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Definitions of Social
Capital
Posted on January 7, 2004 by Tristan Claridge 54 Comments

The commonalities of most definitions of social capital are that


they focus on social relations that have productive benefits. The
variety of definitions identified in the literature stem from the
highly context specific nature of social capital and the
complexity of its conceptualization and operationalization.

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Social capital does not have a clear, undisputed meaning, for


substantive and ideological reasons (Dolfsma and Dannreuther
2003[1] ; Foley and Edwards 1997[2] ). For this reason there is
no set and commonly agreed upon definition of social capital
and the particular definition adopted by a study will depend on
the discipline and level of investigation (Robison et al. 2002)[3] .
Not surprisingly considering the different frameworks for looking

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at social capital there is considerable disagreement and even


contradiction in the definitions of social capital (Adler and Kwon
2002)[4] . Because of the difficulties in defining social capital,
authors tend to discuss the concept, its intellectual origin, its
diversity of applications and some of its unresolved issues
before adopting a school of thought and adding their own

Recent
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definition (Adam and Roncevic 2003)[5] . It has been suggested


that a cross disciplinary definition would be less important if
scholars were to redefine and appreciate other disciplines

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definitions (SCIG 2000)[6] . SCIG (2000) further identified that all

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studies must discuss social capital in relation to the particular


discipline, study level and context and that a set definition for
such is not required, only an identification of operationalization
or conceptualization (SCIG 2000). Other authors have identified
that definitions vary depending on whether they focus on the
substance, the sources, or the effects of social capital (Adler
and Kwon 2002; Field et al. 2000[7] ; Robison et al. 2002[7] ).
Grootaert and Van Bastelaer (2002b)[8] supported this view
identifying that the main cause of variance in definitions is
caused by focusing on the form, source or consequence of
social capital. Social capital is multidimensional and must be
conceptualized as such to have any explanatory value (Eastis
1998)[9] . Some authors see social capital as an economic term
and do not adequately take account of its multi dimensional

Tristan Claridge 12 Nov


@tristanclaridge
There is growing
polarization in youth social
capital as economic
inequality increases.
blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2015
Show Summary
Tristan Claridge 12 Nov
@tristanclaridge
Social bonds that allow
street vendors to set
become weakened as she
tries to expand business
and become part of the
formal economy

and multi disciplinary nature, for example Day (2002)[10] .


Social capital is about the value of social networks, bonding
similar people and bridging between diverse people, with norms
of reciprocity (Dekker and Uslaner 2001[11] ; Uslaner 2001[12] ).
Sander (2002, p. 213)[13] stated that the folk wisdom that more
people get their jobs from whom they know, rather than what
they know, turns out to be true. Adler and Kwon (2002)[13]

Justine Severin 11 Nov


@Sevrowe
Sophie Folder touches on
cooperatives drawing on
ndings from #socialcapital
study #APEN2015
pic.twitter.com/Gfb9obPsHq
Retweeted by Tristan
Claridge

identified that the core intuition guiding social capital research is


that the goodwill that others have toward us is a valuable
resource. As such they define social capital as the goodwill
available to individuals or groups. Its source lies in the structure

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and content of the actors social relations. Its effects flow from
the information, influence, and solidarity it makes available to
the actor (Adler and Kwon 2002, p. 23)[13] . Dekker and Uslaner
(2001)[13] posited that social capital is fundamentally about how
people interact with each other.
There are therefore numerous definitions of social capital found
in the literature. A considerable number of definitions have been
listed in the table below (adapted from Adler and Kwon 2002).
They vary depending on whether their focus is primarily on (1)
the relations an actor maintains with other actors, (2) the

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structure of relations among actors within a collectivity, or (3)


both types of linkages (Adler and Kwon 2002). A focus on
external relations have also been called bridging (Woolcock
1998)[14] or communal (Oh et al. 1999)[15] and a focus on
internal relations bonding or linking. Similar categorization
could be done according to other criteria such as strong or weak

Recent

ties, horizontal or vertical, open or closed, structural or cognitive,

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geographically dispersed or circumscribed, and instrumental or

Comments

principled (further discussion of these types and categorizations


can be found in the types of social capital section). In table 2

Measurement of

below the external definitions are those that focus primarily on

Social Capital

the relations as actors maintain with other actors the internal are

(17)

those that focus on the structure of relations among actors


within a collectivity and both types of linkages (Adler and Kwon
2002).

Maiza
Kadir

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instrument in

External

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versus

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measuring

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social capital
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Communal

social structures and

External/

Baker

14, 12:52 AM

then use to pursue their

Social Capital

interests; it is created by

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changes in the

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relationship among

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8:18 PM
Social Capital

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the aggregate of the


actual or potential

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resources which are

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linked to possession of a

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durable network of more

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or less institutionalized

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relationships of mutual

information

acquaintance or

about social

recognition (Bourdieu

capital. This

1986, p. 248)[18] .made

has greatly

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(connections), which is

Jul 07, 10:21

convertible, in certain

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conditions, into
economic capital and
may be institutionalized

Tristan
Claridge

Hi R.Welly,

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in the form of a title of


nobility (Bourdieu 1986,
p. 243)[18] .

you would
need to start
by identifying
the problem
and then

Bourdieu

the sum of the

defining ... }

Wacquant

resources, actual or

Oct 15, 5:46

virtual, that accrue to an

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individual or a group by
virtue of possessing a
durable network of more
or less institutionalized
relationships of mutual
acquaintance and
recognition (Bourdieu
and Wacquant 1992, p.
119)[19] .

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the number of people

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who can be expected to

4:34 PM

provide support and the

Introduction to

resources those people

Social Capital

have at their disposal

Research (11)

(Boxman et al. 1991, p.


52)[20] .
Burt

friends, colleagues, and


more general contacts
through whom you
receive opportunities to
use your financial and
human capital (Burt
1992, p. 9)[21] .the

Shahadat
Hossain

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a discourse on
social capital.
} May 19,
4:42 PM
How can you
build your social
capital? (1)

brokerage opportunities

Knoke

in a network (Burt 1997,

Padmaja

p. 355)[21] .

Hi Tristan i am

the process by which


social actors create and
mobilize their network
connections within and
between organizations to
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Dec 23, 3:21
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social actors resources


(Knoke 1999, p. 18)[22] .

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Portes

the ability of actors to


secure benefits by virtue
of membership in social
networks or other social
structures (Portes 1998,
p. 6)[23] .

Recent Posts
Grabbing at the
wind: the power
forces of social
capital April 6,
2015

Internal/

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the web of cooperative

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relationships between

personal mobile

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citizens that facilitate

devices eroding

resolution of collective

the public

action problems (Brehm

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November 13,

999)[24] .

2013
Social capital

Coleman

Social capital is defined

measurement

by its function. It is not a

problems March

single entity, but a

22, 2013

variety of different

What is the value

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of social capital?

characteristics in

March 21, 2013

common: They all

How can you

consist of some aspect

build your social

of social structure, and

capital? March

they facilitate certain

20, 2013

actions of individuals
who are within the
structure (Coleman
1990, p. 302)[25] .
Fukuyama

the ability of people to


work together for
common purposes in
groups and
organizations
(Fukuyama 1995, p.

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Comments R S S
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10)[26] .Social capital


can be defined simply as
the existence of a certain
set of informal values or
norms shared among
members of a group that
permit cooperation
among them (Fukuyama
1997)[26] .

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Inglehart

a culture of trust and


tolerance, in which
extensive networks of
voluntary associations
emerge (Inglehart 1997,
p. 188)[27] .

Portes

those expectations for

Sensenbrenner

action within a
collectivity that affect the
economic goals and
goal seeking behavior of
its members, even if
these expectations are
not oriented toward the
economic sphere
(Portes and
Sensenbrenner 1993, p.
1323)[28] .

Putnam

features of social
organization such as
networks, norms, and
social trust that facilitate
coordination and
cooperation for mutual
benefit (Putnam 1995,
p. 67)[29] .

Thomas

those voluntary means


and processes
developed within civil
society which promote
development for the
collective whole
(Thomas 1996, p. 11)[30]
.

Both types

Loury

naturally occurring
social relationships
among persons which
promote or assist the
acquisition of skills and
traits valued in the
marketplace. . . an asset

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which may be as
significant as financial
bequests in accounting
for the maintenance of
inequality in our society
(Loury 1992, p. 100)[31] .
Nahapiet and

the sum of the actual

Ghoshal

and potential resources


embedded within,
available through, and
derived from the network
of relationships
possessed by an
individual or social unit.
Social capital thus
comprises both the
network and the assets
that may be mobilized
through that network
(Nahapiet and Ghoshal
1998, p. 243)[32] .

Pennar

the web of social


relationships that
influences individual
behavior and thereby
affects economic growth
(Pennar 1997, p. 154)[33]
.

Schiff

the set of elements of


the social structure that
affects relations among
people and are inputs or
arguments of the
production and/or utility
function (Schiff 1992, p.
160)[34] .

Woolcock

the information, trust,


and norms of reciprocity
inhering in ones social
networks (Woolcock
1998, p. 153)[34] .

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As previously identified, all studies must discuss social capital in


relation to the particular discipline, study level, and context and
that a set definition for such is not required, only an identification
of operationalization or conceptualization. Therefore this study
will not create a new definition of social capital and will not
select an existing definition from the literature as doing so limits
the application and understanding of the concept. This study will
identify an appropriate operationalization and conceptualization
for social capital in following sections. The above discussion of
definitions should provide ample understanding of the social
capital concept.

Footnotes
1. Dolfsma, Wilfred, and Charlie Dannreuther. 2003. Subjects and
boundaries: Contesting social capital-based policies. Journal of Economic
Issues 37: 405-413. ^
2. Foley, Michael W, and Bob Edwards. 1997. Escape from politics? Social
theory and the social capital debate. American Behavioral Scientist 40:
550. ^
3. Robison, Lindon J., A. Allan Schmid, and Marcelo E. Siles. 2002. Is
social capital really capital? Review of Social Economy 60: 1-24. ^
4. Adler, Paul S, and Seok-Woo Kwon. 2002. Social Capital: Prospects For
a New Concept. Academy of Management. The Academy of
Management Review 27: 17-40. ^
5. Adam, Frane, and Borut Roncevic. 2003. Social Capital: Recent Debates
and Research Trends. Social Science Information 42: 155-183. ^
6. SCIG. 2000. Short papers from the April, 1998 Social Capital Conference
at Michigan State University. The Journal of Socio-Economics 29: 579. ^
7. Field, John, Tom Schuller, and Stephen Baron. 2000. Social capital and
human capital revisited. Pp. 243-264 in Social Capital: Critical
Perspectives, edited by Tom Schuller. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ^
8. Grootaert, Christiaan, and Thierry Van Bastelaer. 2002b. Introduction and
Overview. Pp. 1-7 in The Role of Social Capital in Development, edited by
Thierry Van Bastelaer. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. ^
9. Eastis, Carla M. 1998. Organisational diversity and the production of
social capital. American Behavioural Scientist 42: 66-77. ^
10. Day, Ronald E. 2002. Social capital, value, and measure: Antonio Negris
challenge to capitalism. Journal of the American Society for Information
Science and Technology 53: 1074-1082. ^
11. Dekker, Paul, and Eric M. Uslaner. 2001. Introduction. Pp. 1 8 in Social
Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M. Uslaner.
London: Routledge. ^
12. Uslaner, Eric M. 2001. Volunteering and social capital: how trust and
religion shape civic participation in the United States. Pp. 104 117 in

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Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, edited by Eric M.


Uslaner. London: Routledge. ^
13. Sander, Thomas H. 2002. Social capital and new urbanism: leading a
civic horse to water. National Civic Review 91: 213-221. ^
14. Woolcock, Michael. 1998. Social capital and economic development:
Towards a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and
Society 27: 151-208. ^
15. Oh, H., M. Kilduff, and D.J. Brass. 1999. Communal social capital, linking
social capital, and economic outcomes. in Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the Academy of Management. Chicago. ^
16. Baker, W. 1990. Market Networks and Corporate Behaviour. American
Journal of Sociology 96: 589 625. ^
17. Belliveau, M. A, C. A III OReilly, and J. B Wade. 1996. Social Capital at
the Top: Effects of Social Similarity and Status on CEO Compensation.
Academy of Management Journal 39: 1568 1593. ^
18. Bourdieu, P. 1986. The Forms of Capital. Pp. 241-58 in Handbook of
theory and research for the sociology of education, edited by John G
Richardson. New York: Greenwood Press. ^
19. Bourdieu, P., and L. P. D. Wacquant. 1992. An Invitation to Reflexive
sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ^
20. Boxman, E. A. W, P. M De Grant, and H. D Flap. 1991. The Impact of
Social and Human Capital on the Income Attainment of Dutch Managers.
Social Networks 13: 51 73. ^
21. Burt, Ronald. 1992. Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ^
22. Knoke, D. 1999. Organizational networks and corporate social capital.
Pp. 17 42 in Corporate Social Capital and Liability, edited by S. M.
Gabbay. Boston: Kluwer. ^
23. Portes, Alejandro. 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in
modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24: 1-25. ^
24. Brehm, John, and W Rahn. 1997. Individual-Level Evidence for the
Causes and Consequences of Social Capital. American Journal of
Political Science 41: 999 1023. ^
25. Coleman, James S. 1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press. ^
26. Fukuyama, Francis. 1995. Trust : the social virtues and the creation of
prosperity. London: Hamish Hamilton. ^
27. Inglehart, R. 1997. Modernization and post-modernization: cultural,
economic and political change in 43 societies. Princeton: Princeton
University Press. ^
28. Portes, Alejandro, and Julia Sensenbrenner. 1993. Embeddedness and
immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action.
American Journal of Sociology 98: 1320 1350. ^
29. Putnam, Robert D. 1995. Bowling alone: Americas declining social
capital. Journal of Democracy 6: 65-78. ^

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30. Thomas, C. Y. 1996. Capital markets, financial markets and social


capital. Social and Economic Studies 45: 1 23. ^
31. Loury, G. 1992. The economics of discrimination: Getting to the core of
the problem. Harvard Journal for African American Public Policy 1: 91
110. ^
32. Nahapiet, Janine, and Sumantra Ghoshal. 1998. Social capital,
intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of
Management Review 23: 242. ^
33. Pennar, K. 1997. The tie that leads to prosperity: The economic value of
social bonds is only beginning to be measured. Business Weekly: 153
155. ^
34. Schiff, M. 1992. Social capital, labour mobility, and welfare: The impact of
uniting states. Rationailty and Society 4. ^

54 comments on Definitions of Social Capital

Roy says:
May 16, 2013 at 12:34 am

I had quite some problems understanding what social capital


is for writing my Bachelor thesis in economics, thanks for
clearing some stuff up!
Reply

Brayen Hastingz Chisekochevana says:


May 12, 2013 at 4:40 pm

I have learned some of the aspects of social capital , but


would like to add on saying that social capital has economic
value in it like other forms of capital . Its ecomomic value is
that it increases the competitive advantage of indivuduals
and organisations through netwoking. Also in a much deeper
sense it is also necessary to understand that social capital
cannot be depleted but increases with use and is avasilable
in the fom of infomartion, knowlegde skills and so forth
Reply

M! says:
April 16, 2013 at 7:02 pm

You, my friend, are a rock star. This page is brilliantly written


and organized its a brilliant capture of an elusive topic.

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Kudos.
(How have I not come across this website until now? This
would have been immensely helpful in my postgrad research.
Better late than never, though.)

Reply

M! says:
April 16, 2013 at 7:03 pm

I am beginning to realize my affinity for the word


brilliant- haha.

Reply

Usman says:
December 20, 2012 at 12:10 pm

Thats good
Reply

Ron Goodwin says:


November 28, 2012 at 12:10 pm

The best definition I have seen of Social Capital is from


Johathon Porritt, pages 112 & 113 from the book Capitalism
as if the World Matters.
Capital is a stock of anything that has the capacity to
generate a flow of benefis which are valued by humans.
Social Capital takes the form of structures, institutions,
networks and relationships which enable individals to
maintain and develop their human capital in partnership with
others, and to be more productive when working together
than in isolation. It includes families, communities,
businesses, trade unions, voluntary organizations,
legal/political systems and educational and health bodies.
Reply

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Sandra Harris says:


November 2, 2012 at 12:10 pm

Social Capital a unique concept with varied definations, at


first i was thinking human capital, but it is so different, i have
grasp the concept brilliant!
Reply

Lutfun Nesa Shantana says:


October 9, 2012 at 12:10 pm

I got a snapshot of social capital,but it not to be mote


elaborate
Reply

Nokwenama P.Sithole says:


September 17, 2012 at 12:04 pm

I appreciate the brilliant concepts i have learnt something


new about social capital
Reply

Guru Kong says:


September 1, 2012 at 12:03 pm

Hi all,
very comprehensive definition.I was wondering does social
capital also encompass support from government network. I
have read from paper, it being used to be inclusive of
government network (eg the social welfare service, etc).
Reply

Tristan Claridge says:


September 2, 2012 at 12:09 pm

Thanks for your comment Guru Kong. Social capital


certainly does include the role of government and the
important influence that can have on social capital at all

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levels.
Reply

Carl Sloan says:


August 21, 2012 at 12:03 pm

I appreciate the social capital concept, I dont know if the


concept is seen for the very important properties it possess
that can shape the outcome of ones interest. Very
informative article, thanks.
Reply

Sal Leggio says:


June 14, 2012 at 12:02 pm

I notice that all of these have to do with the social


interactions between individuals, and are therefore different
from human capital, such as education or health care and
prevention, which focus on individuals.
Political discussions in this election year often mention
human capital, but social capital is different. Nonetheless, the
World Bank has taken notice. Heres what WB says, Social
capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that
shape the quality and quantity of a societys social
interactions. Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion
is critical for societies to prosper economically and for
development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the
sum of the institutions which underpin a society it is the
glue that holds them together.
Reply

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Lila Time says:


May 31, 2012 at 12:02 pm

Wow, all last night I was spinning my head on the definitions


of Social Capital. This is amazing!! And to give a reference
list is a BONUS!!! Thank you so much! This will help so much
with my essay!
Reply

Christian Calvin Chipole says:


May 21, 2012 at 12:01 pm

Thank you for this article I learnt more from this article.God
bless you.[malawi]
Reply

Natalie Tan says:


May 19, 2012 at 12:01 pm

Excellent synthesis of existing literature; very helpful to a


person new to the term. I especially liked that the author of
this article did not select one definition as better than others,
but left it to the reader to apply it themselves.
Reply

lunecia segundo says:


May 4, 2012 at 12:01 pm

Comprehensive and easily understood by student like me


Reply

Dr MJ Fox says:
April 18, 2012 at 12:00 pm

Excellent. Thorough. Well written. Outstanding source.


Reply

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Boogii says:
March 18, 2012 at 12:00 pm

Great article, good summary and it give systematic view on


social capital
Reply

Robert Corfe says:


January 29, 2012 at 11:59 am

In a world in which people everywhere are enjoying higher


levels of education and an increasing consciousness of their
social and other rights, there is no escaping the need to
ensure that financial-industrial systems are designed
primarily to serve majority needs. If these are ignored then
civil chaos on a global scale will inevitably follow.
The British industrial publicist and prolific writer, Robert
Corfe, is a leading authority in pointing the way ahead in his
major 3-volume work, Social Capitalism in Theory & Practice,
published by Arena Books. In this book he politicises issues
which hitherto have been beyond the radar screen of political
life, e.g., through his in-depth differentiation between Social
and Unsocial Wealth Creation; benign Productive capitalism
versus malign Rentier capitalism; Productive profitability
versus Rentier profitability; and desirable and undesirable
modes for the financing of industrial investment.
In addition, he describes how financial markets may be made
to work for home-based industry; how industrial associations
are failing in their proper purpose; how workers and bosses
may combine in the struggle against de-industrialisation; the
need for re-defining the meaning of free trade; reforming the
company for greater fairness and efficiency; an analysis of
those self-proclaimed industrialists amongst the super-rich
who are destroying rather than contributing to the cause of
Social Wealth Creation; and a 50-page declaration of Social
Capitalist values amongst many other topics touching on
the material well-being of the majority.
Robert Corfe has spent a lifetime in senior management in
industry as well as involvement in politics and other spheres
of public life. In 1987 he established the Campaign for
Industry, supported by leading industrialists, an association
for which he wrote many incisive pamphlets on the problems
of commercially viable productivity. His biography is available

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on Amazon and other websites and his books are also


available on Kindle as well as print. He may be contacted on
robertcorfe@tiscali.co.uk .
Reply

Lil says:
January 27, 2012 at 11:59 am

Great resource, thanks!!


Reply

Maxi says:
January 12, 2012 at 11:54 am

Such a helpful article. Thanks very much for all who prepared
it.
Reply

Patty Delaney says:


January 4, 2012 at 11:53 am

I work for Cancer Council NSW .I have had trouble


differentiating between social capital and capacity building
Does this make sense?
For the purposes of this paper Cancer Council social capital
will be defined as the cumulative, cooperative, action of
capacity building that results in an outcome of successful
community engagement. When social capital reaches tipping
point positive change in cancer control will follow because
we have been able to build social capital
Community Engagement (relationship) > Capacity Building
(process) > Social Capital (outcome)
Reply

Tristan Claridge says:


January 4, 2012 at 11:54 am

Thanks for your comment Patty.

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I would describe capacity building as improving human


capital rather than changing social capital although
capacity building could be argued to be the building of
any productive assets of a person which would include
some aspects of social capital.
Community Engagement (process) > Capacity Building
(outcome) > Social Capital (outcome)
The process of successful community engagement
results in human capital benefits (in terms of capacity
building eg knowledge, skills, processes) and social
capital benefits (in terms of bridging networks eg trust,
belonging, information flows, etc).
Please feel free to email me. Id be happy to discuss
further.
Reply

Ahmad Shahbaz says:


December 26, 2011 at 11:53 am

It is very helpful to me in developing the individual and as a


group social network
Reply

Lubna says:
December 14, 2011 at 11:52 am

It helped me a lot in my research work..


Reply

Michelle says:
November 28, 2011 at 11:52 am

Thoughts, linkages to diverse groups. Informative


Reply

Laura Braeunig says:

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November 23, 2011 at 11:51 am

Extremely interesting and informative


Reply

Peter Nyambayi says:


November 2, 2011 at 11:51 am

Thanks a lot
Reply

Paulo Bento says:


October 17, 2011 at 11:51 am

Very interesting, congratulations!


Reply

Kwame Adu-Sarkodie says:


September 28, 2011 at 11:50 am

Very interesting. Its broadened my appreciation of social


capital. We need to look into how social capital is created
and sustained for economic benefits.
Reply

Mahadie Hasan says:


September 25, 2011 at 11:50 am

Its really wondering


Reply

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EP says:
August 27, 2011 at 11:45 am

I should have read your web earlier..I am now doing thesis


on sc.thanks for yr sharing. the literature quality is quite good
Reply

Farnaz says:
June 23, 2011 at 11:45 am

Thanks for the good definitions but there is need for more
elaboration on the categorization of these definitions as
external/internal categories.
Reply

Ade says:
April 26, 2011 at 11:45 am

It economic defination I need


Reply

Anwar Ali Malik says:


March 20, 2011 at 11:44 am

Best article, I had a need of such type of info about social


capital
Reply

Chioma Akalezi says:


March 20, 2011 at 11:44 am

The literature is great,and very concise


Reply

Tahabub Alam says:


March 4, 2011 at 11:43 am

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Comprehensive and outstanding. Thanks.


Reply

Mary says:
February 15, 2011 at 11:43 am

I like the comparisons made between different schools of


thought.
Reply

Jack Onek says:


January 6, 2011 at 11:43 am

Nice definition and brilliant content.


Thanks you so much
Reply

ahmedsalad g.kolmie says:


December 11, 2010 at 11:42 am

thanks for your endeavors, I have assumed that this theory


correlated with the theory of Functionalism
Reply

Tanu says:
November 16, 2010 at 11:41 am

NICE TO THIS ALL. AND I HAVE LEARNT SUCH THINGS


TO BE ADOPTED IN MY LIFE
Reply

Lena says:
November 9, 2010 at 11:40 am

Thank you, very much!


Reply

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Fred says:
November 9, 2010 at 11:39 am

Excellent, thanks Tristan!


Reply

asian undergrad says:


November 8, 2010 at 11:41 am

great works!! I am an undergrad and really hard to find


literature about social capital in my univ. this help me a lot.
however, if Id like to cite the table of definition from Adler n
Kwon above, do I have to write it as it is?(the definitions that I
dont cite directly, should I write the end note and add it on
my reference?
thanks a lot for your help
Reply

Benjamin Rosenthal says:


October 7, 2010 at 11:34 am

Thanks Tristan, this article helped me to get a good intro into


the subject and list several future readings.
best regards
Benjamin
Reply

Alex says:
October 1, 2010 at 11:35 am

I like this article.thank you..


Reply

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Andre says:
October 1, 2010 at 11:34 am

Thanks for this literature.


Reply

Manmeet says:
August 3, 2010 at 11:33 am

An attempt to develop quite an exhaustive explanation on


social capital
Reply

Kay says:
July 29, 2010 at 11:33 am

This page has given me some good ideas to conceptualise


social capital in relation to studying indigenous health this
semester. Thanks!
Reply

Elham says:
May 16, 2010 at 11:33 am

This article has introduced an interesting categorized


definition of social capital
Reply

Hasan says:
April 20, 2010 at 11:32 am

Thanks. Its good. But please refer to newest author


Reply

Zenitram says:
April 4, 2010 at 11:32 am

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Thanks!
Reply

Andrew A.Thangaraj says:


March 25, 2010 at 11:32 am

I have learned something at my 62nd year of life.


Reply

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