such as herbs, spices, and various plant extracts have
received increased attention as possible antibiotic growth promoters (Shahidi et al., 1992;
Frankic et al., 2009). Figen et al., (2011) proposed that these herbs and spices could be used
as feed additives in animal nutrition; and that these additives may have more than one mode
of action, including improving feed intake, flavour and anti oxidative activity. These plant
extracts are reported to contain some anti-microbial phytochemicals like phenolics and
polyphenols (simple phenols and phenolics acids, quinines, flavones, tannins and coumarins),
essential oils, alkaloids, and lectins and polypeptides (Cowan, 1999; Moyo et al., 2012).
It is reported that when animals consume plant products containing antioxidant such as
phenols, vitamins C, vitamins E, -carotene, zinc, selenium and flavonoids, have these
antioxidants passed into the meat (Lahucky et al., 2010; Middleton et al., 2000; Moyo et al.,
2012). These natural antioxidants are considered to be safer than the synthetic antioxidants,
and have greater application potential for consumers acceptability, palatability, stability and
shelf-life of meat products (Jung et al., 2010). Chicken meat is very susceptible to oxidation,
particularly during and after frozen storage. However, dietary vitamin E has been reported to
reduce or prevent the process of lipid oxidation (major cause of quality deterioration in meat)
occurring in broiler meat during storage (De Winne and Dirinck, 1996). Some studies have
demonstrated that shelf life and meat quality (drip loss, pH and colour, etc) can be improved
by using natural antioxidants in some stages of meat production (Valeria and Williams,
2011).
12

2.3. Uses of Moringa oleifera as the feed additive


Moringa oleifera plant extracts posses some antioxidant compounds and nutrients
(carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) which are essential requirements for chicken growth.
These antioxidant properties are reported to be safe and have received remarkable attention
due to their ability to preserve foodstuffs and prevent rancidity caused by oxidation (Moyo et
al., 2012). Moringa oleifera seed oil contains all the main fatty acids found in olive oil. It
also possesses behenic acid (C

22:0),

lignoceric acid (C

24:0)

and traces of lauric n-

pentadecanoic and pentadecenoid acids (Dahot and Memo, 1985, Ferrao and Ferrao, 1970).
Variation in fatty acid composition is reported to have an important effect on firmness or
softness of the fat in meat, especially the subcutaneous and intermascular (carcass fats), but
also the intramuscular (marbling) fat (Wood et al., 2003).
A number of feed additives have been used world wide in the poultry industry for so many
years (Jang et al., 2007). The common feed additives used in poultry diets include
antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers, binders, pH control agents and enzymes (Poultry
Consultancy, 2012). Moringa (commonly called drumstick tree) has been reported to posses
quality sources of several nutrients including protein, calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron,
Vitamin A, and Vitamin C (Foidl et al., 2001; Marcu, 2005; Rweyemamu, 2006) and is also
reported to be inexpensive for livestock feeding compared to other leaf meals (Sarwatt et al.,
2004). This plant also possess some antioxidants which makes it suitable to be utilized as an
additive in broiler diets. The presence of vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids and
selenium makes Moringa oleifera a potential antioxidant (Moyo et al., 2012). The plant has
also been advocated for traditional medicines for centuries (Marcu and Pharm, 2005).
According to Mwale and Masika (2011), medicinal plants are easy to use, cheap, readily
13

available and easily accessible to the communal farmers. Therefore research on the effect of
Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on growth performance, fatty acid profile, and
physico-chemical shelf life indicators of broiler chickens would be of importance.
2.4. Medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera
2.4.1. Antioxidants
Moringa oleifera has been reported to possess some antioxidant properties (Sreelatha and
Padma, 2009; Atawodi et al., 2010). Although there are several enzyme systems within the
body which scavenge free radicals, the natural (vitamin) antioxidants are vitamin E, btacarotene, and vitamin C (Nair et al., 2003). These micronutrient antioxidants may be used as
defence system to prevent free radicals from damaging the animals body. This therefore
provides protection to animals against infections and degenerative diseases (Sreelatha and
Padma, 2009; Verma et al, 2009). A survey conducted by Yang et al. (2006) and Jung et al.
(2010), on 120 edible plant species showed that M.oleifera was among the most promising
species based on their high antioxidant activity, high contents of micro-nutrients and
phytochemicals, processing properties, ease of growing, and also on palatability, stability and
shelf life of meat products.
2.5. Nutritional composition of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves
According to Moyo et al. (2011), there is quite a lot of literature on the nutritional value of
M.oleifera Lam leaves with varying nutritional content. Moringa oleifera has been reported
to posses several nutrients, including: Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, Vitamin A, and
Vitamin C and a crude protein content that varies from 16 to 40% (Foidl et al., 2001; Marcu
and Pharm, 2005; Rweyemamu, 2006). Aregheore (2001) reported that the use of M.oleifera
as a supplement can improve voluntary intake, digestibility and livestock performance.
According to Rubanza et al., (2005) the extent and rate of feed digestibility is defined by the
14

fiber content. Therefore, M.oleifera leaves could be highly digestible because of its immense
nutritional qualities such as its chemical composition (neutral detergent fiber (NDF); acid
detergent fiber (ADF); crude protein (CP); gross energy (Gross En); (EE) ether extract) and
amino acids profile (Table 2.2). The seeds of this tree are rich in oil and protein source, these
seeds can also be used for the purification of water (Becker and Makkar, 1999; Foidl et al.,
2001). According to Makkar and Becker (1997), M. oleifera Lam leaves are rich in
carotenoids, ascorbic acid and iron. The leaves are widely recognised as a food source for
humans and a dry season feed for animals because of the nutrient contents it contains (Table
2.1). Equally important is the fact that some parts of the tree contain toxins and other antinutritional factors that might decrease its potential as a source of food for animals or humans
(Table 2.2). For instance its bark contains tannins, alkaloids, saponnins and inhibitors
(Makkar et al., 1990).

15

Table 2.1:Mineral contents of dried Moringa oleifera leaves


Mineral

Dry leaf

Standard error

Calcium (%)

3.65

0.36

Phosphorus (%)

0.30

0.004

Magnesium (%)

0.50

0.005

Potassium (%)

1.50

0.019

Sodium (%)

0.164

0.017

Sulphur (%)

0.63

0.146

Zinc (mg/kg)

31.03

3.410

Copper (mg/kg)

8.25

0.143

Iron (mg/kg)

490

3.940

Manganese (mg/kg)

86.8

49.645

Selenium (mg/kg)

363.00

0.413

Boron (mg/kg)

49.93

2.302

Macro elements (%)

Micro elements (mg/kg)

Source: Moyo et al. (2011)

Table 2.2. Nutritional qualities of M.oleifera leaf meal

16

Nutritive value

Dry leaves

Source

Crude protein

25.1-30.29

Foidl et al. 2001; Moyo et


al., 2011

Neutral detergent fiber

11.40-21.9

Moyo et al., 2011; Richter


et al. 2003; Foidl et al.
2001

Acid detergent fiber

8.49-11.4

Moyo et al., 2011; Richter


et al. 2003; Foidl et al.
2001

Gross energy (Mj/kg


DM)

18.7

Foidl et al., 2001

Ether extract

5.4

Foidl et al., 2001

Lysine

1.1-1.64

Richter et al. 2003; Moyo


et al., 2011

Histidine

0.6-0.72

Richter et al. 2003; Moyo


et al., 2011

Threonine

0.8-1.36

Richter et al. 2003; Moyo


et al., 2011

Arginine

1.2-1.78

Richter et al. 2003; Moyo


et al., 2011

Methionine

0.30

Moyo et al., 2011

Total phenolics

2.02-2.74

Moyo et al., 2011; Richter


et al. 2003

Tannins

0.53

Richter et al. 2003

Condensed tannins
(mg/g)

3.12

Moyo et al., 2011;

Chemical composition
(%DM)

Amino acid profile (%


DM)

Antinutrients (%)

17

Saponins

6.38

Richter et al. 2003

2.6. Growth promoting properties of plant extracts on performance and carcass


characteristics of broiler chickens.
The optimal performance in terms of diet intake, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency
(FCE), live weight and high meat yield can be improved by nutritional management.
According to Chinrasri (2004) and Laohakaset (1997), nutrient requirement is the amount of
nutrients needed by the animals to maintain their activities, maximize growth and feed
utilization efficiency. Nutrients like carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins that chickens utilize as
a source of energy are essential requirements for growth. Approximately up to 80% of
domestic animals have been fed synthetic compounds for the purpose of either medication or
growth promotion (Lee et al., 2001). However, there are recent concerns about possible
antibiotic residues and disease resistance that have aroused great caution in the usage of
antibiotics in the animal industry. Therefore, supplementing broilers with plant extracts since
they contain most of the nutrients will enhance feed intake, growth and FCE. Plant extracts
have been used as an alternative to antibiotics, for this reason these plant extracts are
becoming more important due to their anti-microbial effects as well as stimulating effect on
the digestive system of the animal (Osman et al., 2005). They also contain many active
materials, including essential oils, which boost a wide range of pharmacological activities
(Cowan, 1999). Kamel (2001) also reported evidence suggesting that herbs, spices and
various plant extracts have appetite and digestion stimulating properties, as well as antimicrobial effects.

18

2.7. Meat quality characteristics of broiler meat


2.7.1. pH, colour and drip loss
There are a range of factors that contribute to the deterioration in quality and loss of shelf life
as a consequence of lipid oxidation occurring in meat and meat products (Marusich et al.,
1975). These factors include the state and content of pro-oxidants (iron, myoglobin), level of
antioxidants present in muscle, composition and amount of muscle lipids and the storage
conditions of meat. It has also been shown that meat colour can be affected by some
supplements given to meat animals. For instance, high levels of iron contained in some plants
including Moringa could have an effect on redness (a*) of the meat. Also, some antioxidant
properties that Moringa also contain can have an effect on meat quality. For example, dietary
vitamin E supplementation in meat animals is reported to be the best known method of
improving meat quality by reducing lipid oxidation in fresh meat and meat products
(Marusich et al., 1975). Vitamin E supplementation has been effectively used to improve the
quality of poultry and poultry products.
Meat quality is determined by a combination of chemical and sensory attributes and a carcass
with better fat or muscle proportions (Dhana et al., 1999; Madruga et al., 2009). Consumers
are interested in meat that can contribute to their personal satisfaction. The quality measures
related to visual aspect (colour, water holding capacity and fatness) and the palatability
(juiciness, flavour and aroma) are regarded as the key measures that determine consumers
initial interest in meat (Muchenje et al., 2009a). Meat quality is influenced, to a large extent,
by the rate of ultimate pH (pHu ), decline in the muscles after slaughter and by the ultimate
pH (Sales and Millet, 1996; Muchenje et al., 2009a).

19

Meat quality can also be influenced by feeding, for an example in the study conducted by
Xazela et al.,(2011), goats supplemented with sunflower cake had a lower pH than nonsupplemented goats. The reason being the supplemented goats were likely to have higher
glycogen levels than non-supplemented. Normaly, low pH in meat increases lightness (L*)
and reduces redness (a*) of the meat. According to Dhanda et al. (1999) and Santos et al.
(2007), redness of the meat is normally related to the pHu of meat. An ideal pH for meat
ranges from 5.5 to 5.8 therefore, if the pH is above 6 after slaughter, it will lead to a reduced
shelf life of the meat, since such pH encourages microbial growth. There are some indications
that pH also has an effect on chicken meat (Bruce and Ball, 2000). For instance in chicken,
studies of pH have shown that high pH meat is darker but less consistently tender than normal
pH meat (Dyubele et al., 2010). However, ideal pH results in acceptably tender and normal
colour of the meat. High pH also promotes growth of micro-organisms which lead to the
development of off-odours, and often slime formation (Bruce and Ball, 2000).
The pH that is less than 5.0 results in pale coloured meat. The colour of the meat depends on
several individual factors and their interactions.
According to Insausti and Berian (2008), oxidative processes have negative effect on both
colour and flavour and lipid oxidation products contribute to the development of off-flavours,
especially at storage. In addition, Thiansilakul et al. (2011), reported that myoglobin
oxidation leads to meat discolouration.
Drip loss is the loss of fluid from the meat tissue. Fluid loss may cause an increase in the
concentration of the solutes, which results in pH decrease as reported by Offer and Trinick
1983) where fast decline in pH or low pH leads to high drip loss.

20

Some minerals like selenium which are also found in Moringa, has been shown to
significantly improve meat quality by decreasing cell membrane oxidation leading to reduced
muscle drip loss (Rotruck et al., 1973). It has also been reported that the influence of
selenium supplementation on reducing drip loss in pigs is somewhat less clear compared to
the reduced drip loss observed in broilers.
2.7.2. Fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation in meat quality
Meat is often wrongly identified as food with high fat content and an undesirable balance of
fatty acids. Lean meat is very low in fat. It is reported that poultry and pork have a favourable
balance between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P: S)
(Wood and Esner, 1997) and that when grain based or grass based diets are fed they
normally lead to a relatively more n-6 or n-3 fatty acids, respectively. In meat containing
more unsaturated fatty acids there is a risk that their profile will change during storage
(Jeremiah, 1980).

According to Muchenje et al. (2009a), fatty acid composition of meat is affected by the
fatness level of the animal, which maybe enhanced by the type of feed the animal consumed,
age and genotype. Similarly, changes in fatty acid composition of body fats are primarily due
to the respective fatty acid content of the diet (Muchenje et al., 2009b). Flavonoids,
carotenoids, essential oils and other plant substances may cause some changes during storage
of meat and affect lipid accumulation in tissue (Koreveski and Swiatkiewicz, 2007).

21

Kishowar et al. (2004) reported that chicken meat is enriched with PUFA, including the key
n-3 fatty acids in comparison to other meats. However, these polyunsaturated fatty acids are
reported to increase the susceptibility of meat to lipid oxidation which causes loss of
nutritional and sensory values as well as the formation of potentially toxic compounds that
compromise meat quality and reduce its shelf life (Maraschiello et al., 1999; Ruiz et al.,
1999; Grau et al., 2001). Antioxidants delay or prevent lipid oxidation in meat.
It has also been reported that the effect of fatty acids on shelf life is explained by the
propensity of unsaturated fatty acids to oxidise, leading to the development of rancidity as
display times increases (Wood et al., 2004). There will also be colour change, which is due to
the oxidation of red myoglobin to brown metmyoglobin.
Poultry meat is particularly prone to oxidative deterioration due to its high concentration of
poly unsaturated fatty acids (Luna et al., 2010). A lot of studies (Botsologou et al., 2002; Lee
et al. 2004), have shown the improvement in the oxidative stability of meat after feeding
chickens with antioxidants factors, added in the feed. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT) have been utilised as antioxidants to reduce oxidation.
However, there is an interest on natural antioxidants from plants since the oxidative quality
deterioration in meat can be reduced by the use of natural antioxidants. Natural antioxidants
are various substances with different chemical characteristics, which are widely present in
plants (Valasco and Williams., 2011). According to Pennington and Fisher (2009), the total
antioxidant capacity of these plants reflects concentrations of ascorbic acid (vitamin C),
alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), beta carotene (vitamin A precusor), various flavonoids, and
other phenolic compounds. Moringa oleifera has been revealed to be a source of high levels
of vitamin E and beta carotene (Moyo et al., 2011) which have been reported against
22

oxidation (Yeum et al., 2009). With many positive effects of natural antioxidants on meat
characteristics, retarding lipid oxidation is one of those positive effects (Camo et al., 2008).
Therefore moringa oleifera can be used as an additive in broiler diets.

2.6. References

Aregheore, E.M., 2001. Nutritive value and utilization of three grass species by crossbred.
J.Anim. Sci. 14:1389-1393.
Atawodi,S.E., Atawodi, J.C., Idakwo, G.A., 2010. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and
antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of
Moringa oleifera Lam. J.Med.Food. 13: 710-716.
Becker, K., and Makkar, H.P.S., 1999. Effects of dietary tannic acid and quebracho tannin on
growth performance and metabolic rates of common carp. Aquaculture. 175:327-335.
Biswas, A., Ahmed, M., Bharti, V.K., and Singh, S.B., 2011. Effect of antioxidants on
physico-chemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicken at high altitude.
Asian-Austr. J. Anim.Sci. 24:246-249.

23

Camo, J., Beltran, J.A., and Roncales, P., 2008. Extension of the display life of lamb with an
antioxidant active packaging. Meat. Sci. 80: 1086-1091.
Cowan, M.M., 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Micro. Rev. 12:564-582.
De Winne, A., and Dirinck, P., 1996. Studies on vitamin E and meat quality. 2. Effect of
feeding high levels of vitamin E on chicken meat quality. J.Agric. Food Chem.
44:1691-1696.
Dhanda, J.S., Taylor, D.C., Murray, P.J., and McCosker, J.E., 1999. The influence of goat
genotype on the production of carpretto and chevon carcasses. 2Meat quality. Meat
Sci. 52:363-367.
Dyubele, N.L., Muchenje, V., Nkukwana, T.T., Chimonyo, M., 2010. Consumer sensory
characteristics of broiler and indigenous chicken meat: A South African example.
Food Qualit. Prefer. 21: 815-819.
Esmail, S.H.M., 2002. Feeding fruit wastes to poultry. Poult. Internl. 41:42-44.
Figen, K., Bora Unlu, H., and Guven, O., 2011. Effects of oregano and garlic essential oils on
performance, carcass, organ and blood characteristics and intestinal microflora of
broilers. Livestock. Sci.137:219-225.
Foidl, N., Makkar, H.P.S., and Becker, K., 2001. Potential of Moringa oleifera for
agricultural and industrial uses. In: The Miracle Tree. The Multiple Attributes of
Moringa. Fugile, L.G. (ed). 31:45-76.

24

Gous, R., and Cherry, P., 2004. Effects of body weight at, and lighting regimen and growth
curve to, 20 weeks on laying performance in broiler breeders. British Poult. Sci.
454:45-452.
Grau, A., R., Codony, S., Grimpa, M. D., Baucells, and Guardiola, F., 2001. Cholesterol
oxidation in frozen dark chicken meat: influence of dietary fat source, and tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation. Meat Sci. 57:197208.
Insausti, K., Berian, M.J., 2008. Multivariate study of different beef quality traits from local
Spanish cattle breeds. Anim. Sci. 2: 447-458.
Jang, I.S., Ko, Y.H., Kang, C.Y., Lee, C.Y., 2007. Effect of a commercial essential oil on
growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in
broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 134:304-315.
Jeremiah, L.E., 1980. Effect of frozen storage and protective wrap upon the cooking losses,
palatability and rancidity of fresh and cured pork cuts. J. Food. Sci. 45:187-187.
Jung, S., Choe, J., Kim, B., Yun, H., Kruk, Z.A., and Jo, C., 2010. Effect of dietary mixture
of garlic acid and linoleic acid on antioxidative potential and quality of breast meat
from broilers. Meat Sci. 86:520-526.
Kishowar, J., Paterson, A., and Spickett, C.M., 2004. Fatty acid composition antioxidant and
lipid oxidation in chicken breast from different production regimes. Inter. J. Food Sci.
and Tech. 39:443-453.

25

Koreveski, J., and Swiatkiewicz, S. 2007. Dietary supplementation with plant extracts,
xantophylls and synthetic antioxidants:Effect of fatty acid profile and oxidative
stability of frozen stored chicken breast meat. J. Anim. and Feed Sci. 16:463-471.
Lahucky, R., Nuernberg, K., Kovac, L., Bucko, O., and Nuernberg, G., 2010. Assessment of
the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts-in vitro and in vivo experiment on
pork. Meat Sci. 85:779-784.
Laohakaset, P., 1997. Poultry production. Third Edition, Sahamitr Off-set Publishing,
Nanthaburi, Thailand. Pp 328.
Lee, K.W., Everts, H., Kappert, H.J., Wuterse, H., Frenner, M., and Beynen, A.C., 2004.
Cinnamanaldehyde, but not thymol, counteracts the carboxymethyl cellulose-induced
growth depression in female broiler chickens. Intern. J. Poult. Sci. 3:608-612.
Lee, M.H., Lee, H.J., and Ryu, P.D., 2001. Public health risks:chemical and antibiotic
residues. A review. J. Anim.Sci.14:402-413.
Madruga, M.S., Torres, T.S., Carvalh, F.F., Queiroga, R.C., Narain, N., Garruti, D., Souza
Neto, M.A., Mattos Carla, W., and Costa, R.G., 2008. Meat quality of Moxoto and
Canide goats as affected by two levels of feeding. Meat Sci. 30:149-154.
Makkar, H.P.S., Singh, B., and Negi, S.S., 1990. Tannin levels and their degree of
polymerisation and specific activity in some agro-industrial by-products. Biolog.
Wastes. 31: 137-144.

26

Maraschiello, C., Sarraga, C., and Garca Regueiro, J.A., 1999. Glutathione peroxidase
activity, TBARs, and -tocopherol in meat from chicken fed different diets. J. Agric.
Food Chem. 47:867872.
Marcu, M.G., and Pharm, D., 2005. Miracle Tree. KOS Health Publications, 466 Foothill
Blvd number 251, La Canada, CA. 91011.
Marker, H.P.S., and Becker, K., 1997. Nutrients and antiquality factors in different
morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. J. Agric. Sci. 128:311-322.
Middleton, E., Kandaswamy, C., and Theoharicles, T.C., 2000. The effects of plant
flavonoidson mammalian cells. Pharmacol. Rev. 52:673-751.
Moyo, B., Masika, P.J., Hugo, A. & Muchenje, V., 2011. Nutritional Characterization of
Moringa oleifera Lam leaves. Afri. J. Biotech. 10, 12925-12933.
Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Hugo, A., and Raats, J.G., 2009.
Some biological aspects pertaining of beef eating quality and consumer health: A
review. Food chem.. 112:279-289.
Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Hugo., A., and Raats, J.G., 2009a.
Some biochemical aspects pertaining to beef eating quality and consumer health: A
review. Food chem.. 112: 279-289.
Muchenje, V., Hugo, A., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Raats, J.G., and Strydom, P.E., 2009b.
Cholesterol levels and fatty acids profiles of beef from three cattle breeds raised on
natural pasture. J.Food. Compost. and Analysis. 22: 354-358.

27

Musa, H.H., Chen, G.H., Cheng, B.C., and Mekki, D.M., 2006. Study on carcass
characteristics of chicken breeds raised under the intensive condition. Internl. J. of
Poult. Sci. 5:530-533.
Mwale, M., and Masika, P., 2011. Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Gunnera
perpensa L.(Gunneraceae). African. J. Biotech.10:2503-2513.
Nair, U., Bartsch, H., and Nair, J., 2003. Prevention of degenerative diseases, clues from
studies investigating oxidative stress. Brussels, 13 November 2002. Mutagenesis. 18:
477-483.
Offer, G., and Trinick, J., 1983. On the mechanism of water-holding in meat: The swelling
and shrinkage of myofibrils. Meat Sci. 8:245-281.
Osman, N., Talat, G., Mehmet, C., Bestami, D., and Simsek, G., 2005. The effect of an
essential oil mix derived from oregano, clove and aniseed on broiler performance.
Intern.J.Poult. Sci. 4:879-884.
Oyedeji, J.O., and Atteh, J.O., 2005. Response of broilers to feeding manipulations. Inter. J.
Poult. Sci. 4:91-95.
Pennington, J.A.T., and Fisher, R.A., 2009. Classificationof fruits and vegetables.
J.Food.Compst. and Analysis. 225:523-531.
Richards, M.P., 2003. Genetic regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry. Poult.
Sci. 82:907-916.

28

Richter, N., Siddhuraj, P., Becker, K., 2003. Evaluation of nutritional quality of Moringa
(Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia (Oreo
chromis niloticus L.). Aquacult. 217: 599-611.
Rubanza, C.D.K., Shem, M.N., Otsyina, E.R., Bakengesa, S.S., Ichinohe, T., and Fujihara, T.,
2005. Polyphenolics and tannins effect on in vitro digestibility of selected Acacia
species leaves. Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol. 119: 129-142.
Ruiz, J. A., Perez-Vendrell, A.M., and Esteve-Garca, E., 1999. Effect of -carotene and
vitamin E on peroxidative stability in leg meat of broilers fed different supplemental
fats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47:448454.
Rweyemamu, L.M.P., 2006. Challenges in the development of micronutrient-rich food
ingredients from Soya beans and Moringa oleifera leaves: Moringa and other highly
nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on
nutrition in Africa. Accra Ghana. 16-18.
Sales, J., and Mellet, F.D., 1996. Post mortem pH decline in different ostrich muscles. Meat
Sci. 42:235-238.
Santos, V.A.C., Silva, A.O., Cardoso, J.V.F., Silvestre, A.J.D., Silva, S.R., Martins, C., and
Azevedo, J.M.T., 2007. Genotype and sex effects on carcass and meat quality of
suckling kids protected by the PGI Cabrito de Barros. Meat Sci. 75:725-736.
Sarwatt, S., Milangha, M.S., Lekule, F.P., and Madalla, N., 2004. Moringa oleifera and
cottonseed cake as supplements for small-holder dairy cows fed on Napier grass.
Livest. Resea. for Rural Developn. 16:1.

29

Shahidi, F., Janitha, P.K., and Wanasundara, P., 1992. Phenolic antioxidants. Critical reviews
in Food Sci. and Nutrition. 32:67-102.
Sreelatha, S., and Padma, P.R., 2009. Antioxidant activity and total content of Moringa
oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant foods of human Nutri. 64:303-311.
The Poultry Consultancy., 2009. Poultry feed formulation: Defining a feed additive.
www.thepoultryconsultancy.com (Accessed 12 October 2012).
Thiansilakul, Y., Benjakul, S., and Richards, M.P., 2011. The effect of different atmospheric
conditions on the changes in myoglobin and colour or refrigerated Eastern little tuna
(Euthynnus affinis) muscle. J.Sci.Food and Agric. 91: 1103-1110.
Valasco, V., and Williams, P., 2011. Improving meat quality through natural antioxidants.
J.Agric.Resear. 71(2). April-June 2011.
Valeria, V., and Williams, P., 2011. Improving meat quality through natural antioxidants.
Chilean J.Agric.Res. 71:2.
Verma, A.R., Vijayakumar, M., Mathela, C.S., and Rao, C.V., 2009. In vitro and in vivo
antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food Chem.
and Toxinol. 47:2196-21201.
Wood, J.D., and Esner, M., 1997. Factors affecting fatty acids in meat and the role of
antioxidants in improving meat quality. British. J.Nutrition. 75:49-60.
Wood, J.D., Richardson, R.I., Nute, G.R., Fisher, A.V., Campo, M.M., Kasapidou, E.,
Sheard, P.R., and Enser, M., 2003. Effects of acids on meat quality: A review. Meat
Sci. 66:21-32.
30

Wood, J.D., Richardson, R.I., Nute, G.R., Fisher, A.V., Campo, M.M., Kasapidou, E.,
Sheard, P.R., and Enser, M., 2004. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: A review.
Meat Sci. 66:21-23.
Xazela, N., Muchenje, V., Chimonyo, M and Marume, U., 2011. Effect of sunflower cake
supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotype of South Africa. Meat
Sci. 90:204-208.
Yami, A., 1995. Poultry production in Ethiopia. Wrld. Poult. Sci. J. 51: 197-201.
Yang, R.Y., Tsou, S.C.S., Lee, T.C., Chang, L.C., Kuo, G., and Lai, P.Y., 2006. Moringa, a
novel plant rich in antioxidants, bio-available iron, and nutrients. Pp 224-239. In:
C.T.Ho (ed) Challenegs in chemistry and biology of herbs. American chemical
society, Washington, D.C.
Yeum, K.J., Beratta, G., Krinsky, N.I., Russell, R.M., and Aldini, G., 2009. Synergistic
interactions of antioxidant nutrients in a biological model system. Nutr. 25:839-846.

Chapter 3: Effect of feeding Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on growth


performance and carcass characteristics of broilers
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Moringa oleifer leaf meal
(MOLM) as feed additive on growth performance (average feed intake, body weight gain,
average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency) and carcass characteristics of broilers. A total
of 432 1-day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Aviane 48) were randomly allocated to four dietary
treatments (TRTS) in 72 cages, each cage having 6 birds. Water and feed were provided ad
31

libitum. The feeding phases were: prestarter (0-7days), starter (8-18days), grower (1928days) finisher (29-35days). Diets contained graded levels of the MOLM, ranging between
0 and 1000g/ton depending on treatment (TRT1=1000g/ton MOLM; TRT2=750g/ton
MOLM; TRT3=500g/ton MOLM; TRT4=0 MOLM). At day 35 all the chickens were
slaughtered and the slaughter weight, carcass weight, and internal organs weights were taken.
The body weight gain (BWG) differed significantly with TRTS at Day 18, 28 and 35 with
treatment 1having highest value on Day 18, treatment 2 having the highest on Day 28 and
treatment 2 having the highest on Day 35. The TRTS at Day 18 and Day 35 had a significant
effect on average daily gain (ADG). At Day 18 chickens supplemented with treatment 1
(1000g/ton MOLM) had the highest ADG and at Day 35 treatment 2 was the highest. At Day
7 FI and FCE differed significantly with TRTS, with chickens supplemented with treatment 4
(0 MOLM) having high FI and FCE values. Slaughter weight (SW), carcass weight (CW),
dressing percentage (D %) and gizzard weight (GW) values were similar in all the treatments.
The liver weight (LW), heart weight (HW) and gastro intestinal fat (GIF) differed
significantly in all the TRTS, with treatment 2 (750g/ton MOLM) having highest value of
HW and GIF, and LW was the highest in treatment 4 (0 MOLM). In conclusion the use of
MOLM as an additive had a significant effect on AFI, BWG, ADG, FCE of broiler chickens
and on LW, HW and GIF .
Keywords: moringa oleifera, broilers, average feed intake, growth, dietary additive
3.1. Introduction
Recently, there is a trend of rising prices of animal feeds. Vitamin E and selenium (both
organic and inorganic) usually used as additives in mono-gastric feeds are very expensive. On
the other hand, there is a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry
industry, because of the harmful effects on humans occassioned by the development of
32

microbial resistance to these products (Mc Cartney, 2002). However, organic acids and
medicinal plants as natural feed additives have been used recently in poultry diet to enhance
the performance and immune response of birds (Asghar et al., 2012). In addition, new
commercial additives derived from plants, including aromatic plant extracts and their purified
constituents, have been examinated as part of alternative feed strategies for the future (Brenes
and Roura, 2010). It has also been reported that such products have several advantages over
commonly used commercial antibiotics, since they are residue free and are also generally
recognized as safe and commonly used in the food industry (Varel, 2002).
Due to the present trend of rising prices of feed stuffs, considerable attention is therefore on
the search for non-conventional feedstuffs (Esmail, 2002). For example, leaf meals made
from shrubs have been useful to small scale farmers (WAC, 2006). Various leaf meals have
been used in poultry diets, including those of cassava (Ogbma and Oredein, 1998) and
Hoodia gordonii (Mohlapo et al., 2009).

Recently there has been an interest in plant extracts which have been used in poultry feed for
improving growth performance, preventing some specific pathogenic micro-organism
because of the antioxidant content they contain (Tekeli et al., 2012), but their influence as
additives on growth performance of farm animals have not been sufficiently documented
(Cowan, 1999).
These plant extracts are also reported to contain many active components, including essential
oils, which boast a wide range of pharmocological activities (Lewis et al., 2003) and have
been used as alternatives to antibiotics. There is also evidence of some plant extracts which

33

contain some antioxidant properties and minerals which could be valuable for poultry
feeding.
Moringa oleifera is one such plant which has been used in poultry diets. It has been used as a
substitute of fishmeal and soyabean meals in broiler diets by Zanu et al.(2011), and as a
supplement (growth performance) of broilers (Du et al., 2007). It has also been used in other
livestock as feed (Anjorn et al., 2010), more so in feeding dairy animals, goats and poultry
layers (Mendieta-Araica et al., 2011; Moyo et al., 2012). Moringa leaves has been reported to
have immense nutritional value as shown by the amino acid profile and crude protein content
(Anwar et al., 2007),

its high level of vitamin A, E and low level of anti-nutritional

compounds (Yang et al., 2006). Moringa oleifera contain some health-promoting


phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, sterols, which are
reported to be authentic antioxidants that are safe and bio-active (Sreelatha and Padma,
2009). Despite the nutritive values of Moringa and its use in other animal species, its use or
effect as broiler feed additive to improve the growth and carcass characteristics is not well
known.

3.2. Materials and Methods


3.2.1. Study site description
The experiment was conducted at Stellenboch Universitys Mariendahll Research Farm, in
Elsenburg, Western Cape. The experimental site is situated at longitude 18o50E and latitude
33o51S at an altitude of 177m above sea level. The climate at Mariendahll is typically
Mediterranean, with an extreme annual rainfall of 622.7mm (30 year average) of which 84%

34

occurs between April and October (Labuschangne, 2005).Temperatures per year are between
4.80C (low) and 29.00C(high), humidity between 20% (lowest) and 98% (highest).

35

3.2.2.Experimental procedures
A total of four hundred and thirty two 1-day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Aviane 48) were
used in this experiment. All the chicks were housed in the same brooding house and allocated
to four dietary treatments (TRTS) with graded levels of MOLM (Table 3.1) in 72 cages.
There were 18 cages per treatment and each cage allocated 6 chicks, that made 108 chicks per
treatment. The cages permitted four-fold stocking density and each cage was equipped with
an aluminium flooding pan feeder (300mm) and mini plastic drinkers of the same size
(300mm).

36

Table 3.1: Treatment structure


Treatments

Basal diet (4-phase)

Inclusion rates of MOLM

TRT1

Moringa oleifera leaf powder as


additive

1000 g/ton of feed

TRT2

Moringa oleifera leaf powder as


additive

750 g/ton of feed

TRT3

Moringa oleifera leaf powder as


additive

500 g/ton of feed

TRT4

Negative control

No MOLM added

MOLM=Moringa oleifera leaf meal

37

On arrival chicks were given water and the feed at ad libitum but with small amount of feed
sprinkled inside cages for easier consumption and recognition of feed by chicks up to ten
days of age. Temperatures were kept at 32oC for the first 7days and monitored frequently for
about 3times/day i.e. in the morning, during the day, and at night. Sufficient air exchange was
also allowed, and after 7 days temperatures were reduced gradually and equipment
adjustments were done until the end of the experiment.
The chicks in groups and feeds were weighed weekly according to cage numbers using a
normal scale. Body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed
conversion efficiency (FCE) of the chicks were recorded at the beginning of each week,
starting from placement until slaughter. Body weight gain was determined by subtracting the
final body weight (g) from the initial body weight (g); average daily gain (ADG) was
determined by dividing average body weight (g) by 7(days); feed conversion efficiency
(FCE) by dividing average feed intake (g) by the average body weights (g); and feed intake
(FI) was determined by subtracting given feed (g/day) from the remaining feed(g/day). The
faecal trays were cleaned weekly to avoid the build-up of diseases and contamination of
feed. At eighteen days, all the chickens were moved from the brooding house, since they had
grown, to the grower house and divided into 45 cages (10chickens/cage). The cages
contained a water channel system with drinking nipples and an aluminium flooding pan
feeder (1500mm).
The diets were formulated to meet all the birds dietary nutrient requirements for pre-starter
(0 to 7days), starter (8 to 18days), grower (19 to 28days), and finisher (29 to 35days) phases
(National Research Council, 1994). The ingredient and chemical composition of all the
38

phases is shown on (Table 3.2.) and nutrient composition for pre-starter (Table 3.3.), starter
(Table 3.4.), grower (Table 3.5.) and finisher is shown on Table 3.6.

39

Table 3.2: The ingredient (kg) composition of pre-starter, starter, grower and finisher diets

Ingredient (kg)
Fine maize
Soya oil cake
Fish meal
Sunflower oil
Limestone
Monocalcium
phosphate
Methionine
Salt
Vit+mineral premix
Sodium Bicarbonate
Choline Chloride
Lysine
Treonine

Prestarter
(0-7Days)

Starter(818Days)

89.69
42.32
10.8
3.22
1.86

244.12
124.61
10.14
8
5.91

398.63
149.45
19.95
15
8.42

528.35
202.76
32
13.52
10.85

0.76
0.39
0.32
0.18
0.13
0.15
0.13
0.65

3.44
1.25
1.32
0.47
0.34
0.31
0.07
0.02

4.25
1.05
1.77
0.7
0.29
0.35
0.14

6.11
1.89
2.49
0.93
0.2
0.62
0.27

40

Grower(19- Finisher(2928Days)
35Days)

Table 3.3: Nutrient composition (%) of the treatments on prestarter phase


Prestarter
Nutrients
Ash%
Ca%
CI%
Dry Matter%
Fat%
Fibre-Crude%
Moisture 103 0C %
Na%
P%
Protein
CrudeN*6.25
(Dumas)%
Se mg/kg

Treatment1
Treatment2
(1000g/ton MOLM) (750g/ton MOLM)

Treatment3
Treatment4
500g/ton MOLM (0MOLM)

5.02
0.86
0.31
90.12
4.77
2.15
9.88
0.17
0.58

4.78
0.64
0.32
90.46
4.96
2.01
9.54
0.17
0.61

5.52
0.90
0.34
90.29
5.32
2.24
9.71
0.20
0.58

5.34
0.84
0.34
90.09
5.22
2.23
9.91
0.20
0.60

21.98
1.60

24.35
1.42

21.36
1.38

22.87
1.43

41

Table 3.4: Nutirent composition (%) of the treatments on starter phase


Starter
Treatment1
(1000g/tonMOLM)
4.88
0.82
0.30
89.66
4.61
2.23
10.34
0.19
0.57

Nutrients
Ash%
Ca%
CI%
Dry Matter%
Fat%
Fibre-Crude%
Moisture 103C%
Na%
P%
Protein Crude N*6.25
(Dumas)%
21.41
Se mg/kg
0.14

42

Treatment2
(750g/tonMOLM)
4.53
0.70
0.31
89.67
4.04
2.21
10.33
0.17
0.53

Treatment3
(500g/tonMOLM)
4.88
0.84
0.33
89.8
4.36
2.08
10.2
0.19
0.55

Treatment4
(0MOLM)
4.62
0.71
0.31
89.63
4.52
2.14
10.37
0.20
0.54

18.79
1.50

19.18
1.34

18.64
0.54

Table 3.5: Nutrient composition (%) of treatments on grower phase

Nutrients
Ash%
Ca%
CI%
Dry Matter%
Fat%
Fibre-Crude%
Moisture 103C%
Na%
P%
Protein Crude
N*6.25(Dumas)%
Se mg/kg

Treatment1
(1000g/tonMOLM)
4.89
0.85
0.32
89.67
5.13
2.27
10.33
0.19
0.50

Grower
Treatment2
(750g/tonMOLM)
4.77
0.75
0.34
90.26
5.36
2.25
9.74
0.20
0.67

Treatment3
(500g/tonMOLM)
4.75
0.67
0.32
89.69
5.32
1.96
10.31
0.19
0.49

Treatment4
(0MOLM)
4.71
0.66
0.33
90.4
4.69
2.05
9.6
0.16
0.49

19.08
1.38

19.01
1.43

18.44
1.2

19.63
1.27

43

Table 3.6: Nutrient composition (%) of treatments on finisher phase

Nutrients
Ash%
Ca%
CI%
Dry Matter%
Fat%
Fibre-Crude%
Moisture 103C%
Na%
P%
Protein Crude
N*6.25(Dumas)%
Se mg/kg

Finisher
Treatment1
Treatment2
Treatment3
(1000g/tonMOLM) (750g/tonMOLM) (500g/tonMOLM)
5.03
4.78
5.08
0.83
0.71
0.71
0.37
0.31
0.36
90.04
89.86
90.05
4.7
4.18
4.33
2.09
1.92
2.26
9.96
10.14
9.95
0.23
0.16
0.16
0.51
0.5
0.52
18.04
1.56

19.02
1.25

44

18
1.9

Treatment4
(0MOLM)
4.94
0.71
0.32
90.06
4.84
2.36
9.94
0.1
0.48
17.67
1.50

3.2.3. Slaughter procedures and determination of carcass and organ weights


A day before slaughter all the chickens were weighed and not given feed overnight. After
weighing 6 birds/treatment were randomly selected and kept separately, 24 birds were
therefore used for the experiment. Before slaughtering, the slaughter weights were taken.
Slaughtering was done following the normal procedures of the abattoir, whereby they were
first stunned with an electrical stunner (50-70volts) under the beak for 5seconds to render
them unconscious before being slaughtered. The unconscious chickens were then shackled
by their legs onto a conveyor line. While hanging, the throats were cut using a sharp knife,
only one person was responsible for the throat cutting and one person for stunning. After
throat cutting, tags having treatment numbers were tagged on their feet, this also gave time
for the chickens to bleed. After plucking the feathers, the internal organs (liver, heart,
gastrointestinal fat, gizzards) were removed from carcasses and weighed, so are the carcasses.
3.3. Statistical analysis
The AFI, BWG, ADG, FCE and the carcass characteristics (slaughter weight, carcass
weight,dressing %) and intestinal organs (liver weight, heart weight, gizzard weight, gastro
intestinal fat weight) were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) SAS
(2003). Where there was a significant P-test (P<0.05), the least significant difference (LSD)
method was used to compare the means.

45

The statistical model that was used is, Yij= + Ti + Eij.


Where,
*Yij= response variables (AFI, BWG, ADG & FCE), carcass characteristics and internal
organs
*= overall mean
*Ti= treatment effect
*Eij= standard error
3.4. Results and discussion
The use of MOLM as an additive on broiler chickens had no significant effect (P>0.05) on
AFI and FCE (Table 3.7 and 3.8). However, when they were 7 Days old, they differed
(P<0.05) between treatments, with treatment 4 having the highest value. These observations
are similar to the ones reported by Tekeli et al. (2011) , indicating that antibiotics or plant
extract supplementation in a broiler experiment did not influence body weight gain, feed
intake and feed conversion efficiency of the chickens. Similarly, there are other research
findings showing that ration supplemented with plant extract and propolis additives did not
have significant effect on the improvement of FCE of poultry (Demir et al. 2003; Botsoglou
et al., 2004). Botsoglou et al. (2002) and Hernandez et al. (2004) also reported that feeding
oregano essential oil as a supplement did not have any effect on the growth performance of
broiler chicks.
Folorunso and Onibi (2012), also observed no differences on ADG, AFI and FCE of broilers
when fed with diets containing different levels of protein, reason being due to varying dietary
protein levels showing that the birds were able to consume at fairly the same level regardless
46

of the quantity of protein in the diet. However, in our observations it may be due to the fact
that the nutrients in the diets provided to the broilers were not in same quantities and could
have affected the performance of the chickens. Another reason could be that the level of
M.oleifera provided was too little to have any effects on AFI, BWG, FCE and ADG. The
anti-nutritional factors, such as condensed tannins in MOLM could also play a significant
role in the nutrition of animals, causing either adverse or beneficial effects on nutrient
utilization, health and production (Waller and Thamsborg, 2004; Hoste et al.,2006). Some
anti-nutritional factors are reported to affect palatability of diets which in turn will affect feed
intake.

Table 3.7: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on average feed intake (AFIg)
of broilers at 7, 18, 28 and 35 days
Age(days)

Treatment1
(1000g/tonMOLM)

Treatment2
Treatment3
(750g/tonMOLM) (500g/tonMOLM)
47

Treatment4
(0MOLM)

Significance

61.5ab4.49

73.6ab4.32

56.4a5.74

87.7b16.98

18

384.914.68

436.327.40

437.935.85

366.736.77

NS

28

1032.452.53

981.5122.48

1132.125.16

1036.619.67 NS

35

1199.948.77

1165.6141.45

1344.618.74

1203.525.44 NS

abc

Means, se in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P >0.05) from
each other.
*=P>0.05
SE=standard errors

48

Table 3.8: Effect of feeding Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on feed conversion
efficiency
(FCE) of broilers at 7, 18, 28 and 35 days
Age(days)

Treatment1
(1000g/tonMOLM)

Treatment2
Treatment3
(750g/tonMOLM) (500g/tonMOLM)
1.0ab0.06
0.8b0.09

0.8b0.06

18

1.50.41

1.40.09

28

1.80.15

35

1.30.17

Treatment4 Significance
(0MOLM)

1.1a0.10

1.60.22

1.30.08

NS

2.10.35

2.00.01

1.80.15

NS

1.10.17

1.30.17

1.00.01

NS

abc

Means, se in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P >0.05) from
each other.
*=P>0.05
SE=standard error

49

The body weight gain (BWG) differed significantly with TRTS at Day 18, 28 and 35 with
treatment 1having highest value on Day 18, treatment 2 having the highest on Day 28 and
treatment 2 having the highest on Day 35 (Table 3.9). ADG on Day 18 and Day 35 differed
(P<0.05) between TRTS (Table 3.10). The none significant differences in all the TRTS on
ADG could be due to the fact that MOLM was added in small amounts so there was not much
difference between the TRTS with MOLM and treatment 4 which had no MOLM. These
findings contradict that of Denil et al. (2003) that showed supplementation of additives in
broiler diets enhanced nutrient utilization, growth and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of
broilers. Ayssiwede et al. (2011) observed that the inclusion of M.oleifera leaf meal in the
diet of growing traditional Senegal chickens had no negative impact on live body weight,
average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass and organ characteristics in birds.
However, they reported a significant decrease in daily feed intake in treatments that contained
different levels of M.oleifera leaf meal. All the TRTS had no effect on meat portions, but
treatment 4 had highest values of thighs, breasts and drum sticks than the other TRTS though
not statistically significant (Table 3.11).

50

Table 3.9: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on body weight gain (BWGg)
of broilers at 7, 18, 28 and 35 days
Age(days)

Treatment1
Treatment2
Treatment3
Treatment4 Significance
(1000g/tonMOLM) (750g/tonMOLM) (500g/tonMOLM) (0MOLM)

832.60

742.66

752.56

8112.69

NS

18

356a20.45

311ab4.87

289b18.22

285b17.25

28

638ab17.78

572b41.24

603ab17.22

659a12.61

35

890bc23.47

1049a71.61

888bc14.16

916bc23.98

abc

Means, se in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P>0.05) from
each other.
*= P >0.05
SE= Standard error

Table 3.10: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on average daily gain
(ADGg) of broilers at 7, 18, 28 and 35 days
Age(days)

Treatment1
Treatment2
Treatment3
Treatment4 Significance
(1000g/tonMOLM) (750g/tonMOLM) (500g/tonMOLM) (0MOLM)

18.30.45

17.10.36

51

17.10.37

17.61.50

NS

18

47.5a0.99

42.9b0.42

41.4b1.61

45.7ab2.38

28

132.81.50

133.15.28

130.71.68

138.32.36

NS

35

336.8b12.7

376.7a13.63

351.7ab3.03

360.9ab7.01

abc

Means, se in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P>0.05) from
each other.
*= P >0.05
SE= Standard error

Table 3.11: Effect of feedingtreatments on meat portions of broilers 24hours after slaughter
Meat
portions
Breasts

Treatment1

Treatment2
(1000g/tonMOLM) (750g/tonMOLM)
496
510

Treatments
Treatment3
Treatment4
Sig.
(500g/tonMOLM) (0MOLM) S.E
452
518
18.8 NS

Thighs

321

321

322

342

13.4

NS

Wings

162

183

166

174

6.73

NS

Drums

166

167

158

177

6.73

NS

S.E= standard errors


Sig= Significance

52

In Table 3.12. carcass characteristics, carcass weight (CW), slaughter weight (SW), dressing
percentage (D %) and gizzard weight (GW) values were similar in all the treatments. The
liver weight (LW), heart weight (HW) and gastro intestinal fat (GIF) differed significantly (P
<0.05) in all the treatments, with LW having highest value on treatment 4, and HW having
highest value on treatment 2 (750g/ton MOLm) and the GIF also higher on treatment 2. It is
reported that the enhancement of plant extracts such as metabolism oil in the major organs
would increase the growth rate of internal organs (Mellor, 2000). In some studies plant
extracts added in supplements are reported to improve D% (Alcicek et al., 2004). However
the significance (P <0.05) of internal organs (LW, HW, GIF) agrees with the results reported
by Al-Kassie (2009), that different levels of oil extract derived from thyme and cinnamon
also had significant effects on internal organs percentages (liver, heart and gizzard).

53

Table 3.12: Effect of Moringa oleifera as an additive on carcass characteristics of broilers


Weights(g)
Heart
GI fat
Liver
Carcass
Slaughter
Dressing%
Gizzard
abc

Treatment1
(1000g/tonMOLM)
12.3
7.4
43.1
1.2
1.6
75.9
18.5

Treatment2
(750g/tonMOLM)
28.3
11.4
42.6
1.2
1.6
76.8
17.8

Treatment3
(500g/tonMOLM)
11.5
7.8
37.7
1.1
1.5
76.4
17.2

Treatment4
(0MOLM)
12.1
7.4
44.2
1.2
1.6
75.7
18.1

Means in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P >0.05)

GI Fat = Gastro intestinal fat


SE= Standard error

54

SE
2.55
1.12
1.60
0.04
0.05
0.85
1.03

3.5. Conclusion
Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive had no effect on growth performance of broiler
chickens. However, it had an effect on carcass characteristics by improving Liver weight
(LW), heart weight (HW) and gastro intestinal fat (GIF). Since inclusion of Moringa oleifera
leaf meal at different levels in broiler diets did not have adverse effect on performance of
broilers, therefore it is vital to determine the effect of M.oleifera leaf meal as an additive on
the meat qulity of these broilers.

55

3.6. References
Alcicek, A., Bozkurt, M., and Cabuk, M., 2004. The effect of a mixture of herbal essential
oils, an organic acid or a probiotic on broiler performance. SA Socie. For Anim. Sci.
34:217-222.
Ali Asghar, S., Reza, N.H., Enayat, R., and Jalal S., 2012. Herbal additives and organic acids
as antibiotic alternatives in broiler chickens diet for organic production. Afric. J.of
Biotech. 11:2139-2145.
56

Al-Kassie, G.A.M., 2009. Influence of two plant extracts derived from thyme and cinnamon
on broiler performance. Pakistan V.J. 29:169-173.
Ayssiwede, S.B., Dieng, A., Bello, H., Chrysostome, C.A.A.M., Hane, M.B., Mankor, A.,
Dahouda, M., Houinato, M.R., Hornick, J.L., and Missohou, A., 2011. Effects of
Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaves meal incorporation in diets on growth performance,
carcass characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal
chickens. Pak. J.Nutr. 10:1132-1145.
Botsoglou, N.A., Christaki, E., Florou-Paneri, P., Giannenas, I., Papageorgiou, G., and Spais,
A.B., 2004. The effect of a mixture of herbal essential oils or tocopheryl acetate on
performance parameters and oxidation of body lipid in broilers. S.Afric. J.Anim. Sci.
34:52-61.
Botsoglou, N.A., Florou-Paneri, P., Christaki, E., Fletouris, D.J. and Spasis, A.B., 2002.
Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and iron-induced
lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues. British Poult. Sci. 43:223230.
Brenes, A., and Routa, E., 2010. Essential oils in poultry in poultry nutrition:Main effects and
modes of action. Anim.Sci. and Technl.158:1-14.
Cowan, M.M., 1999. Plants products as anti-microbial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:564582.
Demir, E., Sarica, S., Ozcan, M.A., and Suicmez, M., 2003. The use of natural feed additives
as alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter in broiler diets. Br. Poult.Sci.44:4445.
57

Denil, M., Okan, F., Celik, K., 2003. Effect of dietary probiotic, organic acid and antibiotic
supplementation to diets on broiler performance and carcass yield. Pak.J.Nutr. 2:8991.
Esmail, S.H.M., 2002. Feeding fruit wastes to poultry. Poult. Internl. 41:42-44.

Folorunso, O.R.,and Onibi, G.E. 2012. Effect of diets of different protein levels fed on dry or
wet forms on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken finishers.
Interntl. J. Of Agric.Sci. 2(6):538-545.
Hernandez, F., Madrid, J., Garcia, V., Orengo, J., and Megias, M.D., 2004. Influence of two
plant extracts on broiler performance, digestibility and digestive organ size. Poult.
Sci. 83:169-174.
Hoste, H., Jackson, F., Athanasiadou, S., Thamsborg, S.M., and Hoskin, S.O., 2006. The
effects of tannin-rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants. Trends in Parasit.
22:253-261.
Lewis, M.R., Rose, S.P., Mackenzie, A.M., and Tucker, L.A., 2003. Effects of dietary
inclusion of plant extracts on the growth performance of male broiler chickens. Br.
Poult.Sci. 44:43-44.
Mc Cartney, E., 2002. The natural empire stricks book. Poult.Intnl. 41:36-42.
Mellor, S., 2000a. Antibiotics are not the only growth promoters. World Poult.16:30-33.

58

Mendieta-Araica, B., Sporndly, R., Royes-Sanchez, N., and Sporndly, E. 2011. Moringa
oleifera leaf meal as a source of protein in locally produced concentrates for dairy
cows fed low protein diets in tropical areas. Livestock Sci. 137:10-17.
Mohlapo, T.D., Ngambo, J.W., Norris, D., and Malatjie, M.M., 2009. Effect of Hoodia
gordonii meal supplementation at finisher stage on productivity and carcass
characteristics of Ross 308 broiler chickens. Tropic. Anim. Health and Prod. 41:15911596.
Moyo, B., Oyedemi, S., Masika, P.J, and Muchenje, V.2012. Polyphenolic content and
antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver
from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/ sunflower seed cake. Meat
Sci.91:441-447.
Sreelatha, S., and Padma, P.R., 2009. Antioxidant activity and fotal phenolic content of
Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant foods and Hum. Nutr.64:303311.
Tekeli, A., Celik, L., and Kutlu, H.R., 2011. Effects of Z.officinale and propolis extracts on
the performance, carcass and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Poult.
Sci.1:12-23.
Tekeli, A., Celik, L., Kutlu, H.R., and Gorgulu, M., 2012. Effect of dietary supplemental
plant extracts on performance, carcass characteristics, digestive system, intestinal
microflora and some blood parameters of broiler chickens. Department of Animal
Science: University of Cukurova. A review www.google.com (Accessed 15October
2012).
59

Varel, V.H., 2002. Livestock manure odor abatement with plant-derived oils and nitrogen
conservation with urease inhibitors: a review. J.Anim.Sci. 80:E1-E7.
WAC, 2006. World agroforestry centre. Spreading the word about leaf meal. Spore. 125:6.
Waller, P.J., and Thamsborg, S.M., 2004. Nematode control in green ruminant production
systems. Trends. Parasit. 20:493-497.
Yang, R.Y., Tsou, S.C.S., Lee, T.C., Chang, L.C., Kuo, G., and Lai, P.Y., 2006. Moringa, a
novel plant rich in antioxidants, biovailable iron, and nutrients. Pp 224-239.
In:C.T.Ho (ed) Challenges in Chemistry and Biology of Herbs. American Chemical
Society, Washington, D.C.

60

Chapter 4: Effect of feeding Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on physicochemical shelf life indicators of broiler meat.
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of using Moringa oleifera leaf
meal (MOLM) as an additive on the physico-chemical shelf life indicators of meat from
broilers. A total of 432 1-day-old chicks were randomly allocated to four treatments (TRTS).
Feed and water was provided ad libitum. The feeding phases were pre-starter (0 to 7 days),
starter (8 to 18 days), grower (19 to 28 days) and finisher (29 to 35 days). The four TRTS
contained graded levels of the MOLM at 1000g/ton, 750g/ton, 500g/ton, and 0g/ton (control),
respectively. The birds were slaughtered at 35days of age and the breast muscle was sampled
for meat pH, colour and drip loss measurements over a 7days shelf-life test. The pH levels in
all the TRTS were constant from Day 1 to Day 5, peaking on Day 6, then declining on Day 7.
Using MOLM as an additive had a significant effect on broiler meat colour, with TRT1
having the highest lightness (L*) values. The redness (a*) values were highest in TRT2.
However, MOLM as an additive did not have an effect on the yellowness (b*) values or the
drip loss of broiler chicken. Using MOLM as an additive in broiler feeds produced chicken
breast with a light (L*) appearance while shelf life indicators generally remained constant in
the first 5-days of storage.

Key words: drip loss, meat colour, meat pH, freshness, breast

61

4.1. Introduction
Chicken meat has many desirable nutritional characteristics. Chicken meat and its products
have a vast consumer market and are making a significant contribution to the supply of high
protein quality (Mothershaw et al. 2009), low lipid contents or cholesterol hence reported to
be healthier than red meat. Meat quality attributes, such as juiciness, tenderness, drip loss,
cooking-loss, ultimate pH and shelf-life are the major parameters considered in the
assessment of meat (Muchenje et al. 2008; Muchenje et al., 2009) and they are important to
the consumer as well as to the processor when producing value-added meat products (Allen et
al., 1998). In addition, consumers consider several characteristics (sensory characteristics,
nutritional value and impact on health) to determine the acceptance of meat or food products
(Muchenje et al., 2009a; 2008b).

Poultry meat quality is receiving considerable attention recently due to the emergence of
problems associated with poor waterholding capacity, poor texture, and pale colour called
pale soft exudative (PSA) (Fletcher, 1999; Baeza, 2004). Meat quality attributes are
dependent on certain factors such as genotype, sex, age and non-genetic factors such as
nutrition. Diet composition and feed consumption (see chapter 3) can affect the chemical
composition of muscle tissue such as pH, colour and tenderness to a greater or lesser extent
(Qwele, 2011).

62

Spoilage of meat is influenced by packaging, temperatures of storage and storage time. Shelflife is defined as the period of time between packaging of a product and its end use while the
product properties remain acceptable for the product user (Lorenzo and Gomez, 2012). The
shelf-life properties may include colour, appearance, texture, flavour and nutritive value
(Singh and Singh, 2005). Good or better packaging of meat assures a maximum shelf-life.
The vacuum packed meat have a maximum shelf life of 15-25 days depending on the
microbiological quality of the meat, which is a direct reflection of sanitation during slaughter
and packaging (Charley, 1982; Simons, 1980). It has been reported by Lorenzo and Gomez
(2012) that bacteria like Pseudomonas spp., psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, lactic acid
bacteria are common in low temperature environments and are major causes of spoilage of
chilled meats, fish and poultry. It has also been reported that unfrozen poultry at low
temperatures around 0oC extend shelf -life quite markedly and temperature of -18oC or lower
for frozen poultry are useful to maintain colour and minimize freezer burn.

Poultry maybe susceptible to antemortem and post-mortem stressors such as environmental


temperatures, stunning methods (Backstrom and Kauffman, 1995), and chilling regimes
(Offer, 1991). These stressors are reported to cause accelerated rigor development in some
carcasses and have an effect in meat quality. For instance, it has been shown that higher postmortem carcass temperatures (>20oC) in turkey resulted in lighter meat with higher drip-loss
and cooking-loss (McKee and Sams, 1998).

63

Nutrition has considerable effect on certain meat quality traits. Minerals such as Selenium
usually added in mono-gastric feeds are quite expensive and these minerals have been
defined as essential dietary supplements which are important for improving health and
performance of the birds and improving meat quality for human consumption (Haug et
al.,2007; Yoon et al; 2007). However, there is an interest on the use of natural antioxidants
which are reported to be safer than synthetic antioxidants (Moyo et al., 2011). These natural
antioxidants especially of plant source such as vitamin E and selenium (Khalafalla et al,
2010), have greater application potential for stability and shelf-life of meat products when
added in diets (Jung et al., 2010). These natural antioxidants have a potential to decrease lipid
and pigment oxidation (Legonie et al. 2012), hence oxidation reduces shelf-life and leads to
meat quality loss.

One such plant that contains these minerals and has a potential to be used as an antioxidant
additive is Moringa oleifera. Moringa oleifera is drought tolerant, and it is considered as one
of useful trees because it is prophylitic meaning it can be used both as medicine and feed
(Reyes-Sanchez et al., 2006). This tree is commonly known as the horse-radish tree or
drumstick tree. According to Qwele et al., (2011) it is highly recognised for having some
useful minerals, vitamins, selenium and amino-acids. The high nutritive value of Moringa
oleifera makes it more suitable as a feed additive of monogastric animals such as poultry.
Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of MOLM as an additive on
physico-chemical shelf-life indicators of broiler meat.

64

4.2.Material and Methods


4.2.1.Study site and management of broiler chickens.
The study site, experimental animals and management of the chickens are as described in
Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.
4.2.2. Procedures after slaughter
The chickens were slaughtered at the end of the experiment (day 35). After plucking,
evisceration and dressing, the carcasses were stored at 40C overnight. On the following day 6
carcasses per treatment were randomly selected for meat quality measurements. The left
breasts were deboned, the skins removed and cut into halves longitudinally for the shelf-life
trial. Each of the half left breasts were weighed (WB) and packed in polystyrene trays and
wrapped in 10 micron thick oxygen permeable cling film (Versafilm, Crown National,
Montague Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa) with a moisture vapour transfer rate of 585
g.m-2.24 h-1.1 atm-1, O2 permeability of 25 000 cm-3.m-2.24 h-1.1 atm-1 and a CO2 permeability
of 180 000 cm-3.m-2.24 h-1.1 atm-1. Each tray was marked according to the treatment number
and sample number, which then gave 12 trays per treatment. The trays were then stored at
40C over 7days. Every day, three trays per treatment were randomly removed from the
cooler.

4.3. Meat quality measurements


4.3.1. Drip loss measurements
To determine drip loss three fillets breast trays per treatment were randomly selected from the cooler
and patted dry using an absorbent paper towel and weighed (WA). The drip loss was then calculated
as WB-WA/WB*100%.

65

4.3.2. Ultimate pH
The pH of the fillets was determined with a CRISON pH 25 (CRISON Instruments SA,
Spain) which was calibrated before each measurement using pH4, pH7, and pH9 standard
solutions.The measurements were done on the same fillets by inserting the probe throughout
the fillet, approximately 24 hours after slaughter in breasts that were refrigerated at 4oC.
4.3.3. Determination of colour
Colour was measured according to the CIE L* a* b* colour system using a colour-guide
45/0 colorimeter (BYK-Gardner GmbH, Geretsried, Germany) with a 20mm diameter
measurement area and illuminant D65-day light and 10o standard observer on the same fillets.
Three readings were taken by rotating the Colour Guide 90 o between each measurement, in
order to obtain a representative average value of the colour. The machine was first calibrated
using the green standard before each measurement.
4.4. Statistical analysis
The effect of dietary supplementation on meat colour, pH and drip loss was analyzed using
analysis of variance (ANOVA) GenStat of (2008). The least significant difference (LSD)
method was used to separate the means.
The following model was used: Yij = + i + j + Eij Where;
Yij =variables ( meat colour, pH and drip loss)
= constant
i = effect of diet
j=effect of day
Eij = random error
66

4.5. Results and discussion


Figure 4.1 shows the effect of the treatment over time (days) on pHu of chicken meat. The
pH levels on meat from chickens supplemented with treatment 2 on day 7 were higher (7.00)
than the ones for meat from chickens fed with treatment 1, treatment 3 and treatment 4 which
were (5.9). This could be due to the high levels of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) contained in
MOLM which is reported to be about 17.3mg/100g DM (Rweyemamu, 2006). Some studies
have shown that breeds supplemented with vitamin C produce meat with high levels of pH
(>5.5) at different time intervals. For example, in a study conducted by Kremer et al. (1999),
the muscle pH measured in the right longissimus (LM) muscle post-mortem from pigs
supplemented with vitamin C had significantly higher pH (p<0.13) than muscles from
controls, which explains the low pH (5.2) at day1 in treatment 4 (0g/ton MOLM) negative
control in the present study.
The pH levels in all the treatments were generally constant from day1 to day5 (5.8-6.00). The
pH values reached their peak on day 6, and then declined on day 7 except for treatment 2.
This observation is similar to the one by Jang et al. (2011), where they tested the effect of
different basal diets on thighs of broiler meats. They observed that diets with antibiotics and
the one with vitamin E increased pH value when measured on day1, 3, and 5 on chicken
thighs compared to the meat from the chickens supplemented with basal diet only during a 5
day storage. Price and Schweigert (1987) reported that meat with a pH greater than 5.8 may
be more conductive to spoilage and result in decreased shelf life. However, according to
Greer and Murray (1988) lower pH product will visually have a shorter shelf life compared to
higher pH product, which may be due to less enzymatic reduction and faster rate of
myoglobin oxidation which is favoured at lower pH (Ledward, 1984). There were treatment
67

differences at day1 and day7,

with treatment 4 having low pH (5.2) while the other

treatments had a pH >5.5 at Day1 and constant decrease at Day7. The differences could be
due to different levels of MOLM in the. The high pH meat with lower lightness values and
higher redness values observed in this study supports the observations of Yang and Chen
(1993), who observed ground chicken meat adjusted to a high pH was darker and redder in
colour. However, the explanation for these observations is not clear and merits further
investigation.

68

Figure 4.1: Effect of treatment overtime (days) on the pH levels of broiler breast muscle

69

Table 4.1 shows the effect of days on colour (L*, a*, b*) and drip loss of chicken meat. The
lightness (L*) values were within the normal range of 50-56 for chicken meat (Petracci et al.,
2004) from day 1-5, but then decreased on day 6 to 49.3. Lorenzo and Gomez (2012) also
observed an increase in L* values during the early days of meat storage followed by a
decrease from day 7. Other studies have also shown that L* values decrease towards the end
of meat storage (Bingol and Ergun, 2011). As expected, the drip loss values increased with
storage time. Accelerated pHu decline (Figure 4.1) are related to unacceptable drip loss
increase (Table 4.1). This is in agreement with the findings by Muchenje et al. (2009).

70

Table 4.1: Least square means and standard errors for L*, a*, b* and pH, Drip loss of
chicken meat as affected by storage time (Days)

DAYS
Attributes

SEM

L*

54.9de

54.0d

52.7c

54.2d

55.6e

49.3b

47.3a

a*

4.8d

3.2a

4.9de

5.3c

3.5b

4.5c

4.8d

0.53

b*

12.9c

11.6a

13.2d

12.3b

12.8c

15.2f

14.1e

0.62

Drip loss
abc

1.1

1.5

2.3

2.4

2.8

2.7

de

2.8

means with different superscripts in a row are different (P < 0.05)

SE=standard error of means


L*=lightness, a*=redness, b*=yellowness

71

1.28

0.18

Table 4.2. shows the effect of MOLM on post slaughter colour and drip loss of chicken breast
meat. Treatment had an effect (P<0.05) on the colour of the broiler breast meat which could
be attributed to the antioxidant activity in MOLM (Moyo et al., 2012). Bucklley and
Morrissey (1992) reported that feeding poultry higher levels of natural dietary antioxidants
provides the poultry industry with a simple method for improving the oxidative stability and
shelf-life of poultry meats. The highest b* values were observed in broiler meat from
treatment 1. This could be due to high beta carotene content in MOLM consumed by chicken
in this treatment (Moyo et al. 2011; Richter et al. 2003; Reyes-Sanchez et al. 2006) which
had the highest inclusion of MOLM (1000g/ton) than the other treatments. These
observations could be due to vitamin E since it is reported to prevent discolouration and is
known of extending colour display-life of meat (Faustman et al. 1989; Arnold et al., 1992).
Dietary treatments had no (P>0.05) effect on drip loss. This concurs with the findings by
Lawrie (1998) that diet does not seem to affect the drip loss whilst Comale et al. (2011)
reported that drip and cooking losses are not globally influenced by the use of the
phytotherapic compound in the diets.

Table 4.2: Least square means and standard errors for L*, a*, b* and drip loss of meat
samples (chicken) as affected by treatment
TREATMENTS
1
2
3
4
Attributes (1000g/tonMOLM) (750g/tonMOLM) (500g/tonMOLM) (0MOLM) SEM

L*

55.4b

51.8a

51.7a

51.4a

0.97

a*

4.1b

3.7a

5.2d

4.8c

0.40

b*
Drip loss

14.1d

12.4a
2.4

13.3c
2.3

12.9b
2.0

0.47

72

2.1

abc

0.13

means with different superscripts in a row are different (P < 0.05)

SEM= standard error of means


L*= lightness, a*=redness, b*=yellowness

4.6. Conclusion
Using MOLM as an additive affected the colour, drip loss and pH of broiler breast meat as
well as the stability of these parameters over time, the effects being most pronounced with the
highest level of MOLM (TRT1; 1000g/ton MOLM) inclusion. The colour (lightness) and the
pH of the meat were stable over time until day 6 when it started decreasing. Drip loss from
the chicken breasts increased during storage. Antioxidants in MOLM seems to be effective in
improving oxidation and shelf-life of broiler meat. Therefore, further research on the effect of

73

MOLM as an additive on fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation of meat from broilers is
recommended as presented in Chapter 5.

4.7. References
Allen, C.D., Russell, S.M. and Fletcher, D.L., 1998. Department of Poultry Science.
University of Georgia, Athens. Poult Sci. 76:1042-108.
Backstrom, L. and Kauffmon, R., 1995. The porcine stress syndrome. Agri Prac. 16:24-30.

74

Baeza, E., 2004. Measuring quality parameters. Poult. Meat and Processing. Quality.G.C.
Mead. ed.304-331.
Bingol, E.B. and Ergun, O., 2011. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the
micro-biological quality and shelf-life of ostrich meat. Meat. Sci. 88, 774-785.
Biswas, A., Ahmed, M., Bharti, V.K., and Singh, S.B., 2011. Effect of antioxidants on
physico-chemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicken at high altitude.
Asian-Austr. J.of Anim.Sci. 24:246-249.
Charley, H., 1982. Food Sci. John Wiley and Sons.New York. www.google.com. (Accessed
26 November 2012).
Comale, P., Parantola, M., Lussiana, C., Tassone, S., Castellina, C. and Battaglini, L.M.
2011. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and European Stoneseed (Lithospermum
officinale) Extracts on performance, Meat quality and Fatty Acid composition of
Finishing Bulls. 10: 1127-1132.
Faustman, C., Cassen,G.R., Schaefer, D.M., Buege,D.R., Williams, S.N. and Schellen, C.K.,
1989. Improvement of pigment and Lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary
supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci.54:858-862.
Fletcher, D.L.,1999. Broiler breast meat colour variation, pH, and texture. Poult. Sci.78:13231327.
Gladine, C., Morand,C., Rock, E., Bauchart,D. and Durand, D., 2007. Plant extracts rich in
polyphenols are efficient antioxidants to prevent lipoperoxidation in plasma lipids
from animals fed n-3 PUFA supplemented diets. Anim.Feed.Sci. Technol.136:281296.

75

Haug, A., 2007. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition
and quality in broilers. Lipids Health Dis. 6:29.
Ingram,M. and Simons,B.,1980. Meats and meat products. In Microbial Ecology of foods.
Vol.II.
Jang, A.R., Ham, J.S., Kim, D,N., Seol, K.H., Oh, M.H., Chae, H.S., Kim, S.H., and Kim,
D.H., 2011. Dietary supplementation of resveratrol and methoxylated resveratrol
effects on chicken thigh meat quality. Korean. J. of Poult. Sci. 38:315-322.
Jung, S., Choe, J., Kim, B., Yun, H., Kruk, Z.A., and Jo, C., 2010. Effect of dietary mixture
of garlic acid and linoleic acid on antioxidative potential and quality of breast meat
from broilers. Meat Sci. 86:520-526.
Khalafalla, M.M., Abdellatef, E., Dafalla, H.M., Nassrallah, A.A., Aboul-Enein, K.M.,
Lightfoot, D.A., EI-Deeb, F.E., and EI-Shemy, H.A., 2010. Active principle from
Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma.
Afric. J. of Biotech. 9:8467-8471.
Kremer, B.T., 1999. The effect of dietary vitamin C on meat quality of pork. J.Anim.SC.
77:46.
Lawrie, R.A. 1998. Lawries Meat Science. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. 6: 336.
Leygonie, C., Britz, T.J. and Hoffman, L.C., 2012. Impact of freezing and thawing on the
quality of meat: A review. Meat. Sci. 91, 93.
Lorenzo, J.M. and Gomez, M., 2012. Shelf-life of fresh foal meat under MAP, overwrap and
vacuum packaging conditions. Meat. Sci. 92, 610-8.

76

McKee, S.R. and Sams.A.R., 1998. Rigor mortis development at elevated temperatures
induces pale exudative turkey meat characteristics. Poult Sci. 77:169-174.
Moyo, B., Masika, P.J., Hugo, A. and Muchenje, V., 2011. Nutritional Characterization of
Moringa oleifera Lam leaves. Afri. J. Biotech. 10, 12925-12933.
Moyo, B., Oyedemi, S., Masika, P.J, and Muchenje, V.2012. Polyphenolic content and
antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver
from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/ sunflower seed cake. Meat
Sci.91:441-447.
Muchenje, V., Dzama K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P. E. and Raats, J. G., 2009a.
Relationship between stress responsiveness and meat quality in three cattle breeds.
Meat Sci. 81: 653-657.
Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Hugo, A., and Raats, J.G., 2009b.
Some biological aspects pertaining to beef eating quality and consumer health: A
review. Food Chem. 112:279-289.
Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Raats, J.G., 2008. Sensory
evaluation and its relationship to quality attributes of beef from Nguni and Bonsmara
steers raised on natural pasture. Anim. 2:1700-1706.
Murray, A.C., and Greer, G.G., 1988. Effects of pork muscle quality on bacterial growth and
retail case-life. Meat.Sci. 2:386.
Offer, G., 1991. Modelling of the formation of pale, soft and exudative meat: Effects of
chilling regime and rate, extent of glycolysis. Meat Sci. 30:157-184.

77

Petracci, M., Betti, M., Bianchi, M. and Cavani, C., 2004. Colour variation and
characterization of broiler breast meat during processing in Italy. Poult. Sci. 83, 20862092.
Price, J. F. and Schweigert, B.S., 1987. The science of meat and meat products. Food & Nutr.
Press, Trumbull, Conn. 3.
Qwele, K., 2011. Antioxidant activity and the quality of meat from goats and broilers
supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves. http://ufh.netd.ac.za
(Accessed 8 October 2012).
Reyes-Sanchez, N., Sporndly, E. and Ledin, I., 2006. Effects of feeding different levels of
foliage from Moringa oleifera to creole dairy cows on intake, digestibility, milk
production and composition. Liv Sci. 101:24-31.
Richter, N., Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K., 2003. Evaluation of nutritional quality of Moringa
(Moringa oleifera Lam) leaves as an alternative source for Nile tilapia (Orechromis
niloticus L.). Aquaculture. 217:599-611.
Rweyemamu, L.M.P., 2006. Challenges in the development of micronutrient-rich food
ingredients from Soya beans and Moringa oleifera leaves: Moringa and other highly
nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on
nutrition in Africa, Accra, Ghana, November 16-18, 2006.
Singh, R.K., and Singh,N., 2005. Qaulity of packaged foods. J.H.Han (Ed), Innovations in
food packaging. Elsevier Academic Press. pp22-24

78

Yang, C.C., and Chen, T.C., 1993. Effects of refrigerated storage, pH adjustments, and
marinade on colour of raw and microwave cooked chicken meat. Poult Sci. 72:355362.
Yoon, I., Werner, T.M., and Butlen, J.M., 2007. Effect of source and concentration of
selenium on growth performance and selium retention in broiler chickens. Poult
Sci.86:727-730.
Zachariah, P., and Liston, J., 1973. Temperature adaptability of Psychrotrophic
Pseudomanas. Applied. Micro. 26: 437-438.

Chapter 5: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on fatty acids profile
and lipid oxidation of broiler meat
Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal
(MOLM) as an dditive on fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation in broiler meat. A total of
432 1-day old chicks (Aviane 48) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments (TRTS).
79

Water and feed was provided ad libitum. The four TRTS contained graded levels of the
MOLM at 1000g/ton, 750g/ton, 500g/ton, and 0g/ton (control), respectively. Birds were
slaughtered at 35 days of age and the left breast muscles were sampled for meat pH, colour
and drip loss measurements over a 7days shelf-life test. Sub- samples were kept at -180 C for
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) determination. On day1 and day7 extra subsamples were also stored at -180 C for fatty acids analysis. Treatments had an effect on
C16:0, C18n6t, C18n9t, C20:1c11with treatment 1 having the highest value. Treatment 4 had
highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Treatments had an effect on
saturated fatty acids (SFA) with treatment 1 having highest proportion. Treatment2 had a
highest n-6/n-3 ratio. Days had no significant effect on PUFA, SFA, and n-6/n-3 ratio. Using
MOLM as an additive had a significant effect on lipid oxidation, with treatment 1having
higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The 1000g/ton of MOLM (TRT1) in feed was
more effective than 750g/ton (TRT2) and 500g/ton (TRT3) of MOLM whereas Treatment 4
had no effect (P>0.05) on MDA levels. Storage time had a significant effect on MDA levels,
except for day1and day7, with Day2 having the highest amount of MDA than Day3 and
Day4. It can be concluded that TRTS with MOLM prevented lipid oxidation, however its
effect on fatty acids was not clear, therefore meriting further investigations.
Keywords: Dietary TRTS, fatty acids profiles, thiobarbituric acid, breast meat
5.1. Introduction
To determine the acceptance of meat or food products, consumers consider several
characteristics, including sensory characteristics, nutritional value and impact on health
(Muchenje et al., 2008; 2009). Chicken meat has low levels of fat, cholesterol and high levels
of iron (Jarusitha et al., 2008). There are several studies concerning the enrichment of
chicken meat with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by the addition of polyunsaturated fats
80

to the diet (Lin et al., 1989; Ajutah et al., 1993; Lopez-Ferrer et al., 1999, 2001). Chicken
meat enriched with PUFA contains longer fatty acids (FA) with a high number of double
bonds, which increases the susceptibility of meat to oxidation (Grau et al., 2001a; 2001b).
Lipid oxidation and discolouration are believed to be major causes of quality deterioration in
meat during refrigerated storage (Ryu et al., 2005). Chicken meat is sensitive to oxidative
deterioration due to high content of PUFA (Ryu et al., 2005). The rate of meat discolouration
is believed to be related to the effectiveness of the oxidation processes (Ryu et al., 2005).
There is an interest in foods containing higher levels of PUFA because of their beneficial
effects on human health, mainly in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Krauss et al.,
2001). Feeding diets that are supplemented with oilseeds or vegetable oils increases the
PUFA concentration in edible tissue and inevitably reduces their oxidative stability (Skrivan
et al., 2012). Increased degree of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) in diets has been reported to
be a positive feature with respect to human health, however it may have a negative effect on
shelf-life of poultry (Skrivan et al., 2012).

For this reason , there is an interest in dietary antioxidants, particularly in Vitamin E and
Selenium which are normally used as additives in animal diets. Antioxidants have an ability
to prevent or reduce the oxidative damage of a tissue indirectly by enhancing natural defences
of cell and/ or directly by scavenging the free radical species (Verma et al., 2009). The effect
of dietary supplementation with various antioxidants on chicken meat oxidation has been
studied (Grau et al. 2001; Bou et al., 2004). There is a growing interest on natural
antioxidants from plants such as Moringa oleifera.

81

These plants contain phenolic compounds such as simple phenolics or tannins, saponins or
essential oils, which are said to improve some aspects of meat (Vista and Luciano, 2011).
The antioxidative properties of flavonoids, carotenoids, essential oils and other plant
substances fed to chickens may also affect the composition of fatty acids in tissue lipids and
oxidative stability of meat (Koreleski and Swiatkiewickz, 2006), they are also known of
reducing the changes in meat quality during frozen storage (see chapter 3). In monogastric
animals saponins are reported to be bound to cholesterol, thus hampering its absorption in the
intestine (Sidhu and Dakenfull,1986). According to Brogna et al. (2011), dietary saponins
could reduce the accumulation of cholesterol in meat. Condensed tannins have also been
reported to have a positive influence on meat fatty acids composition (Min et al., 2005; Vasta
et al, 2009). However, most studies on fatty acids have been conducted on the ability of a
lipid-rich plant extract to enhance levels of PUFA in meat (Kim et al., 2008).
Therefore, manipulation of fatty acid composition by introducing higher tissue concentrations
of n-3 PUFA (optimum ratio of n-6/n-3) can be advantageous to human health and its
supplementation can be successfully implemented in broiler diets through scientifically
managed programmes (Malan, 2003). The addition of antioxidants such as vitamin E,
improves oxidative stability and delays the development of rancidity. Therefore,
manipulation of dietary additives to improve fatty acid of meat is of importance. This will
reduce negative effects caused by feedstuffs such as fish flavour effects and excessive carcass
fatness that can be perceived negatively by consumers (Malan, 2003). The objective of this
study therefore, is to determine the potential of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on
fatty acids profile and lipid oxidation of broiler meat.

82

5.2. Materials and methods


5.2.1. Study site and management of broiler chickens
The study site and experimental procedures are described in chapter 3, Sections 3.2.1 and
3.2.2.
5.2.2. Determination of fatty acid content
After slaughtering, plucking, evisceration and dressing of the broilers, the carcasses were
stored at 40C overnight. On the following day 6 carcasses per treatment were randomly
selected for meat quality measurements. The left breasts were deboned, the skins removed
and cut into halves longitudinally for 7 day shelf-life trial. Each day drip loss, colour and pH
measurements were measured and sub samples were kept at -180 C for thiobarbituric acid
reactive substances determination. On day 1 and day 7 sub-sample were also kept, wraped in
tinfoil and snap frozen (-180 C) for fatty acids analysis. After seven days, the samples were
then removed from the freezer and allowed to defrost. After defrosting, 2 g meat sample was
extracted with a chloroform:methanol (2:1; v/v) solution according to a modified method of
Folch, Lees, and Stanley (1957). All the extraction solvents contained 0.01% butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT) as an antioxidant.
A polytron mixer (WiggenHauser, D-500 Homogenizer) was used to homogenise the sample
with the extraction solvent. Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) was used as an internal standard
(catalogue number H3500, SigmaAldrich Inc., 3050 Spruce Street, St. Louis, MO 63103,
USA) to quantify the individual fatty acids. A sub-sample of the extracted lipids was
transmethylated for 2 hrs at 70 C using a methanol/sulphuric acid (19:1; v/v) solution as
transmethylating agent. After cooling to room temperature, the resulting fatty acid methyl
esters (FAMEs) were extracted with water and hexane. The top hexane phase was transferred

83

to a spotting tube and dried under nitrogen (Tichelaar, Smuts, Van Stuijvenberg, Faber, and
Benade.1998).
Analysis was done on a Thermo Focus GC equipped with a flame ionized detector using a
BPX70 capillary column (60 m x 0.25 mm internal diameter, 0.25 m film, SGE [SGE
International Pty Ltd, 7 Argent Place, Ringwood, Victoria 3134] Australia). Gas flow rates
were 30ml/min for the hydrogen carrier gas. Temperature programming was linear at 7
C/min, with an initial temperature of 60 C, a final temperature of 160 C, an injector
temperature of 220 C and a detector temperature of 260 C. The FAMEs were identified by
comparing the retention times to those of a standard FAME mixture (SupelcoTM 37
Component FAME Mix, 10 mg/ml in CH2Cl2, Catalogue Number 47885-U. Supelco, North
Harrison Road, Bellefonte, PA 16823-0048, USA). The following indexes, useful for
evaluating nutritional quality and healthiness of lipid profile, were calculated: omega-3 (n-3)
fatty acids, omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids ,total saturated fatty acids(SFA),total monounsaturated
fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA ratio (P/S) and n-6/n-3
ratio.(Thermo: Thermo Electron S.p.A, Strada Rivoltana, 20090 Rodana, Milan, Italy).
5.2.3. Estimation of lipid peroxidation
Lipid peroxidation was estimated in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS)
using Malondialdehyde (MDA) as standard. The homogenized breast tissue (0.1ml) was
treated with 2 ml of (1:1:1 ratio) TBATCA-HCI reagent (thiobarbituric acid 0.37%, 15%
trichloroacetic acid and 0.25 N HCI). All the tubes were placed in a boiling water bath for 30
minutes and allowed to cool. The amount of malonaldehyde (MDA) formed in each of the
samples was assessed by measuring the optical density of supernatant at 535 nm using a
spectrophotometer against a reagent blank. Percentage inhibition was calculated using the
equation:
84

% of lipid oxidation Inhibition= {Ao-A1}/ A0*100


Where; Ao is the absorbance of the control and A1 is the absorbance of the sample extract.
5.3. Statistical analysis
The fatty acids were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SAS 2003.
Where there was a significant F-test (P<0.05), the least significant difference (LSD) method
was used to separate the means. The statistical model that was used to check the effect of
treatment on fatty acid profile of meat is,
Yij= + i +ij + Eij. Where,

Yij= response variables

= overall mean

i= effect of treatments and Days

ij= effect of Days

Eij= random error

The lipid oxidation was analysed using the Proc GLM of SAS (2006). Comparisons of means
were analysed using the Tukeys HSD procedure in SAS (2006). Statistical model used was:
Yij= + i +Eij, where;

Yij= response variable

= overall mean

i = effect of treatments (TRT1, TRT2, TRT3, TRT4) and Days(1-7)

Eij = random error


85

5.4. Results and Discussion


Table 5.1. presents the effects of M.oleifera leaf meal on fatty acid profile of broiler chicken
meat. The TRTS had an effect (P<0.05) on C16:00, C18n6t, C18n9t), C20:1c11 fatty acids
with TRT1(1000g/ton MOLM) having the highest proportions (Table 5.1). The treatments
had an effect (P<0.05) on PUFA with chicken breast from treatment 4 having the highest
proportions of PUFA (30.31.87). Tannins contained in Moringa oleifera leaf meal could
also be the reason hence they are reported to have a positive effect on meat fatty acid
composition (Min et al., 2005; Vasta et al., 2009b). The TRTS had an effect on SFA with
treatment 1 having highest proportion of SFA. The treatments had no effect (P>0.05) on n6/n-3 ratio, however in all the TRTS the n-6/n-3 values were higher than the recommended
value of <4.0% (British Department of Health, 1994). However, TRTS had an effect on
PUFA/SFA ratio with meat from treatment 1 having a favourable balance (0.3 0.08) which
is close to the recommended ratio 0.4 (Wood et al., 2003).

86

Table 5.1: Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as an additive on fatty acid profile of chicken
meat

Fatty Acids

C14:0
C14:1
C15:0
C16:0
C16:1c9
C18:0
C18n3
C18n6
C18n6c
C18n6t
C18n9c
C18n9t
C20:0
C201
C202
C20n3
C20n6
C210
C220
C222
C22n3
C22n9
C241
MUFA
PS
PUFA
SFA
n-6/n-3

TRT1
(1000g/tonMOLM)

TRT2
(750g/tonMOLM)

0.60.10
0.10.02
0.20.08
40.5c2.70
1.60.59
18.01.95
0.30.03
0.30.06
10.3a1.95
0.4b0.04
18.32.62
0.4b0.04
0.30.05
0.2b0.02
0.40.09
0.20.05
2.20.84
0.10.02
1.10.39
0.10.02
0.50.19
0.10.04
0.20.02
20.53.09
0.3a0.08
15.6a2.23
60.9d4.30
5.41.70

TRT3
(500g/tonMOLM)

TRT4
(0MOLM)

0.60.08

0.50.08

0.40.08

0.10.02
0.10.06
23.8a2.28
3.70.50
10.91.64
0.40.02
0.50.05
20.1c1.64
0.1a0.03
29.82.20
0.1a0.03
0.40.04
0.1a0.02
0.50.08
0.10.04
4.00.71
0.10.01
1.70.33
0.10.02
0.70.16
0.10.03
0.10.02
33.92.60
0.8b0.07
28.1bc1.87
37.5a3.62
9.61.43

0.10.02
0.10.06
25.0b2.28
3.30.50
12.41.64
0.40.02
0.40.05
18.9b1.64
0.1a0.03
27.02.20
0.1a0.03
0.40.04
0.1a0.02
0.60.08
0.20.04
4.90.71
0.10.01
2.10.33
0.010.02
0.80.16
0.10.03
0.10.02
30.82.60
0.7b0.07
28.3bc1.87
40.6c3.62
8.21.43

0.10.02
0.10.06
23.6a2.28
3.20.50
12.41.64
0.40.02
0.40.05
20.1c1.64
0.1a0.03
26.92.20
0.1a0.03
0.40.04
0.1a0.02
0.60.08
0.20.04
5.50.71
0.10.01
2.10.33
0.050.02
0.90.16
0.040.03
0.10.02
30.52.60
0.8b0.07
30.3c1.87
39.05bc3.62
8.51.43

abc

Means in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P >0.05)

MUFA=Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids


PUFA=Total poly-unsaturated
SFA=Total saturated fatty acids
P:S=PUFA/SFA ratio
n-6/n-3=Total omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids
87

Significance

NS
NS
NS
*
NS
NS
NS
NS
*
*
NS
*
NS
*
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
*
*
*
NS

Cold storage duration in Day 1 and Day 7 on C18n6t and C18n9t, with Day7 having the
highest proportion (Table 5.2). Days of storage had no significant effect on PUFA, SFA,
PUFA:SFA and n-6/n-3 ratio. Coetzee and Hoffman (2001) also did not find any changes of
fatty acids proportions over storage time of meat from chickens fed diets with 120-200mg
vitamin E. Koreleski and Swiatkiewicz (2007) also observed some differences in fatty acids
profile of breast lipids in the initial month and after six months of cold storage on their study.
They reported that the reason could likely be a result of changes in meat fat content, direction
of oxidation and degree of fatty acids saturation or desaturation when meat was stored
unfrozen and prepared for analyses.

88

Table 5.2: Effect of days on fatty acids profiles of chicken meat

89

Fatty Acids

Day 1

Day 7

C140
C141
C150
C160
C161
C180
C18n3
C18n6
C18n6c
C18n6t
C18n9c
C18n9t
C200
C201
C202
C20n3
C20n6
C210
C220
C222
C22n3
C22n9
C241
MUFA
P:S
PUFA
SFA
n63

0.50.06
0.10.01
0.10.04
25.91.51
3.10.3
12.81.09
0.40.02
0.40.03
18.51.08
0.1b0.02
26.71.46
0.1b0.02
0.40.03
0.10.01
0.60.05
0.13a0.03
4.60.47
0.10.01
2.00.22
0.10.01
0.80.10
0.10.02
0.10.01
30.31.72
0.70.04
27.31.24
41.82.39
8.10.95

0.50.07
0.10.01
0.10.05
31.51.94
2.70.4
14.41.40
0.30.02
0.40.04
15.81.40
0.2a0.02
23.81.88
0.2a0.02
0.40.3
0.10.01
0.50.07
0.2b0.04
3.60.61
0.10.01
1.40.28
0.10.01
0.50.13
0.10.03
0.20.02
26.92.22
0.60.06
23.21.60
48.33.09
7.71.22

abc

Significance
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
*
NS
*
NS
NS
NS
*
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS

Means in the same row with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P >0.05) from each other.

MUFA=Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids


PUFA=Total poly-unsaturated
SFA=Total saturated fatty acids
P:S=PUFA/SFA ratio
n-6/n-3=Total omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids
*=P<0.05
SE=standard error

90

The TRTS had a significant effect on lipid oxidation with treatment 1 having the highest
values (Table 5.3). All the TRTS with MOLM were effective than treatment 4 (0g/ton
MOLM) hence it had low amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P>0.05). These observation
are similar with the ones by Botsoglou et al. (2002) and Lopez-Bote et al. (1998), whereby
they investigated the effect of adding rosemary and sage extracts, and vitamin E to the broiler
dietS on the meat and found a significant decrease in oxidation levels of the white muscle.
Also, it has been reported that Vitamin E has a potential to reduce or prevent lipid oxidation
in broiler meat during storage (De Winne and Dirinck, 1996). Therefore, the effectiveness of
treatment1(1000g/ton MOLM) on MDA could be due to the antioxidant factors contained in
Moringa such as vitamin E and selenium, phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C (Lahucky et al.,
2010; Middleton et al., 2000; Moyo et al., 2012). The increase of unsaturated fatty acids
levels in treatment 2 (Table 5.1) could be the reason fatty acids makes meat prone to lipid
oxidation (Descalzo et al., 2007). However, high levels of PUFA in meat and meat products
have been reported to present a challenge for the food industry to maintain lipid oxidation
stability during a prolonged storage time (Narciso et al. 2011).

91

Table 5.3: Means (SE) for average TBARS (mg MDA/kg meat) of chicken breasts as
affected by treatments
Treatments

TBARS (mg MDA/kg


meat)

S.E

1(1000g/ton MOLM)

0.37a

0.06

2 (750g/ton MOLM)

0.15ab

0.06

3 (50g/ton MOLM)

0.25ab

0.06

4 (0g/ton MOLM)

0.12b

0.06

abc

Means in the same column with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P >0.05) from each other.

As expected, storage time had a significant effect on MDA levels, except for Day1 and Day7
(P>0.05) with Day2 (0.730.08) having the highest amount of MDA (Table 5.4). These
observations are similar with the ones by Luna et al. (2010), that showed that storage for 5 or
10 days significantly increased levels of MDA in broiler meat samples. Valesco and Williams
(2011) reported that some plant extracts have a positive effect on lipid oxidation by reducing
2-thiobarbituric acid (TBAS) or malondialdeyde (MDA) formation on different types of
meats during refrigeration storage.

92

Table 5.4: Means (SE) for average TBARS (mg MDA/kg meat) of chicken breasts as
affected by days
Days

TBARS (mg MDA/kg


meat)

S.E

0.03dc

0.08

0.73a

0.08

0.26bc

0.08

0.70a

0.08

0.04d

0.08

0.38ab

0.08

0.02c

0.08

abc

Means in the same column with similar superscripts are not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other.

TBARS= thiobarbituric acid reactive substances


SE= standard error of means

93

5.5. Conclusion
The observations from this study had shown that Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM)
inclusions at different levels have partially improved fatty acid composition of the chicken
meat. Its inclusion also had similar effectiveness to retard lipid oxidation, therefore it can be
considered as a useful natural additive that can be applied in poultry diets to improve meat
quality.

94

5.6. References
Ajuyah, A.O., Hardin, R.T., and Sim, J.S., 1993. Dietary antioxidant and storage affect
chemical characteristics of w-3 fatty acid enriched broiler chicken meats. J.Food
Sci.58: 43-46.
Botsoglou, N.A., Florou-Paneri, P., Christaki, E., Fletouris, D.J. and Spasis, A.B., 2002.
Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and iron-induced
lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues. British Poult. Sci. 43:223230.
Bou, R., Guardiola, F., Tres, A., Barroeta, A.C., and Codony, R., 2004. Effect of dietary fish
oil, -tocopheryl acetate, and zinc supplementation on the composition and consumer
acceptability of chicken meat. Poult. Sci. 83:282-292.
Brogna, D.M.R., Nasri, S., Ben salem, N., Mele, M., Serra, A., Bella, M., Priolo, A., Makkar,
H.P.S., Vasta, V., 2011. Effect of dietary saponins from Quilaja saponaria L. on fatty
acid composition and cholesterol content in muscle Longissimus dorsi of lambs.
Anim.7:1124-1130.
Coetzee, G.J.M. and Hoffman, L.C. 2001. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the performance of
broilers and quality of broiler meat during refrigerated and frozen storage. S.A.
J.Anim.Sci. 31: 158-173.
De Winne, A., and Dirinck, P., 1996. Studies on vitamin E and meat quality. 2. Effect of
feeding high levels of vitamin E on chicken meat quality. J.Agric. Food Chem.
44:1691-1696.

95

Department of health., 1994. Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Report on


Health and Social Subject No. 46. London:Her Majestys Stationery Office.
Descalzo, A.M., Rossetti, L., Grigioni, G., Irurueta, M., Sancho, A.M., Carrete, J., Pensel,
N.A., 2007. Antioxidant status and colour profile in fresh beef from pasture or gain
fed cattle. Meat. Sci. 75: 299-307.
Grau, A., Codony, R., Grimpa, S., Baucells, M.D., and Guardiola., 2001. Cholesterol
oxidation in frozen dark chicken meat: Influence of dietary fat source, and tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation. Meat. Sci. 57:197-208.
Grau, A., Guardiola, S., Grimpa, A.C., Barroeta., and Codony, R., 2001. Oxidative stability
of dark chicken meat through frozen storage:Influence of dietary fat and -tocopherol
and ascorbic acid supplementation. Poult. Sci. 80:1630-1642.
Jarusitha, S., Srikanchai, T., Kreuzer, M., and Wicke, M., 2008. Differences in carcass and
meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to Northern Thailand (Black-Boned
and Thai Native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhade Island Red).
Poult.Sci.87:160-169.
Kim, E.J., Richardson, R.I., Lee, M.R.F., Gibson, K., Scollan. 2008. Effect of lipid-rich plant
extract on the fatty acids composition and meat quality of Belgian-Blue cross bred
steers. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science. 76.
Koreleski, J. and Swiatkiewicz, S., 2006. Effect of stabilized fish oil supplementation and
storage on changes of fatty acids profile, TBARS content and sensoric properties of
breast meat of broiler chickens. Polish J. Natural Sci. 3:421-426.

96

Koreleski, J. and Swiatkiewicz, S., 2007. Effect of coneflower, Thyme and sage extracts in
the diet on changes in chicken white meat quality during storage. Polish J. Food and
Nutr. Sci. 57:303-307.
Krauss, R.M., Eckel, R.H., Howard, B., Appel, L.J., Daniels, S.R., Deckelbaum, R.J.,
Erdman, J.W., Kris-Etherton, P.,Goldberg,I.J.,Kotchen, T.A., Lichtenstein, A.H.,
Mitch, W.E., Mullis, R., Robinson, K., Wylie-Rossett, J., Jeor, S.S., Suttie, J., Tribble,
D.L., and Bazzare, T.L., 2001. Revision 2000: Statement for health care professionals
from the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association. J. Nutr. 131:132146.
Lahucky, R., Nuernberg, K., Kovac, L., Bucko, O., and Nuernberg, G., 2010. Assessment of
the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts-in vitro and in vivo experiment on
pork. Meat Sci. 85:779-784.
Lin, C.F., Gray, J.I. Ashgar, A., Buckely, D.J.,Booren, A.M., and Flegal, C.J., 1989. Effects
of dietary oils and tocopherol supplementation on lipid composition and stability of
broiler meat. J. Food.Sci. 54:1457-1460.
Lopez-Bote, C.J., Gray, J.I., Gomad, E.A., and Flegal, C.J., 1998. Effect of dietary
administration of all extracts from rosemary and sage on lipid oxidation in broiler
meat. Brit.Poult.Sci. 39:235-240.
Lopez-Ferrer, S., Baucells, M.O., Borroeta, A.C., and Grashorn, M.A. 2001. N-3 Enrichment
of chicken meat using fish oil: Alternative substitution with rapeseed and in seed oils.
Poult. Sci.78:356-365.

97

Lopez-Ferrer, S., Baucells, M.O., Borroeta, A.C., and Grashorn, M.A. 1999. N-3 enrichment
of chicken meat. 1. Use of very long- chain fatty acids in chicken diets and their
influence on meat quality: fish oil. Poult.Sci. 80:741-752.
Luna, A., Labaque, M.C., Zygadlo, J.A., Marin, R.H., 2010. Effects of thymol and carvacrol
feed supplementation on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. Poult. Sci. 89:366-370.
Malan, D.D.,

2003. Nutrition of broiler

chickens

for optimum meat quality.

www.cabdirect.org (Accessed 14 October 2012).


Middleton, E., Kandaswamy, C., and Theoharicles, T.C., 2000. The effects of plant
flavonoidson mammalian cells. Pharmacol. Rev. 52:673-751.
Min, B.R., Attwood, G.T., Mc Nabb,W.C., Molan, A.I., Barry, T.N., 2005. The affect of
condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus on the Proteolytic activities and growth of
rumen bacteria. Anim.feed. Sci. and Tech.121:45-58.
Moyo, B., 2011. The medicinal properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam) Leaves and
the effect of its use as a supplement on goat growth performance and meat
characteristics. University of Fort Hare. www.google.com (Accessed 15 October
2012).
Moyo, B., Masika, P.J., Hugo, A. and Muchenje, V. 2011. Nutritional Characterization of
Moringa oleifera Lam leaves. African. J. Biotech. 10:12925-12933.

98

Moyo, B., Oyedemi, S., Masika, P.J, and Muchenje, V.2012. Polyphenolic content and
antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver
from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/ sunflower seed cake. Meat
Sci. 91:441-447.
Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Hugo, A., and Raats, J.G., 2009.
Some biochemical aspects pertaining to beef eating quality and consumer health.
Food. Chem.112: 279-289.
Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Hugo, A., and Raats, J.G., 2008.
Sensory evaluation and its relationship to quality attributes of beef from Nguni and
Bonsmara steers raised on natural pasture. Anim. Sci. 2:1700-1706.
Narciso-Gaytan, C., Shin, D., Sams, A.R., Keeton, J.T., Miller, R.K., Smith, S.B., and
Sanchez-Plata, M.X., 2011. Lipid oxidation stability of omega-3 and conjugated
linoleic acid-enriched chicken meat. Poult.Sci. 90: 473-480.
Ryu, Y.C., Rhee, M.S., Lee, K.M., Kim, B.C., 2005. Effects of different levels of dietary
supplemental selenium on performance, lipid oxidation, and colour stability of broiler
chicks. Poult. Sci. 84:809-815.
Sidhu, G.S., Oakenfull, D.G.,1986. A mechanism for the hypocholesterolaemic activity of
saponnins. Brit. J. Nutrition. 55:643-649.
Skirivan, M., Marounek, M., Englmaierova, M., and Skirivanova, E., 2012. Influence of
dietary vitamin C and selenium, alone and in combination on the composition and
oxidative stability of meat of broilers. Food. Chem. 130:660-664.

99

Vasta, V., Mele, M., Serra, A., Scerra, M., Luciano, G., Lanza, M., Priolo, A., 2009.
Metabolic fate of fatty acids involved in ruminal biohydrogenenation in sheep fed
concentrate or herbage with or without tannins. J.of Anim. Sci.87:2674-2684.
Velasco, V., and Williams, P., 2011. Improving meat quality through natural antioxidants
Chilean. J. Agric. Res. 71:0718-5839.
Verma, A.R., Vijayakumar, M., Mathela, C.S., and Rao, C.V., 2009. In vitro and in- vivo
antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves. Food and
Chem.Toxic. 47: 2196-2201.
Wood, J.D., Richardson, R.I., Nute, G.R., Fisher, A.V., Campo, M.M., and Kasapidou, E.,
2003. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: A review. Meat. Sci. 66: 21-32.

100

Chapter 6: General discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations


6.1. General discussion
The objective of the study was to determine the growth performance, physico-chemical
indicators of shelf-life and fatty acids profiles, lipid oxidation in meat from broilers given
Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as an additive. Four hundred and thirty two 1- Day old
male broiler chicks (Aviane 48) were used in this study and reared for 35 Days. The growth
performance of broilers given diets containing different levels of MOLM was determined in
Chapter 3. The effect of MOLM as an additive on physico-chemical shelf-life indicators
(colour, pH and drip loss) of broiler meat was determined in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5 the
effect of MOLM as an additive on fatty acids profiles and lipid oxidation in broiler meat was
determined.
In Chapter 3, average feed intake (AFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion
efficiency (FCE), and carcass characteristics (slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing
percentage, gizzard weight, liver weight, heart weight and gastrointestinal fat weight) were
determined. Broiler chickens given diet with higher inclusion (TRT1 1000g/ton) of MOLM
had higher values of AFI, ADG and FCE throughout the experiment compared to the control
diet. Also chickens given TRT1 had similar values of carcass characteristics with the
chickens given a diet with no MOLM (control). However, the liver weight, heart weight and
gastro intestinal fat differed in all treatments with TRT2 (750g/ton MOLM) having highest
value of heart weight, gastro-intestinal fat weight. The chickens given diets with MOLM
inclusion did not differ much on growth performance with the ones given a control diet.
However, the MOLM inclusion 500g/ton-1000g/ton in the diets had no adverse effects on the
performance of broilers. Similarly, Ayssiwede et al.(2011) reported that inclusions of
Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diets up to 24% had not caused any adverse impact on live
101

body weight, average daily weight gain, feed conversion rate, carcass and organs
characteristics in birds compared to their controls.
Results from Chapter 4 showed that chicken meat from treatment 1(1000g/ton MOLM) fed
broilers had higher values for lightness (L*) which could be due to the antioxidant activities
in M. oleifera, such as Vitamin E and selenium (Moyo et al., 2011). It is reported that vitamin
E supplementation prevents discolouration and extends colour display life (Faustman et al.,
1989; Arnold et al., 1992). The redness (a*) values were also higher in the diet which had
MOLM inclusion treatment 3. The reason could be due to the iron consumed by the broilers
on the MOLM diet, which could have increased haemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations
(Priolo et al., 2001; Sreelatha and Padma, 2009). There were no differences in drip loss in all
the treatments.
The pH levels of the stored meat from all the TRTS were generally constant from day1 to
day5 and then peaked on day 6 with a decrease on day7 except for treatment 2. The reason
for this is not clear, hence further investigation is needed. The lightness (L*) were within a
normal range during storage, from day1 to day5 but then at the end of storage on day6 they
started to decrease. Previous studies also observed a decrease in L* values towards the end of
the meat storage (Bingol & Ergun, 2011). Drip loss increased with storage time as expected.
Offer and Knight (1988), described the changes in pH and temperature post-mortem as the
principle mechanism of drip development during storage of meat.

102

Chapter 5 determined the effect of MOLM as an additive on fatty acids profiles and lipid
oxidation of broiler meat. It was observed that all TRTS had an effect on PUFA, SFA, but no
effect on n-6/n-3 ratio. It has been reported that the quality and composition of fatty acids in
meat are related to the presence of some of their precursors in the diet (Wood et al., 2004).
Day1and day7 had no effect on PUFA, SFA and n-6/n-3 ratio. However, TRTS with MOLM
had a positive effect on lipid oxidation, with higher inclusion of MOLM treatment 1 having
higher amount of MDA than control diet which had the lowest value. From these results one
can objectively conclude that using MOLM as an additive on broiler diets has a beneficial
effect on the oxidative stability of broiler meat. The reason behind this could be the
antioxidant factors in MOLM. Moringa leaves have been reported to have a high content of
vitamin E, a chain breaking antioxidants (Jyotsna Misha et al., 2007) and antioxidants are
reported to delay lipid peroxidation in meat (Dirinck et al., 1996).
6.2. Conclusion
The use of MOLM as an additive on broiler diets had no adverse effects on the growth
performance of broilers and its potential as an antioxidant seemed to be effective in
improving physico-chemical shelf-life indicators of the meat from broilers. Feeding broilers
diets with different levels of MOLM retarded lipid oxidation of the chicken meat compared to
the diet with no MOLM. It was therefore, concluded that MOLM can be used in broiler diets
as an additive with a potential to substitute commercial additives usually added in broiler
diets, which are quite expensive for communal farmers.
6.3. Recommendations
Although observations from this study showed that MOLM have a potential to be
utilised as an additive in broiler diets, further investigations at higher inclusion rates
103

of MOLM in broiler diets is required, hence some of the findings in this study were
not quite clear.
Moringa oleifera is a bit scarce in South Africa, especially in the Eastern Cape
province. It is only available in few provinces which makes it difficult and quite
expensive to get it. Therefore, it is recommended that more studies or experiments on
Moringa oleifera should be conducted such as growing its trees in large numbers so
that the farmers will be aware of how highly nutritive this tree is.
Further research should also be done to determine the effect of using Moringa oleifera
seeds or leaf meal as an additive (in other livestock diets) on the performance and meat
quality. These researches should be conducted in communal areas, working with farmers,
in that way they will gain more knowledge about Moringa oleifera and its properties.

6.4. References
Arnold, R.N., Scheller, K.K., Arp, S.C., Williams, S.N., Beuge, D.R., Schaefer, D.M., 1992.
Effect of long- or -short term feeding of -tocopherol acetate to Holstein and
104

crossbreed beef steers upon performance, carcass characteristics and beef colour
display life. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3055-3065.
Ayssiwede, S.B., Dieng, A., Bello, H., Chrysostome, C.A.A.M., Hane, M.B., Mankor, A.,
Dahouda, M., Houinato, M.R., Hornick, J.L., and Missohou, A., 2011. Effects of
Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaves meal incorporation in diets on growth performance,
carcass characteristics and economics results of growing indigenous Senegal
chickens. Pak. J. Nutr. 10:1132-1145.
Bingol, E.B. and Ergun, O., 2011. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the
micro-biological quality and shelf-life of ostrich meat. Meat. Sci. 88, 774-785.
Dirinck, P., De Winne, A., Casteels, M., and Frigg, M., 1996. Studies on vitamin E and meat
quality: Effects of feeding high vitamin E levels on time related pork quality. J.
Agric. food. Chem.44:65-68.
Faustman, C., Cassens, R.G., Schaefer, D.M., Beuge, D.R., Scheller, K.K., 1989. Vitamin E
supplementation of Holstein steers diet improves sirloin steak colour. J. food Sci.
54:485-486.
Jyotsna Mishra, R.K., Srivastava, S.V., Shukla and Raghav, C.S., 2007. Antioxidants in
aromatic and medicinal plants. Sci. Technol. Entrepre.7:1-16.
Moyo, B., Oyedemi, S., Masika, P.J, and Muchenje, V.2012. Polyphenolic content and
antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of
liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/ sunflower seed cake.
Meat Sci. 91:441-447.

105

Offer, G., and Knight, P., 1988. The structural basis of water-holding in meat. Drip losses.
Develop. In meat Sci. 4:173-243.
Priolo, A., Micol, D., and Agabriel, J., 2001. Effects of grass feeding systems on ruminant
meat colour and flavour. A review. Anim. Resear. 50:185-200.
Sreelatha, S., and Padma, P.R., 2009. Antioxidant activity and total content of Moringa
oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant. Foods of human Nutr. 64:303-311.
Wood, J.D., Richardson, R.I., Nute, G.R., Fisher, A.V., Campo, M.M., Kasapidou, E.,
Sheard, P.R., and Enser, M., 2004. Effect of fatty acids on meat quality. Areview.
Meat Sci. 66:21-32.

106

Оценить