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Experiment Number: 02

Name of the Experiment:


Standardization of Commercial
Hydrochloric Acid solution with standard
Sodium Hydroxide solution
Course: CHEM-114

Name: A.N.M.Ashrafuzzaman.
Roll: 200306040
Group: A2
Partners Roll: 200306045
Department: EEE

Date of Performance: 02-01-2005


Date of Submission: 09-01-2005

Objective:
The objective of this experiment is to determine the
strength of Commercial Hydrochloric acid by using
standard Sodium Hydroxide solution .As Sodium Hydroxide
is itself a secondary standard substance, not a primary
standard substances so it should be standardized by the
standard Oxalic-acid solution.
Theory:
The strength determination of both commercial
Hydrochloric acid and NaOH is done by means of presence
of a suitable indicator, a chemical substance that detects the
end point of a reaction by changing its color, the volumetric
analysis in which a standard solution is added in another
solution to reach its end point and to determine the
strength of that solution is called titration.
The reaction between NaOH and Oxalic acid is

COONa + 2H2O

2NaOH + HOOC- COOH > NaOOCIndicator

Phenolphthalein
And the reaction between HCl and NaOH is NaOH + HCl > NaCl + H2O
Indicator Methyl
Orange
Apparatus:
1. Conical flask, 2. Burette, 3. Pipette,
4. Volumetric flask, 5. Stand, 6. Funnel

Chemical Reagents:
1. Standardized NaOH solution
2. HCl solution
3. Distilled water
4. Oxalic Acid
5. Phenolphthalein
6. Methyl Orange

Experimental Data:
Standardization of
Oxalic Acid solution

NaOH

solution

Burette
reading
in ml

Numb Volum
er of
e of
Obser- NaOH
in
Initial
vation
ml
Readi
ng
01
02
03

10
10
10

0.3
10.4
20.1

Final
Readi
ng
10.4
20.1
29.9

Volume
of
Acid
in
ml

10.1
9.7
9.8

with

standard

Avera
ge
Readi
ng
in
ml

Streng
th
Of
NaOH
N

9.867

0.0986
7

Standardization of HCl solution with standard NaOH


solution
Numb
er of

Burette
reading
in ml

Volume
of

Avera
ge

Streng
th

Obser- Volum
e of
Initial
vation NaOH Readi
in
ng
ml
01
02
03

10
10
10

Acid
in
ml

Final
Readi
ng

1.9
21.3
5.9

21.3
40.6
24.9

19.4
19.3
19.0

Readi
ng
in
ml

Of
HCl
N

19.233

0.0513

Calculation: We know that, V

acid

X S

acid

= V

base

X S

base

Determination of the normality of NaOH :-Here,


V acid
= 9.867 ml
S acid
= 0.1 N
V base
= 10 ml
S base
=?
So, S base
= ( 9.867 X 0.1) /10 N
= 0.09867 N
Determination of normality of HCl :
Here,
V acid
= 19.233ml
S acid = ?
V base
= 10 ml
S base
= 0.09867 N
So,
S HCl (dilute) = ( 0.09867 X 10 ) / 19.233
= 0.0513 N
we also know, V

concentrated

XS

concentrated

=V

dilute

Here,
V HCl(concentrated) = 2.1 ml
S HCl(concentrated) = ?
V HCl(dilute)
= 100 ml
S HCl(dilute)
= 0.0513 N
so, S HCl(concentrated) = ( 100 X 0.0513 ) / 2.4
= 2.1376 N

XS

dilute

But in the given HCl solution equal amount of water and


hydrochloric acid were present, i.e. water : hydrochloric
acid was 1:1.
So, the actual strength of HCl =2.1376 X 2
=4.2752 N
Result:
The strength of HCl (dilute) is found: 0.0513 N
The strength of the supplied HCl (concentrated) is: 4.2752
N

Percentage of error:
Percentage of error
= (known value observed value) X 100 known
value
= ( 4.5 - 4.2752 ) X 100 / 4.5
= 4.995%
so, Percentage of error = 4.995%

Discussion:
The following causes can be assumed for the possible cause
of error.
1)

It is very difficult to determine the end point


accurately. So the measured value is deviated from
the actual value due to either over titration or under
titration. This can also be one of the reasons of the
error. This is the main cause of error.

2)

Another cause of error may rise from faulty burette


reading.
If these causes could be avoided we could have got more
accurate result of the strength of Commercial
Hydrochloric Acid.