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Container Carriers

Manuel Ventura
Ship Design I
MSc in Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture

Historical Note
The first container carrier was the Ideal X, which started on
26th April 1956 a line from Newark, New Jersey, to Houston,
Texas.
The Ideal-X was a tanker converted, whose deck was
reinforced to carry 58 containers of 35.
The idea was from
Malcom McLean (19142001) owner of truck
companies
McLean founded the
SeaLand on 1960, that was
bought by Maersk on 1999
The IdealX was in service
from 1956 to 1965.
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Container Carriers

Fleet Analysis

Typical Sizes of the Ships


According to Naval Architect (June 1999) the distribution of the
existing container carriers by size classes, was at the time:

Type

TEU

No.

Feeder

100-499

465

Feedermax

500-999

485

Handy-size

1000-1999

770

Sub-Panamax

2000-2999

370

Panamax

3000-3999

200

4000-

85

Post-Panamax
Total
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2475
Container Carriers

Fleet of Container Carriers

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Global Evolution of the Fleet

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Profile of the Operators

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Profile of the Operators


The industry of liners is not as concentrated as other
sectors.
There are about 300 groups which employ about 4,650 ships
and on Dec. 2001 they represented 6.3 million TEUs.
19 of these operators are involved in lines East-West
(Transatlantico, Transpacifico, Asia-Europa).
The largest operator is Maersk-Sealand which operates a
capacity of about 725,000 TEU, representing 11.8% of total
active capacity in TEUS.
The second is P&O Nedlloyd with 6.2% of the total capacity.

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Transport of Containers (2006)


Between 1990 and 2005 the market of containers has
increased with an average rate of 10%/year
Factors from the demand side
International division of the work
Increasing importance of the goods appropriate for container
transport

Factors from the supply side


Considerable increase of fleet of container carriers
Faster load/discharge (shorter round-trip times)

The number of containers carried in 2005 was about 114


millions TEU
Source: www.dbresearch.com (Deutche Bank)
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Transport of Containers (2006)


Previses da evoluo do
transporte de contentores
Continuao do aumento do
mercado taxa mdia de 9%/ano
at 2015
As rotas mais importantes sero
as intra-asiticas, as EUA/sia e
as Europa/sia
O transporte entre os EUA e a
Europa aumentar, mas menos
Entre 2006 e 2008 a capacidade
da frota mundial aumentar em
50%

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Container Handling (2006)

O frete por TEU transportado da Europa para o


extremo oriente 13% menor em navios com
capacidade > 8.800 TEU comparado com um de
6600 TEU
Trade -> Inclui apenas
transporte de contentores
cheios
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Container Handling (2006)


Container handling has increased
faster than the transport, due to:
Transhipment economy of scale
associated to the large ships
Includes the handling of the empty
containers

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Container Transport (2006)

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Characterization of the Fleet (2006)

The average age of these ships is of


about 11 years (22.4 years for the
general cargo ships)
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Characterization of the Fleet (2006)

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Characterization of the Fleet (2006)

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Links
www.aclcargo.com

(Atlantic Container Lines)

www.dbresearch.com

(Deutche Bank)

www.isl.org (Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics)

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Container Ports

From the 25 largest container


ports in the world, 16 are in Asia,
3 in the USA and 6 in Europe
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Types of Container Carriers

Feeders
OOCL
Sweden 900
TEU (2006)

Cellular guides for the


containers carried on deck
(outside of the hatch covers)

Superstructure extremelly
compact and located aft
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10

Feeder Ships

Forecastle deck protected


Cranes mounted asymmetrically at side
Free-fall lifeboats aft

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Free-Fall Launching Type Lifeboat


In container carriers
the use of these
lifeboats has become
quite common due to
the resulting space
savings at side, SB/PS

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11

Panamax Ships

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Panamax Ships

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12

Panamax Ships

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Post-Panamax Ships

L = 323 m
B = 42.8 m

OOCL Europe, 8063 TEU (710 frigorficos), construdo pela Samsung (2006)
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13

Post-Panamax Ships

COSCO Germany, 8204 TEU, built by Hyundai (2006)

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L = 334 m
B = 42.8 m
T = 14.5 m

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Very Large Container Carriers (VLCC)

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14

Ultra Large Container Ships (ULCS)


Ships with capacity > 10,000 TEU
Propulsion:
1 propeller, Vs = 23.5
2 propellers, Vs = 25

Compatible with Suez Canal limitations (16.4 m) and most of


existing terminals
Costs 19% less than previous 8,700 TEU and 25 class of
ships
Malacca Strait is the new max. draught limitation (21 m)
that will set a limit of abt. 18,000 TEU for the new
generation of ships

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ULCS - Propulsion
The currently available Diesel engines are limited to 68.000 kW
ULCC ships at 25 will require power > 100 MW (136,000 BHP)

Recent studies show


gains of efficiency
and economy with
the usage of CRP
POD driven by slow
Diesel engines

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Evolution of the Midship Section (1)


Navios Panamax

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Evolution of the Midship Section (2)


Ships post-Panamax

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Evolution of Midship Sections (3)


ULCS ships

12,500 TEU
B = 54.20 m
T = 16.00 m

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VLCC

L = 336.70 m
B = 45.60 m
D = 27.20 m

MSC Pamela, 9,200 TEU, built by Samsung


Delivered on July 2005
Largest container carrier in service (2005)
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17

VLCC

MSC Maria Elena, 6th ship of the MSC Pamela class, 9200 TEU
(Sept. 2006)

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Evolution of the Main Dimensions

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Largest Container Carrier (2006)

Emma Maersk, construdo na


Dinamarca, Odense Steel
Shipyard (Set. 2006)
11,000 TEU (1,000 reef.)
145 Milhes US$
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Emma Maersk

L = 397.70 m
B = 56.40 m
D = 30.0 m
T = 15.54 m

Motor Diesel Wartsila 14 cil.


PD = 110,000 Hp (80,960 KW), 102 rpm
V = 27
GT = 170,000
Crew: 13 (accommodations for 30)
Superstructure at midships

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Largest Container Carriers (2009)

MSC Daniela (2008),


14,028 TEU

MSC Danit (2009),


14,028 TEU

MSC Beatrice (2009),


14,028 TEU, built by
Daewoo Shipping in
Korea
L = 365.50 m
B = 51.20 m
D = 29.90 m

MAN B&W 12K98 MC-C

T = 16.00 m

PD = 98,152 Hp (72,240 KW)

V = 25.0

GT = 153,092

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MSC Danit (2009)

IMO No. 940 4649


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Cargo Securing Manual (CSM)


SOLAS Chapter VI and VII requires a Cargo Securing
Manual (CSM) for all types of ships engaged in the carriage
of cargoes other than solid and liquid bulk cargoes.
The CSM shall be drawn up to a standard at least equivalent
to relevant guidelines IMO MSC/Circ. 745 - 13 June 1996.
The requirements were implemented 1 January 1998.

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General Notes
Cargo/TEU for stability computations: 14 tons
The percentage of containers carried on deck has been
increasing along the years:
35% (years 70)
50% (currently)

From 1st August 2007 the FO tanks must be located inside a


double-hull nowadays it is already quite common in large
ships to locate the tanks transversely between holds
For new designs of ship with more than 13,000 TEU it is
probable that the bridge and the accommodations will be
located forward
Check the visibility requirements from SOLAS!
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Structural Aspects

Critical points of the hull structure in accordance to an ABS study


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Links

www.alphaship.com.ua
www.vega_reedrei.com
www.chineseshipping.com.cn
www.searates.com/container (Freight rates)

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Multi-Purpose Ships
Manuel Ventura

Multi-Purpose Ships
Designed to carry both containerized (unitized) and dry bulk
cargoes
Box shaped cargo holds with dimensions optimized for
containers but without cell guides
Eventually provided with tween deck(s)
Typically provided with lifting gear
Greater flexibility compared to container ships and dry bulk
carriers
Comparatively less efficient at handling both product types

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Multipurpose Ships
M/V Andromeda
Main Characteristics:
Length, o.a.
Breadth (moulded)
Draught
Deadweight
Gross Tonnage
Cargo holds:
Main Engines
Power Output
Service Speed

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118.55 m
15.20 m
6.30 m
6,725 t
4,893 t
2
Mak M-32
3,840 kW
14 kt

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Ships for Reduced Air Draft


Ships for inland waterways and coastal
navigation, subject to air draught
limitations

Telescopic bridge in
the raised position
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Limitations of Air Draft

Technical options to overcome the air draft limitations:


Folding masts
Folding chimney
Retractable bridge
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Leiria

High-Skew Propeller
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25

Gorch Fock

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