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RESOURCES FOR ACCOUNTABILITY AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN

THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR

A project of the Capacity Joint Table, funded by the Government of Canada through the
Voluntary Sector Initiative.

December 2003

Introduction 6
Acknowledgements 7
An Important Note 7
Guide Sections 8
Module 1 – The Changing Environment for Accountability and Financial Management
8
Module 2 – Methods to Enhance Accountability 8
Module 3 – Financial Management 8
Module 4 – Learning Opportunities 8
Module 1. The Changing Environment for Accountability and Financial Management
9
Objectives 9
Preamble 9
The Trend Towards Accountability and Financial Management 9
In the voluntary sector 9
In the private sector 10
In the public sector 11
Examples at the Federal Level 11
Examples at the Provincial/Territorial Level 12
Examples at the Municipal Level 13
Improving Accountability in Voluntary Sector Organizations 13
Codes of Ethics 13
Governance 14
Program Evaluation 14
Financial Disclosure 15
Module 2. Methods to Enhance Accountability 16
Objectives 16
Preamble 16
Codes of Ethics 16
Board Governance 17
Program Evaluations 19
Program Example – Walk a Mile in My Shoes 19
Outcome Evaluations 20
Outputs vs. Outcomes 20
Performance Framework or Logic Model 20
Benefits of Outcome Evaluations 22
Limits to Outcome Evaluations 22
Social Auditing 23
Balanced Scorecard 25
Benefits of Balanced Scorecard 26
Limits to the Balanced Scorecard 27
Program Evaluation Summary 28
Financial Control Systems 28
Financial Controls 29
Finance Committee 29
Financial Audits 29
Audit committees 30
Module 3. Financial Management 32
Objectives 32
Preamble 32
Balance Sheet (or Statement of Financial Position) 33
Statement of Revenue and Expenses (or Income Statement, or Statement of Revenue,
Expenditures and Accumulated Net Assets) 34
Statement of Changes in Fund Balances and Cash Flows (or Statement of Changes in
Financial Position, or Statement of Cash Flows) 34
Fund Accounting 35
Summary 35
Module 4. Learning Opportunities 36
Objectives 36
Preamble 36
The Importance of Financial Education 36
Glossary 38
Using the Appendices 40
Disclaimer 40
Search Tips 40
Locating and Evaluating Voluntary Sector Management Print Publications 41
Appendix 1. Inventory of Resources to Enhance Accountability 43
Accountability: Understanding the Concept and its Elements 43
Audit Committees 44
Balanced Scorecards 45
Introductory Articles and Portal Sites on Balanced Scorecards 45
Manuals on Balanced Scorecards 46
Evaluations of the Use of Balanced Scorecards 46
Benchmarking 47
Board/Executive Director Development and Organizational Assessment Tools 49
Introductory Articles and Portal Sites49
Board Development or Organizational Assessment -- Manuals 54
Client Satisfaction Evaluation56
Codes of Ethics, Accountability, or Best Practices 57
Introductory Articles or Portal Sites 57
Examples of Codes of Ethics for Nonprofit Organizations 58
Evaluation, General 60
Introductory Articles 60
Portal Sites for Evaluation 62
Manuals on Evaluation 64
Financial Management and Controls 67
Foundations and Evaluations 70
Fraud Prevention 71
Indicators 73
Logic Models 75
Outcome Research / Measurement 75
Introductory Articles and Portal Sites on Outcome Research/Measurement 75
Manuals and Resources on Outcome Research / Measurement 76
Studies and Commentaries on Outcome Research / Measurement 76
Participatory or Empowerment Evaluation 78
Introductory Articles and Portal Sites78
Manuals on Participatory or Empowerment Evaluation 78
Quality, Total Quality Management, and Continuous Improvement 79
Record-Keeping Systems 81
Results-Based or Performance-Based Management 82
Introductory Articles and Portal Sites82
Portal Sites for Results/Performance Based Initiatives 83
Manuals on Results-Based or Performance-Based Management 84
Risk Management and Directors’ Liability 85
Screening 87
Small Organizations, Key Resources 88
Social Auditing 89
Survey Methods 91
Appendix 2: Inventory of Financial Training and Voluntary Sector Management
Resources 93
Academically-Based Canadian Programs 93
Academically-Based Nonprofit or Voluntary Sector Management Diploma or Degree
Programs in Canada 93
Academically-Based Voluntary Sector Management Professional Development Programs
in Canada 95
Portal Sites or Other Directories of Academically-Based Nonprofit or Voluntary Sector
Management Courses, and Business and Accounting Programs in Canada 97
Providers of MBA programs 99
College-Based Financial Management Diploma Programs in Canada 99
Non-academically Based Canadian Programs 100
Distance-Learning Nonprofit or Business Management Programs based in the United
States 102
Portal Sites of Academic Nonprofit or Voluntary Sector Management Courses and
Professional Development Programs in the United States 103
Textbooks on Accounting and Financial Management Used in Academic Nonprofit
Management and Public Administration Courses 104
Literature on Training and Management Assistance Resources 105
Resources From The Capacity Joint Table 109
Skills Development and Human Resources Management 109
Research and Information Sharing 109
Policy Capacity 109
Financial Capacity 109

Introduction

Canada's voluntary sector, comprising over 180,000 charities and non-profit


organizations, plays an important role in making Canada a more caring and prosperous
country. The sector is enormously broad and diverse, including organizations working on
education, health, arts, faith, sports, social justice and the environment. In 2000, charities
and non-profit organizations received five billion dollars in private sector donations to
invest in their respective issues.

Building on a long history of working together, the Voluntary


Sector Initiative (VSI) is a joint process between the voluntary sector and the
Government of Canada. The long-term objectives of the VSI are to strengthen the
voluntary sector's capacity to meet the challenges of the future and to enhance the
relationship between the sector and the federal government and their ability to serve
Canadians. The VSI focuses on several key areas, including developing an Accord,
information management/information technology (IM/IT), public awareness, voluntarism,
financing, capacity and regulatory issues affecting the voluntary sector.

In recent years, voluntary sector organizations have become increasingly aware of the
importance of accountability and sound financial management (i.e., being able to
demonstrate wise use of resources). Voluntary sector organizations, through their boards
of directors, are accountable to many in their communities including funders, clients,
members, volunteers, staff, government, donors and the general public. Organizations are
facing increasing demands for accountability, while their available resources for
providing programs and services have been reduced. The voluntary sector as a whole
must govern itself carefully and account to stakeholders for money raised and spent, for
results achieved, and for expectations met or not met.
As part of the VSI’s commitments in the area of capacity building, this inventory was
designed to identify resources, including links to Web sites, for information to enhance
accountability (see Appendix 1: Inventory of Resources to Enhance Accountability) and
to advance financial knowledge and voluntary sector management skills (see Appendix 2:
Inventory of Financial Training and Voluntary Sector Management Assistance
Resources). This document also provides an overview of accountability and financial
management issues of interest to the voluntary sector.

This overview guide is primarily intended for medium-sized organizations with some
accounting support. However, some of the tools and resources in the inventory will be
helpful to all organizations. Many organizations already have effective practices in place,
and will not need to make any changes. For some, particularly very small organizations
or those that operate without boards, the overview modules may not be applicable.
Smaller, grassroots organizations with no dedicated accounting staff will have different
resource needs in these areas. For more information, see Appendix 1.

Every effort by voluntary sector organizations to enhance accountability will further


improve their ability to provide services, strengthen credibility, maintain public
confidence and build relations with stakeholders. In turn, these organizations will be
better able to respond to the challenges in their communities.

While this guide provides a brief overview of current trends, examines ways to enhance
accountability, and reviews financial management basics, it is intended primarily as a
preamble to the extensive resource inventories which follow the modules. It is not
intended to be self-contained in any way or provide full training on these topics.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank members of the VSI Working Group on Financing and the
Capacity Joint Table for sharing their knowledge and experience in the development of
this guide. We would also like to acknowledge background research and writing for this
project undertaken by Warren Dow and Amy Lightfoot. Thanks also to those who
reviewed this document, providing additional comments and thoughts.

An Important Note
The original research for this document was completed in late 2001. Where available,
online links to resources are provided. These links were verified operational, and of
reasonable duration to download on a 56K modem, as of September 2001, the date of the
original research; and verified again in August 2003. During this review, some
references were updated and added, but programs and resources developed between 2002
and September 2003 may not be included in this inventory.

Voluntary sector organizations vary considerably in their composition, objectives and


methods of operation. The information in this document in written generally and may not
fit the exact needs of your organization. It is meant as a starting point for your
organization to address some of the issues facing the voluntary sector. The VSI does not
give legal or other professional advice. You may wish to seek professional advice to
make sure that any information in the document answers your particular concerns and
issues.

Guide Sections
This document is intended as a preamble to the resource inventories which follow. It is
not intended to be self-contained in any way or to provide full training on these topics.
The guide is divided into the following overview modules:

Module 1 – The Changing Environment for Accountability and Financial Management


Voluntary sector organizations that actively include accountability and financial
management planning in their day-to-day operations improve their capacity to meet their
mission. This section reviews the external concerns that have recently led businesses and
government to focus more on accountability. By the end of this section, you should be
inspired to learn more about how to implement an accountability framework in your
organization.

Module 2 – Methods to Enhance Accountability


This section looks at tools you can use to be accountable to various stakeholders. These
tools include codes of ethics, improved governance, better program evaluations, and
meaningful financial disclosure. By the end of this section, you should understand these
tools, have an idea of which one(s) might work best for your organization, and begin to
think about how you could blend them into your daily activities.

Module 3 – Financial Management


This section provides an overview of the basics of financial management, including a
brief explanation of the different financial statements used in fund accounting. By the end
of this section, you should be able to understand the financial statements presented in an
annual report, know the difference between types of accounting systems, and be inspired
to learn more about financial management.

Module 4 – Learning Opportunities


Module 4 lists learning opportunities for voluntary sector managers and board members.
It describes the different training resources available to learn accounting and financial
management related to voluntary sector organizations, and identifies different teaching
and learning methods. By the end of this section, you should be aware of these learning
opportunities, and how to locate them.

Module 1. The Changing Environment for Accountability and Financial Management


Objectives
· Understand why financial management and accountability are so important;
· Understand the financial environment in which voluntary sector organizations
operate;
· Identify the key ways to enhance accountability;
· Understand the many facets of accountability.

Preamble
Accountability is complicated. It includes management and reporting of an
organization’s finances. The overall performance of the organization, including its ethics
and responsiveness to stakeholders, is also part of accountability. Accountability in the
voluntary sector has come into the public eye in recent years, due in part to the increasing
visibility of voluntary sector organizations, and in part to events in both the private
(individuals and businesses) and public (government) sectors. Demonstrating your
accountability pays off in increased trust between you and your stakeholders, and helps
your organization to achieve its mission.

The Trend Towards Accountability and Financial Management


In the voluntary sector
In general, the public has incredibly high trust in the voluntary sector. Nearly 80% of
respondents to a survey conduced by the Institute for Social Research at York University
said they trust people who work for charities and 84% agreed that charities are generally
honest about the way they use donations. This level of trust is higher than the trust that
people have in the public or private sector. To maintain this level of trust, voluntary
sector organizations continue to improve service delivery, efficiency, and accountability
to their stakeholders.

However, Canadians also see some areas of concern in the voluntary sector. This may be
due in part to a 1997 Maclean’s Magazine article that criticized the way in which 20
health-related charities handled their finances, particularly the percentage of revenues
apparently spent on administration and salaries. Voluntary sector organizations are
interested in being able to explain their expenses and results in a way that shows how
they are achieving their missions. For example, those not familiar with the voluntary
sector may think that all the work can be done by volunteers, and see salaries as
“administration.” By being able to explain the importance of paid staff in achieving a
charity’s goals, the position of the organization is strengthened in the long run.

In addition, there is a new trend towards “social entrepreneurship” or “venture


philanthropy.” Here, major donors are not content to simply write cheques and trust that
their money will be spent wisely. They look for accountability in a wider sense – not only
the absence of fraud, but also concrete assurances and proof that their donation will see
results. These donors can be more “hands-on” than traditional donors; for example,
wanting to be actively involved in the organization or directing their donation to a
particular fund. In fact, some foundations, publications and training programs for venture
philanthropists counsel the donor or investor on how to look for “Social Return on
Investment.” Voluntary sector organizations that understand this and can work
effectively with the social entrepreneur have much to gain from this new trend.

One study identified donors as either entrepreneurs or non-entrepreneurs, and asked them
to rank their top five motivators for their next gift (see text box). In both groups,
accountability of the charity ranked in the top five motivators for giving, along with more
traditional reasons for choosing a charity. This sends a clear message of the need for
accountability to voluntary sector organizations that rely on the public for financial
support.

Over the past decade, the above trends and events have resulted in stakeholders having
higher expectations of voluntary sector organizations; wanting them not only to use their
funds responsibly, but to be able to demonstrate this in concrete results. Organizations are
challenged to respond to the increasing and complex needs in their communities while
facing greater expectations related to accountability and administration. These processes
are made easier if the organization has the basics of financial management in place,
including codes of ethics and values, governance practices, financial controls and
reporting structures, and evaluation mechanisms.

In the private sector


Company scandals have been on the front page of newspapers around the world.
Investors are becoming more aware and wary of how corporations work and how they
report earnings. To gain the confidence of customers and investors, the corporate sector
in both Canada and the US created task forces and committees to recommend ways to
reduce fraud and improve corporate accountability. One recommendation was the
formation of audit committees in which independent directors with expertise in finance
work with an external auditor to review the financial controls and performance of the
company.

Another movement in the private sector is towards “corporate social responsibility”; that
is, being accountable for the overall relationship between the corporation and its
stakeholders, including customers, employees, communities, owners, investors,
government, suppliers and competitors. Elements of corporate social responsibility
include community outreach, employee relations, environmental practices and
accountability for financial performance.

In the public sector


Interest in increased accountability is not restricted to the private and voluntary sectors.
As taxpayers demand to know how their hard-earned dollars are spent, all levels of
Canadian government (federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal) are increasingly
interested in demonstrating results.

Examples at the Federal Level


At the federal level, the Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) of the Government of Canada
has been developing a “results-based accountability framework.” The basis of the
framework is “accurate and timely performance information (which) measures, evaluates
and reports on key aspects of programs and their performance in core areas.” The four
main areas of this framework are shown here:

The Four Management Commitments for the Government of Canada


(Source: “Results for Canadians: A Management Framework for the Government of
Canada”)

Another example of accountability at the federal level is An Accord Between the


Government and the Voluntary Sector. Signed in December 2001, the Accord is a key
product of the Voluntary Sector Initiative (VSI). The Accord describes the key elements
of a strengthened relationship between the federal government and the voluntary sector.
Building on the Accord, two “Codes of Good Practice” were developed in the areas of
Funding and Policy Dialogue. The Code of Good Practice on Funding is a tool to guide
interactions between the Government of Canada and the voluntary sector on funding
policies and practices. The Code is grounded in the recognition by the government and
the voluntary sector that they are both accountable to Canadians, and in the recognition of
the importance of sustainable capacity to enable voluntary sector organizations to serve
Canadians.

Examples at the Provincial/Territorial Level


Provinces are also interested in being accountable to their citizens. For example, the
Government of British Columbia makes the following statement in their Government
Strategic Plan:

“We have committed to holding government accountable for measuring the success of its
programs and reporting on performance. In developing this plan we have drawn from
work across the province, and have used sets of evaluations and information that we
monitor on a regular basis to assist in the development of key performance measures and
indicators. In addition, we have established the British Columbia Progress Board to help
define specific economic, social and environmental benchmarks and targets for the tax,
regulatory, social and fiscal reforms that government will undertake, and to monitor its
performance. This work will assist us in fulfilling the commitment to provide regular
reports to British Columbians and the Legislature so that taxpayers can monitor our
performance and progress, and hold government accountable for its commitments. It will
also help to inform government where follow-up efforts are necessary and additional
work is warranted.”

Another example is the Government of Alberta’s publication of “Measuring Up,” a report


to Albertans on how the province is achieving its goals. This annual report can be found
on the Government of Alberta’s website, www.gov.ab.ca/publications/measuring/.

Examples at the Municipal Level


Municipalities also need to be accountable. For example, in Ontario, the Ministry of
Municipal Affairs and Housing requires all Ontario municipalities to measure and report
on how they are doing in ten core service areas (e.g., water, police services,
transportation, etc.)
Improving Accountability in Voluntary Sector Organizations
Accountability should not be seen as a chore by voluntary sector organizations. Instead, it
can be approached as a way to improve the organization, build the confidence of
stakeholders, and maintain a high level of public trust.

Recognizing the importance of accountability in the voluntary sector, the Panel on


Accountability and Governance in the Voluntary Sector (also known as the Broadbent
Panel) was established in 1997. The panel was commissioned by the Voluntary Sector
Roundtable (http://www.vsr-trsb.net ), and was a driving force behind the eventual
creation of the Voluntary Sector Initiative. Among the recommendations from the
Broadbent Panel on improving accountability were:

· developing or improving codes of ethics;


· improving governance;
· improving program evaluations;
· improving financial disclosure.

An overview of each of these areas follows, and a more detailed discussion on each area
can be found in Module 2.

Codes of Ethics
Codes of ethics are a set of “principles of excellence” or “best practices” to provide
guidance for organizations wanting to meet a common set of standards. Several
organizations have developed codes for various areas of the voluntary sector. For
example, the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy published Ethical Fundraising &
Financial Accountability Code (http://www.ccp.ca/display.asp?id=33); Volunteer Canada
developed the Canadian Code for Volunteer Involvement
(http://www.volunteer.ca/volunteer/pdf/CodeEng.pdf); and the Joint Accord Table of the
VSI created the Codes of Good Practice on Funding and Policy Dialogue
(http://www.vsi-isbc.ca/eng/joint_tables/accord/codes.cfm).

To provide a more detailed example, the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy’s Ethical
Fundraising & Financial Accountability Code assures donors of the integrity and
accountability of charities that ask for and receive their financial support. Charities that
adopt this Code agree to fundraising practices that respect donors’ rights and privacy.
They also agree to manage their funds responsibly, and to report their finances accurately
and completely. This Code goes along with the professional codes of ethics and standards
of practice to which many fundraisers adhere, such as the Association of Fundraising
Professionals’ Donor Bill of Rights (see text box).

Governance
Governance means responsible management by an organization’s trustees or board of
directors. Boards aim to further the organization’s mission and maintain financial
viability, with an eye kept on the needs and desires of the wider community.

Trustees are ultimately responsible not only for ensuring the organization is furthering its
ends (meeting its mission), but also that it is using proper means to do so.
Program Evaluation
Program evaluation involves showing the results of an organization’s work. One popular
tool to conduct program evaluation is a results-based framework, which requires the
organization to answer for something (e.g., its program outcomes) and to someone (e.g.,
its board). This involves reporting performance or conduct to some party; justifying the
performance or conduct; and, taking responsibility for the consequences. A report entitled
Assessing Performance: Evaluation Practices and Perspectives in Canada’s Voluntary
Sector (http://www.vserp.ca/pub/VserpReport.pdf) was published by the Voluntary
Sector Evaluation Research Project (VSERP) in 2003, and provides insights and
recommendations for program evaluation methods. In addition, A Review of Evaluation
Resources for Non-Profit Organizations is a handbook that explores different evaluation
models for voluntary sector organizations. This publication can be found at
http://www.nonprofitscan.ca/pdf/library/2971=gd44pdf.pdf.

Financial Disclosure
A voluntary sector organization’s stakeholders are interested in seeing and understanding
the finances of the organization. Charities and non-profits already prepare audited annual
reports, which are typically published and made available, upon request, to stakeholders.
The annual report provides comprehensive information about how funds are spent. For
charities and non-profits, there are additional requirements for disclosure regulated by
Canada Customs and Revenue Agency’s (CCRA) Charities Directorate. For specific
requirements, please see the CCRA website at: http://www.ccra-
adrc.gc.ca/tax/charities/menu-e.html.

Module 2. Methods to Enhance Accountability


Objectives
· Describe ways to improve accountability, including codes of ethics, board
governance, program evaluations, and financial controls and committees;
· Identify costs and the pros and cons of each method;
· Look at challenges when assessing financial status;
· Identify opportunities for more learning.

Preamble
Accountability is not a simple concept and it is constantly evolving. Accountability can
be considered in a number of terms, including fiscal, legal, professional, and ethical and
moral. To make matters more complicated, different aspects of accountability may be of
interest to different stakeholders. Volunteers may be more interested in an organization’s
ethical and moral accountability, while donors may regard financial accountability as
most important.

Ideally, organizations will adopt systematic, proactive practices to satisfy their


stakeholders and achieve their missions. The expense of time and money to develop
accountability measures is undoubtedly worth the investment. This section introduces
recommended methods to enhance accountability, as well as the tools and techniques
used to perform program evaluations.
As outlined in the Broadbent Report and promoted by the Voluntary Sector Initiative,
there are a number of ways voluntary sector organizations can improve accountability.
Although the methods below are described as they relate to financial management and
accountability, they can also be applied to other areas of management (e.g., involvement
of volunteers and human resources practices).

Codes of Ethics
One good starting point for any voluntary sector organization is to adopt a Code of
Ethics, or a set of Principles of Excellence or Best Practices. As mentioned previously, a
number of organizations have already developed and adopted Codes of Ethics to improve
their operations and accountability. Some codes are about donors’ rights or the
involvement of volunteers; others relate to how to work with other organizations and the
public. Most codes have minimum conditions of governance and conduct that apply to the
entire organization.

However, adopting a Code of Ethics or Principles of Excellence is not enough. Once it is


adopted, the organization has to follow it as well, and periodically assess whether it is
complying with the Code. For some codes, there is an external agency or body to certify
that an organization has adopted the standards. For example, the Canadian Centre for
Philanthropy accredits a voluntary sector organization as following the Centre’s Ethical
Fundraising and Financial Accountability Code after the organization signs a licensing
agreement, completes a Self-Certification Toolkit and pays a fee. More often than not,
however, the ultimate responsibility of enforcing the codes rests with the voluntary sector
organization itself, as most external agencies cannot enforce codes. For example, the
Association of Fundraising Professionals produced the Code of Ethical Principles and
Standards of Professional Practice yet this association is limited in its ability to
investigate and enforce violations.

For more information on Codes of Ethics, Accountability, or Best Practices, see


Appendix 1.

Board Governance
While every voluntary sector organization will have a board of directors, there are a
number of different ways (that is, governance models) in which a board can operate.
These include:

· the policy governance model in which the board is involved only in long-range,
strategic policy planning;
· the executive-centred model in which the executive director guides board
performance by recruiting and orienting board members, and negotiating their roles;
· the volunteer-centred model in which the board is directly involved in the day-to-
day operations of the organization (e.g., program delivery and service provision);
· the corporate governance model in which the board focuses on efficient service
delivery and the bottom-line (i.e., much like a private company) ;
· the working or administrative model in which the board has some responsibilities
for the operations of the organization, and may help in practical ways such as organizing
events and drafting documents;
· the collective model in which a group of like-minded people work towards a
specific goal. They have a responsibility to define and support the basic philosophy of
working as a collective.

No matter which model is used, a well-governing board will attend to many matters to
further the organization’s mission and maintain financial viability. To do so, the board
will likely use a number of methods. The best way for voluntary sector boards to meet
their responsibilities is to make sure a number of management mechanisms are in place.
For example, the Panel on Accountability and Governance in the Voluntary Sector
(available at: http://www.vsr-trsb.net) made eight recommendations for effective board
stewardship:

· Steer toward the mission and guide strategic planning;


· Be transparent, including communicating to members, stakeholders and the public
and make information available upon request;
· Develop appropriate structures;
· Ensure the board understands its role and avoids conflicts of interest;
· Maintain fiscal responsibility;
· Ensure that an effective management team is in place and oversee their activities;
· Implement assessment and control systems;
· Plan for the succession and diversity of the board.

Of the items listed above, the primary focus of this module will be on financial
responsibility. As all board members undoubtedly want to carry out their responsibilities
to the best of their ability, it is important for them to understand the extent to which they
are accountable for financial management and for them to have the necessary tools to do
so. In a diverse board, not all members have training in financial management, as this is
not the only requirement to be selected for board membership , yet each member of the
board is responsible to some degree for the organization’s finances.

The task of overseeing the organization’s finances is made all the more difficult by a
number of factors, including:

· different formats of financial statements;


· not enough detail on financial statements;
· not using financial information as a planning tool;
· not enough information to calculate a program’s service costs (whether staff
hours, volunteer hours, number of clients served, or number of client visits);
· little appreciation of the need for all [board members] and staff to possess a good
understanding of the financial affairs of the agencies, combined with an over-dependence
on the external “professional expert”;
· limited board involvement in financial statement reviews and budget approvals;
· limited distribution of complete annual statements.
If the board has difficulties in managing the organization’s finances, these difficulties will
eventually cause problems with other stakeholders, including donors and the general
public. The public seems to be particularly concerned about fundraising practices.
Therefore, the board should have a strong interest in how dollars are raised for the
organization. Yet, a joint research project of the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy and
the Canada West Foundation found that only about half the boards gave formal approval
to policies relating to the costs of fundraising. To combat concerns and reassure donors, it
is important that board members are knowledgeable and aware of the fundraising
practices employed by the organization.

Improving board governance is an achievable project. To learn more about Board


Governance and how to improve it in your organization, see in Appendix 1.
Program Evaluations
Unlike businesses, which use profit to measure success, the voluntary sector gauges its
performance in other ways. Stakeholders, including donors, clients and board members,
want to know that programs are getting results. Program evaluations are a way to find out
what is working well, and what could be improved upon. Funders also see program
evaluations as a way to ensure that their investments in voluntary sector organizations are
bringing about the right results. One challenge is that different funders may require
different types of performance evaluations, which can be difficult for a voluntary sector
organization with limited resources. When seeking funding, be sure to include program
evaluation costs into the budget, particularly if the funder requires evaluation of the
program. Despite these varying needs, any program evaluation method you use – whether
you choose it or are required to use it – will enhance your organization’s performance in
achieving its mission.

This section examines three methods of results-based performance evaluation that have
been widely promoted for the voluntary sector in recent years: Outcome Evaluations;
Social Auditing; and Balanced Scorecards.

To demonstrate each of the evaluation methods, the following program – Walk a Mile in
My Shoes – will be used as an example.

Program Example – Walk a Mile in My Shoes


“Walk a Mile in My Shoes” is a 1-kilometre walk event designed to raise awareness of
poverty in the community, specifically the need for proper footwear for people with low
incomes and people living on the street. The primary objective of “Walk a Mile in My
Shoes” is to raise public awareness of poverty and homelessness in the community.
Secondary objectives include:

· raising funds for the purchase of new footwear (shoes and socks);
· collecting “gently-used” footwear to distribute to partner agencies;
· raising awareness of the services available in the community for people with low
incomes and those living on the street.
Shoe donations are collected at a number of community facilities, cleaned and processed
at a central warehouse, and distributed to those in need through eight established
community agencies. The event itself serves as a shoe donation location and as an
opportunity for the eight beneficiary agencies to create awareness of the services they
provide in the community.

We now briefly review outcome evaluations, social auditing, and the balanced scorecard,
each time showing how it could be used in the case of this event.

Each method has strengths and weaknesses, and there is no one right method. The
method (or methods) your organization chooses should ensure that outcomes can be
measured in a meaningful way. To help you choose, the end of this section links to an
extensive inventory of program evaluation resources, which contains more information
about these and other methods.

Outcome Evaluations
One common method to evaluate programs is an “outcome evaluation.” These are
becoming an almost routine requirement for support, particularly encouraged by
foundations, United Ways, and government.

The distinguishing feature of outcome evaluations is that they go beyond just reporting
the resources, activities, and outputs (e.g., number of clients served) of the organization,
as is the case with more traditional, process-oriented evaluations. They also assess the
outcomes (e.g., how the clients were affected by the services) to try to gauge the effects,
benefits or consequences of a program.

Outputs vs. Outcomes


Outputs are the service units of a program – what it actually does. They are usually
measured and reported in such terms as the number of people served, or the number of
products, services, or treatments delivered. Outcomes, on the other hand, relate to what
actually happens to people as a result of the program. Outcome measurements should
show whether the service recipients (neighbourhoods or the community at large, in some
cases) experienced a measurable change as a result of the organization’s work. For
example, what happened to their knowledge, skill, value, health condition, living
situation, or behavior? Outcome-based evaluations help agencies demonstrate to those
who invest in their programs that they are getting the expected results. Naturally, the key
to this model is to select the right outcome to measure. This is usually done through a
performance framework or logic model, detailed next.

Performance Framework or Logic Model


The “Performance Framework” or “Logic Model” is a written tool used to help
organizations identify the logic and the (presumed) cause-and-effect relationships of their
programs and services. The idea is to start with your mission statement, then identify the
resources, actions, strategies, and short- and mid-term outcomes necessary to achieve the
long-term outcomes that fulfill the mission. The model also looks at outside factors that
can affect the goal, including those in the organization’s environment (e.g., changes in
political or funding priorities) and compounding influences in the service recipients’
environment (e.g., what is going on in their schools, families, neighborhoods, or the
economy).

The following depicts a generic performance framework or logic model:

Generic Performance Framework or Logic Model


(adapted from Taylor-Powell 1998,
http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodel.html )

Inputs(What we invest) Outputs: Activities (What we do) Outputs: Participation


(Who we reach) Outcomes: Direct, short-term Outcomes:Intermediate
Outcomes: Long-term
What resources are required to run the program?Who must we work with or rely upon to
help us achieve our desired results? What products or services do we provide? What are
the key activities carried out to achieve desired results? Who must we influence to
make progress to achieving our outcomes?Do we need to focus on specific groups or
segments of the population in order to achieve results? What level of client service
do we want to provide? (e.g., address immediate needs; meet/exceed their or our
expectations) What influence do we want to exert on our key target group in the interim?
Why does our program exist?What results do we ultimately want to achieve?What
are the long term benefits, effects or states are we looking for?
StaffVolunteersTimeMoneyMaterialsEquipmentTechnologyPartners / Co-
deliverersPolicy makers
WorkshopsMeetingsCounselingFacilitationAssessmentsProduct dev.Media
workRecruitmentTreatmentTraining Users/ clients//beneficiaries
ParticipantsCustomersCitizensDecision-makers To achieve learning, to influence:
AwarenessKnowledgeAttitudesSkillsOpinionsAspirationsMotivations To change
people’s attitudes or perceptions; influence their behaviour; or lead them to make
decisions and take action, whether in life-style or policy or social action issues To
modify:civic, economic, environmental, health, or social conditions
Influencing FactorsWhat external forces/factors could impact the areas listed above and
affect the achievement of the desired results?

Benefits of Outcome Evaluations


Even if outcome evaluations are not required by your funders, there are many benefits to
conducting one. Outcome evaluations:

· improve results for the people to whom the organization is committed to serve (if
the findings are used to modify and improve programs);
· improve community support for the organization’s services and help to recruit
volunteers by showing that the organization and its programs make a difference;
· increase the efficiency of the organization;
· inform and assist the organization’s strategic planning efforts by providing a clear
focus on intended outcomes and a way to assess its progress;
· motivate staff by providing a way they can contribute to the organization’s
direction, and show the results they are achieving.

Limits to Outcome Evaluations


There are a number of concerns about outcome-based measurements and evaluations:

· They are time consuming and can be costly;


· If not carefully thought out, there may be a risk to clients’ privacy (with respect to
verifying medical, criminal, or educational records) during the evaluation process;
· It is difficult to precisely measure the long-term effect;
· The methodological barriers for small-scale, local projects;
· The approach requires a lot of buy-in and support at various levels of an
organization to make it work (see text box below).

Example – Logic Model – Walk a Mile in My Shoes

Inputs Outputs: Activities Outputs: Participation Outcomes: Direct, short-term


Outcomes: Long-term
Event · Plan route· Select date· Organize registration· Supervise volunteers
· Organizing committees· Runners· Volunteers ·
Successful turnout for the run· Create a fun and eventful day·
Successful shoe drive and shoe distribution· Increase awareness of local social
service agencies· Volunteers learn new skills · Change stereotypes and
stigma attached to poverty· Raise awareness of specific low-income issues (e.g. the
need for shoes)· Increased volunteerism in community
Volunteers · Recruit volunteers for route, registration, first aid ·
Community members
Community Links/ Partnerships/ Sponsorships/ Donations · Network with
community social service agencies· Seek donations of shoes and funds to purchase
shoes · Business owners & managers· Social service agencies· Event
participants and community members
Awareness Raising · Contact social service agencies for information booths·
Create media kits· Race kits for runners · Social service agencies·
Event participants

Social Auditing
A second program evaluation method is a social audit. A social audit tries to show the
extent to which an organization’s objectives are being fulfilled; whether they are still the
right objectives; and whether the organization is behaving responsibly towards, and
meeting the expectations of, stakeholders.

Social auditing is a multi-stakeholder-driven, participatory evaluation process that tracks


a number of different impacts and outcomes. It is a multi-stakeholder process because it
begins by identifying the organization’s stakeholder groups – those involved in, or
affected by, the organization such as service recipients, suppliers, volunteers, employees,
funders, and the community.

Social auditing occurs when the stakeholders are invited to:

· identify the parts of the organization’s performance that are important to them;
· help choose performance indicators (e.g., timely service, donor/volunteer
recognition), formulate objectives, and set performance targets;
· provide their feedback on how the organization performed;
· integrate the findings into the organization’s subsequent plans and objectives.

This is called participatory evaluation because, unlike external evaluations, social


auditing involves judgments by those affected by an organization based on criteria they
have chosen. Participatory evaluation empowers stakeholders to identify issues that are
important to them and to work with the organization to address them.

The social audit, which may be independently reviewed by an auditor, results in a “social
report,” which can be used in a number or ways (see text box). Social auditing is meant to
be an iterative or recurring process, which uses the results from one auditing cycle to
shape and inform the organization’s future operations and reports.

Although social auditing requires considerable resources, both in time and money,
particularly in the start-up stage, the benefits of completing a comprehensive social audit
will far outweigh the costs in the long term. The very process of having to articulate what
an organization is trying to accomplish (clarifying objectives), how it is going to do it
(stating action plans), and how it will measure, record and compare the extent to which it
is doing it can be quite useful.

Example – Social Auditing – Walk a Mile in My Shoes

A basic social audit of “Walk a Mile in My Shoes” might consist of consulting with three
stakeholder groups: employees, shoe recipients, and funders. Each group will identify
aspects of performance that are important to them, such as:

Employees – effectiveness of media campaign, collection and distribution of used


footwear, funds raised to purchase new footwear.

Shoe recipients – accessibility of shoe distribution locations, shoes availability,


cleanliness and condition of shoes, availability of appropriate shoes in terms of size,
weather conditions, age, gender, etc.

Funders – all funding conditions met, support acknowledged publicly and privately,
program produced results.
After performance areas have been identified, targets for each area are set (e.g., collect
5,000 pairs of shoes; of that goal, 90 per cent of shoes should be immediately useable and
accessible to shoe recipients; funder support to be acknowledged on every piece of
promotional literature).

The next step is to measure and track these areas. For example, the number of shoes
collected would be counted and a tally of the running total recorded. This number would
be reported to stakeholders (e.g., employees, funders, etc.). An independent auditor would
verify the results. Future plans and targets would be adjusted based on the results.

For example, if only 3,000 pairs of shoes were collected, then future plans could include a
more concentrated media campaign, an increased number of shoe donation locations, or a
reduced target number (e.g. 3,500).

The social audit is an effective way of tracking your organization’s performance against
those areas that your stakeholders identify as important.

Balanced Scorecard
The final evaluation method considered here is the “balanced scorecard.” Although its
use is not yet prevalent in the voluntary sector, it is being recommended by several
influential academics, evaluators, management institutes, and funders. At this point, its
use is most widespread in the business community, and this is reflected in the language
used to describe the approach.

Like social auditing, the balanced scorecard advances the idea of recognizing “multiple
bottom lines” (beyond just the financial) and the importance of multiple stakeholders’
views when it comes to measuring and improving performance. In particular, it identifies
the areas of customer satisfaction, internal business processes, and learning and growth,
as well as financial success as keys to sustainability. The balanced scorecard directs
management to:

· set targets for performance in these areas;


· devise measures to indicate their achievement;
· consult stakeholders to determine how well it is meeting them;
· use this information as a learning tool to monitor and modify the organization’s
objectives and its subsequent performance.

The basic model contains four “report cards” which all contribute to an organization’s
balanced scorecard:

Source: Paul Arveson, “What is the Balanced Scorecard?” The Balanced


Scorecard Institute, 1998, www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/bsc1.html
Although this model is obviously designed for a private sector business, it can be easily
adapted to a voluntary sector organization.

Benefits of Balanced Scorecard


The benefits of using the balanced scorecard model:

· Encourages a more holistic approach to management as it links the organization’s


financial control systems with the other measures that may be used to determine policy,
strategy and performance;
· Helps voluntary sector organizations communicate their results in a format and
language which funders and other sectors can understand;
· Forces agencies to become clear on what their actual objectives are, and to rethink
the strategy to realize those objectives.
Limits to the Balanced Scorecard
There are several limitations to the balanced scorecard as an accountability mechanism
that are related both to its feasibility and application to the voluntary sector:

· Some stakeholders’ views or concerns are not taken into account;


· Focus is on measuring performance in terms of efficiency, which is often an
inadequate measure of performance in the voluntary sector
· Top-down, leadership-driven nature of the model may make it prone to failure;
· May be unduly complex to implement, even for large associations.

Example – Balanced Scorecard – Walk a Mile in My Shoes

Using the four report cards model, this is how a balanced scorecard for “Walk a Mile in
My Shoes” might appear (there have been modifications to suit the charitable nature of
the program). Each of the four “poles” outlines at least one, possibly two, objectives to
achieve the desired result.

1. Financial
To succeed financially, how should we appear to our stakeholders?
Objective: to be accountable to our stakeholders and efficient with our funds
Measures: means and frequency by which information is communicated to stakeholders,
how many people were served per dollar spent
Targets: regular reporting of financial status, one person served (i.e., received a pair of
shoes) per five dollars spent
Initiatives: publication of annual report with detailed cost breakdown, increased volunteer
involvement to increase efficiency.

2. Shoe Recipient
To achieve our vision, how should we appear to our shoe recipients?
Objective: to be responsive
Measures: quantity and appropriateness (in terms of size, gender, season, etc.) of
footwear distributed
Targets: 5,000 units of appropriate footwear collected and distributed
Initiatives: speak to shoe recipients/conduct informal surveys about what type of footwear
is required (e.g., running shoes, work boots, sandals, etc.)

3. Internal Business Processes


To satisfy our stakeholders, what operational processes must we excel at?
Objective: to have timely shoe collection, cleaning and distribution; to increase media
awareness
Measures: amount of time elapsed between shoe donation, cleaning and distribution to
recipient; number of people aware of “Walk a Mile in My Shoes”
Targets: less than one week between shoe donation and distribution; ten per cent of local
population aware of “Walk a Mile in My Shoes”
Initiatives: daily shoe pick-up and cleaning, weekly distribution to agencies; public
service announcements, newspaper articles and radio advertisements.

4. Learning and Growth


To achieve our vision, how will we sustain our ability to change and improve?
Objective: to ensure that the need for shoes is still relevant; to enhance employees’ skills
Measures: number of low-income/homeless people still needing proper footwear;
efficiency improvements directly attributable to new knowledge
Targets: monthly updates from participating agencies re: the number of individuals still in
need of footwear; regular training for employees
Initiatives: monitor community needs and identify trends; enroll employees in continuing
education courses

Program Evaluation Summary


Given that every voluntary sector organization is different, and that most aim for
outcomes that are difficult to measure, it is challenging to find an absolute measure of
performance. Nevertheless, all organizations can benefit from this work – it gives them a
sense of how well they are doing, and allows them to tell this to stakeholders. Both in the
short term (e.g., to improve their focus, their programs and stakeholder support) and for
the long term (e.g., for the whole sector to accumulate and exchange baseline data, best
practices and lessons learned) subsequent programs and evaluations will all be improved.
Using one or more of the systems above will enhance the accountability of the
organization and, subsequently, strengthen the relationships with stakeholders. For further
information about these performance measures, see Appendix 1.

Financial Control Systems


Although the public places a great deal of trust in voluntary sector organizations and the
way in which they use their funds, it is important to put systems in place that ensure this
trust level remains high. Unfortunately, the rare instances in which voluntary sector
organizations appear to be misusing their funds (whether or not they actually are) have a
chilling effect on donations to, and trust in, other organizations. Taking precautions to
control finances will always heighten trust in your organization. This section provides an
overview of the financial control systems that can be employed by voluntary sector
organizations to ensure financial accountability.
Financial Controls
At a minimum, certain financial controls should be in place as part of every voluntary
sector organization’s management system. Some basic financial control activities
include:

· different people authorizing, accessing, and keeping records of expenditures;


· bank statements reviewed and reconciled regularly by more than one person;
· petty cash kept locked up, and not exceeding certain levels before being
deposited.

These financial controls are important, but they are just a minimum. By monitoring the
key financial accountability indicators (see text box), voluntary sector managers and
board members will have a better understanding of the financial situation.

Finance Committee
Many boards establish a finance committee to make sure all the financial affairs are not
left solely to the staff. Besides monitoring performance against the budget, a finance
committee has other roles, such as providing advice on investment policies or making
investment decisions on behalf of the organization, reviewing or deciding insurance
coverage plans, pension plans, unusual fundraising matters, or expense reimbursements.

Financial Audits
Many voluntary sector organizations also undergo external, independent financial audits,
particularly if their annual budgets are over $100,000. Many are required to do so, either
by the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency or funders (such as foundations, United
Ways, or governments). The main goal of an audit is to deliver reasonable (but not
absolute) assurance that the financial statements are presented fairly and in accordance
with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).

Audit committees
An audit committee (or audit review committee) is a sub-committee of the board of
directors that is designed to address financial matters not addressed by the previous
financial control systems. Ideally, at least one member of an audit committee has
expertise in accounting or financial management. In addition, all committee members
must be financially literate – not only knowing how to read financial statements, but also
understanding fund accounting (as opposed to accrual accounting).

An audit committee has two main missions:


“First, it helps the board of directors in overseeing that appropriate accounting policies
and internal controls are established and followed, and that the organization issues
financial statements and reports on time and in accordance with its regulatory obligations.
Second, the audit committee encourages and facilitates communication among the board,
organization management, and internal and external auditors to ensure the open and
accurate exchange of ideas and information.”
Audit committees may complete the following tasks (among others):

· meeting with the auditor to review the results of the audit, which may identify
problem areas;
· keeping up-to-date on changes in voluntary sector accounting principles and
disclosure requirements;
· overseeing the organization’s internal financial control processes;
· discussing audit results with the rest of the board, prioritizing problem areas,
interpreting or simplifying the financial results, and explaining how they fit into the
strategic plan.

In addition to dealing with the results of the actual audits, audit committees may also
have several other important functions, such as:

· reviewing compliance with funders’ regulations;


· ensuring that the required documentation has been sent to the Canada Customs
and Revenue Agency to maintain the non-profit and/or charitable status;
· reviewing the organization’s fundraising methods for their propriety and
adherence to ethical codes;
· reviewing human resource practices, regarding the risks of lawsuits or penalties
for harassment, wrongful dismissal, poorly written employment contracts, etc.

For many organizations that do not require an independent audit, there will not be an
audit committee, per se, and many of these responsibilities will be folded into the finance
committee’s terms of reference. Regardless of the size of your organization, it is strongly
recommended to have at least a finance committee to complement the executive director
and/or the board treasurer in the organization’s financial management and administration.

Prudent boards should ensure that they – or at least their finance and/or audit committees
– are financially literate. This will ensure that reasonable financial controls are in place to
manage funds.

Regardless of the financial control methods you use, the next section provides a helpful
overview of financial management basics, including a description of the different
financial statements, and the major difference between commercial (for-profit) and fund
(voluntary sector) accounting.

Module 3. Financial Management


Objectives
· Understand the main parts of any financial reporting system;
· Understand and know the difference between key financial statements including
the statement of financial position, the statement of revenue and expenses, and the
statement of changes in financial position;
· Examine the differences between fund accounting and commercial accounting;
· Identify financial management resources for continued learning.
Preamble
Although the public places a great deal of trust in voluntary sector organizations and the
way in which they use their funds, it is important to put systems in place that ensure this
trust level remains high. Financial control systems employed by voluntary sector
organizations help financial accountability.

Basic financial management includes the critical areas of cash management and
bookkeeping (which should be done according to certain financial controls to ensure
integrity in the bookkeeping process); generating financial statements (from bookkeeping
journals); and analysis of financial statements to help understand the financial condition
of the organization. Financial analysis shows the reality of an organization’s state of
affairs, making it one of the key management practices.

Voluntary sector managers or board members should understand the basics of financial
management and accounting to ensure adequate oversight and monitoring, a key element
of any financial reporting system. In their paper, “Reengineering Nonprofit Financial
Accountability,” Elizabeth K. Keating and Peter Frumkin described the elements of a
financial reporting system in the following way:

“Organizations conduct activities (Organizational Activities) that are reflected in the


internal accounting system (Accounting System). Periodically, the organization prepares
and disseminates financial statements to stakeholders (Financial Disclosure). The
activities, accounting system and financial disclosures may be examined by internal or
external parties (Oversight and Monitoring) to ensure that the activities conform to
existing contracts, the accounting records accurately reflect the activities, and the
financial disclosures conform to any requirements. Stakeholders…analyze the
disclosures. Ideally, an analysis of the disclosure will allow stakeholders [to] develop a
performance assessment of the organization (Performance Assessment). The judgments
that the stakeholders make about a particular organization influences their willingness to
support or participate in these organizations in the future (Decision about Support and
Participation). Because these decisions have financial implications, stakeholders are able
to affect the subsequent activities of the organization. A closed system is thereby created:
An organization's future support depends on not only its programmatic activities but also
on its internal accounting decisions and ability to communicate its financial results to the
stakeholder community.”

It is important for decision makers to have at least a basic understanding of the financial
management system. The most basic ability is that of reading the financial statements to
identify trends, progress, or concerns. The financial statements included in a typical
annual report include a balance sheet, a statement of revenue and expenses, and a
statement of changes in fund balances and cash flows. Each of the above statements can
have more than one name, which may add to the confusion surrounding financial matters.
The following is a brief explanation and example of each financial statement.
Balance Sheet (or Statement of Financial Position)
This statement is a reflection of the organization’s total assets minus its total liabilities.
The balance sheet reflects the financial status of an organization at a point in time. For
example, a Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2001 would reflect all the account balances
as of that date. Example of a balance sheet:

The Helpful Organization


Summarized Statement of Financial Position
As at December 312001 2000
Assets
Current Assets:
Cash $ 45,557 $69,663
Short-term investments 31,667 32,508
Accounts receivable 35,114 23,372
Prepaid Expenses 28,482 31,927
140,820 157,440
Other Assets:
Fund Investment 42,036 17,386
Capital Assets 54,588 49,292
96,624 66,678

$237,444 $224,118
Liabilities and Fund Balances
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable $53,205 $50,915
Deferred revenue 62,726 52,843
115,928 103,758

Deferred lease inducement 14,252 16,498

Fund balances:
Unrestricted fund 52,676 44,570
Fund for capital assets54,588 59,292
121,516 120,360

$237,444 $224,118

Statement of Revenue and Expenses (or Income Statement, or Statement of Revenue,


Expenditures and Accumulated Net Assets)
This statement is a reflection of the total revenue generated, minus the operating
expenses. The statement of revenue and expenses reflects results for a specified period of
time, generally one year. Example of a statement of revenue and expenses:

The Helpful Organization


Summarized Statement of Revenues and Expenses
For year ended Dec 312001 2000
Revenues:
Donations $78,188 $78,705
Program funding 97,460 -
Resource development sponsorship 54,032 69,541
Investment and other 7,267 7,898

236,947 156,144

Expenditures:
Programs 163,090 69,346
Administration 57,183 41,511
Fundraising expenses 7,454 8,279
227,727 119,136

Excess of revenues of expenditures $9,220 $37,008

Statement of Changes in Fund Balances and Cash Flows (or Statement of Changes in
Financial Position, or Statement of Cash Flows)
This statement shows the cash inflows and outflows as well as the net change in the
organization’s cash balances for the same period of time as the statement of revenue and
expenses. In the case of a voluntary sector organization, it would show the changes for
each separate fund. Example of a statement of changes in fund balances and cash flows:

The Helpful Organization


Allocation and Distribution of Funds
Year ended Dec 312001 Distribution 2000 Distribution

Women’s Programs $61,785 $43,846


Breakfast Program 25,554 16,838
Senior Citizens’ Programs 34,147 -
Youth Services 41,604 8,662

163,090 69,346

Fund Accounting
Although the financial statements described above are similar to those in the private
sector, the type of accounting system used in the voluntary sector is different. Voluntary
sector organizations generally use fund accounting, which encompasses most aspects of
for-profit accounting but differs in that it maintains a separate account for each fund (e.g.,
for youth programs and for seniors programs), as opposed to accrual or cash accounting.
Separate funds are maintained to comply with special regulations and to allow monitoring
of each program.

Summary
These are the absolute basics when understanding the financial position of an
organization. There is much more detailed information on these subjects available either
through textbooks, courses or workshops. Those responsible for the financial health of an
organization would benefit greatly from enhancing their understanding of this subject
matter. The next section identifies the learning opportunities available to voluntary sector
managers and directors. For more detailed information on financial management
resources, see Appendix 2.

Module 4. Learning Opportunities


Objectives
· Identify the types of learning opportunities available for voluntary sector
managers and board members;
· Identify the need to select the appropriate learning style for individual learners;
· Identify resources for continued learning.
Preamble
“For many nonprofits, learning feels like a luxury when the mission is so urgent and
resources are scarce. When helping nonprofits increase their organizational effectiveness,
capacity-builders must respect this urgency and clearly link this work back to the group’s
mission.”
The Importance of Financial Education
Most administrators and program directors of small- to medium-sized voluntary sector
organizations are educated in their program area (social work, psychology, arts, etc.)
rather than in business or financial management. As detailed earlier, many board
members also have skills other than financial management that they bring to the
organization.

There are many different training opportunities available to learn accounting and
financial management as it pertains to voluntary sector organizations, and these
opportunities are available in a variety of formats and delivery systems. These include:

· certificate, diploma and degree programs in voluntary sector management,


financial management, accounting, business administration or public administration,
available through colleges or universities;
· traditional academic text-books;
· distance-learning programs which use some combination of Internet-based
readings and teleconferencing, videos, cable-TV or satellite link-up to connect the
learners and an instructor and/or facilitator.

In addition, some regions have voluntary sector management assistance programs staffed
by management consultants, business executives or accountants from the private sector,
and other volunteers. Many organizations, including volunteer centres and United Ways,
run introductory workshops – many at no cost – to expose or refresh executive directors,
managers and board members on the basics. There are also consultants who can work
with individual organizations to train them and help set up financial controls and
accounting systems.

Once the decision is made to proceed with financial training, it is important to recognize
the appropriate learning style of the individual learner, and to tailor the instruction to his
or her needs, whether it is classroom, textbook or other.

For more information on learning opportunities, which include financial management and
accountability topics, see the National Inventory of Voluntary Sector Management
Training and Education Programs (June 2000), produced by Population and Public Health
Branch, Health Canada. The inventory covers courses and programs of accredited
educational institutions, national voluntary organizations and non-accredited institutions.
It is available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/voluntarysector/pdf/
national_inventory.pdf.

A second inventory of “Voluntary Sector Leadership Education and Training


Opportunities” can be found on the Web site for The Coalition of National Voluntary
Organizations. This inventory focuses on leadership training provided by voluntary
organizations, as well as educational institutions; the training covered includes financial
management and accountability. The inventory was produced by the National Learning
Initiative for the Voluntary Sector, under the Voluntary Sector Initiative. It was posted in
early 2003 at http://www.nvo-onb.ca/projects_initiatives/nli/On-Line_Inventory/
tofc_e.shtml.

Appendix 2 provides additional resources on financial training and nonprofit


management. There are also numerous self-study articles and manuals listed under
“Board Development” and “Financial Management and Controls” in Appendix 1.

Glossary

Accrual Accounting – represents a method of recording accounting transactions when


they occur, whether or not cash has changed hands.

Accountability – the formal processes and channels for reporting to a higher authority, as
well as the wide spectrum of public expectations dealing with organizational
performance, responsiveness, and morality.

Balanced Scorecard – a management system (not only a measurement system) that


enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy, and translate them into action. It
provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes in
order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. When fully deployed,
the balanced scorecard transforms strategic planning from an academic exercise into the
nerve center of an organization.
Capacity – the human and financial resources, technology, skills, knowledge and
understanding required to permit organizations to do their work and fulfill what is
expected of them by stakeholders.

Cash Based Accounting – represents a method of recording accounting transactions when


cash changes hands. Cash received is recorded as income when received, and expenses
are recorded when paid.

Certified Management Accountant (CMA) – strategic and financial management


professionals who combine accounting expertise and business acumen with professional
management skills to provide leadership, innovation and an integrating perspective to
organizational decision-making. In addition to CMAs, there are also Certified General
Accountants (CGA) and Chartered Accountants (CA), both of which can provide
accounting services.

Corporate Social Responsibility – the overall relationship of the corporation with all of its
stakeholders, including customers, employees, communities, owners/investors,
government, suppliers and competitors. Elements of corporate social responsibility
include investment in community outreach, employee relations, creation and maintenance
of employment, environmental stewardship and financial performance.

Fund Accounting – an accounting system used by voluntary sector organizations. It is


based on separate funds, which are segregated for the purpose of carrying on specific
activities or attaining certain objectives in accordance with special regulations,
restrictions or limitations.

Non-Profit Organization – an organization that serves a public benefit, depends on


volunteers at least for its governance, has limited direct control by governments, other
than in relation to tax benefits, and is not profit making, thus eligible for exemption from
paying income taxes. Although the term, “non-profit sector”, is an encompassing concept
that includes registered charities as well as advocacy organizations, trade and professional
associations and other non-profits, we distinguish between non-profit organizations and
registered charities on the basis of their status under the federal Income Tax Act.

Outcome Evaluations – a method to examine the extent to which desired changes have
been achieved when a project is complete. Part of a successful outcome evaluation is a
clear statement of measurable objectives from which meaningful measurements and
comparisons can be drawn. Objectives should be used to develop evaluation questions.

Registered Charity – an organization that serves a charitable purpose, as defined under


common law and its interpretations by Revenue Canada that is recognized by Revenue
Canada as such and is therefore able to issue receipts for donations that can be claimed as
income tax credits by individual tax filers and as tax deductions by corporations. The
legal framework for this tax treatment is contained in the Income Tax Act.
Social Audit – a systematic and objective procedure, which enables an organization to
fully engage its members in identifying needs and solutions, plan activities, monitor
progress and measure its social performance in a comprehensive and participative way. It
is designed specifically to actively engage people in learning how to manage local
community affairs and improve their personal prospects.

Voluntary Sector Organization – an organization whose work depends on serving a public


benefit; on volunteers at least for its governance; on some financial support from
individuals; and on limited direct influence by governments, other than in relation to any
tax benefits accruing to the organization. The term is used to include both registered
charities and public benefit organizations which at present do not quality for registration
under the Income Tax Act; but would exclude from the definition large institutions such
as museums, universities and colleges and hospitals (even though they are registered
charities) and non-profit organizations which have corporate members and commercial-
related interests (such as trade associations).

Using the Appendices


Disclaimer
The resource inventories that follow are provided as a courtesy for voluntary sector
information seekers; however, the VSI cannot take responsibility for the reliability of the
information. Where available, an online link to the resource is provided. These links
were verified operational, and of reasonable duration to download on a 56K modem, as of
September 2003. However, addresses can and do change frequently on the Internet, not
only when the sites are reorganized (for example, the “What’s New” resources are shifted
to the “Archives,”), but in some cases, when the entire domain of the site changes (for
example “.ca” becomes “.org” or “.net,”).
Search Tips
If you try to link to a resource listed here and find that the links are “broken,” here are
several tips to find out whether the documents are still to be found:
1. Trim off the last part of the URL / web address that appears in your browser’s
address bar, and press ‘Go’ or ‘enter/return’ again, and see whether a new directory
appears (e.g., if the link www.independentsector.org/pathfinder/impact /index.html
doesn’t work, try chopping it back to ‘….pathfinder’ to see it was just renamed or
relocated). Failing that, go all the way back to the host organization
(www.independentsector.org) and use its menu bar for its publications section, or its
search utility, if any.
2. You can also try using the search engine “Google,” www.google.ca which has a
“search site” feature, whose syntax is: site:[main web address] keyword(s)
(e.g., site: www.centerpointforleaders.org financial management)
3. Finally, if the address ends with a “.pdf” (for Portable Document Format: the
Adobe Acrobat® platform) or a “.doc” (Microsoft Word® document) extension rather
than “.htm,” there is a way to use these links to download and save the documents
directly to a floppy or a hard drive, without launching the associated program in your
browser (which can be very time consuming, particularly on older machines and
machines with modems). The links can be entered (or cut-and-pasted) into an e-mail and
mailed to yourself, and it will then become a “hot-link,” which you can “right-click” (the
other button on the mouse) and “save as” to your default location (e.g., “My Documents”)
or to whatever drive or directory you specify.

Locating and Evaluating Voluntary Sector Management Print Publications


There are many excellent print publications on voluntary sector management and
evaluation. The inventories list Canadian resources first, followed by information from
other countries. If you are interested in obtaining any of the books listed in the
inventories, try finding out about them through online book stores such as
www.Amazon.ca and www.chapters.ca , which usually give not only the publisher’s
summary of them and a listing of their tables of contents, but also frequently include
reviews by actual readers and related titles. Many of the American texts are also
reviewed by working voluntary sector management consultants, at
http://charitychannel.com/wereview/Subject.html

The Certified Management Accountants association (CMA Canada) (www.cma-


canada.org), whose members include the chief financial officers or internal accountants
from a variety of organizations, has many publications in its Strategic Management Series
which may be of use in the areas of Strategic Performance Measurement (including
Applying the Balanced Scorecard), Change Management, Management Control,
Stakeholder Reporting, Treasury Management, and Information Technology. They are
listed and described along with an order form at www.cma-
canada.org/attachments/SMS_FULL_CATALOG.pdf

Similarly, the Canadian Society of Association Executives (CSAE) recommends several


texts, almost all of which are published by CSAE. For descriptions and an order form, see
www.csae.com/client/csae/CSAEHome.nsf/web/New+and+Noteworthy? OpenDocument

To locate journals and texts on voluntary sector and financial management matters, there
are several general Internet sites besides the more targeted ones listed in the inventories
that follow. Most can be searched by author, journal, or keyword, and the results can be
arranged by date, and most feature abstracts of the item, and sometimes contact
information for the publishers. In some cases, these resources (including journal articles
and dissertations) can be ordered directly from these sites (for a fee), or are available as
free downloads.

http://lnps.fdncenter.org Literature of the Voluntary Sector Online maintained by the


Foundation Center

http://cheever.ulib.iupui.edu/psipublicsearch/psisearchform.htm Philanthropic Studies


Index (PSI) bibliography maintained by Indiana University

http://www.volunteervancouver.ca/library/library_search.asp Volunteer Vancouver


has abstracts for many of its library’s holdings.
www.volunteerottawa.ca/English/pageholder.asp?page=searchlibrary Volunteer
Ottawa does, as well

www.schulich.yorku.ca/nmlp.nsf/WSF?OpenFrameSet A bibliography on
volunteerism produced by York University’s School of Nonprofit Management

www.regis.edu/spsmnm/dovia/do04001.htm The Volunteer Management


Reference Guide, anAnnotated Bibliographic Resource maintained at the Regis
University, for the Directors of Volunteers in Agencies, includes a Management topic
area

http://www.sosig.ac.uk SOSIG, the social science information gateway, lists


journals, books, think-tanks, portal sites, and more in a wide number of areas

www.publist.com Enables searches for finance related publications

http://lcweb.loc.gov/catalog The Library of Congress

http://www.umi.com/hp/Products/Dissertations.htmlFree search of dissertations


completed within past year

www.ingenta.com A database with the contents and abstracts of many professional


academic journals.

Appendix 1. Inventory of Resources to Enhance Accountability


Accountability: Understanding the Concept and its Elements
– see also various publications in the “Results- Performance-Based Management” section
below.

Canada

FitzRandolph, Susan. A Discussion Paper on Board Accountability, commissioned by


the Ontario government for the Ontario Voluntary Forum 1998.
http://www.lin.ca/resource/html/accapdx1.htm

United States

Bardach, Eugene and Cara Lesser. “Accountability in human services collaboratives –


for what? And to whom?” Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory 6,
no.2 (April 1996): 197.

Kearns, Kevin P. “The Strategic Management of Accountability in Nonprofit


Organizations: An Analytic Framework.” Public Administration Review, 54, no.2
(Spring 1994): 185-192.
Kearns, Kevin P. Managing for Accountability: Preserving the Public Trust in Public and
Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

Richardson, John G. “Extension Accountability.” North Carolina Cooperative Extension


Service. 1996 (Revised 1997).
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/AboutCES/Factsheets/extacct.html

Romzek, B.S., and M.J. Dubnick. “Issues of Accountability in Flexible Personnel


Systems.” In New Paradigms for Government, edited by P.W. Ingraham and B.S.
Romzek. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.

Swords, Peter. “Nonprofit Accountability: The Sector's Response to Government


Regulation.” The Exempt Organization Tax Review, September 1999.
http://www.qual990.org/np_account.html

UK/Commonwealth

Dicke, Lisa A and J. Steven Ott. “Public Agency Accountability in Human Services
Contracting.” Public Productivity & Management Review 22, no.4 (June 1999):
502-16.
Audit Committees

Canada

Persaud, Sam and Alister Mason. “Finance and Audit Committees can play a key role
both in detecting fraud and in preventing it.” Canadian FundRaiser, 11 October
2000, http://www.charityvillage.com/cv/research/rim8.html

United States

Deloitte &Touche, LLP. Audit Committees: implementing the new requirements for the
year 2000. 1999. http://www.us.deloitte.com/PUB/AuditY2K/default.htm

Grant Thornton, LLP. Serving on the Audit Committee of a Not-for-Profit Organization.


2001. http://www.grantthornton.com/downloads/15815_15815.pdf

Grant Thornton, LLP. Serving on the Audit Committee of a Not-for-Profit Organization:


Keeping the Public Faith. n.d. http://www.grantthornton.com/content/14566.asp

Gray, A.C.G. “Audit Committees – Helping Nonprofits To Better Accountability.”


Nonprofit World 4, no.5 (September/October 1986): 18-20.

Johnson, Sandra L. The Audit Committee: A Key to Financial Accountability in


Nonprofit
Organizations. Washington DC: National Centre for Nonprofit Boards, 1993. This is
available from http://www.ncnb.org/Bookstore.asp, along with many other manuals on
other board committees and other board development matters.

Whitehead, John C et al. Report and Recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee
on Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees. February 1999.
http://www.nasdaqnews.com/textapp.pdf

UK/Commonwealth

Palmer, Paul and Neil Finlayson. “Internal Auditing in the Voluntary Sector: The British
Experience; Audit Committees in the Voluntary Sector.” The Internal Auditor 49,
no. 1 (February 1992) : 34.

Balanced Scorecards
Introductory Articles and Portal Sites on Balanced Scorecards

Canada

Cutt, James, and Murray, Victor. “An Approach to a Balanced Scorecard for United Way
Organizations.” The Philanthropist 16, no.2 (Summer 2001): 111-132.

Performance Management Network. “Three Rs of Performance-Based Management


and A Balanced Performance Scorecard.” 1996, 1999. http://www.pmn.net

United States

American Productivity and Quality Centre. “Establishing Balanced Scorecards.” April


2001. http://www.apqc.org/free/articles/dispArticle.cfm?ProductID=1347

Arveson, Paul. The Balanced Scorecard: Basic Concepts, a six-part primer for The
Balanced Scorecard Institute. 1998.
http://www.balancedscorecard.org/basics/index.html

Balanced Scorecard Collaborative, Inc., the homepage for its originators Drs. Robert
Kaplan and David Norton, who have a newsletter and online training program:
http://www.bscol.com

Balanced Scorecard Institute: http://www.balancedscorecard.org/default.html

Kyzr-Sheeley, Elizabeth and Mark L. Winzenread. “What your CFO needs to know
about truly balanced scorecards.” Stakeholder Power, April 2001,
http://www.stakeholderpower.com

Performance Management Network. “Review of The Balanced Scorecard by Robert S.


Kaplan and David P. Norton; Harvard Business School Press, 1996.” 1999.
http://www.opm.gov/perform/articles/1999/aug99-3.htm

UK/Commonwealth

Systma, Sid. “Links on Balanced Scorecard.” n.d.


http://www.sytsma.com/bsc/links/links01.htm

Painter, Alison. “The Use of the balanced Scorecard as a Performance Management


Framework.” 2000. http://www.publicnet.co.uk/publicnet/fe000609.htm

Manuals on Balanced Scorecards

United States

Schneiderman, Arthur M. “How To Build A Balanced Scorecard.” 2001.


http://www.schneiderman.com/Concepts/Scorecard/How_to_Build_a_Balanced_Scorecar
d/how_to_build_a_BSC_intro.htm

US Department of Commerce. Guide to a Balanced Scorecard Performance


Management Methodology. 1999. http://oamweb.osec.doc.gov/bsc/
pmmfinal.pdf

UK/Commonwealth

Livingston, Helen. “Creating a Balanced Scorecard template: a framework for strategic


planning and management at Deakin University Library.” 2000.
http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/staff/helen.html

Evaluations of the Use of Balanced Scorecards

Canada

Bozzo, Sandra L and Michael H. Hall. A Review of Evaluation Resources for Nonprofit
Organizations, Canadian Centre for Philanthropy, March 1999. www.ccp.ca

Kaplan, Robert S. “Strategic performance measurement and management in nonprofit


organizations.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 11, no.3 (Spring 2001):
353.

Murray, Vic and Kim Balfour. “Evaluating Performance Improvement in the Nonprofit
Sector: Challenges and Opportunities.” 2000. http://www.altruvest.org

UK/Commonwealth
Gering, Michael and Keith Rosmarin. “Balanced Scorecard: Central beating.” 2000.
http://www.cimaglobal.com/downloads/ma_jun_00_p32.pdf

Benchmarking
– see also the “Indicators” and “Results-Based or Performance-Based Management”
sections below

About.Com has a quick introduction to Benchmarking, which gives some links for further
reading:
http://management.about.com/smallbusiness/management/library/weekly/aa110497.htm

Canada

Boisvert, Hugues. “Profiling Success: Using benchmarking to strategically deploy the


finance function.” CMA Management, May 2001,
http://www.managementmag.com/2001%5F05/profilingsuccess.pdf

Gainer, Brenda, Greg Baeker, Arnold Love, Kelly Wilhelm, and Barbara Soren. Cultural
Performance Measures: An Annotated Bibliography. 1999.
http://citd.scar.utoronto.ca/ArtsMgt/Performance_Measures/PMBib_Homepage.html This
is a searchable database, with articles and links to other resources on evaluating art and
performing art programs.

Industry Canada. “Performance Plus,” homepage http://sme.ic.gc.ca Although designed


for small to medium private sector firms, allows agencies to benchmark their costs,
profits, and about 30 other key indicators of performance against other Canadian
companies in similar industries.

United States

Bruder, Kenneth A., Jr. and Edward M. Gray. “Public-Sector Benchmarking: A Practical
Approach.” Public Management, September 1994. http://www.icma.org/go.cfm?
cid=1&gid=3&sid=101&did=115

“Center for What Works.” n.d. http://www.whatworks.org/index.html This website


has a primer on benchmarking, and numerous links for voluntary sector organizations.

Eureka, homepage http://www.eureka-communities.org features the Eureka Knowledge


base, an interactive database of best practices for nonprofits, with "a database of hundreds
of the [US’s] most outstanding community service organizations"
http://www.eurekalearning.org/home.htm

Kelley, Margie. “The Boston Ballet Finds Unexpected Benefits in Benchmarking.”


Lessons Learned: Case Studies. 1999.
http://arts.endow.gov/pub/Lessons/Casestudies/Boston.html

Letts, Christine W, William P. Ryan, and Allen Grossman. “Benchmarking: How


nonprofits are adapting a business planning tool for enhanced performance.” The
Grantsmanship Center Magazine, Winter 1999,
http://www.tgci.com/magazine/99winter/bench1.asp

Not For Profit Benchmarking Association: http://nfpbenchmarking.com

NPower. Technology Literacy Benchmarks for Non-Profit Organizations. 2001.


http://www.npowerseattle.org/tools/benchmarks%202.21.02.pdf

Oregon Progress Board: http://www.econ.state.or.us/OPB/index.htm

USDA Rural Development Office of Community Development. A Guide to


Implementation and Benchmarking for Rural Communities. 1998.
http://www.ezec.gov/Pubs/benchmark.pdf and an accompanying Instruction Manual
http://www.ezec.gov/About/bmsguide.pdf

UK/Commonwealth

DTI. “Best practice benchmarking,” from the UK’s Department of Trade & Industry,
1995. http://www.dti.gov.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9jc00001/m9jc000011.html

Evans, Anne. “Avoid These Ten Benchmarking Mistakes,” Benchmarking Link-up


Australia, 1997. http://www.volresource.org.uk/briefs/plan_ben.htm

Francis, Graham, Matt Hinton, Jacky Holloway and David Mayle. “A Role for
Management Accountants in Best Practice Benchmarking.” 1998.
http://www3.open.ac.uk/oubs/download/WP982GrahamFrancis.pdf

Holloway, Jacky, Graham Francis and Matt Hinton. “A Case Study of Benchmarking in
the National Health Service.” 1999.
http://www3.open.ac.uk/oubs/download/wp993jackyholloway.pdf

Holloway, Jacky, Matthew Hinton, David Mayle and Graham Francis. “Why
Benchmark?
Understanding the Processes of Best Practice Benchmarking.” 1997.
http://www3.open.ac.uk/oubs/download/WP978JackyHolloway.pdf

Board/Executive Director Development and Organizational Assessment Tools


Introductory Articles and Portal Sites
About.com is a US site on nonprofits http://nonprofit.about.com hosted by Stan Hutton
which has numerous introductory articles on a wide variety of topics, with links to other
site. A section on Board Development is at http://nonprofit.about.com/cs/helpforboards

Their site on management: http://management.about.com has sections on:


Admin/Accounting; Business Ethics; Coaching; Competitive Info.; Conflict Resolution;
Consultants; Facilities; Executive Gifts; Executive Search; Government Info.; Intellectual
Property and Patents; Information Technology; Marketing & Sales; Operations; Project
Management; Safety Management; Work/Life Balance; and more.

VSRP (2001, ongoing), the Volunteer Service & Resource Project, whose homepage is
www.geocities.com/givestore/home.html has an extensive (over 90 pp.) annotated list of
“Web Sites Worth Exploring,” at http://www.geocities.com/givestore/weblinks.html

Canada

Board development training, accountability and governance in the Canadian Voluntary


Sector. Billed as a “one stop site to improved accountability and governance,” this site,
created and hosted by United Way of Canada, in conjunction with the Voluntary Sector
Roundtable. On line at http://www.boarddevelopment.org

Bradshaw, William and Peter Jackson. “Go fast, slow down: It's possible for boards of
directors to work faster if they take time to reflect on their role by performing a
self-assessment.” CA Magazine, January/February 2001,
http://www.camagazine.com/cica/camagazine.nsf/e2001-jan/Management

Bradshaw, William A. “Eyes wide shut: Must directors be the last to know when
something is really going wrong in an organization?” CA Magazine, January/February
2001, http://www.camagazine.com/cica/camagazine.nsf/ e2001-jan/Eyeswideshut

CCP, the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy, has a searchable form for articles from its
own newsletter, Front & Centre, some of which are free online, as well as to other
sources, at http://www.ccp.ca . In addition, they maintain the NonprofitsCan site,
http://www.nonprofitscan.ca/ which not only features links to Canadian newspaper stories
http://www.nonprofitscan.ca/newswire.asp on nonprofits every week, but also has a
Research section featuring an online bibliography of Canadian voluntary sector research,
some of which is online, http://www.nonprofitscan.ca/progress.asp.

CCRA, the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency http://www.ccra-adrc.gc.ca/charities


registers qualifying organizations as charities, gives technical advice on operating a
charity, and handles audit and compliance activities; it has many circulars, bulletins, and
guides on how to register as a charity or comply with regulations.

Charity Village http://www.charityvillage.com “Canada's supersite for the nonprofit


sector,” offers thousands pages of news, jobs, information and resources for executives,
staffers, donors, and volunteers, including databases of professional associations,
discussion groups, and numerous articles on a variety of topics, many from its sister
organization, the Canadian Fundraiser. It is also a good place to advertise – or search for
– nonprofit jobs: http://www.charityvillage.com/careercentre/default.asp and they also
have a registry of consultants and other service providers who can assist with nonprofit
management needs: http://www.charityvillage.com/marketplace/consult.html
From the US, Centerpoint for Leaders http://centerpointforleaders.org has an annotated
online bibliography, and organizational and Human Resource assessment tools
http://centerpointforleaders.org/toolkit.html.

Deborah Bialeschki and Karla Henderson. “Trends affecting nonprofit camps.” The
Camping Magazine 73, no.2 (March/April 2000): 25-31.

Halpenny, Heather. “A Survey of Available Online Training for Canadian Voluntary


Boards.” Master of Distance Education dissertion, Athabasca University, February 2001.

Holland, Thomas P. and Douglas K. Jackson. “Strengthening Board Performance:


Findings and Lessons from Demonstration Projects.” Nonprofit Management and
Leadership 9, no.2 (Winter 1998): 121-134.

Hugh, Lindsay. “Plugging the Holes: CAs can use their special skills to help not-for-
profit
directors deal with problems of authority and accountability.” CA Magazine,
December 1997, http://www.camagazine.com/cica/camagazine.nsf/e1997-
dec/TOC/$file/e_d4.pdf

Joint Committee on Corporate Governance, commissioned by the Toronto Stock


Exchange and Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants: homepage at
http://www.jointcomgov.com

Murray, Victor. “Self-Assessment for Non-Profits.” Front & Centre 1, no 5 (September


1994): 10.

Not-For-Profit and Charity Law Pages by LawNow www.extension.ualberta.ca/lawnow/


nfp have a number of articles on Board responsibilities such as “But are we doing what
we are supposed to?” by Laird Hunter, of the law firm Worton & Hunter in Edmonton,
Alberta.

Volunteer Hamilton TOTAL (Tools for Organizational Training, Assistance &


Learning). A link from their website at http://www.volunteerhamilton.on.ca
http://www.tnpr.ca/

VSRP (2001, ongoing), the Volunteer Service & Resource Project, whose homepage is
www.geocities.com/givestore/home.html has an extensive (over 90 pp.) annotated list of
“Web Sites Worth Exploring,” at http://www.geocities.com/givestore/weblinks.html

United States
Board Café, co-published by CompassPoint Nonprofit Services and National Center for
Nonprofit Boards, a free online newsletter which discusses potential ideas for board
members to use in their board work; can be delivered via email every second week.
Online at http://www.compasspoint.org/publications/board_cafe/index.html

Clare, Michael. “Organization Health Check,” adapted by Michael W. Duttweiler,


Cornell Cooperative Extension. n.d.
http://www.cce.cornell.edu/admin/program/documents/health.htm

Comprehensive Abstracted Bibliography of Papers and Journal Articles on Nonprofit


Boards and Governance (1998 through 2000) by Jill Cook and David Renz of the
Midwest Center for Nonprofit Leadership at the University of Missouri - Kansas City,
online at http://mwcnl.bsbpa.umkc.edu/research/RESEARCH.HTM

Conhaim, Wallys W. “Management Resources.” Link-up, May/June 2001,


http://www.infotoday.com/lu/lunew.htm

Froelich, Karen A. “Diversification of Revenue Strategies: Evolving Resource


Dependence in Nonprofit Organizations.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector
Quarterly 28, no.3 (September 1999): 246-268.

Gottlieb, Hildy. (various) A consultant (ReSolve, Inc.) with several free board capacity
building articles online at http://www.help4nonprofits.com/H4NP.htm

Hall, Mary Stewart. “Core Competencies.” 1994. http://www.mnpl.org/page/14

Herman, Robert D and David Renz. “What Is Not-For-Profit Organization


Effectiveness?” and “Organizational Effectiveness: How Is It Achieved,” of the
Midwest Center for Nonprofit Leadership at the University of Missouri - Kansas
City, 1999. http://mwcnl.bsbpa.umkc.edu/research/RESEARCH.HTM

Hertzlinger, Regina E. “Effective Oversight: A Guide for Nonprofit Directors.” Harvard


Business Review (July 1, 1994).

INC, the Internet Nonprofit Center, has FAQ’s on a wide variety of topics answered by
consultants, directors, and academics alike http://www.nonprofits.org/npofaq. Similarly,
the email bulletin board or listserv, soc.org.nonprofit, at
http://groups.google.com/groups?oi=djq&as_ugroup=soc.org.nonprofit is now hosted by
the Google search engine, and its archives can be searched by keyword.

Internet Resources for Nonprofits, by the United Cerebral Palsy Association, Greater
Utica (N.Y.) Area, is a comprehensive set of annotated links on various topic areas,
including Board & Trustee Resources, and Management and Leadership, and much more
www.ucp-utica.org/uwlinks/directory.html
John Carver's Policy Governance Forums www.carvergovernance.com/forum.htm
Online discussion forums created to exchange of information, insights, tips, and
experience in the theory and implementation of Policy Governance. Dr. Carver has
authored over 150 articles and authored or co-authored 3 books and 13 monographs on
management and governance; some of which are summarized and listed at
www.carvergovernance.com

Learning Institute for Nonprofit Organizations at the University of Wisconsin maintains


links http://www.uwex.edu/li/learner/sites.htm to a number of resources, in the areas of
Board Development/Governance, Cultural Diversity, Foundation Information, Fund-
raising & Grant Writing, Getting Your Nonprofit Noticed On the Internet, Giving/
Philanthropy, How To Start a Nonprofit Organization, Marketing, Nonprofit
Employment, Outcome Measurement, Publications (Electronic & Print), Social
Entrepreneurship/Nonprofit Enterprise, Strategic Alliances, Strategic Planning/ Program
Planning, Volunteer Resources/Service Learning Centers, and Other Nonprofit Links &
Resources.

Lewis, Andrew. Nonprofit Organizational Assessment Tool, University of Wisconsin


Extension and The Learning Institute for Nonprofit Organizations, available online at
http://www.uwex.edu/li/learner/assessment.htm

Masaoka, Jan. “Board Committee Job Descriptions.” Board Café, 9 February 1999,
http://www.compasspoint.org/publications/board_cafe/bc9902.html

Masaoka, Jan. “Should boards have committees, and if so, which ones?” Board Café,
12 January 1999, http://www.compasspoint.org/publications/board_cafe/ bc9901.html

The Minnesota Organization Development Network http://www.mnodn.org has links to


Carter McNamara’s collection of on-line, free resources for organization development
http://www.mnodn.org/resorces.htm#anchor402796 and lists other Organization
Development organizations, key texts, other sites

MSH, Management Sciences for Health, (2000) “Managing Your Organization’s


Finances,” with excerpts from The Manager, and The Family Planning Manager's
Handbook, Management Sciences for Health, at http://erc.msh.org/mainpage.cfm?
file=1.0.html&module=finance&language=English/

NCNB, the National Center for Nonprofit Boards (now called Board Source), homepage:
http://www.boardsource.org a US nonprofit organization dedicated solely to building
stronger nonprofit boards and stronger nonprofit organizations. It has a Board
Information Center, a free information clearinghouse on board-related topics, an FAQ site
with "Frequently Asked Questions About Nonprofit Governance," at
http://www.boardsource.org/QnATop.asp an on-line form to raise additional questions
with no charge, and some free manuals, such as The Board’s Role in Public Relations and
Communications http://www.ncnb.org/

Not-for-Profit Leadership Program at Seattle University: its participants have posted


some reports on Best Practices for Boards, at http://www.mnpl.org/best/boards

Non Profit Management Solutions Inc. http://www.nonprofitmgtsolutions.com/resources.


html

Rappaport, Stephen D. Achieving Operational Efficiency in the Not-For-Profit Sector:


Management and Technology Strategies, 1999. Reissued with a New Preface,
May 2001, for the Clark Foundation.

Reid Moomaugh and Associates. (1998, and various) Brief Articles Related to
Organization Development http://www.improve.org/articles.html

Social Entrepreneurs. “Five Business Trends Every Human Service Organization


Should Understand a Primer for Survival and Leadership,” Social Entrepreneurs, May
1997, http://socialent.aztech-cs.com/resources/articles/five_business/

Temkin, Terrie. “Mama said never put all your eggs in one basket: Boards, strategic
thinking, & the need for diversified revenue.” Nonprofit World 19, no. 4
(July/August 2001): 8-12.

“Useful Management Links,” by The Balanced Scorecard Institute, online at


http://www.balancedscorecard.org/links/index.html

UK/Commonwealth

Anheier, Helmut K. Managing non-profit organisations: Towards a new approach, Civil


Society Working Paper 1. January 2000.
http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/pdf/cswp1.pdf

BOLA, the Business Open Learning Archive, developed by Chris Jarvis, Brunel
University, Osterley Campus, Middlesex, UK, http://sol.brunel.ac.uk/~jarvis/bola with
articles and links to resources on Business Analysis and Excellence; Accounting
Resources; Systems Concepts & Business; Power and Management; Organisational
Structure/Culture; and more.

The Charity Commission of England and Wales http://www.charity-commission.gov.uk


has many circulars and tip-sheets on a variety of management and legal topics.

DTI. (ongoing) “Management Best Practice” site by The Department of Trade &
Industry in the UK http://www.dti.gov.uk/mbp/index.html see especially its Best
Practice Guides, Tools and Publications: http://www.dti.gov.uk/mbp/bpgt/bpgt.html
NCVO, National Council for Voluntary Organisations, in the UK has a number of
materials to build and inform boards and improve governance, such as its “Fact Files”
series at: http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk/Asp/search/microsites/ main.aspx?
siteID=3&sID=32

SOSIG, the Social Science Information Gateway, has links to journals, institutions,
working papers, other portal sites, and more, in areas such as:
Management: http://www.sosig.ac.uk/roads/subject-listing/World-cat/mangen.html
Organisational Management: www.sosig.ac.uk/roads/subject-listing/World-
cat/orgman.html

Board Development or Organizational Assessment -- Manuals

Canada

Community Literacy of Ontario. Online Workshop on Board and Staff Relationships and
Responsibilities. 1999. http://www.nald.ca/FULLTEXT/manual/manual.pdf

Deloitte & Touche. The Effective Not-for-Profit Board: Governance of Not-for-Profit


Organizations. Canada: DeloitteTouche Tohmatsu International, 1995.

Deloitte & Touche. Taxation of Charities. Canada: DeloitteTouche Tohmatsu, 1998.

Gill, Mel. “Governance Effectiveness ‘Quick Check’.” 2000.


http://www.iog.ca/publications/quickcheck.pdf

Gill, Mel. Governance in the Voluntary Sector: Summary of Case Study Findings. 2001.
http://www.iog.ca/publications/Nonprofit-cases.pdf

Gill, Mel. Governance DO’S & DON’TS: Lessons from Case Studies On Twenty
Canadian Non-profits, Final Report. April 2001. http://www.iog.ca/
publications/nonprofit-gov.pdf

Ginsler and Associates, Inc. The Non-Profit Organization Self-Evaluation Checklist. n.d.
http://www.ginsler.com/html/free.htp

Muttart Foundation, The. Board Development, Financial Responsibilities of Not-for-


Profit Boards, A Self-Guided Workbook. Edmonton, Alberta. Contact information at
www.muttart.org

Panel on Accountability and Governance in the Voluntary Sector. Building on Strength:


Improving Governance and Accountability in Canada’s Voluntary Sector. February 1999.
http://vsr-trsb.net/pagvs/Book.pdf

Paquet, Marion A. “Developing Cultural Boards That Work (DCB).” 1999.


http://ccm.uwaterloo.ca/cpdp/ilms/dcb/dcb_home1.html

United Way of Canada/Centraide Canada. Board Development.


http://www.boarddevelopment.org/

United States

Bell, Peter D. Fulfilling the Public Trust: Ten Ways to Help Nonprofit Boards Maintain
Accountability. Washington, DC: National Center for Nonprofit Boards, 1993.

Drucker, Peter F. Managing the Nonprofit Organization: Principles and Practices. New
York, N.Y.: Harper Collins, 1990.

Grant Thornton, LLP. (2001) Serving on the Board of a Membership Organization.


http://www.grantthornton.com/content/14566.asp

Grant Thornton, LLP. Serving on the Board of a Not-for-Profit Organization. 2001.


http://www.grantthornton.com/content/14566.asp

Grant Thornton, LLP. Serving on the Board of a Social Service Organization. 2001.
http://www.grantthornton.com/content/14566.asp

Kearns, Kevin P. Managing for Accountability: Preserving the Public Trust in Public and
Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1996.

McKinsey & Company. (2001) Effective Capacity Building in Nonprofit Organizations,


prepared for Venture Philanthropy Partners; presents 13 case studies, and contains a
“Capacity Assessment Grid,” with a checklist/description of items to assess and develop
in seven key organizational areas; online at http://www.venturephilanthropypartners.org

McNamara, Carter. Free Management Library's Free, On-Line Business and


Management Development Program (the Free Micro-eMBA). 2000.
http://www.managementhelp.org/fp_progs/org_dev.htm

WMU (various dates) The Nonprofit Leadership and Administration program of Western
Michigan University http://www.wmich.edu/nonprofit/index.html has a number of
downloadable articles, booklets, checklists, and surveys (separate ones for staff, Board,
and the top administrators) linked through their Resources page, at
http://www.wmich.edu/nonprofit/index_resources.html

UK/Commonwealth

CommunityNet, Aoteorea (n.d.) Online Community Development Resource Kit, a very


basic online manual from New Zealand covering Community Development Practice,
Setting up a Community Group, Planning and Managing, Employment Matters, Running
Meetings, Financial Management, Funding, Keeping Good Records, Political Processes
and Submissions, and Legislation, online at http://www.dia.govt.nz/businesses/cdg/
index.html

Gibbs, Anthony. (1999) What they don't tell you about working for a charity, a useful
online book by a UK consultant (VolSector Management) online at
http://members.aol.com/volsector/contents.htm Although some of the specific
regulations discussed do not apply here, most of the overview and advice on Human
Resource, governance, accountability, service contract, and other issues are equally
applicable here and serve as a good primer for both new Board Members and staff.

Quality Standards Task Group. Self-Assessment Workbook: Measuring Success.


Septermber 2000. http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk/main/about/does/Self-Assessment.pdf

Rochester, Colin; et al. Handbook for Small Voluntary Organization, Centre for
Voluntary Organisation (now the Centre for Civil Society). une 1999.
http://www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/ccs/pdf/Handbook_for%20_Small_Voluntary_Agencies.pdf

Client Satisfaction Evaluation

Canada

Brown, Mark Graham. “Customer Satisfaction Measurement Mistakes.” Performance


Magazine, Summer 1998, http://www.pbviews.com/index.asp

Schmidt, Faye; with Strickland, Teresa. Client Satisfaction Surveying: Common


Measurements Tool, Citizen-Centred Service Network, Canadian Centre For
Management Development, Dec. 1998, http://www.ccmd-ccg.gc.ca
and also at http://collection.nlc-bnc.ca/100/200/301/ccmd-ccg/ccsn-ef/tool_e.pdf

Schmidt, Faye and Teresa Strickland. Client Satisfaction Surveying: A Manager’s


Guide. December 1998. http://www.ccmd-ccg.gc.ca/pdfs/guide_e.pdf

United States

DoD. Department of Defense. DoD Performance Assessment Guide, 1994,


http://www.dtic.mil/performance/paguide.html. This includes a DOS-based software
package and three training manuals/modules: “Quality and Productivity Self-assessment
Guide for Defense Organizations, Guide for Setting Customer Service Standards, and
Guide for Developing Performance Measures,” [US] Department of Defense.

UK/Commonwealth

DETR. User Satisfaction Performance Indicators: Guidance on Methods of Data


Collection, 2000, http://www.local.detr.gov.uk/research/bvpi.htm. A number of
resources on developing and using client satisfaction surveys, including sample
questionnaires, by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the
Regions, in the United Kingdom.

Codes of Ethics, Accountability, or Best Practices


Introductory Articles or Portal Sites

Canada

The Best Practices Exchange established by the Canadian Society of Association


Executives http://www.csae.com explains what best practices are, gives examples,
discusses setting targets and selecting indicators, etc., and cites sources for further
reading. www.csae.com/client/csae/MemberLibrary.nsf/ All/
C8572C0B89BDCACF852569DE00724308?OpenDocument

United States

Avagara. “A Survey of Standards for Charitable Accountability.” 1999.


http://www.avagara.com/nonprof/accountability

Center for Study of Ethics in the Professions, at the Illinois Institute of Technology,
homepage http://www.iit.edu/departments/csep has a comprehensive portal site at
http://csep.iit.edu/codes/codes.html

“Ethics in Fundraising: A Resource Guide and Selected Bibliography,” an annotated


bibliography prepared for members of Association of Lutheran Development Executives
by Elizabeth Kaschins, Luther College, Decorah, Iowa; online at
http://www.alde.org/info/ethicsbib.html

Gray, Sandra Trice. “The Accountable Organization,” “Asking Tough Questions,” “Audit
Your Ethics,” and other short articles from Association Management Magazine, on the
INDEPENDENT SECTOR’s Issues page on "Resources on Ethics and
Accountability," 2000,
http://www.independentsector.org/programs/leadership/accountability_resources.htm#Art
icles

Mercer, Eric. “The U.S. Nonprofit Organization's Public Disclosure Regulations Site:
Links to Other NPO Accountability Resources Online.” 1999.
http://www.paperglyphs.com/publicaccess/accountability.html

UK/Commonwealth

Adair, Anthony. “Codes of Conduct Are Good for NGO's Too.” IPA Review 51, no. 1
(March 1999): 26.
Adair, Anthony. “A Code of Conduct for NGOs-A necessary Reform.” n.d.
http://www.iea.org.uk/record.jsp?type=article&ID=1

Ashby, Julian; et al. “Codes of Practice for the Voluntary Sector.” 1997.
http://www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/socialpolicy/pdf/spvol.pdf

Commonwealth Association for Corporate Governance. CACG Guidelines: Principles


for Corporate Governance in the Commonwealth – Towards global competitiveness and
economic accountability. 1999.
http://www.combinet.net/Governance/FinalVer/finlvndx.htm

Examples of Codes of Ethics for Nonprofit Organizations

Canada

Canadian Centre for Philanthropy (CCP). “Ethical Fundraising & Financial


Accountability
Code.” 2000, 2001. http://www.ccp.ca/display.asp?id=101

Canadian Council of Christian Charities (CCCC). “CCCC Standards of Organizational


Integrity and Accountability.” n.d. http://www.cccc.org/join/standard.htm

Canadian Council for International Co-operation, (CCIC). “Guidance Document to the


CCIC Code of Ethics.” 2000. http://www.ccic.ca/e/007/pubs_ethics.shtml
Hospital for Sick Children Foundation, The. “The Hospital for Sick Children Foundation
Ethical & Financial Accountability Code.” 1999.
http://www.sickkids.ca/foundation/custom/wwa_efa.asp?
s=Who+We+Are&sID=620&ss=Ethical+%26+Financial+Accountability&ssID=749

United Way / Centraide of Canada. “Statement of Principles for Donors’ Rights.” 1998.
http://www.unitedway.ca/english/

Volunteer Canada. Canadian Code For Volunteer Involvement. 2000.


http://www.volunteer.ca/volunteer/pdf/CodeEng.pdf

United States

Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP formerly the NSFRE). “The Accountable


Nonprofit Organization.” 1995. http://www.nsfre.org/tier3_cd.cfm?folder_id=897&
content_item_id=1072

Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP formerly the NSFRE). Code of Ethical


Principles and Standards of Professional Practice.1999.
http://www.afpnet.org/tier3_cd.cfm?folder_id=897&content_item_id=1068 or
http://www.afpnet.org/content_documents/2002_AFP_Code_of_Ethics.pdf
Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP formerly the NSFRE). “Principles of the
E-Donor Bill of Rights.” n.d.
http://www.nsfre.org/tier3_cd.cfm?folder_id=867&content_item_id=1247

Charitites Review Council. “Charities Review Council of Minnesota Standards.” 1998.


http://www.crcmn.org/standards/index.htm

Maryland Association of Nonprofit Organizations. “Standards For Excellence: An Ethics


and Accountability Code for the Nonprofit Sector.” 1998.
http://www.mdnonprofit.org/ethicbook.htm

Minnesota Council of Nonprofits. “Principles and Practices for Nonprofit Excellence.”


1998. http://www.mncn.org/info_principles.htm

National Association of State Charity Officials. “The Charleston Principles: On


Charitable Solicitations Using the Internet.” 2001. http://www.nsfre.org/tier3_cd.cfm?
folder_id=893&content_item_id=2324

UK/Commonwealth

Australian Council for Overseas Aid (ACFOA). ACFOA Code of Conduct for Non
Government Development Organisations. 2000. www.acfoa.asn.au

Evaluation, General

Canada

Bozzo, Sandra L. and Michael H. Hall. Canadian Centre for Philanthropy. “A Review of
Evaluation Resources for Non-Profit Organizations” Toronto, 1999.
http://www.nonprofitscan.ca/pdf/library/2971=gd44pdf.pdf.

Canadian Evaluation Society, http://www.evaluationcanada.ca with “Books and


Guides,” online at http://www.evaluationcanada.ca/site.cgi?s=6&ss=5&_lang=an

CES. (2001) “Canadian Evaluation Society Post-Secondary Evaluation-Related


Courses,” a listing of Canadian university courses related to evaluation as of June 2001,
compiled by Sue Licari, online at http://www.evaluationcanada.ca/BCB-
CBK/CourseOutline081001.pdf

Hall, Michael H., Susan D. Phillips, Claudia Meillat, and Donna Pickering. Canadian
Centre for Philanthropy. “ Assessing Performance: Evaluation Practices & Perspectives
in Canada’s Voluntary Sector”. Toronto, 2003.
http://www.vserp.ca/pub/VserpReport.pdf

United States
American Evaluation Association site, homepage: http://www.eval.org

EVALTALK a Listserv (or electronic mailing list) on the topic of evaluations, which
requires users to register and receive a password: see
http://bama.ua.edu/archives/evaltalk.html to search its archives and
www.eval.org/ListsLinks/ElectronicLists/evaltalk.html for how to subscribe.

Evaluator’s Institute, the; homepage: http://www.evaluatorsinstitute.com


“Training in Evaluation,” a brief listing of US academic and professional training
programs, on the American Evaluation Association site,
http://www.eval.org/Training/training.htm

Introductory Articles

Canada

Barnett and David W. Pepiton. “Evaluating Early Intervention: Accountability Methods


for Service Delivery Innovations.” Journal of Special Education 33, no.3 (Fall
1999): 177.

McClintock, Norah. “How Are You Doing? How Do You Know?” Front & Centre 7,
no.2
(March 2001): 12-14.

Murray, Vic and Kim Balfour. “Evaluating Performance Improvement in the Nonprofit
Sector: Challenges and Opportunities.” 2000. http://www.altruvest.org

United States

Berelowitz, Roy. “Metrics Visualization – Making Data Visual.” Performance Magazine,


Fall 1998, http://www.pbviews.com/pdfs/perform/Vol1_Issue3.pdf

Berelowitz, Roy. “Measures that Matter: Non-Financial Performance.” Performance


Magazine, Fall 1998, http://www.pbviews.com/pdfs/perform/Vol1_Issue3.pdf

Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA). Electronic Roadmap for Evaluation. 2001.


http://www.bja.evaluationwebsite.org/html/roadmap/index.html
or http://www.bja.evaluationwebsite.org/html/roadmap/textonly.html

Bozzo, Sandra L. “Evaluation resources for nonprofit organizations: Usefulness and


applicability.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 10, no.4 (Summer 2000):
463-472.

Cohen, Jan. “You've got to know when to hold 'em, know when to fold 'em.” Nonprofit
World 17, no.1 (January/February 1999): 9-11.
Edward, Deborah. “Evaluation: Patching It Together,” Lessons Learned: Case Studies,
National Endowment for the Arts. 1998.
http://arts.endow.gov/pub/Lessons/Casestudies/Edward.html

Evaluation for Learning, a newsletter of the Greater Kalamazoo Evaluation Project with
support from the Greater Kalamazoo United Way, the Irving S. Gilmore Foundation, and
the Kalamazoo Foundation, with tips and links to others’ new projects or articles in each
issue http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/eval_nsltr/evalnsltr.htm

Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania. Program Evaluation Primer. n.d.


http://www.hcwp.org

Low, Jonathan and Tony Siesfeld. “Measures That Matter: Non-Financial Performance.”
Performance Magazine, Fall 1998,
http://www.pbviews.com/pdfs/perform/Vol1_Issue3.pdf

Matthews, Jan M. and Alan M. Hudson. “Guidelines for Evaluating Parent Training
Programs.” Family Relations 50, no. 1 (January 2001): 77-86.

UK/Commonwealth

Boyd, Alan. “Evaluation for Health Improving the evaluation practice of voluntary
organisations and their partners in the ‘health’ sector,” presentation to the 7th
CVO Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference 2000, http://www.ncvo-
vol.org.uk/asp/search/ncvo/main.aspx?siteID=1&sID=18

Locke, Mike. “Evaluating voluntary organisations: Trick or Treat?” presentation to the


7th
NCVO Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference. 2001.
http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk/asp/search/ncvo/main.aspx?siteID=1

Portal Sites for Evaluation

Canada

VSERP, The Voluntary Sector Evaluation Research Project, a joint initiative of the
Canadian Centre for Philanthropy, Centre for Voluntary Research anb Development,
United Way-Centraide Canada, Volunteer Canada, YMCA Canada, Max Bell
Foundation, and CCAF-FCVI Inc. (formerly the Canadian Comprehensive Auditing
Foundation), Community Foundations of Canada and Philanthropic Foundations of
Canada. The site includes databases of VSERP research and evaluation resources as
well as links to Canadian and international evaluation glossaries.
http://www.vserp.org
United States
American Council for Voluntary International Action. “InterAction Evaluation
Resources: Tips & Best Practices.” n.d.
http://www.interaction.org/evaluation/tips.html
Elwell, Catherine Callow. “Electronic Resources For Evaluators.” n.d.
http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~pde/elecres3.htm

“ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation,” by the Educational Resources


Information Center, http://ericae.net which includes a free online journal, Practical
Assessment, Research and Evaluation, http://ericae.net/pare/Home.htm and links to other
free, full-text online resources and manuals via http://ericae.net/ftlib.htm

McNamara, Carter. “Evaluation Activities in Organizations,” Management Assistance


Program for Nonprofits. n.d. http:www.mapnp.org/library/evaluatn/evaluatn.htm

“Evaluation and Accountability Resources: A Collaborative Project of the Southern


Region Program and Staff Development Committee.” n.d.
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agpsd/soregion.htm

“Measuring Impact,” part of the INDEPENDENT SECTOR’s NonProfit Pathfinder


resources, which includes “Measurement Tools and Publications,” “Measuring Impact:
An Annotated Bibliography,” and “Books, Articles, Newsletters and Reports,” online at
http://www.independentsector.org/pathfinder/impact/index.html

“Outcome Measurement and Program Evaluation - Online directory of web links and
information resources of interest to nonprofits,” by the United Cerebral Palsy
Association, Greater Utica (N.Y.) Area, online at http://www.ucp-
utica.org/uwlinks/outcomes.html

"Resources," CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Evaluation Working
Group, http://www.cdc.gov/eval/resources.htm

“Resources for Program Evaluation,” by the National Violence Against Women


Prevention Research Center: online at http://www.nvaw.org/research/resources.shtml

“Useful Links,” part of the BJA Evaluation Site, Bureau of Justice Assistance, online at
http://www.bja.evaluationwebsite.org/html/useful_links

“WISCAP Resources & Links,” by the Wisconsin Community Assistance Program,


online at http://www.wiscap.org/resourceslinks.htm

Sawhill, John and David Williamson. “Measuring what matters in nonprofits.” The
McKinsley Quarterly 2 (May 2001): 96-107.
Schiemann, William A and John H. Lingle. “Seven Greatest Myths of Measurement,”
Perform Magazine, Spring 1998,
http://www.pbviews.com/resources/frameworks/frameworks.asp

Stout, William D. “A new way to evaluate your organization's performance: Measure


your use of time.” Nonprofit World 19, no.4 (July/ August 2001): 28-31.

UK/Commonwealth

Sefton, Tom and Liz Richardson. “Evaluating small scale community projects: can the
circle be squared?” presentation to the 7th NCVO Researching the Voluntary
Sector Conference. 2001. http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk

Wainwright, Susan. “Measuring the impact of the voluntary sector,” presentation to the
7th NCVO Researching the Voluntary Sector Conference. 20001.
http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk

Manuals on Evaluation

Canada

Goeree Ron. Evaluation of Programs for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Health


Economic Perspective. 1994. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/mentalhealth/pubs/
evaluation/index.html

Human Resources Development Canada. Quasi-Experimental Evaluation, Evaluation


and Data Development Strategic Policy. January 1998. http://www11.hrdc-
drhc.gc.ca/edd/QEE.html

Van Marris, Barb and Braz King. Evaluating Health Promotion Programs, The Centre for
Health Promotion, University of Toronto. 1998.
http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/publications/Eval.Master.Confirmed Aug30-02.pdf

United States

The Administration on Children, Youth and Families. The Program Manager's Guide to
Evaluation. 1998. http://www2.acf.dhhs.gov/acf_site_index.html

Atkinson, Anne, Michael Deaton, Richard Travis, and Terry Wessel. Program Planning
and Evaluation Handbook: A Guide for Safe and Drug-Free Schools and
Communities Act Programs, 2nd Ed. December 1999. http://www.jmu.edu/cisat

Bond, Sally L., Sally E. Boyd, Kathleen A. Rapp, Jacqueline B. Raphael, and Beverly A.
Taking Stock: A Practical Guide to Evaluating Your Own Programs Horizon
Research, Inc. 1997. http://www.horizon-research.com/publications/stock.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Practical Evaluation of Public Health
Programs Workbook. n.d. http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/phtn/Pract-
Eval/workbook.asp

Community Tool Box, Evaluating Community Programs and Initiatives, University of


Kansas, online at http://ctb.lsi.ukans.edu/tools/EN/part_1010.htm which includes:
– Nagy, Jenette; & Fawcett, Stephen B., eds. (1999a) A Framework for Program
Evaluation: A Gateway to Tools, part of the Community Tool Box, adapted from
“Recommended Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health Practice,” by
Bobby Milstein, Scott Wetterhall, and the CDC Evaluation Working Group;
http://ctb.lsi.ukans.edu/tools/EN/sub_section_main_1338.htm

Datta, Lois-ellin. Case Study Evaluations, U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO),
Transfer paper 10.1.9. 1990. http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/pe1019.pdf

InnoNet (n.d.) Homepage at http://www.innonet.org Has many resources, including its


own articles on evaluation and survey methods such as focus groups, and data collection
methods, at http://www.innonet.org/resources/overview.cfm as well as links to other
publications on evaluations and effectiveness, at
http://www.innonet.org/resources/publications.cfm such as The KIDS COUNT Network
Self-Assessment Tool (a 29 page checklist manual to assess an organization’s strengths in
the areas of data collection and analysis; communications and dissemination; policy
analysis; community and constituency mobilization; & fund development/sustainability,
for projects with those elements), online at
http://www.innonet.org/innonetworking/kidscount.pdf The site also enables an
interactive online assessment, in which management consultant volunteers assess
organizations’ program, evaluation or budget plans, from
http://www.innonet.org/workstation/about.cfm

McNamara, Carter. (1999) “Evaluations,” part of the Free Management Library, with
checklists and links on articles on evaluating nonprofits’: advertising efforts; Boards of
Directors (self-evaluation); chief executive (by the Board of Directors); customer
satisfaction (measuring); employee performance; financial practices; fundraising
practices; group performance; Human Resources management practices; legal matters;
marketing efforts; planning; organizational communications; organizational performance;
planning practices; programs (goals, processes, outcomes, etc.); sales performance; self-
assessments; training and development. Online at
http://www.managementhelp.org/evaluatn/evaluatn.htm with organizational checklists at
http://www.mapnp.org/library/org_eval/uw_list.htm

Measurement Group, The. (2001) “Evaluation & Research Tools,” with many online
forms and instructional manuals for keeping records on health and social service training
and intervention programs, albeit mostly geared to HIV/AIDs reduction or treatment
programs; online at http://www.themeasurementgroup.com/evalbttn.htm especially the
“General Purpose Instruments Developed by The Measurement Group for the Cross-
Cutting Evaluation of the HRSA SPNS Innovative Models of HIV/AIDS Care,”
http://www.themeasurementgroup.com/modules.htm

Muraskin, Lana D. Understanding Evaluation: The Way to Better Prevention Programs.


1993. http://www.ed.gov/PDFDocs/handbook.pdf

NSF. User-Friendly Handbook for Mixed Method Evaluations, Edited by Joy Frechtling
and Laure Sharp, Directorate for Education and Human Resources, Division of
Research, Evaluation and Communication, National Science Foundation 1997,
http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/REC/pubs/NSF97-153/start.htm

Program Development and Evaluation, of the University of Wisconsin - Extension


Department, has numerous free resources for planning and implementing an evaluation at
http://www1.uwex.edu/topics/Nonprofit_organization_information.cfm

Taylor-Powell, Ellen, Boyd Rossing, and Jean Geran. Evaluating Collaboratives:


Reaching the Potential. July 1998. http://cf.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/pdf/
G3658_8.pdf

Taylor-Powell, Ellen, Sara Steele and Mohammad Douglah. Planning a Program


Evaluation, University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension, July, online at
http://cf.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/pdf/G3658_1.pdf also has a worksheet,
http://cf.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/pdf/G3658_1W.pdf

Trutko, John, Burt S. Burtnow, Erica Chan and Michelle Cenker. A Guidebook to the
Responsible Fatherhood Project Participant Management Information, prepared
for The Offices of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and Child
Support Enforcement of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
1999, http://fatherhood.hhs.gov/guidebook99/index.htm

W.K. Kellogg Foundation. W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook 1998,


http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Tools/Evaluation/Pub770.pdf

Wisler, Carl. Designing Evaluations. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), Transfer
Paper 10.1.4, 1991, http://www.gao.gov/policy/10_1_4.pdf

UK/Commonwealth

Drysdale, Jacky and Rod Purcell. A Training Manual for the Evaluation Of Community
Development Projects, University of Glasgow. May 1999.
http://www.scdc.org.uk/oneday/start.htm

Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative. Evaluation Cookbook.


http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/ltdi/cookbook/contents.html
Rootman, Irving; Goodstadt, Michael; et al., editors (2001) Evaluation in health
promotion: Principles and perspectives, WHO Regional Publications. European Series,
No. 92, World Health Organization; available in six pdf files from
http://www.who.dk/docpub/documents/hltprom.htm or from http://prevention-
dividend.com/en/tools/Evaluation_in_Health_Promotion.htm

THS. Planning and Evaluating a Health Promotion Project , Ch. 4 of Public Health Bush
Book, Volume 1: Strategies & Resources, Territory Health Services, Northern
Territory Government, Australia 1999, http://prevention-
dividend.com/en/tools/Planning_and_Evaluating.pdf or
http://www.nt.gov.au/nths/healthdev/health_promotion/bushbook/volume1/ch4.ht
ml

Financial Management and Controls


see also “Audit Committees,” above; and the inventory of training programs

Canada

Barr, David W. (2000) “Business Planning for Cultural Organizations (BPCO): A


comprehensive Tool for Cultural Managers,” a training module for the Cultural
Management Institute at the University of Waterloo, online at
http://ccm.uwaterloo.ca/cpdp/ilms/bzp/bzpl_home1.html

Board Development Program of Alberta Community Development. Financial


Responsibilities of Not-for-Profit Boards: A Self-Guided Workbook, The Muttart
Foundation; available from the Resource Centre for Voluntary Organizations, Grant
MacEwan College, Edmonton 2000, homepage at http://www.rcvo.org/index.html

Cowperthwaite Mehta. (1996-2000) A Toronto accountant firm, with numerous short


articles from The Not-for-Profit Administrator, including: Understanding Annual
Financial Statements; Internal control; Budgeting;Making the most of your annual audit;
Financial management in times of uncertainty; Dealing with change; Financial warning
signs; Advantages and costs of charitable status; archived at
http://www.187gerrard.com/financial/index.htm and
http://www.187gerrard.com/governance/index.htm

Granger, Alix, M.A., and Margaret Vrabel, C.G.A. Financial Management for
Community Groups. The Vancouver Volunteer Centre, 3102 Main Street, Vancouver, BC

United Church of Canada. Financial Handbook for Congregations 2003.


http://www.united-church.ca/mtf/handbooks.shtm

United States
AuditNet. “AuditNet Virtual Library,” a portal site with links to other useful sites 2001,
http://www.auditnet.org/auditnet_virtual_library.htm

Basic Guide to Non-Profit Financial Management, Management Assistance Program for


Non-Profits http://www.mapnp.org/library/finance/np_fnce/
np_fnce.htm#anchor1606174

Brinckerhoff, Peter C. “The 10 Biggest Mistakes People Make on Their Financial


Projections,” Nonprofit World, 17 (2), March/April 1994,
http://www.uwex.edu/li/

Brinckerhoff, Peter C. “How to Save Money Through Bottoms-Up Budgeting,”


Nonprofit
World, 19 (1), Jan./Feb. 1996

Deloitte & Touche. Taxation of Charities (DeloitteTouche Tohmatsu, August 1998).

DHFS. (n.d.) “Financial Management Handbook for Human Service Agencies,”


Department of Health and Family Services, State of Wisconsin, online at
http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/Grants/FinHandbook/Financial_handbook.htm

Financial Management Training Center. (ongoing) http://www.exinfm.com/training/


index.html Online training program developed by Matt H. Evans, CPA, CMA, CFM
which is free, unless you want it for credit: with downloadable modules so far in:
Evaluating Financial Performance; Financial Planning & Forecasting; Capital Budgeting
Analysis; Managing Cash Flow; and more, with others to be developed. The whole
course to date can be downloaded in one compressed word file:
www.exinfm.com/training/zipcourses.zip

Grant Thornton, LLP. Not-for-Profit Investment Policy Guide 2000


http://www.grantthornton.com/content/87324.asp

Kahan, Stuart. “Outsourcing Nonprofits' Financials.” The Practical Accountant 33, no. 5
(May 2000): 53-55.

Kaplan, James M. Kaplan's AuditNet Resource List (KARL), an annotated listing of


useful accounting information sites, latest edition (V 2001 No. 9, Sept. 1),
http://www.auditnet.org/docs/arl.pdf

Keating, Elizabeth K and Peter Frumkin. Reengineering Nonprofit Financial


Accountability: Toward a More Reliable Foundation for Regulation, Working Paper #4,
The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and The Kennedy School of Government,
Harvard University Aug., which can be downloaded free from the Social Science
Research Network Electronic Paper Collection. 2000. http://papers.ssrn.com/paper.taf?
abstract_id=254278
Masaoka, Jan. (n.d.) “Financial Management,” a series of 23 FAQs (Frequently Asked
Questions) available both on the Alliance for Nonprofit Management’s FAQ site, at
http://www.allianceonline.org/faqs/fm_main.html and at her organization’s,
CompassPoint, in the Bay Area, at http://search.genie.org/genie/ans_result.lasso?
cat=Financial+Management

McNamara, Carter. “Basic Guide to Non-Profit Financial Management,” The


Management Assistance Program for Nonprofits 1999,
http://www.mapnp.org/library/finance/np_fnce/np_fnce.htm

McNamara, Carter. “Meeting #10: Finances and Taxes,” part of the Nonprofit
Organization Development Program (informally called the Nonprofit Grassroots
"MBA") 2000, http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/mba_crse/fnance.htm

“Module #8: Managing Your Nonprofit's Finances and Taxes,” part of the Free
Management Library's On-Line Nonprofit Organization Development Program,
http://www.managementhelp.org/np_progs/fnc_mod/fnance.htm

Mercer, Eric. “Critical Issues in Financial Accounting Regulation for Nonprofit


Organizations.” Online Compendium of Federal and State Regulations for U.S.
Nonprofit Organizations, 1999, http://www.muridae.com/nporegulation/
accounting.htm

Nonprofit Financial Center, homepage at http://www.nonprofitfinancial.org/index.htm


with some links to online articles at http://www.nonprofitfinancial.org/main/info/
guides.htm

Nonprofit Quarterly, The. “The When and Why of Outsourcing Your Financial
Management.” The Nonprofit Quarterly 8, no. 1 (April 2001).

Tribble, Gary J. “Policies for Financial Accountability.” 2000.


http://www.nonprofits.org/npofaq/18/58.html

University of California, Santa Cruz Campus Controller's Office. “Financial Controls TIP
SHEET.” 1999. http://www.ucsc.edu/finaff/cc/tips/control.htm

Wilson, Earl; Kattelus, Susan; & Hay, Leon. (2001) Accounting for Governmental and
Nonprofit Entities, 12th ed. (McGraw-Hill/Irwin); there are some free Student Resources
such as PowerPoint slides for each chapter, online at
http://www.mhhe.com/business/accounting/wilson12e

Women's Business Center, Inc. “Internal Financial Controls for a Small Business.” 1999.
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/docs/finace/InternalControls.html

World Bank Group. FINANCIAL RECORDS Reference Model and Assessment Tools.
2000. http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/archives/learning.nsf/434450dc9d18b
47585256625004a9567/9f0ad27b3ad102df85256a02007276d2/$FILE/Tool%204
pdf

WMU (various). The Nonprofit Leadership and Administration program of Western


Michigan University http://www.wmich.edu/nonprofit/index.html has a number of
downloadable booklets, checklists, and surveys (separate ones for staff, Board, and the
top administrators) on Fiscal Management Systems, Administrative Management
Systems, and other areas, linked off their resources page, at
http://www.wmich.edu/nonprofit/index_resources.html

UK/Commonwealth

Barata, Kimberly, Piers Cain, and Dawn Routledge. Principles and Practices in
Managing Financial Records: A Reference Model and Assessment Tool,
International Records Management Trust Rights and Records Institute & the
World Bank Group 2001, http://www.irmt.org/download/DOCUME%7E1/ DEVELO
%7E1/ RESEAR%7E1/mfsr.pdf

BOLA, the Business Open Learning Archive, developed by Chris Jarvis, Brunel
University, Osterley Campus, Middlesex, UK, http://sol.brunel.ac.uk/~jarvis/bola with
articles and links to resources on Business Analysis and Excellence; Accounting
Resources; Systems Concepts & Business; Power and Management; Organisational
Structure/Culture; and more.

Charity Commission, The. (2001) “CC8 - Internal Financial Controls for Charities,” The
Charity Commission of England and Wales, online at
http://www.charity-commission.gov.uk/

Social Science Information Gateway. The “Financial Management.” n.d.


http://www.sosig.ac.uk/roads/subject-listing/World-cat/finman.html

Foundations and Evaluations

Canada

Ontario Trillium Foundation. “Evaluation and Reporting Guidelines for Trillium


Grantees.” 2000. http://www.trilliumfoundation.org

Ontario Trillium Foundation. “Program Guidelines 2001-2002.” 2001.


http://www.trilliumfoundation.org/OTF-English/new/index.htm

United States

Berger, Renee A. Phase One Evaluation: Community Foundations Initiative on


Management Assistance, Teamworks, for The David and Lucile Packard
Foundation 2000, http://www.geofunders.org/

Carson, Emmett D. “On Foundations and Outcome Evaluation.” Nonprofit and Voluntary
Sector Quarterly 29, no. 3 (September 2000): 479-481.

Community Wealth Ventures, Inc. Venture Philanthropy 2001: The Changing


Landscape. 2001.
http://venturephilanthropypartners.org/learning/reports/report2001/ report2001.html

De Vita, Carol J and Cory Fleming. Building Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations. May
2001. http://www.urban.org/pdfs/building_capacity.pdf

Easterling, Doug. “Using Outcome Evaluation to Guide Grant Making: Theory, Reality,
and Possibilities.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 29, no. 3 (September
2000): 482-486.

Easterling, Doug and Nancy Baughman Csuti. “Using Evaluation to Improve


Grantmaking: What’s Good for the Goose is Good for the Grantor.” March 1999.
http://www.thecoloradotrust.org/pdf/publications/EvaltoImprove1999.pdf

Frumkin, Peter. “Grantmaker, Know Thyself: The Case for Open and Honest Evaluation
in Philanthropy,” part of “Evaluating for Success Four Experts Answer Your
Questions about Grant Evaluation,” for The Philanthropy Roundtable, Washington, DC,
1999, http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org

Giloth, Rober and William Phillips. (2000) Getting Results: Outcomes Management and
the Annie E. Casey Foundations Jobs Initiative. 2000.
http://www.aecf.org/initiatives/jobsinitiative/index.htm

Greene, Stephen G. “Getting the Basics Right: Grant makers seek effective ways to
improve charities' operations.” The Chronicle of Philanthropy 3 May 2001,
http://www.geofunders.org/main

Hernández, Georgiana and Mary G. Visher. Creating a Culture of Inquiry: Changing


methods–and minds–on the use of evaluation in nonprofit organizations. 2001.
http://www.irvine.org/pdfs/Creating_a_Culture.pdf

Kibbe, Barbara D. “Lessons Learned from 15+ Years of Grantmaking to Support the
Organizational Effectiveness of Grantees.” March 2000. http://www.geofunders.org

Newman, Audrey. Built to Change: Catalytic Capacity-Building in Nonprofit


Organizations. April 2001. http://www.geofunders.org

Fraud Prevention

Canada
Cowperthwaite Mehta. (1996-2000) A Toronto accountant firm, with numerous short
articles from The Not-for-Profit Administrator, including: Financial warning signs;
Controlling cash transactions; Stopping theft of cash; Internal control; Finance
Committees; archived at http://www.187gerrard.com/financial/index.htm and
http://www.187gerrard.com/governance/index.htm

Douglas, Stuart and Kim Mills. “Nonprofit fraud: What are the key indicators?” Canadian
FundRaiser, 16 August 2001, http://www.charityvillage.com/cv/charityvillage/ires.asp

Moulton, Gary and Kevin Wilson. “Nonprofit fraud: Focus on segregation of duties and
good reporting procedures.” Canadian FundRaiser, 20 Sept. 2000,
http://www.canadianfundraiser.com/index.html?CFID=420&CFTOKEN= 28682809

Persaud, Sam and Alister Mason. “Finance and Audit Committees can play a key role
both in detecting fraud and in preventing it.” Canadian FundRaiser, 11 October 2000
http://www.canadianfundraiser.com/ index.html?CFID=420&CFTOKEN= 28682809

United States

Beasley, Mark S, Douglas R. Carmichael and John F. Burke. “Boards of Directors and
Fraud.” CPA Journal 68, no. 4 (April 1998): 56-58.

Beek, Craig M, W. Max Rexroad, Linda M. Leinicke, and Joyce A. Ostrosky. “The CPA
As Sleuth: Working the Fraud Beat.” Journal of Accountancy 187, no. 4 (April
1999): 20-23.

Case, John. “Open-Book Management: The Nonprofit Application.” The Nonprofit


Quarterly 8, no. 1 (April 2001).

Coggins, Paul E. “Enhancing Efforts to Prevent Fraud in Higher Education.” Community


College Journal of Research & Practice 24, no. 8 (September 2000): 657-66.

Department of Health and Family Services (DHFS). “Financial Management Handbook


for Human Service Agencies.” n.d. http://www.dhfs.state.wi.us/Grants/
FinHandbook/Financial_handbook.htm

Doney, Lloyd. “Nonprofits aren't immune to computer crime.” Nonprofit World 19, no. 2
(March/April 2001): 30-33.

Ghannam, Jeffrey. “Charity starts at home for nonprofits.” ABA Journal 86 (2000):72.

Goehner, Del. “Protecting your organization against financial misuse.” Nonprofit World
17, no. 4 (July/ August 1999): 38-39.
Greenberg, Daniel. “Trusting Your Employees: How Else Would You Want to Lead
Your
Organization?” The Nonprofit Quarterly 8, no. 1 (April 2001).

Incaprera, James and Joyce Lambert. “Protect your organization from desktop
publishing fraud.” Nonprofit World 18, no. 6 (November/December 2000): 34-35.

Messina, Frank M. “Common-Sense Approached to Fraud Awareness, Prevention,


Detection.” Nonprofit World 15, no. 4 (July/August 1997): 36-38.

Nonprofit Risk Management & Insurance Services http://www.nonprofitrisk.org


produces many manuals and articles on how to minimize exposure to lawsuits.

Thomas, C William and Juan Alejandro. “Fraud-Related Audit Issues.” The CPA Journal
71, no.8 (August 2001): 62-64.

Wells, Joseph T. “So That's Why it's Called a Pyramid Scheme.” Journal of
Accountancy 190, no. 4 (October 2000): 91-94.

Indicators

Canada

Hardi, Peter and Zdan, Terrence. Assessing Sustainable Development: Principles in


Practice, for the Sustainability Institute 1997, http://iisd.ca/pdf/bellagio.pdf

IISD. Measurement and Indicators for Sustainable Development, by the International


Institute for Sustainable Development http://iisd.ca/measure/default.htm which has a
primer on: Intro to Indicators; Bellagio Principles; Integrated Environmental Assessment
and Reporting; & other items; contains a list of some Publications.

“Social Indicators Launchpad” by the Canadian Council on Social Development, has


links to dozens of sites to measure community level interventions,
http://www.ccsd.ca/lp.html

United States

ACMHA. 2001 Interim Report: Five National Accrediting Organizations Reach


Consensus On Performance/Outcome Indicators for Behavioral Health, American
College of Mental Health Administration 2001, http://www.acmha.org/files/
acmha_20.pdf

CART, the Compendium of Assessment and Research Tools, a database that provides
information on instruments that measure attributes associated with youth development
programs; includes descriptions of research instruments, tools, rubrics, and guides to
assist those who have an interest in studying the effectiveness of service-learning, safe
and drug-free schools and communities, and other school-based youth development
activities. http://cart.rmcdenver.com

Evaluation for Learning, a newsletter of the Greater Kalamazoo Evaluation Project with
support from the Greater Kalamazoo United Way, the Irving S. Gilmore Foundation, and
the Kalamazoo Foundation, with tips and links to new projects and resources on
indicators etc. in each issue http://www.wmich.edu/evalctr/eval_nsltr/evalnsltr.htm

Kingsley, G. Thomas, Editor. Building and Operating Neighborhood Indicator Systems:


A Guidebook, National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership, The Urban Institute
1999, www.urban.org/nnip/pdf/guidebk.pdf

“Measures for Community Research” database maintained by Aspen Institute, a


collection of measures used to evaluate outcomes viewed as important by community
initiatives, policy makers, program funders and experts in relevant research fields, in the
areas of Community Building, Economic Development, Employment, Education,
Housing and Neighborhood Conditions, Neighborhood Safety, Social Services, and
Youth Development; includes descriptions of primary data collection instruments, such as
survey instruments, interview protocols, and self-assessment guides, and in many cases,
the actual instrument can be downloaded free of charge, online at
http://www.aspenmeasures.org

National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership (NNIP), http://www.urbaninstitute.org/


nnip/index.htm a collaborative effort by the Urban Institute and local partners to further
the development and use of neighborhood information systems in local policymaking and
community building. Its publications pages feature papers and manuals such as
Neighborhood Indicators: Taking Advantage of the New Potential, by G. Thomas
Kingsley (Working Paper. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, October 1998);
Catalog of Administrative Data Sources, by Claudia J. Coulton, with Lisa Nelson and
Peter Tatian (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, October 1997).
Sources are grouped into eight categories: economy, education, health, social services,
safety and security, community resources and involvement, housing and physical
development, and the environment; & Building and Operating Neighborhood Indicator
Systems: A Guidebook, (G. Thomas Kingsley, ed. National Neighborhood Indicators
Partnership Report. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute, March 1999).

Oregon Progress Board, numerous publications http://www.econ.state.or.us/OPB/


index.htm

Sustainable Measures, by Maureen Hart, http://www.sustainablemeasures.com develops


indicators that measure progress toward a sustainable economy, society and environment,
and has training materials including a manual
and a searchable database of indicators.
Logic Models

Canada

Porteous, Nancy L, Barbara J. Sheldrick and Paula J. Stewart. “Program Logic Model,”
A Program Evaluation Tool. 1997. http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/med/
epid/excerpt.htm

United States

Hernandez, Mario. “Using Logic-Models and Program Theory to Build Outcome


Accountability.” Education & Treatment of Children 23, no. 1 (February 2000):
24.

Outcome Research / Measurement


Introductory Articles and Portal Sites on Outcome Research/Measurement

United States

“Outcome Measurement and Program Evaluation – Online directory of web links and
information resources of interest to nonprofits,” by the United Cerebral Palsy
Association, Greater Utica (N.Y.) Area, online at htm http://www.ucp-
utica.org/uwlinks/outcomes.html

Measurement Resource Network, of The United Way of America, with ordering


information for its own manual and several articles (see below), at
http://national.unitedway.org/outcomes

Peebles, Jason. “The Future of Psychotherapy Outcome Research: Science or Political


Rhetoric?” Journal of Psychology 134, no. 6 (November 2000): 659.

Plantz, Margaret, Martha Taylor Greenway, and Michael Hendricks. “Outcome


Measurement: Showing Results in the Nonprofit Sector,” New Directions For
Evaluation: Using Performance Measurement to Improve Public and Nonprofit
Programs. Fall1997. http://national.unitedway.org/outcomes/ndpaper.htm

Vogt, Jean A. “Five Steps to Start Measuring Your Outcomes.” Nonprofit World
September/ October 1999.

Vogt, Jean A. “Is Outcome Measurement Dead?” Nonprofit World July/ August 1999.

Vogt, Jean A. “Using Your Outcome Measurement System.” Nonprofit World January/
February 2000.

Manuals and Resources on Outcome Research / Measurement


United States

Collins, Michael. “Using Software Systems to Measure Nonprofit Program Outcomes:


Assessing the Benefits and Barriers for Strategic Management.” 1998.
http://pages.prodigy.net/michael_collins/Outcomes_IT.htm

United Way of America. Measuring Program Outcomes: A Practical Approach. 1996.


http://national.unitedway.org/outcomes/pgmomres.htm

United Way of America. Achieving and Measuring Community Outcomes: Challenges,


Issues, Some Approaches. April 1999. http://www.national.unitedway.org/ outcomes

Studies and Commentaries on Outcome Research / Measurement

Canada

Bozzo, Sandra L and Michael H. Hall. A Review of Evaluation Resources for Nonprofit
Organizations. March 1999. http://www.ccp.ca

Legowski, Barbara and Terry Albert. A Discussion Paper on Outcomes and


Measurement in the Voluntary Health Sector in Canada. 1999.
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/voluntarysector/

Torjman, Sherri. Are Outcomes the Best Outcome? 1999.


http://www.caledoninst.org/outcomes.pdf

United States

Fine, Allison H, Colette E. Thayer and Anne T. Coghlan. “Program Evaluation Practice
in the Nonprofit Sector.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 10, no.3 (Spring
2000): 331-339.

Hoefer, Richard. “Accountability in Action?: Program Evaluation in Nonprofit Human


Service Agencies.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 11, no. 2 (Winter
2000): 167-177.

Hogan, Cornelius. The Power of Outcomes: Strategic Thinking to Improve Results for
Our Children, Families, and Communities. June 2001.
http://www.nga.org/ cda/files/1999OUTCOMES.pdf

James Bell Associates. Agency Experiences with OUTCOME MEASUREMENT:


Survey
Findings. 2000. http://national.unitedway.org/outcomes

Lohmann, Roger A. “Has the time come to reevaluate evaluation? or, who will be
accountable for accountability?” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 10, no.1
(Fall 1999): 93-101.

Morley, Elaine, Elisa Vinson and Harry P. Hatry. Outcome Measurement in Nonprofit
Organizations: Current Practices and Recommendations. February 2001.
http://www.independentsector.org/programs/research/outcomes.pdf

NSRF. (2001) “Measuring Outcomes: How State-of-the-Art Evaluation Practices Can


Help Nonprofits,” in Snapshots: Research Highlights from the Nonprofit Sector
Research Fund, No. 17, Aspen Institute, Washington, DC, May 2001.

Poole, Dennis L, Jill K. Davis, Jane Reisman and Joan E. Nelson. “Improving the
Quality of Outcome Evaluation Plans.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 11, no.
(Summer 2001): 405-421.

Poole, Dennis L, Joan Nelson, Sharon Carnahan, Nancy G. Chepenik and Christine
Tubiak. “Evaluating Performance Measurement Systems in Nonprofit Agencies:
The Program Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS).” American Journal of
Evaluation 21, no.1 (Winter 2000): 15-26.

Rowcliffe, Pippa and Greg Tolliday. “The ‘Who’ of Evaluation.” Making Waves,
Summer
2000. http://www.cedworks.com

United Way of America. (1999) “Achieving and Measuring Community Outcomes:


Challenges, Issues, Some Approaches”. Identifies major challenges encountered by 12
United Ways seeking to achieve and measure community outcomes, outlines key issues
in each challenge, and briefly describes some approaches to the challenges currently in
use by these United Ways. http://national.unitedway.org/outcomes

White House, The. UNLEVEL PLAYING FIELD: Barriers to Participation by Faith-


Based
and Community Organizations in Federal Social Service Programs. 2001.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/08/20010816-3-report.pdf

Wilson, James Q. “How Do We Know We Are Doing Good.” 1999.


http://www.hudson.org

South Africa

Community Development Resource Association. “Measuring Development – Holding


Infinity,” Annual Report. 2001. http://www.cdra.org.za

Participatory or Empowerment Evaluation


Introductory Articles and Portal Sites
United States

American Evaluation Association. “Collaborative, Participatory, and Empowerment


Evaluation.” n.d. http://www.stanford.edu/~davidf/empowermentevaluation.html

Mobley, Catherine. “Toward a New Definition of Accountability.” Journal of


Contemporary Ethnography 26, no. 1 (April 1997): 75.

“WEB Links to Participatory Action Research Sites: An action-research resource for both
students and practitioners,” by the Department of Sociology, Social Work &
Anthropology, Goshen College, online at http://www.goshen.edu/soan/soan96p.htm

Whiston, Susan C. “Accountability through action research: Research methods for


practitioners.” Journal of Counseling & Development 74, no.6 (July/ August 1996): 616.

UK/Commonwealth

“Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation,” a site by Will Allen hosted by Massey


University's Natural Resource Management Programme,
http://nrm.massey.ac.nz/changelinks/par_eval.html

Manuals on Participatory or Empowerment Evaluation

Canada

Health Canada. Guide to Project Evaluation: A Participatory Approach. 1996.


http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hppb/phdd/resources/guide

United States

Results Mapping Laboratory, of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation at
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, directed by Dr. Barry Kibel, has an Outcome Engineering
Toolbox, and User Manual (2000) developed as means of telling funders what a program
or agency is achieving; online at http://www.pire.org/resultmapping/ FIrst%20page.htm

Quality, Total Quality Management, and Continuous Improvement

Canada

Pealow, Jim. “Can Associations Become High Performance Organizations.” Association


Magazine, June/ July 2000, http://www.associationmagazine.com

United States
The American Productivity & Quality Center, homepage: http://www.apqc.org has many
publications, some of whose Executive Summaries are online, such as: Achieving
Organizational Excellence Through the Performance Measurement System, American
Productivity & Quality Center Consortium Benchmarking Study, Best Practice Final
Report, 1999.

Measure What Matters: Aligning Performance Measures With Business Strategy,


American Productivity & Quality Center International Benchmarking Clearinghouse,
Consortium Learning Forum, Best Practice Report, 2000, Executive Summary online at
http://www.apqc.org/pubs/summaries/CMMEASWHAT.pdf

"Curious Cat Management Improvement Connections," online at http://www.curiouscat.


net/guides

"Continuous Improvement and Quality Links," http://www.doa.state.nc.us/improve/


links.htm

Duttweiler, Michael W. “Criteria for Programs of High Impact and Quality,” Cornell
Cooperative Extension 1997,
http://www.cce.cornell.edu/admin/program/

Integrated Quality Dynamics, Inc. “TQM: Definition of Total Quality Management.” n.d.
http://www.iqd.com/hoshin_def.htm

Ismael, Dambolena and Meile Larry. “Quality Resources on the Internet,” Center for
Quality of Management Journal, Winter 1996
http://www.cqm.org/journal/index.html

Lee, Thomas H. “Afterword to Think Globally, Act Locally.” Center for Quality of
Management Journal, Winter 1999, http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/
reprints/rp10900

Lee, Thomas, Shoji Shiba and Robert Chapman Wood. “Think Globally, Act Locally.”
Center for Quality of Management Journal , Winter 1999,
http://cqmextra.cqm.org/cqmjournal.nsf/reprints/rp10800

“Online Quality Resource Guide,” by John Hunter, on Total Quality Management


resources, online at http://deming.eng.clemson.edu/onlineq.html

Mazur, Glenn. “Dictionary of TQM Terms,” University of Michigan


http://www.mazur.net/tqm/tqmterms.htm

Packard, Thomas. “TQM and Organizational Change and Development,” from Total
Quality Management in the Social Services: Theory and Practice. Burton Gummer and
Philip McCallion, Eds. (Albany, NY: Rockefeller College Press, 1995),
http://www.improve.org/tqm.html
Panorama Business Views, homepage at http://www.pbviews.com

Paton, R., J. Foot, et al. “What Happens when Nonprofits Use Quality Models for Self-
Assessment.” Nonprofit Management and Leadership 11, no. 1 (Fall 2000): 21-34.

Quinn, Doris. Continuous Quality Improvement: An Introductory Course on Quality


Management, Vanderbilt University, online at http://mot.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/ mt322

“Quality Leaders Network Web Resources,” by Graham-Windham Services for Families


and Children, http://www.loebigink.com/qnet/resources.htm

Rockwell, Kay and Claude Bennett. Targeting Outcomes of Programs (TOP), “a seven-
level hierarchy that integrates program evaluation within the program development
process,” http://deal.unl.edu/TOP/english/index.html

Spath, Patrice. “Taking Account of Quality.” Health Forum Journal 44, no.4 (July/
August 2001): 10-15.

Tebbe, Donald. “The Changing Definition of Excellence.” 1996. The Centre for
Excellence in Nonprofits site (San Jose, California) http://www.cen.org

UK/Commonwealth

DTI. From Quality to Excellence, an online manual with several chapters from the UK’s
Department of Trade & Industry: http://www.dti.gov.uk/quality

DTI. “The quality gurus: What can they do for your company?” from the UK’s
Department of Trade & Industry 1998, http://www.dti.gov.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9ja00001/
m9ja000011.html

DTI. “Total quality management and effective leadership,” from the UK’s Department of
Trade & Industry 1995, http://www.dti.gov.uk/mbp/bpgt/m9ja91001/m9ja910011.html

QSTG. (1999) Summary of Findings and Agenda for Action and the Summary of the
Quality Survey, Quality Standards Task Group, NCVO, online at http://www.ncvo-
vol.org.uk/asp/search/ncvo/main.aspx?siteID=1&sID=18

QSTG. (1999-2001) QSTG Newsletter[s], May 1999 through Aug. 2001, Quality
Standards Task Group, NCVO, all downloadable from http://www.ncvo-
vol.org.uk/Asp/search/microsites/main.aspx?siteID=3&sID=29&subSID=173

Quality Assurance in the North East [UK] Project; home page http://www.sbvda.org
Their "Resources" page http://www.sbvda.org/html/resources/rindex.htm has a number of
downloadable checklists and manuals, in compressed/zipped MS Word files, such as
"Benchmarking," http://www.sbvda.org/html/downloads/benchmarking.exe

Total Quality Management portal site, by SOSIG, the Social Science Information
Gateway, with links to journals, institutions, working papers, other portal sites, and more:
www.sosig.ac.uk/roads/subject-listing/World-cat/tqman.html

Record-Keeping Systems

United States

By the Book, LLC, a Colorado company at http://www.bythebook.com


produces Management software for churches and nonprofits of all sizes to track
membership and donor records; their “Roll Call” and “Honor Roll” programs and
manuals are free.

ISG. (2000) Managing Records as the Basis for Effective Service Delivery and Public
Accountability in Development: An Introduction to Core Principles for Staff of the World
Bank and its Partners, July, Information Solutions Group, for the World Bank and
International Records Management Trust, available online at
http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/archives/learning.nsf/434450dc9d18b47585256625004a9
567/b14f3cd1c0ecc1cb852568a5005d3057/$FILE/Core%20Principles.pdf

Kelly, Kristine L; Pardo, Theresa A; & Kowlowitz, Alan. Practical Tools for Electronic
Records Management and Preservation, Center for Technology in Government,
University at Albany, SUNY 1999, www.ctg.albany.edu/resources/pdfrpwp/
mfa_toolkit.pdf

TechSoup, a site with free articles on the use of information technology in nonprofits,
reviews of new software, discussion groups, worksheets (e.g., on Technology
Organizational Assessment; Hardware Assessment; Internet Connectivity Assessment;
Local Area Network (LAN) Assessment; New Website Development Worksheet; Basic
Database Assessment; Training Assessment Worksheet; Accounting Software
Assessment; Technology Support Staff Assessment), and more, at
http://www.techsoup.org

World Bank Group. “Records Management Assessment Toolkit for Project Managers.”
2000. http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/archives/learning.nsf/ContentOnly/
DC24DF36D30FA13F852568A5005D3058

Results-Based or Performance-Based Management


Introductory Articles and Portal Sites

Canada
Auditor General of British Columbia. (1998) Enhancing Accountability for Performance
in the British Columbia Public Sector: A Progress Report to the Legislative Assembly,
George L. Morfitt et al. Victoria: Queen’s Printer, January 1998. Formerly at
http://www.bcauditor.com/AuditorGeneral.htm

United States

Dyer, Barbara. (1996) “The Oregon Option: Early Lessons from a Performance
Partnership on Building Results-Driven Accountability,” The Public's Work for The
Alliance for Redesigning Government of the National Academy of Public
Administration, http://aspe.hhs.gov/progsys/oregon/lessons.htm

Fischer, Richard. “An Overview of Performance Measurement,” Public Management.


September 1994. http://www.icma.org/go.cfm?cid=1&gid=3&sid=101&did=111

Hatry, Harry; Gerhart, Craig; & Marshall, Martha. (1994) “Eleven Ways to Make
Performance Measurement More Useful to Public Managers,” appeared in Public
Management, Sept., online at http://www1.icma.org/main/topic.asp? tpid=18&hsid=1

NPR. (various) Vice-President Gore’s National Partnership for Reinventing Government,


(formerly the National Performance Review) with numerous documents on benchmarking
and results-based and Quality management archived at
http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/index.htm and some also available at
http://deming.eng.clemson.edu/pub/tqmbbs/rego
Includes: Serving the American Public: Best Practices in Performance Measurement, by
Al Gore, online at http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/papers/benchmrk/nprbook.pdf

Popovich, Mark G. (1996) “Toward Results-Oriented Intergovernmental Systems: An


Historical Look at the Development of the Oregon Option Benchmarks,” The Public's
Work for The Alliance for Redesigning Government of the National Academy of Public
Administration, http://aspe.hhs.gov/progsys/oregon/history/ intro.htm

Portal Sites for Results/Performance Based Initiatives

Canada

Schacter, Mark. Means ... Ends ... Indicators: Performance Measurement in the Public
Sector; IOG Policy Brief No. 3. 1999. http://www.iog.ca/publications/ policybrief3.pdf

Schacter, Mark. Results-Based Management and Multilateral Programming at CIDA: A


Discussion Paper. 1999, http://www.iog.ca/publications/rbm_report.pdf

Treasury Board of Canada, Secretariat . Results for Canadians: A Management


Framework for the Government of Canada. March 2000. http://www.tbs-
sct.gc.ca/res_can/rc_e.html
TBS. (various) Portals on “Documents and Links on Accountability,” and “Results
Management and Reporting Page,” Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, online at
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/docliste.asp
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/rma_e.html

United States

“Assisting Performance Measurement Initiatives in Health and Human Services


Programs,” by The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), online at:
http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/progsys/perfmeas

“Links to Performance Appraisal and Performance Measurement-Related Websites,”


(many more oriented to employee performance), by ZPG (the Zigon Performance Group),
online at http://www.zigonperf.com/resources/links.html

“Performance Measurement and Management Resources,” by AuditNet, online at


http://www.auditnet.org/perfres.htm

Rennekamp, Roger A. Planning for Performance: Developing Programs that Produce


Results. August 1999. http://www.ca.uky.edu/agpsd/plan1.pdf

Schilder, Diane. “Overview of Results-Based Accountability: Components of RBA.” n.d.


http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~hfrp/pubs/onlinepubs/overviewrba.html

Schilder, Diane, Anne Brady, and Karen Horsch. Resource Guide of Results-Based
Accountability Efforts: Profiles of Selected States. 1997.
http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~hfrp/pubs/onlinepubs/efforts/rbalay.pdf

Tipping, Michael. “New Views of Performance: A practical approach to measuring and


managing performance.” Performance Magazine, Fall 1999,
http://www.pbviews.com/news/newsletter/newsletter.asp

United States General Accounting Office, numerous publications


http://www.gao.gov/new.items/gpra/gpra.htm

Watson, Sara. Implementing Results-Based Decisionmaking: Advice from the Field.


2001. http://www.nga.org/cda/files/1999WELFAREBARRIERS.pdf

Manuals on Results-Based or Performance-Based Management

Canada

Alberta Treasury. Measuring Performance: A Reference Guide. September 1996.


http://www.treas.gov.ab.ca/publications/measuring/measupgu
or http://www.treas.gov.ab.ca/publications/measuring/measupgu/pfmguide.pdf
Environment Canada. Manager's Guide to Implementing Performance-Based
Management. n.d. http://www.ec.gc.ca/introec/docs/managers.pdf

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Guide XIII: Managers' Guide for Implementing
Quality Services. 1996. http://www.tbssct.gc.ca/Pubs_pol/opepubs/
TB_O/dwnld/13QG_dwn_e.html

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Guide for the Development of Results-based


Management and Accountability Frameworks. August 2001.
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/eval/tools_outils/rmaf_crgar_e.asp

United States

DoD (n.d., c. 1994) DoD Performance Assessment Guide, which includes a DOS-based
software package and three training manuals/modules: “Quality and Productivity Self-
assessment Guide for Defense Organizations, Guide for Setting Customer Service
Standards, and Guide for Developing Performance Measures,” [US] Department of
Defense, online at http://www.dtic.mil/performance/paguide.html

Durch, Jane S, Linda A. Bailey, and Michael A. Stoto, Editors. Improving Health In The
Community: A Role for Performance Monitoring. 1997. http://www.nap.edu/
catalog/5298.html

Executive Summary at http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/improving


Appendix B, “Methodological Issues in Developing Community Health Profiles and
Performance Indicator Sets,” by Michael A. Stoto, viewable page by page starting at
http://books.nap.edu/books/0309055342/html/360.html

Friedman, Mark. (1997)” A Guide to Developing and Using Performance Measures in


Results-based Budgeting”, prepared for The Finance Project, available through The
Prevention Dividend Project: Thinking with Clarity: Investing with Vision,
http://prevention-dividend.com/en/tools/Friedman or http://prevention-
dividend.com/en/tools/Friedman/Friedman_files/Mark_Friedman.pdf

Liner, Blaine, Harry P. Hatry, et al.Making Results-Based State Government Work.


April 2001. http://www.urban.org/pdfs/results-based-stategovt.pdf

Risk Management and Directors’ Liability


– see also “Audit Committees” and “Fraud Prevention” above, and “Screening” section,
below

Canada

Bell, John P and Marion Hoffer. Vicarious Liability of Non-Profit and Charitable
Organizations. Education and Public Law Group, presentation to Coalition Of Ontario
Voluntary Organizations (COVO). 2000. http://www.ginsler.com/html/ free.htp
Bourgeois, Donald J. The Law of Charitable and Non-profit Organizations. 2000.
Canada Customs and Revenue Agency http://www.ccra-adrc.gc.ca/charities registers
qualifying organizations as charities, gives technical advice on operating a charity, and
handles audit and compliance activities; it has many circulars, bulletins, and guides on
how to register as a charity or comply with regulations, which both Board Members and
Directors ought to keep apprised of, because they sometimes indicate shifts in the way
they intend to interpret or apply certain laws and guidelines, which could result in
penalties or deregistration.

Community Legal Education Association. Non-Profit Organizations in Manitoba:


Directors' Liabilities. 1998. http://www.acjnet.org/home.cfm

Carter & Associates (various years) CharityLaw.ca with online articles on legal issues of
interest to charities and not-for-profit organizations both in Canada and internationally by
the lawyer Terrance S. Carter, from the newsletters Charity Law Bulletin, and Church &
the Law Update http://www.charitylaw.ca

Lepofsky, Ron and Thomas Adler. “E- Accountability: Why network security is an
executive function.” CMA Management, November 2000,
http://www.managementmag.com/2000%5F11/nov%2De%2Daccnt.pdf

Nyp, Gary. “National Privacy Legislation.” Front & Centre 8, no.4 (July 2001): 1-3.

Paskell-Mede, Mindy. “Avoiding liability: The best protection for a professional director
is
to ensure that the company has adequate reporting and monitoring systems.” CA
Magazine, January/ February 2001, http://www.camagazine.com/cica/
camagazine.nsf/e2001-jan/Avoidingliability

Rehnby, Nadene. Volunteers & the Law: A guide for volunteers, organizations and
boards, 2000 Edition. 2000. http://www.publiclegaled.bc.ca/volintro.htm

Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS). (various years) Numerous publications all


downloadable from http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pubs_pol/dcgpubs/ RiskManagement/
siglist_e.html including: Integrated Risk Management Framework; Policy on Active
Monitoring; Risk Management Policy; Best Practices in Risk Management – Coordinated
Conclusions from PMN and KPMG; Best Practices in Risk Management: Private and
Public Sectors Internationally; Review of Canadian Best Practices in Risk Management;
Risk, Innovation and Values - Examining the Tensions.

Wilkinson, Doug. “Understanding E-commerce Risks and Basic Security Measures.”


Front & Centre 7, no.5 (September 2000): 19.

United States
Alliance for Nonprofit Management, “Risk Management” FAQs at
http://www.allianceonline.org/faqs/rm_main.html

Arrigo, Marie. “Warning: Use of the Internet may be hazardous to your organization's
health.” Nonprofit World 18, no.5 (September/ October 2000): 6-10.

Balda, Janis Bragan. “The liability of nonprofits to donors.” Nonprofit Management &
Leadership 5, no. 1 (Fall): 19-36.

Cowperthwaite Mehta. (1996-2000) A Toronto accountant firm, with numerous short


articles from The Not-for-Profit Administrator, including: Assessing and managing risk;
Primer on liability of directors; Internal control; Charities and political activities; Trustee
Act - Ontario; archived at http://www.187gerrard.com/financial/index.htm and
http://www.187gerrard.com/governance/index.htm

Francis, Ross. “Risk Management: It's for Everyone to Learn.” The Leader Magazine,
February 1996 http://www.scouts.ca/inside.asp?cmPageID=186

McNamara, Carter. “Risk Management,” The Management Assistance Program for


Nonprofits. 1999. http://www.mapnp.org/library/risk_mng/risk_mng.htm

Nonprofit World. “Seven easy ways to get into legal trouble.” Nonprofit World 18, no.6
(November/ December 2000): 9.

U.S. General Accounting Office, Office of Policy. An Audit Quality Control System:
Essential Elements. 1993. http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/p0416.pdf

Ruiz, Rosemarie. “Are you fulfilling your financial trust?” Nonprofit World 17, no.1
(January/February 1999): 22-23.

UK/Commonwealth

Charity Commission of England & Wales. CC3 - Responsibilities of Charity Trustees.


1996. http://www.charity-commission.gov.uk

Leazes, Francis J., Jr. “’Pay now or pay later’: training and torts in public sector human
services.” Public Personnel Management 24 (June 1995): 167-80.

Screening

Canada

Canadian Hockey Association. Speak Out! Act Now Handbook For Sport Clubs And
Associations. 1997. This covers Screening the Prevention of Abuse and Harassment,
Developing Policies and Procedures, Dealing with the Media, and other topics.
http://www.hockeycanada.ca/e/develop/speakout/index.html

The Ontario Screening Initiative coordinated by Volunteer Canada has a number of


resources downloadable from http://www.volunteer.ca/volcan/eng/iwork/ screening.php?
display=3,2,3

Scouts Canada. How to Protect Your Children from Child Abuse. n.d.
http://www.scouts.ca/inside.asp?cmPageID=107

The BC Scouts Branch. Tips and Techniques for Interviews and Reference Checks. n.d.
http://www.bc.scouts.ca/interview.html

Sport and Community Development Branch, Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and
Culture, Province of British Columbia. SportSafe: The Volunteer Screening Model. n.d.
http://www.sport.gov.bc.ca/pubs/sportsafe/ss_volun.htm

Volunteer Canada has a “Volunteer Screening” tutorial


http://www.volunteer.ca/volcan/eng/content/screening/screening.php?display=3,2,3

United States

Costello & Sons Insurance Brokers. “Sexual Abuse Checklist.” n.d.


http://www.costelloandsons.com/np/types/sexual_abuse/faq.asp

Ellis, Susan J. “The Process for Completing Audit,” Volunteer Management Audit
guidebook. 1992. http://www.energizeinc.com/art/avolm.html

Hawthorne, Nan and Bernadette Jones. Sample Volunteer Program Procedural


Manual. 2000. www.cybervpm.com/program_development/proman.htm

Hawthorne, Nan and Bernadette Jones. “Screening Volunteers.” 2000.


http://www.avaintl.org/networks/cybervpm.html/screen.htm

Patterson, John C. “Criminal History Record Checks.” Community Service Brief, n.d.,
http://www.nonprofitrisk.org/csb_crim.htm

UK/Commonwealth

Smith, David R. Safe from Harm: A Code of Practice for Safeguarding The Welfare of
Children in Voluntary Organisations in England and Wales. 1993
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/acu/harm.htm

Small Organizations, Key Resources


Canada

Granger, Alix, M.A. and Margaret Vrabel, C.G.A. Financial Management for Community
Groups. The Vancouver Volunteer Centre, 3102 Main Street, Vancouver, BC

Muttart Foundation, The. Board Development, Financial Responsibilities of Not-for-


Profit Boards, A Self-Guided Workbook. Edmonton, Alberta. Contact information at
www.muttart.org

United Church of Canada. Financial Handbook for Congregations 2003.


http://www.united-church.ca/mtf/handbooks.shtm

United Way of Canada/Centraide Canada. Board Development.


http://www.boarddevelopment.org/

Voluntary Sector Knowledge Network. This site is especially helpful to managers of


nonprofit groups with few resources and/or from smaller communities. The site covers
seven subject areas: developing leadership and governance in the nonprofit sector,
strengthening community and government relations, fundraising strategies, financial
management tools, methods for accountability and evaluation, approaches to public
relations, and accessing information and communication technology. The site also
provides practitioners with the opportunity to connect through discussion forums with
other managers in the field and one-on-one contact with mentors with a specialized
knowledge www.vskn.ca.

United States

Basic Guide to Non-Profit Financial Management, Management Assistance Program for


Non-Profits http://www.mapnp.org/library/finance/np_fnce/np_fnce.htm#anchor1606174

Social Auditing

Canada

Cabaj, Mark. Developing a ‘Social Accountability’ Framework for Rural ‘Capacity


Building’ Organizations, prepared for the Foundation for Rural Living’s Social
Accountability conference, 5 June 2001, http://www.frl.on.ca/frl/PrioritiesAnd
Highlights/SocialAccountability/WorkshopDocument.pdf

Dawson, Elsa. “The Relevance of Social Audit for Oxfam GB.” Journal of Business
Ethics 17 no.13 (October 1998).: 1457-1469.

Dow, Warren and Crowe, Roy. “What Social Auditing Can Do for Voluntary
Organizations,” A review paper for Volunteer Vancouver, 1999,
http://www.vancouver.volunteer.ca
Hill, Wan Ying, Ian Fraser and Philip Cotton. “Patients' voices, rights and
responsibilities: On implementing social audit in primary health care.” Journal of
Business Ethics 17, no.13 (October 1998): 1481-1497.

Miles, Victoria. “Auditing Promises: One Bank’s Story.” CMA Management, June
2000, http://www.managementmag.com/2000%5F06/june%5Fauditing.pdf.

Perryman, Gavin and Talbot, John Talbot. Social Auditing for Voluntary Organizations.
Vancouver: Perryman Publications, 1998.

VanCity. Its Annual Reports, which include Social Auditing reports: VanCity’s 1997
Social Report, and Guided by values, The VanCity Social Report 1998/99,
http://www.vancity.com/socialreport

UK/Commonwealth

CBS Network Social Audit Programme, Community Business Scotland Network (which
includes John Pearce) includes Social Audit Information Sheet; Social Audit spreadsheet
summarised; Social Accounting and Audit: What is it? History and Current Practice of
Social Accounting and Audit; Social Auditing Glossary; and Social Auditing
Bibliography. Online at www.cbs-network.org.uk/SocAuditing.html

Clark, George. “Social Auditing – feedback control for organisations,” The Caledonia
Centre for Social Development, 2000. http://www.caledonia.org.uk/social2.htm
Pearce, John, Peter Raynard and Simon Zadek. Social Auditing for Small
Organizations: the Workbook. London: New Economics Foundation, 1997. Purchase
through http://www.neweconomics.org

Quality Standards Task Group. Summary of Findings and Agenda for Action and the
Summary of the Quality Survey. 1999. http://www.ncvo-
vol.org.uk/asp/search/ncvo/main.aspx?siteID=1

SETSAP. (1999) Several papers by the Social Economy Transnational Social Auditing
Programme, NICDA Social Economy Agency, including: Overview: The Principles and
Ethos of Social Auditing; Social Auditing and Social Economy; History of Social
Auditing; and Developments in Social Auditing in Britain and Northern Ireland; with a
bibliography, and directories of organizations which have undergone social audits in The
Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom and Other Countries, and of training programs;
some pages online beginning at www.setsap.fsnet.co.uk/page2.html and they are all
downloadable from http://www.setsap.fsnet.co.uk/page20.html

Zadek, Simon, C. Gonella, A. Pilling, and V. Terry. Making Value Count: Contemporary
Experience in Social and Ethical Accounting, Auditing, and Reporting. 1998.
http://www.zadek.net/mvc.pdf
Survey Methods

Canada

Stephenson, Mary Sue. “Research Methods Resources on the WWW. n.d.


http://www.slais.ubc.ca/resources/research_methods/default.htm

United States

CDC EZ-Text, a free software program and manual from the US Centers for Disease
Control & Prevention, to help create, manage, and analyze semi-structured qualitative
databases: i.e., written (or transcribed) answers to questionnaires:
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/ez-text.htm

Creative Research Systems, “Resources for Survey Researchers,” has tutorials on an


survey design, significance, and an interactive Sample Size Calculator
www.surveysystem.com/resource.htm

“ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation,” by the Educational Resources


Information Center, http://ericae.net includes links to other free, full-text online
resources and manuals on areas such as Evaluation, Research, and Statistical Analysis

Litkowski, Kenneth. Using Structured Interviewing Techniques. U.S. General


Accounting Office (GAO), Transfer paper 10.1.5, 1991.
http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/pe1015.pdf

Motulsky, Harvey J. Analyzing Data with GraphPad Prism, GraphPad Software Inc.,
San Diego CA, a free itroductory manual on statistics, 1999.
http://www.graphpad.com

Polland, Ronald Jay. Essentials of Survey Research and Analysis: A Workbook For
Community Researchers, for the Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Grant, Duval County
Health Department, Florida, 1999. http://www.tfn.net/%7Epolland/qbook. html

Program Development and Evaluation, of the University of Wisconsin - Extension


Department, has numerous free resources for planning and implementing an evaluation at
http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/index.html including fact sheets, manuals,
and templates on: Questionnaire Design: Asking questions with a purpose; Sampling;
Collecting Evaluation Data: An Overview of Sources and Methods; Collecting Evaluation
Data: Direct Observation; Analyzing Quantitative Data; Community Group Member
Survey; Community Group Member Survey: Using the Results; Collecting Evaluation
Data: Surveys; Collecting Evaluation Data: End-of-Session Questionnaires; Templates
for Using the Results of the Community Group Member Survey.

RobertNiles.com “Statistics Every Writer Should Know,” http://www.robertniles.com/


stats
Trochim, Bill. Bill Trochim’s Center for Social Research Methods, by a Cornell
University
Professor, is a comprehensive site on conducting research, with primers on
various survey methods, to tutorials on statistical methods, with links to related
resources 1999, http://trochim.human.cornell.edu

Zoomerang, at www.zoomerang.com allows users to design, conduct, and analyze simple


evaluation surveys online.

Appendix 2: Inventory of Financial Training and Voluntary Sector Management


Resources

Please Note: A listing here does not constitute an endorsement; there has been no
validation of the value or quality of the following programs in compiling this list: caveat
emptor, particularly for those courses offered by non-accredited bodies.
Academically-Based Canadian Programs
The following two inventories may be helpful as a starting point.
The National Inventory of Voluntary Sector Management Training and Education
Programs (June 2000), produced by Population and Public Health Branch at Health
Canada covers courses and programs of accredited educational institutions, national
voluntary organizations and non-accredited institutions. http://www.hc-
sc.gc.ca/hppb/voluntarysector/pdf/national_inventory.pdf

An inventory of Voluntary Sector Leadership Education and Training Opportunities can


be found on the Web site for the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations. This
inventory focuses on leadership training provided by voluntary organizations, as well as
educational institutions; the training covered includes financial management and
accountability. The inventory was produced by the National Learning Initiative for the
Voluntary Sector, under the Voluntary Sector Initiative. It was posted in early 2003.
http://www.nvo-onb.ca/projects_initiatives/nli/On-Line_Inventory/tofc_e.shtml

Academically-Based Nonprofit or Voluntary Sector Management Diploma or Degree


Programs in Canada

Bachelor of Applied Nonprofit Studies, Mount Royal College


4825 Richard Road SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6K6
Tel: 403-240-6111 Fax: 403-240-6698
Homepage: www.mtroyal.ab.ca
http://www.mtroyal.ab.ca/Calendar/applied_degrees/BANPSpd.htm

Human Services Administration, Sheridan College, a two-year diploma


Sheridan College of Applied Arts and Technology
1430 Trafalgar Road, Oakville, Ontario L6H 2L1
Tel: 905-845-9430 Fax: 905-815-4027
Homepage: www.sheridanc.on.ca
http://www.sheridanc.on.ca/programs01_02/hsa/index.html

Human Services Management, a one-year diploma program at


Nova Scotia Community College, Annapolis Valley Campus
50 Elliott Road, Lawrencetown, NS B0S 1M0
Tel.: (902) 825-3491 Fax: (902) 825-2285 E-mail: avadmissions@nscc.ns.ca
http://www.nscc.ca/Learning_Programs/Programs/Human_Services.asp

Interdisciplinary Studies in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Management


The Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Faculty of Business
Ryerson Polytechnic University
350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3
Tel.: (416) 979-5000 Ext. 6739, Fax: (416) 979-5294 Email: cvss@acs.ryerson.ca
http://www.ryerson.ca/~cvss/isnvsm1.html

Management in the Non-Profit Sector, a certificate program at


Mohawk College of Applied Arts & Technology
P.O. Box 2034, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3T2
Tel: (905) 575-2404 / (519) 759-7200, ext. 2404
http://www.mohawkc.on.ca/cecat/

Non-Profit Sector Management, Centre for Applied Management


Lethbridge Community College
3000 College Drive South, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 1L6
Tel: 403-320-3200 Toll Free: 1-800-572-0103 Fax: 403-320-1461
Website: http://www.lethbridgecollege.ab.ca/dept/nonprofit/nonforprofit/index.htm
http://www.lethbridgecollege.ab.ca/dept/nonprofit/nonforprofit/courseschedule.htm

Nonprofit Management and Leadership Program


Simon Fraser University
Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Programs, Continuing Studies
Simon Fraser University at Harbour Centre
515 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3
Fax (604) 291-5098.
Homepage: http://www.sfu.ca/cstudies/bus/nonprofit/index.htm

The Nonprofit Sector Leadership Program,


Henson College, Dalhousie University,
6100 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5
Tel: (902) 494-2526 Fax: (902) 494-6875 E-mail: Henson-info@Dal.CA
A certificate program, with short courses in the areas of: Leading and Managing Non-
Profit Organizations; Strategic and Operational Planning; Financial Management;
Program Evaluation; Marketing and Public Relations; Human Resource Management;
Fundraising and Resource Development: http://www.dal.ca/~henson/nonprofit/index.html

Nonprofit Management and Leadership Program,


Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto
Room 318, Schulich School of Business
York University
4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3
Tel: (416) 736-5092 Fax: (416) 736-5762 Email: NMLP@schulich.yorku.ca
Homepage: http://www.schulich.yorku.ca/nmlp.nsf

Public Policy and the Third Sector program, Queen's University


School of Policy Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6
Tel: (613) 533-2159 Fax: (613) 533-2135 Email: policy@qsilver.queensu.ca
This program is tied in with the Masters of Public Administration program; they also
have special summer seminars available to graduate students in programs at other
universities. Homepage: http://policy.queensu.ca/sps/ThirdSector

Voluntary Sector Management program, Grant MacEwan College, Edmonton


Registrar's Office, Grant MacEwan College, PO Box 1796, Edmonton AB T5J 2P2
Tel: (780) 497-5268
http://www.business.gmcc.ab.ca/vsm/default.html

Voluntary Sector Management Program, Niagara Centre for Community Leadership,


Niagara College, P.O. Box 1005, 300 Woodlawn Road, Welland, ON L3B 5S2
Tel: (905) 735-2211 Ext. 7603 Fax: (905) 736-6006
Satellite campuses or seminars offered in St. Catharines, Niagara Fall, and Fort Erie
Offers one-day a week for eight weeks courses in Leadership; Staff and Volunteer
Management; Board Governance; Technology in the Voluntary Sector; Resource
Generation; Marketing; Planning; and Administration.
www.communityleadership.net

Academically-Based Voluntary Sector Management Professional Development Programs


in Canada
The National Inventory of Voluntary Sector Management Training and Education
Programs (June 2000), produced by Population and Public Health Branch at Health
Canada covers courses and programs of accredited educational institutions, national
voluntary organizations and non-accredited institutions. http://www.hc-
sc.gc.ca/hppb/voluntarysector/pdf/national_inventory.pdf

An inventory of Voluntary Sector Leadership Education and Training Opportunities can


be found on the Web site for the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations. This
inventory focuses on leadership training provided by voluntary organizations, as well as
educational institutions; the training covered includes financial management and
accountability. The inventory was produced by the National Learning Initiative for the
Voluntary Sector, under the Voluntary Sector Initiative. It was posted in early 2003.
http://www.nvo-onb.ca/projects_initiatives/nli/On-Line_Inventory/tofc_e.shtml

The Coady International Institute at St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia offers a
4-week Certificate for Women: Community Development Leadership, with modules in
Community-Based Development (Philosophies and theories of development: Adult
education; Community-based organizing; Gender and development; Programming
Skills); Program planning (including budgetary) (Program management; Monitoring and
evaluation; Organizational Leadership) and Strategic planning (Effective leadership;
Organizational theory; Human relations; Financial management)
Coady International Institute
St. Francis Xavier University
PO Box 5000, Antigonish, NS B2G 2W5
Tel: (902) 867-3953 Fax: (902) 867-3907 E-mail: mtoogood@stfx.ca
http://www.stfx.ca/institutes/coady/text/programs_educational_certificate_women.html

The Cultural Management Programs, Division of Continuing Studies, University of


Victoria, has both in-person and distance learning courses.
Cultural Management Programs, Division of Continuing Studies
University of Victoria, PO Box 3030 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3N6
Tel: (250) 721-8462 Fax: (250) 721-8774 E-mail: crmp@uvcs.uvic.ca
http://www.uvcs.uvic.ca/crmp/welcome.htm

The Institute in Management and Community Development/Institut de développement


communautaire, Concordia University
7141 Sherbrooke Ouest CC-326 Montréal, QC H4B 1R6
Tel: (514) 848-3956 Fax: (514) 848-4598
E-mail: instdev@alcor.concordia.ca
A week-long summer institute, with dozens of workshops.
http://www.concordia.ca./cont_ed

The Niagara Centre for Community Leadership, Niagara College, Welland Ontario
Niagara College, P.O. Box 1005, 300 Woodlawn Road, Welland, ON L3B 5S2
with satellite campuses or seminars offered in St. Catharines; Niagara Falls; and Fort
Erie. Skills Development courses for Board Members or staff in Administrative, Board
Governance, Human Resources, Leadership, Marketing, Planning, Resource Generation,
and Technology Skills Development.
http://www.communityleadership.net

The Nonprofit Sector Leadership Program, Henson College


Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5
Tel: (902) 494-2526 Fax: (902) 494-6875 E-mail: Henson-info@Dal.CA
Offers short courses in the areas of: Leading and Managing Non-Profit Organizations;
Strategic and Operational Planning; Financial Management; Program Evaluation;
Marketing and Public Relations; Human Resource Management; Fundraising and
Resource Development: http://www.dal.ca/~henson/nonprofit/index.html
The Schulich School of Business Executive Development Program, York University,
Toronto http://www.schulich.yorku.ca/ssb-
extra/executivedevelopment.nsf/allwebdocuments/executive+development
offers several two-day courses with program themes such as Executive Program in
Leadership: Compete to Win.

Interdisciplinary Studies in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Management


The Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Faculty of Business
Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, ON
http://www.ryerson.ca/~cvss/isnvsm1.html
Distance-learning certificate: http://ce-online.ryerson.ca/de

Portal Sites or Other Directories of Academically-Based Nonprofit or Voluntary Sector


Management Courses, and Business and Accounting Programs in Canada
The Association of Canadian Community Colleges, allows a search by program of all the
community colleges in Canada, using key words:
http://www.accc.ca/english/Colleges/programs_database.cfm
(e.g., “business administration” (166 programs at 64 colleges); “voluntary sector” (one, at
Grant MacEwan College); and “Non-Profit” (one, at Lethbridge Community College).

The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, The Directory of Universities,


an online directory at http://www.aucc.ca/index_e.html enables searches by program
area or by keywords (e.g., “Voluntary Sector”). Searches can also be restricted to
particular provinces, or type of diploma or degree.

Association of Atlantic Universities. University Distance Education Courses, online


directory at http://www.dal.ca/~aau/

Betcherman, Gordon et al. The Voluntary Sector in Canada: Literature Review and
Strategic Considerations for a Human Resource Sector Study.1999.
Contains an inventory of training programs as an Appendix.
http://www.cprn.org/docs/work/vscl_e.pdf

Campus Program Canada, online directory with links to Canadian University Programs,
at http://www.campusprogram.com/canada/index.html including:

Canadian Education Resource Directory, at www.canlearn.ca/English/find/findit2.html

Canadian Centre for Social Entrepreneurship, School of Business, University of Alberta,


Edmonton, has a portal site, the “Social Entrepreneurship Hub,” with links to nonprofit
management programs and other resources: http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/seh/
main.htm
The nonprofit management courses can be found at: http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/
seh/nonprofit.htm
Canadian Evaluation Society. “Canadian Evaluation Society Post-Secondary Evaluation-
Related Courses,” a listing of Canadian university courses related to evaluation as of June
2001, compiled by Sue Licari, online at
http://www.evaluationcanada.ca/site.cgi?s=6&ss=6&_lang=an

Charity Village. “The Learning Institute,” an online directory of academic training


centres, 2001. http://www.charityvillage.com/cv/learn/index.asp

Educational Directories Unlimited, Inc. (2001) GRADSCHOOLS.COM; includes:


BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) Graduate Schools in Canada:
http://www.gradschools.com/listings/Canada/bus_admin_canada.html
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, PUBLIC POLICY Graduate Schools in Canada:
http://www.gradschools.com/listings/Canada/pubpol_canada.html
Excite (2000) “MBA programs,”
http://www.excite.ca/business/business_education/mba_programs

Learning Resource Centre, a program of Grant MacEwan College in conjunction with its
Voluntary Sector Management program, has a portal site on Voluntary Sector
Management, which lists and links most of the Canadian universities and colleges with
nonprofit management training http://www.lrc.macewan.ca/

The MBA Program Information Site. (2001) www.mbainfo.com

International Centre for Distance Learning (CDL). (2001) “Providers” [of Distance
Learning], can be searched by country, and then by type of institution or degree,
International Centre for Distance Learning: http://icdl.open.ac.uk/provider.ihtml

World Wide Learn. (1999) “World Wide Learn: The World’s Directory of Online
Courses, Online Learning, and Online Education,” Calgary. Includes:
Online Business Degree Programs: www.worldwidelearn.com/business-degrees.htm
Online Business Courses & Education: www.worldwidelearn.com/business-courses.htm
Online Business Degree Programs: www.worldwidelearn.com/business-degrees.htm
Online MBA Programs: www.worldwidelearn.com/online-mba.htm

Open Learning Agency (in Burnaby, B.C.), Bachelor of Business Administration (Public
Sector Management), http://www.ola.bc.ca/bcou/programs/bobaps.html
or the OLA Management Degree: http://www.ola.bc.ca/bcou/programs/boba.html
E:mail student@ola.bc.ca, or call student services at (604) 431-3300, or toll-free at 1-
800-663-9711. 4355 Mathissi Place, Burnaby, BC V5G 4S8

Providers of MBA programs


(source: The MBA Program Information Site, http://www.mbainfo.com)

Centre for Innovative Management, Athabasca University


301 Grandin Park Plaza, 22 Sir Winston Churchill Ave, St Albert AB, T8N1B4, Canada
Tel: 403-459-1144 Fax: 403-459-2093
Tel.: 1-800-561-4650
Homepage: http://www.athabascau.ca

Faculte d' administration, University of Moncton


Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E6, Canada
Tel: 506-858-4446 Fax: 506-858-4093
Homepage: http://www.umoncton.ca

Faculty of Administration, University of Ottawa


136 Jean-Jacque Lussier, Room 245, PO Box 450 Stn A
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6NF
Tel: 613-562-5731 Fax: 613-562-5912
Homepage: http://www.uottawa.ca

Henley MBA Program, CGA-Ontario


240 Eglinton Av. East, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Tel: 416-322-6520 ( Ext 359) Fax: 416-322-6481
Homepage: via http://www.cga-canada.org

Management Programs Division, Royal Roads University (also requires 33 weeks


attendance in Victoria)
2005 Sooke Rd, Victoria, BC, Canada, V9B 5Y2
Tel: 250-391-2505 Toll free 1- 877-778-6227 Fax: 250-391-2610
Homepage: http://www.royalroads.ca

Queen's MBA Program, Queen’s University


Macintosh-Corry B118, Kingston, Ontario, K7L3N6, Canada
Tel: 613-545-2302 Fax: 613-545-6281
Homepage: http://www.queensu.ca

College-Based Financial Management Diploma Programs in Canada


Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology
main campus: 1385 Woodroffe Avenue, Nepean, Ontario, K2G 1V8
Tel: 613-727-4723 Fax: 613-727-7684, with other campuses in Hawkesbury, Kanata,
Pembroke, Perth, and Ottawa. Homepage: www.algonquincollege.com

British Columbia Institute of Technology


3700 Willingdon Avenue, Burnaby, BC, V5G 3H2
Tel: 604-434-5734 Fax: 604-434-6243
Homepage: www.bcit.ca

First Nations Financial Management:


Cambrian College of Applied Arts and Technology
1400 Barrydowne Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3A 3V8
Tel: 705-566-8101 Toll Free: 800-461-7145 Fax: 705-524-7329
Homepage: www.cambrianc.on.ca

Mount Royal College


4825 Richard Road SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6K6
Tel: 403-240-6111 Fax: 403-240-6698
Homepage: www.mtroyal.ab.ca

Nunavut Arctic College


PO Box 160, Iqaluit, Nunavut, X0A 0H0
Tel: 819-979-4114 Fax: 819-979-4118
Homepage: www.nac.nu.ca

Non-academically Based Canadian Programs


The National Inventory of Voluntary Sector Management Training and Education
Programs (June 2000), produced by Population and Public Health Branch at Health
Canada covers courses and programs of accredited educational institutions, national
voluntary organizations and non-accredited institutions. http://www.hc-
sc.gc.ca/hppb/voluntarysector/pdf/national_inventory.pdf

An inventory of Voluntary Sector Leadership Education and Training Opportunities can


be found on the Web site for the Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations. This
inventory focuses on leadership training provided by voluntary organizations, as well as
educational institutions; the training covered includes financial management and
accountability. The inventory was produced by the National Learning Initiative for the
Voluntary Sector, under the Voluntary Sector Initiative. It was posted in early 2003.
http://www.nvo-onb.ca/projects_initiatives/nli/On-Line_Inventory/tofc_e.shtml

Canadian Society of Association Executives (CSAE), offers five courses based on


association management competencies via the Internet: 1) Association Leadership,
Change, Strategy and Structure; 2) Association Membership Services; 3) Association
Operations I (Operations Support – includes Financial and Management Accounting); 4)
Association Operations II (Products and Services); and 5) Developments in Association
Management. http://www.csae.com/client/csae/CSAEHome.nsf/web/ AME+Program?
OpenDocument

Certified Management Accountants (CMA) -Canada, the Certified Management


Accountants Association, homepage: http://www.cma-canada.org offers some online
professional development courses to non-members, including the Balanced Scorecard;
Redesigning the Finance Function; Target Costing; and Strategic Cost Management;
described both online and at http://www.cma-canada.org/attachments/vlc-catalog-
new(secure).pdf

Charity Village. “The Learning Institute,” Online directory and listings of shorter
workshops and professional development events:
http://www.charityvillage.com/cv/learn/index.asp
Coalition of National Voluntary Organizations, The. Voluntary Sector Leadership
Education and Training Opportunities (2003). This inventory focuses on leadership
training provided by voluntary organizations, as well as educational institutions; the
training covered includes financial management and accountability. The inventory was
produced by the National Learning Initiative for the Voluntary Sector, under the
Voluntary Sector Initiative. http://www.nvo-onb.ca/projects_initiatives/nli/On-
Line_Inventory/tofc_e.shtml

Consultants: can provide individualized training programs, and some also conduct
seminars and workshops for many organizations at once. They can be found through:
· the “Management Consultants” in the Yellow Pages;
· a registry of consultants and other service providers maintained by Charity
Village http://www.charityvillage.com/marketplace/consult.html
· a registry has been developed by the Voluntary Sector Initiative itself
http://www.vsi-isbc.ca/eng/registry.cfm
· a registry compiled annually by the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy
· the Canadian Association of Management Consultants,
http://www.camc.com/home.asp which has a “Find a Consultant” search engine. (And
its own training and certification program for management consultants)
· most Volunteer Centres and United Ways also have lists of some consultants who
provide training, sometimes in conjunction with them: see
http://www.volunteer.ca/volunteer/vol_centres.htm for a listing of most Volunteer
Centres and http://www.unitedway.ca/english for contact information on the 125 local
Canadian United Way/Centraide branches.

“Management Advisory Service,” A free program organized by the Volunteer Centre of


Toronto, 2001. http://www.volunteertoronto.on.ca/mas/mas1.htm

Public Service Commission (PSC). Directory of Courses and Services, April, 2001 -
March 2003.Ottawa:Training and Development Canada, Public Service Commission,
2001.

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS) “FINANCE” courses, Treasury Board of


Canada Secretariat, 2001. http://www.edu.psc-cfp.gc.ca/tdc/course2000/finance_e.htm

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS). FIS Training Framework, Treasury Board
of Canada Secretariat, 2001. http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/fin/FIS-
SIF/sigs/fis_training/framework/FISTraFra_e.html

Distance-Learning Nonprofit or Business Management Programs based in the United


States

AMBAI. (2001) Online Management and Business Administration Certificate Program,


American Management and Business Administration Institute, Cambridge, MA.
http://www.ambai.org
Association Management 101 Online, a US-based (Florida) three-hour (cumulative)
online course by the Harris Management Group for managers and board members to learn
about the History and Impact of Associations in America; Terminology, Documents and
Processes for Efficient Association Operation; Working with Boards, Committees and
Volunteers; Role of Associations in Influencing Government; Ways to Engage Members,
Recruit and Retain; How to Reduce Risk and Liability; Insurance and Finance Issues; and
Trends and Resources for Association Management and Job Success.
http://www.hmg.learnsomething.com

Case Western Reserve University: http://www.cwru.edu/msass/mandelcenter/index.html


Distance Learning For Nonprofit Organizations by Internet and E-Mail, workshops and
Courses in Nonprofit Management and Fundraising from Educational Funding Strategies,
based in Suffern, NY: Financial Management Training Center:
http://www.exinfm.com/training/index.html Has an online training program developed
by Matt H. Evans, CPA, CMA, CFM which is free, unless you want it for credit: with
downloadable modules so far in: Evaluating Financial Performance; Financial
Planningand Forecasting; Capital Budgeting Analysis; Managing Cash Flow; and more,
with others to be developed. The whole course to date can be downloaded in one
compressed word file: www.exinfm.com/training/zipcourses.zip

George Mason University Graduate Certificate In Nonprofit Management:


http://www.gmu.edu/departments/npmp or
http://www.gmu.edu/departments/mpa/npmp.htm

Indiana University-Purdue University-Indianapolis, Center on Philanthropy, Certificate in


Nonprofit Management: http://www.philanthropy.iupui.edu

The Institute for Nonprofit Organization Management: http://www.inom.org at the


University of San Francisco offers an Executive Certificate in Nonprofit Management:
http://www.inom.org/ed/index.html

The Institute for Nonprofit Management, an online Nonprofit Management “University”


based in Dallas and Centreport, TX has developed a series of self-study management
courses offered on a continuing education basis. http://www.inpm.pdx.edu/

The Learning Institute for Nonprofit Organizations, a collaboration between the


University of Wisconsin Extension, and the Society for Nonprofit Organizations:
http://www.uwex.edu/li

The Nonprofit Management “University,” of the International Alliance of Grant and


Nonprofit Management Consultants. http://www.iaogwanc.org/npmu/progover.asp

“Real Life Accounting for Non-Accountants” www.reallifeaccounting.com/default.asp ?


affilcode=wwl “The Basics for Non-Accountants in 20 Hours or Less…. a quick and
easy self-tutorial accounting course” (this item was listed on the WorldWideLearning
Directory based in Calgary, http://www.worldwidelearn.com/accounting-
courses.htm#online courses )

Regis University, Masters in Nonprofit Management: http://www.regis.edu/spsgrad

The University of Massachusetts Amherst has an online Certificate Program on the


Fundamentals of Arts Management: http://www.umass.edu/aes or
http://www.umass.edu/contined/online.html

The University of Illinois at Chicago Great Cities Institute, Certificate in Nonprofit


Management: http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/gci/programs/profed/online

University of Maryland Masters of Science in Management:


http://www.umuc.edu/prog/gsmt/gsmtdist/dist-ed.html

Portal Sites of Academic Nonprofit or Voluntary Sector Management Courses and


Professional Development Programs in the United States

Minnesota Organization Development Network (MNODN). “Educational Programs in


Organization Development (OD).” n.d. http://www.mnodn.org/about_OD/ OD_progs.htm

Mirabella, Roseanne M and Wish, Naomi B. Nonprofit Management Education: Current


Offerings In University Based Programs, Seton Hall University, 2001.
http://pirate.shu.edu/~mirabero/Kellogg.html

Rehnborg, Sarah Jane with revisions by The Virtual Volunteering Project of the RGK
Center for Philanthropy and Community Service at the LBJ School of Public
Affairs at the University of Texas Austin. “Resources For Volunteer Managers:
Courses in Volunteer Management at Institutions of Higher Education (United
States only).” 2001. http://www.serviceleader.org/training/courses.html

Textbooks on Accounting and Financial Management Used in Academic Nonprofit


Management and Public Administration Courses
Anthony, Richard N. and Young, David. W. Management control in nonprofit
organizations, 6th ed. Homewood, IL: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Anthony, Robert. Essentials of Accounting, 4th ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1988

Blazek, Jody. Financial Planning for Nonprofit Organizations. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1996.

Bryce, Herrington. Financial & Strategic Management for Nonprofit Organizations, 3rd
ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA). Financial Reporting for Non-Profit


Organizations. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants, 1980.

Engstrom, J. H. and Hay, L. E. Essentials of Accounting for Governmental and Not for
profit Organizations, 5th ed. Homewood, IL: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999.

Finkler, Steven A. Financial Management for Public, Health and Not-for-Profit


Organizations. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2000.

Garner, C. William. Accounting and Budgeting in Public and Non-Profit Organizations:


A Manager's Guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.

Gross, Malvern J. Jr, Richard F Larkin and John H McCarthy. Financial and Accounting
Guide for Not- for-Profit Organizations, 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Inc.,1995.

Haller, Leon. Financial Resource Management for Nonprofit Organizations. Englewood


Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1982

Hay, Leon E. Accounting for Governmental and Nonprofit Entities. Homewood, IL:
Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1980.

Henke, Emerson. Introduction to Nonprofit Organization Accounting. 2nd ed. Boston:


Kent Publishing, 1985.
Herzlinger, Regina E. & Nitterhouse, Denise. Financial Accounting and Managerial
Control for Nonprofit Organizations. Cincinnati, OH: South Western Publishing
Co., 1994.

Johnson, Sandra L. Understanding College and University Financial Statements.


Washington, DC: Association of Governing Boards of Colleges and Universities,
1994.

Lynn, Edward S and Freeman, Robert J. Fund Accounting: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

Mautz, Robert K. Financial Reporting for Nonprofit Organizations. New York: Garland
Publishing, Inc., 1994.

McMillan, Edward J. Budgeting and Financial Management for Not-for-Profit


Organizations. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Association Executives,
1994.

Norvelle, Joan. Introduction to Fund Accounting. 4th ed. Tucson, AZ: Thoth Books,
1991.

Shim, Jae K. and Siegel, Joel G. Financial Management for Nonprofits. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1997.
Wacht, Richard F. Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations. Atlanta:
Georgia State University Business Press, 1991.

Ziebell, Mary T and DeCosta, Don. Management Control in Nonprofit Organizations.


San Francisco: Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991.

Literature on Training and Management Assistance Resources

Berger, Renee A. “Phase One Evaluation: Community Foundations Initiative on


Management Assistance”, Teamworks, for The David and Lucile Packard Foundation,
1999. http://www.geofunders.org/main/resources/cfi.pdf

Brown, L. David; & Kalegaonkar, Archana. “Addressing Civil Society’s Challenges:


Support Organizations as Emerging Institutions”, IDR Reports Vol.15 No.2, Institute for
Development Research, 1999. http://www.jsi.com/idr/pubs.htm

Bubelis, Paul. “Management Assistance and Ontario Environmental Non-Profits: A


Preliminary Analysis”, The Sustainability Network. 1997. http://sustain.web.net

Building Bridges Between Practice and Knowledge in Nonprofit Management Education,


a four-year initiative of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation,
http://www.centerpointinstitute.org/Bridges/index.htm

Camino, Linda; & Heidrich, Katheryn W. “Voices of Wisdom: Knowledge and


Experience from Practitioner-Academic Teams in the Building Bridges Initiative,”
presented at ARNOVA in November 2000, for the Building Bridges Initiative. 2001.
http://www.centerpointinstitute.org/Bridges/Papers&Reports/ Voices%20of
%20Wisdom.pdf

Cargo, Russell A. “Made for Each Other: Nonprofit Management Education, Online
Technology, and Libraries,” Journal of Academic Librarianship, Jan. 26 (1): 15-20, Jan.
2000.

Connor, Joseph A.; Kadel-Taras, Stephanie; & Vinokur-Kaplan, Diane. “The Role of
Nonprofit Management Support Organizations in Sustaining Community Collaborations,”
Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 10 (2), Winter 1999

Cooper, Mike; & Fraser, Darlene. “Voluntarism at its Best,” LawNow, Aug./Sept. 2001.
http://www.extension.ualberta.ca/lawnow/nfp/261-best.htm

Culver, David M.; & Pathy, Laurence G. The Study for Charitable Excellence: A Status
Report on Capacity Building, and its Appendices, Jan. 2000. Available on the Canadian
Centre for Philanthropy site, http://www.ccp.ca/information/documents/cp164e.pdf and
http://www.ccp.ca/information/documents/cp164e-app.pdf
David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Interim Evaluation Report on the David and
Lucile Packard Foundation's Community Foundations Initiative on Management
Assistance, 2000. http://www.geofunders.org/main/resources/cfi.pdf

Fletcher, Kathleen. “Teaching Nonprofit Management Online: Instructors' Experiences


and Lessons Learned," A Paper Presented to the 1998 ARNOVA Conference. 1998.
http://www.futureu.com/fletcherarnova98.html

Grant, Ruth. “A Report on the Feasibility of a National Centre for Not-for-Profit


Boards,”
prepared for the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy and the Kahanoff Foundation, May
1996. formerly online at http://www.ccp.ca/information/documents/ grantrep.htm

Katsioloudes, Marios I.; & Tischio, Victoria. “Critical thinking in nonprofit management
education,” Human Systems Management, 20 (1): 47-57. 2000.

Kattelus, Susan; Clifford, David; Warren, Bruce; & Wiencek, Peggy. “Assessing
Management Capacity in Washtenaw County Nonprofit Organizations”, Institute For The
Study of Children, Families & Communities, (Ypsilanti, Michigan). 2001.
http://www.emich.edu/public/iscfc/nprofitrept.pdf

Larson, R. Sam; & Barnes, Sonia. “The Builders Study - Building Philanthropy and
Nonprofit Academic Centers: A View from Ten Builders”, May 2001, for the Building
Bridges Initiative,
http://www.centerpointinstitute.org/Bridges/Papers&Reports/BuildersStudy.pdf

Larson, R. Sam; & Long, Robert F. “Nonprofit Management Centers: Moving Beyond
the Periphery,” presented at ARNOVA in November, 1998, for the Building Bridges
Initiative, 1998 http://www.centerpointinstitute.org/
Bridges/Papers&Reports/NonprofitManagementCenters.pdf

Larson, R. Sam; & Wilson, Mark I. “Building Bridges Initiative Cluster Evaluation:
Survey of Nonprofit Management Students”, March 2001, for the Building Bridges
Initiative, http://www.centerpointinstitute.org/Bridges/
Papers&Reports/BBIStudentSurveyRev2.pdf

Lewis, Andy; & Burnham, Katie. “Converting Knowledge to Practice - The Learning
Institute for Nonprofit Organizations,” Paper for ARNOVA conference, 1999.
http://www.uwex.edu/li/arnova.doc

Mirabella, Roseanne M; & Wish, Naomi B. “Educational Impact [of] Graduate


Nonprofit
Degree Programs: Perspectives of Multiple Stakeholders,” Nonprofit Management and
Leadership, 9 (3): 329-340, Spring 1999.
Mirabella, Roseanne M; & Wish, Naomi Bailin. “The "Best Place" Debate: A
Comparison of Graduate Education Programs for Nonprofit Managers,” Public
Administration Review, 60 (3): 219-229, May/June 2000.

Netting, F. Ellen; Williams, Frank G; & Hyer, Kathryn. “Resource centers: A


foundation's strategy to support nonprofit grantees,” Nonprofit Management and
Leadership, 8 (3): 261-274, Spring 1998.

Newman, Audrey. Built to Change: Catalytic Capacity-Building in Nonprofit


Organizations, a Sabbatical Report submitted to The David and Lucile Packard
Foundation and The Nature Conservancy, April 2001,
http://www.geofunders.org/main/resources/AN%20sabbatical%20report.pdf

Nyp, Gary. “Good Advice Doesn't Have to Cost a Fortune,” Front & Centre, 7 (4): 1, 6-7,
July 2000.

Peters, Jeanne; Wolfred, Timothy; with Allison, Mike; Chan, Cristina; Masaoka, Jan; &
Llamas, Genevieve. Daring to Lead: Nonprofit Executive Directors and Their Work
Experience, CompassPoint Nonprofit Services, San Francisco. 2001.
http://www.compasspoint.org/temp/research_reports/Daring.pdf

Pinder, Jeanne B. “Big Business: Helping the Helpers,” The New York Times, Nov. 18,
1998.

Smith, John Palmer. “Nonprofit Management Education in the United States,”


presented to the Building Bridges Initiative Conference of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation,
October 7, 1999 in Buenos Aires, 1999.
http://www.centerpointinstitute.org/Bridges/Papers&Reports/JPSspeech.pdf

Wish, Naomi B; & Mirabella, Roseanne M. “Curricular variations in nonprofit


management graduate programs,” Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 9 (1): 99-109,
Fall 1998.

Resources From The Capacity Joint Table


The Capacity Joint Table (CJT) was one of seven Government of Canada-voluntary
sector tables established under the Voluntary Sector Initiative (VSI). The VSI’s long-
term objective is to strengthen the voluntary sector's capacity to meet the challenges of
the future, and to enhance the relationship between the sector and the federal government
in order to better serve Canadians.

Skills Development and Human Resources Management


Developing Human Resources in the Voluntary Sector (HRVS) www.hrvs-rhsbc.ca
National Learning Initiative (NLI): A National Skills and Learning Framework for the
Voluntary Sector and Voluntary sector leadership competencies www.nvo-onb.ca

Research and Information Sharing


The Capacity to Serve: A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Facing Canada's Nonprofit
and Voluntary Organizations www.nonprofitscan.ca
National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations (NSNVO)
www.nonprofitscan.ca (2004)
Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project www.nonprofitscan.ca (2004)
National Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating (NSGVP)
www.givingandvolunteering.ca

Policy Capacity
Policy Internships and Fellowships: Bridging the Policy Dialogue Between Voluntary
Organizations and the Federal Government www.cvsrd.org and
http://publicadmin.uvic.ca/cpss
Participating in Federal Public Policy: A Guide for the Voluntary Sector www.vsi-isbc.ca

Financial Capacity
Funding Matters: The Impact of Canada’s New Funding Regime on Nonprofit and
Voluntary Organizations www.ccsd.ca
Resources for Accountability and Financial Management in the Voluntary Sector
www.vsi-isbc.ca
Inventory of Effective Practices in Financing and Resourcing of Voluntary Sector
Organizations in Canada www.vsi-isbc.ca

These projects are funded by the Government of Canada through the Voluntary Sector
Initiative.
For more information, visit www.vsi-isbc.ca.