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HANDBOOK OF

WATER ENGINEERING

PROBLEMS

Cutoff Time

Mohammad Valipour

001

Author: Mohammad Valipour

Published by OMICS Group eBooks

731 Gull Ave, Foster City. CA 94404, USA

This book is Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license,

which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial

purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum

dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. However, users who aim to disseminate

and distribute copies of this book as a whole must not seek monetary compensation for such

service (excluded OMICS Group representatives and agreed collaborations). After this work

has been published by OMICS Group, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or

part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the

work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify

the original source.

Notice:

Statements and opinions expressed in the book are these of the individual contributors and

not necessarily those of the publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of

information contained in the published chapters. The publisher assumes no responsibility

for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials,

instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book.

Cover OMICS Group Design team

First published April, 2014

A free online edition of this book is available at www.esciencecentral.org/ebooks

Additional hard copies can be obtained from orders @ www.esciencecentral.org/ebooks

Preface

In the near future, energy is converted as a luxury item and water is considered as the most

vital item in the world due to reduction of water resources in most areas. In this condition,

role of water science researchers is more important than ever. If a water engineering student

is not educated well, he/she will not solves problems of water sciences in the future. Many

engineer students learn all necessary lessons in university, but they cannot to answer to the

problems or to pass the exams because of forgetfulness or lack of enough exercise. This book

contains one hundred essential problems related to water engineering with a small volume (20

problems about irrigation, 20 problems about drainage, 20 problems about water quality, 20

problems about hydrology, and 20 problems about hydraulics). Undoubtedly, many problems

can be added to the book but the author tried to mention only more important problems and

to prevent increasing volume of the book due to help to feature of portability of the book.

To promotion of student skill, both SI and English systems have been used in the problems.

All of the problems were solved completely. This book is useful for not only exercising and

passing the university exams but also for use in actual projects as a handbook. The handbook

of water engineering problems is usable for agricultural, civil, and environmental students,

teachers, experts, researchers, engineers, designers, and all enthusiastic readers in surface

and pressurized irrigation, drainage engineering, agricultural water management, water

resources, hydrology, hydrogeology, hydroclimatology, hydrometeorology, and hydraulics

!"#$%&'()")"*+,%,-"'-.'%-+$/'.0'-1"'2..3'45$'-.'%.#6"'-1"'7).2#"8%',%'"491'477).7),4-"'2..3'

about water engineering; however, the author recommends studying the references to better

understanding of the problems and presented solutions. It is an honor for the author to receive

any review and suggestion for improvement of book quality.

Mohammad Valipour

About Author

at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. He completed his

B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering-Irrigation at Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran in 2006 and

M.Sc. in Agricultural Engineering-Irrigation and Drainage at University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

in 2008. Number of his publications is more than 50. His current research interests are surface

and pressurized irrigation, drainage engineering, relationship between energy and environment,

agricultural water management, mathematical and computer modeling and optimization, water

resources, hydrology, hydrogeology, hydro climatology, hydrometeorology, hydro informatics,

1/$).$/548,9%:'1/$)4+#,9%:';+,$'8"9145,9%:'45$'1"4-'-)45%0")',5'%.,#'8"$,4&

Contents

Problems

References

Page

06

57

Handbook of Water

Engineering Problems

Mohammad Valipour*

Department of Water Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad

University, Kermanshah, Iran

*Corresponding author: Mohammad Valipour, Department of

Water Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Kermanshah, Iran; Email: vali-pour@hotmail.com

Problems

1. In a trickle irrigation system, maximum allowable depletion is 35 percent, moisture area is 46 percent, root depth

is 1.8 meters, soil water holding capacity is 95 millimeters (in root depth), water requirement is 5 millimeters,

canopy is 75 percent, electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract is 8 decisiemens per meter, and electrical

conductivity of irrigation water is 0.3 decisiemens per meter. Determine maximum net irrigation depth, maximum

daily transpiration, maximum irrigation interval, and leaching requirement.

MAD = 35 %

Pw = 46 %

Z = 1.8 m

Ud = 5mm

Pd = 75%

95 mm

ECw = 0.3 dS / m

ECe =8dS/m

wa !

1.8 m

MAD Pw

35 46

95

Maximum net irrigation depth !

"

" Z " wa !

"

"1.8 "

! 15.295 mm

100 100

100 100

1.8

P

75

Maximum daily transpiration ! Maximum net irrigation depth " d ! 15.295 "

! 11.5 mm / day

100

100

Ud

5

!

! 10.461 hr # 10 hr

Td 11.471

EC w

0.3

Leaching requirement !

!

! 0.008

5 " ECe $ EC w 5 " 8 $ 0.3

Maximumirrigationinterval !

2. According to the table (related to the corn), if irrigation efficiency is 40 percent and performance ratio is 70 percent,

determine optimum irrigated area.

T1 = 25 days

Growth stage

Plant establishment

Chlorophyll

Flowering

Product formation

Time (day)

25

30

30

38

ETm (mm/day)

3.6

6.4

9.5

7.2

130000

240000

260000

370000

ky

0.4

0.4

1.5

0.5

T2 = 30 days

T3 = 30 days

V1= 130000m3

V2 = 240000m3

Ky2 = 0.4

Ky3 = 1.5

Ya

! 70%

Ym

ETa1 !

T4 = 38 days

ETm4=7.2mm/day

V3 = 260000m3

Ky4 = 0.5

V4 = 370000m3

Ky1 = 0.4

E = 40%

% ET &

Ya

! 1 $ k y " '1 $ a (

Ym

) ETw *

V1 " E

130000 " 40 "1000 2.08 "106

"1000 !

!

100 " A1 " T1

100 " A1 " 25

A1

ETa 2 !

V2 " E

240000 " 40 "1000 3.2 "106

"1000 !

!

100 " A2 " T2

100 " A2 " 30

A2

% 5 "105 &

1 $ 0.7 ! 0.4 " '1 $

( + A2 ! 200 ha

A2 *

)

ETa 3 !

V3 " E

260000 " 40 "1000 3.467 "106

"1000 !

!

100 " A3 " T3

100 " A3 " 30

A3

1 $ 0.7 ! 0.4 " '1 $

( + A1 # 231 ha

A1

)

*

006

1 $ 0.7 ! 1.5 " '1 $

( + A3 # 46 ha

A3

)

*

ETa 4 !

V4 " E

370000 " 40 " 1000 3.895 " 106

" 1000 !

!

100 " A4 " T4

100 " A4 " 38

A3

1 $ 0.7 ! 0.5 " '1 $

( + A4 # 135 ha

A4

)

*

Maximum irrigated area is related to the plant establishment stage (231 ha), however optimum irrigated area is calculated

as follows:

A0 = min {A1, A2, A3, A4} = min {231, 200, 46, 135} = 46ha

Due to high value of ky3 and for achievement to relative performance (70%), 46 hectares from area can only be irrigated

as optimum in flowering stage.

3. In a basin irrigation system, infiltration equation is Z = 6T0.5 (T as min and Z as millimeter), discharge in width

unit is 0.000286 cubic meters per second per meter, available discharge for irrigation is 0.00283 cubic meters per

second, there is not runoff, basin width is 6 meters, requirement effective storage in root depth is 100 millimeters, and

final infiltration after 4 hours (when water reach to the end of basin) is 10 millimeters per hour. Determine length of

basin, irrigation time, and average deep percolation.

q ! 0.286 "10$3

m3

s.m

Q = 0.00283 m3/s

Dy = 100mm

Tco !

Tt = 4 hr

in " L

dz

i!

q

dt

i!

Runoff = 0

w = 6m

i = 10 mm/hr

dz

dt

10

! 3 " Tco $0.5

60

d 2Z

0.05 dz

0.05

!$

! $1.5 " T $1.5 ! $

" 3 " Tl $0.5 + Tl ! 600 min

2

dt

60 dt

60

Z = 6 x 6000.5 = 146.969mm

in = i x TCO= 10 x 5.4 = 54mm

60 " 324 !

54 "10$3 " L

+ L ! 102.96 m

0.286 "10$3

4. In a border irrigation system, equation of infiltration rate into the soil is I=20t-0.5, net irrigation requirement is

5 centimeters, and advance time is 48 minutes. Determine amount of infiltrated water in beginning of border.

in = 5cm

Tt = 48min

i = I dt = 20t-0.5 dt = 40t0.5 + C

tn = 4 x tt = 4 x 48 = 192 min

% 192 &

50 ! 40 " '

(

) 60 " 24 *

0.5

, C + C ! 35.394 mm

dI

0.05

! $10 " to $1.5 ! $

" 20 " to $0.5 + to ! 600 min

dt

60

% 600 &

i ! 40 " t 0.5 , 35.394 ! 40 " '

(

) 60 " 24 *

0.5

, 35.394 ! 61.214 mm

x = 8tx0.7

40 = 8tx10.7

tx5 = 99.325 min

80 = 8tx20.7

120 = 8tx30.7

tn = tco tx

5. In a furrow irrigation system, length of furrow is 200 meters, advance time is 240 minutes, advance equation is

x = ptxr that p and r are 8 and 0.7, respectively. Distances of selected stations from beginning of furrow are 40, 80,

120, 160, and 200 meters. Integrated infiltration equation is Z = 5t0.56 (t as minute and Z as millimeter). Determine time

of infiltration opportunity and depth water into the soil in each station. In addition, if width of furrow is 0.8 meters,

input discharge into the furrow is 1.5 liters per second, and root depth is 90 millimeters, determine deep percolation

and runoff.

007

Z1 = 5 x 230.0340.56 = 105.093 mm

Z2 = 5 x 213.1730.56 = 100.707 mm

Z3 = 5 x 192.1230.56 = 95.011 mm

Z4 = 5 x 167.7870.56 = 88.071 mm

in " w ""L

tco

Q!

1.5 !

+ in ! 135 mm

240 " 60

!

! 93.735 mm

5

5

ddp = Zavg dy = 93.735 90 = 3.3735 mm

Runoff = in Zavg = 135 93.735 mm

Z avg !

6. In a basin irrigation system, length of basin is 200 meters, advance time is 80 minutes, and infiltration equation

is Z = 0.00210.331+0.00015. Non-erosive velocity in the soil is 13 meters per minute, considered depth to store in

the end of basin is 10 centimeters, and Mannings coefficient is 0.04. Determine cutoff time, infiltrated water depth in

beginning of the basin, and deep percolation.

10 = 0.0021 x 0.331 + 0.00015 x = 1103.744 min

tco = + tt = 1103.744 + 80 = 1183.744 min

Z ! 0.0021" - 60 "1183.744 .

1.827

Qmax

0.23

/

% n2 L & 0

! 1Vmax " '

( 2

) 7200 * 42

31

0.331

1.827

0.23

/

% 0.042 " 200 & 0

! 113 " '

( 2

) 7200 * 42

31

! 1.608 m3 / min

5y

5x

7. In a sprinkle irrigation system, length of lateral is 390 meters, discharge of sprinkler is 21 liters per minute,

height of riser is 1.5 meters, downhill slop is 0.015, kd = 3.8, Se = 13 m, and C =130. Determine allowed pressure loss,

proper diameter (among 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) as inch, input pressure, end pressure, and value and position of minimum

pressure. Furthermore, investigate pressure variations in the lateral.

Hfa = 0.2 x Ha

qa ! kd H a

1.75

/

x 0

7

S ! 7.89 "10 " 1QL $ qa 2 D $4.75

Se 4

3

L

390 " 0.35

QL ! " qa !

! 10.5 l / s

Se

13

1.75

x

/

0

0.015 ! 7.89 "107 " 110.5 $ " 0.352 D $4.75

13

3

4

dy

If: D ! 2 in ! 50.8 mm + x # 390 m

dx

Hmax Hmin = 6.108 = Hf 0.5x 0.015 x 390 Hf = 9.033m

9.033 !

+ J ! 6.434

100

J = 7.89 x 107 x 10.51.75 x (3 x 25.4)-4.75 = 5.557

J " F " L 5.557 " 0.36 " 390

!

! 7.802 m

100

100

3

1

3

1

H L ! H a , H r , H f $ 5EL ! 30.54 , 1.5 , " 7.802 $ " 0.015 " 390 ! 34.967 m

4

2

4

2

1

1

H end ! H L $ H f , EL ! 34.967 $ 7.802 , " 0.015 " 390 ! 30.09 m

2

2

1.75

x

/

0

7

0.015 ! 7.89 "10 " 110.5 $ " 0.352 " 76.2$4.75 + x ! 376.721 m

13

3

4

J " F " L 0.015 " 0.36 " 376.721

!

! 0.02 m

Hf !

100

100

1

H min ! 34.967 $ 7.802 , " - 0.015 " 376.721. ! 29.99 m + H min 6 H end 6 H L + OK

2

Hf !

008

8. In a farm soil, infiltration rate equation is i = 0.095t0.36, which t is time as minute and i is infiltration rate as

centimeter per minute. Determine time to reach the final infiltration rate and amount of infiltrated water in the soil.

di

! $0.0342t $1.36

dt

0.05

$0.0342t $1.36 ! $

0.095t $0.36 . + t ! 432 min

60

t

I ! 7i dt !

0

432

7 0.095t

$0.36

dt ! 7.215 cm

9. A trial configuration of a hand- move sprinkler system has a lateral running down slope form a mainline along

a constant grade of 0.005m/m. the design operating pressure of the nozzle is 310 kpa. The trial length of the lateral

results in a distance of 400m between the first and the last sprinkler. Determine maximum allowable head loss to

friction as m/m.

Ha !

310 "103

P

! 3

! 31.61 m

8 g 10 " 9.81

Since the elevation decreases along the lateral, the increase in elevation is ve

He = - s x l = - .005 x 400 = 2 m

Setting the allowable pressure difference between the critical sprinklers equal to 20%

Hc !

! 0.021m / m

400

10. For the following data, calculate the total available water and soil-moisture deficit.

Soil depth (cm)

Gb

Wfc

Wwp

0-15

1.25

0.24

0.13

0.16

15-30

1.30

0.28

0.14

0.18

30-60

1.35

0.31

0.15

0.23

60-90

1.40

0.33

0.15

0.26

90-120

1.40

0.31

0.14

0.28

(mm)

Wfc = Gb.Wfc

Wwp = Gb.Wwp

W = Gb.W

Ds = (wfc-w)d (mm)

150

0.3

0.1625

20.625

0.2

15.0

150

0.364

0.182

27.300

0.234

19.5

300

0.4185

0.2025

64.800

0.3105

32.4

300

0.462

0.21

75.600

0.364

29.4

300

0.434

0.196

71.400

0.392

12.6

Total

259.725

108.9

!"#$%&"#'()*+%,+-.#(%/%01234%&&%! 109 mm

11. The culturable command area for a distributary channel is 15000 hectares. The intensity of irrigation is 35%

for wheat and 20% for rice. The kor period for wheat and rice are 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. The kor watering depths

for wheat and rice are 135 and 190 mm, respectively. Estimate the distributary discharge.

Since the water demands for wheat and rice are at different times, these are not cumulative. Therefore, the distributary

channel should be designed for higher of the two values, i.e., 3.14 cms.

12. A soil core was drawn with a core sampler having an inside dimension of 5 cm diameter and 15 cm length

from a field two days after irrigation when the soil water was near field capacity. The weight of the core sampler

with fresh soil sample was 1.95 kg and the weight of the same on oven drying was 1.84 kg. The empty core sampler

weighted 1.4 kg. Calculate the (a) bulk density of soil, (b) water holding capacity of soil in per cent on volume basis

and (c) depth of water held per meter depth of soil.

Weight of the oven dry soil core = 1.84 1.4 = 0.44 kg

0.55 $ 0.44

0.11

Soil water content !

"100 !

"100 ! 25%

0.44

0.44

(a) Volume of the soil core = r2h = x 2.52 x 15 = 294.64 cm3

Bulk density ! Bd !

0.44 "1000

g

! 1.51 3

294.64

cm

009

(b) Water holding capacity of the soil = Soil water content on weight basis x Bulk density = 25x 1051 = 37.75%

(c) Water holding capacity of the soil per meter depth of soil = 37.75 cm

13. Find out the water content of a soil on weight and volume basis just before irrigation from the following data.

The thermo-gravimetric method is followed for determination of the water content.

(i) Weight of the empty aluminium box (W1) = 35.23 g

(ii) Weight of the aluminum box + fresh soil sample (W2) = 95.33 g

(iii) Weight of oven dry soil + box (W3) = 85.12 g

(iv) Density of water (w) =1 g/cm3

(v) Bulk density of the soil =1.54 g/cm3

Weight of the fresh soil sample = W2 W1 = 95.33 35.23 = 60.1g

Weight of water in the soil sample = W2 W3 = 95.33 85.12 = 10.21g

Weight of the oven dry soil = 85.12 35.23 = 49.89g

Soil water content !

10.21

"100 !

"100 ! 20.47%

Weight of oven $ dry soil " density of water

49.89 "1

Soil water content = Soil water content on weight basis x bulk density

Soil water content = Pw x Bd = 2047 x 1.54 = 31.52%

14. The daily maximum and minimum air temperature are respectively 24.5 and 15C. Determine the saturation

vapour pressure for that day.

/ 17.27 " 24.5 0

! 3.075 kPa

e9 -Tmax . ! 0.6108exp 1

3 24.5 , 237.3 42

/ 17.27 "15 0

e9 -Tmin . ! 0.6108exp 1

2 ! 1.705 kPa

315 , 237.3 4

es !

(30.75 , 1.705)

! 2.39 kPa

2

Note that for temperature 19.75C (which is Tmean), e (T) = 2.30 kPa

The mean saturation vapour pressure is 2.39 kPa.

15. Given: Assume crop coefficient (Kc) = 1.0 for this period. Pan coefficient (Kp) = 0.75. Daily Evaporation from

a class A evaporation pan, in/d

Year

Day

10

0.64

0.32

0.24

0.30

0.15

0.22

0.28

0.35

0.23

0.27

0.25

0.41

0.26

0.17

0.31

0.42

0.18

0.42

0.66

0.28

0.35

0.30

0.17

0.25

0.52

0.15

0.32

0.23

0.22

0.27

0.31

0.10

0.39

0.16

0.16

0.45

0.31

0.42

0.60

0.26

0.20

0.14

0.29

0.30

0.42

0.45

0.33

0.43

0.39

0.54

0.49

0.36

0.36

0.60

0.39

0.30

0.38

0.22

0.55

0.39

0.38

0.35

0.33

0.23

0.22

0.49

0.36

0.36

0.68

0.43

0.27

0.36

0.11

0.36

0.21

0.30

0.41

0.21

0.23

0.42

0.61

0.45

0.23

0.35

0.22

0.45

0.26

0.26

0.23

0.43

10

0.55

0.47

0.40

0.43

0.06

0.52

0.45

0.35

0.30

0.30

Example calculation for day 1 of year 1:

ETo = KpEp an = 0.750.64 = 0.48 in/day

ETc = KcETo = 1.00.48 = 0.48 in/day

Daily crop evapotranspiration, in/d

year

Day

10

0.48

0.24

0.18

0.23

0.11

0.17

0.21

0.26

0.17

0.20

0.19

0.31

0.20

0.13

0.23

0.32

0.14

0.32

0.49

0.21

0.26

0.23

0.13

0.19

0.39

0.11

0.24

0.17

0.17

0.20

0.23

0.08

0.29

0.12

0.21

0.34

0.23

0.32

0.45

0.20

0.15

0.11

0.22

0.23

0.31

0.34

0.25

0.32

0.29

0.41

0010

0.37

0.27

0.27

0.45

0.29

0.23

0.29

0.17

0.41

0.29

0.29

0.26

0.25

0.17

0.17

0.37

0.27

0.27

0.51

0.32

0.20

0.27

0.08

0.27

0.16

0.23

0.31

0.16

0.17

0.32

0.46

0.34

0.17

0.26

0.17

0.34

0.20

0.20

0.23

0.23

10

0.41

0.35

0.30

0.32

0.05

0.39

0.34

0.26

0.23

0.23

An.max

0.48

0.35

0.29

0.45

0.39

0.39

0.34

0.32

0.51

0.41

1

Annual

0.29

maximums(in/d)

9.1

Pb

16. Given:

10

0.32

0.34

0.35

0.39

0.39

0.41

0.45

0.48

0.51

18.2

27.3

36.4

45.5

54.5

63.6

72.7

81.8

90.9

IF = 0.5

Fn= 4 in

s0 = 0.001 ft/ft

n = 0.15

E = 65%

Find: Qu and Ta

L= 650 ft

Tn = 328 min

TL = 8 to 20 min

Assume TL = 14 min

LFn

ft 3

650 " 4

!

! 0.018

+ TL ! 12 min

s

7.2 -Tn $ TL . E 7.2 - 328 $ 14 . 65

Qu !

Assume TL = 12 min

Qu !

LFn

ft 3

650 " 4

!

! 0.018

+ OK

s

7.2 -Tn $ TL . E 7.2 - 328 $ 12 . 65

Check flow depth and stream size

Maximum depth of flow=0.15 ft OK

Minimum allowable Qu = 0.00001349 65 = 0.0088 OK

17. Given: IF = 1.0

d1 = 0.3 ft

Fn = 3 in

s0 = 0.001 ft/ft

n = 0.15

E = 75%

Q u ! 0.049

Tn = 106 min

TL = 11 min

ft 3

s

Ta = Tn TL = 106 11 = 95 min

75

! 838 ft

3

Le ! -1 $ 0.75 . " 0.7 " 0.75 " 838 ! 110 ft

Fg ! 720 " 0.049 "

E!

-838 , 110 .

3

! 85%

3.54

in = 75 mm

L = 275 m

Q = 0.6 l/s

S = 0.004 m/m

W = 0.75 m

n=0.04

g = 1.904 x 10-4

gx

1.904 "10$4 " 275

!

! 1.38

0.6 0.004

Q S

Tt !

x

275

exp : !

exp -1.38 . ! 144 min

f

7.61

% Qn &

P ! 0.265 '

(

) S*

0.425

, 0.227 ! 0.265 '

(

) 0.004 *

0 0.72

/ W

0 b / 0.75

1 75 0.4 $ 7 2

1 in $ c 2

!

Tn ! 1 P

1

2 ! 999 min

2

1 0.9246 2

1 a 2

3

4

3

4

ig !

60QTco

! 200 mm

0.75 " 275

0.425

, 0.227 ! 0.4 m

OMICS Group eBooks

:!

0011

T0$ L ! Tco $

0.0929

% 0.305: &

fL '

(

) L *

0.0929

2 3% 0.305 "1.38 &

7.61" 275 '

(

275

)

*

P

0.4

0.72

b

! / a -T0$ L . , c 0 ! /0.925 -1095 . , 7 0

! 80 mm

3

4W 3

4 0.75

T0$ L ! 1143 $

iavg

ddp = iavg in = 80 75 = 5 mm

ed ! 100

in

75

! 100

! 37.5%

ig

200

19. The gross command area of an irrigation project is 1.5 lakh hectares, where 7500 hectare is uncultivable.

The area of kharif crop is 60000 hectares and that of Rabi crop is 40000 hectares. The duty of Kharif is 3000 ha/m3/s

and the duty of Rabi is 4000 ha/m3/s. Find (a) the design discharges of channel assuming 10% transmission loss. (b)

Intensity of irrigation for Kharif and Rabi.

Cultivable command area = 150000 7500 = 142500 ha

Discharge for Kharif crop,

Area of Kharif crop = 60000 ha

ha

Duty of Kharif crop ! 3000 3

m

60000

Required discharge of channel !

! 20 m3 / s

3000

Considering 10% loss

10

! 22 m3 / s

100

Area of Rabi crop = 40000ha

ha

m3 / s

40000

! 10 m3

4000

110

! 11 m3 / s

100

So, the design discharge of the channel should be 22 m3 /s, as it is maximum

60000

Intensity of irrigation for Kharif !

! 42.11%

142500

40000

Intensity of irrigation for Rabi !

! 28.07%

142500

20. Determine the head discharge of a canal from the following data. The value of time factor may be assumed as

0.75.

Design discharge ! 10 "

crop

Area in hectare

Duty in hectares/cumec

Rice

120

4000

1500

Wheat

120

3500

2000

Sugarcane

310

3000

1200

4000

! 2.667 m3 / s - Kharif .

1500

3500

! 1.75 m3 / s - Rabi .

2000

3000

(c) For sugarcane !

! 2.5 m3 / s - perennial .

1200

As, the base period of sugarcane is 310 days, it will require water both in Kharif and Rabi seasons.

(b) For wheat !

Now, actual discharge required in Kharif season = 2.667 + 2.5 = 5.167 m3/s

Actual discharge required in Rabi season = 1.75 + 2.5 = 4.25 m3/s.

0012

So, the maximum discharge in Kharif season (i.e. 5.167 m3 / s) should be taken into consideration as it will be able to

serve both the seasons.

Time factor ! 0.75 !

Actual discharge

5.167

!

Design discharge Design discharge

Design discharge !

5.167

! 6.889 m3 / s

0.75

21. In a farm, soil moisture is 30 percent (in saturated status) and actual density is 2.65 grams per cubic centimeters.

Determine bulk density and porosity. Volume of a soil sample of this farm is 80 cubic centimeters and its weight is 148

grams. After dehydration, weight of it is 120 grams. Determine porosity, drainable porosity and hydraulic conductivity.

s = 2.65 gr / cm3

m = 30%

Mt = 148 gr

Ms

Vs

M

2.65 ! s

Vs

Vs = 0.795Vs

Ms = 120 gr

8s !

Vt = Vs + Vw

Mw = 0.3

Ms = 0.3 x 2.65

Vt = 80 cm3

;m !

Mw

Ms

8b !

Ms

Vt

0.795Vs

M

< 2=

kg

gr

!1 3 ! w !

+ Vw ! 0.795Vs 2

3

m

cm

Vw

Vw

<v

8b !

Ms

Vs , Vw

8b !

2.65Vs

! 1.476 gr / cm3

Vs , 0.795Vs

>!

M w 28

!

! 0.189

M t 148

8 w ! 1000

Va = 0

n!

Va , Vw

0 , 0.795Vs

!

! 0.443

Vs , Va , Vw Vs , 0 , 0.795Vs

< n OK

22. In a drainage system, assume: K = 0.305 meters per day, d = 6.1 meters, depth to dmin = 2.7 meters, water table at

ground, surface at t = 0, specific yield = 7 percent, and existing drains, are 91 meters apart. Determine: Time required

for the water table to drop 1.5 meters, below the ground surface.

y

y

D? ! d ? , 0 ! 5.75 m

Y = 2.7 1.5 = 1.2 m

D = 4.4 m

D ! d , 0 ! 7.45 m

Y0 = 2.7 m

2

2

y 1.2

KD?t

!

! 0.444 +

! 0.096

y0 2.7

SL2

t!

!

! 31.7 days

KD?

0.305 " 5.75

The water table will drop 1.5 meters below the ground surface in about 32 days.

23. Piezometers are placed side by side in a field at depths of (a) 20, (b) 40, and (c) 60 feet below the ground surface.

The pressure heads are 21 feet, 43 feet, and 68 feet respectively. (a) What are the hydraulic gradients? (b) Which way is

the water flowing? (c) If the hydraulic conductivity from a-b is 2 inches per hour what is the conductivity b-c? (d) What

is the vertical conductivity a-c?

(a)

h1 = 21 ft

ia $b !

- h1 , Z1 . $ - h2 , Z 2 . ! - 21 , 80 . $ - 43 , 60 . ! 0.1

ib $c !

h2 = 43 ft

Z 2 $ Z1

h3 = 68 ft

60 $ 80

- h2 , Z 2 . $ - h3 , Z3 . ! - 43 , 60 . $ - 68 , 40 . ! 0.25

ib $c !

Z3 $ Z 2

40 $ 60

- 21 , 80 . $ - 40 , 68. ! 0.175

40 $ 80

(b) To up

(c) Ka-b = 2 in / hr

Kb-c = 0.8 in / hr

20 , 20

! 1.14 in / hr

20

20

i

,

2 0.8

i

24. Use the Bureau of Reclamation graphs to compute the spacing required for the water table to drop from the soil

surface to a depth of 1 foot in a 2-day period. The following information is available: The hydraulic conductivity is 1.8

inches per hour. Tile drains are to be placed 3.5 feet below the soil surface. The impermeable layer is 6.5 feet below the

soil surface. What is the average flow out of a 200-acre field for the 2-day period?

(d) K a $c !

@L

L

@K

Ka-bia-b = kb-cib-c

013

t = 2 days

K = 3.6 ft / day

S = 14%

D ! de ,

3.5

D ! 3,

! 4.75 ft

2

L2 !

y0

2

Y = 2.5 ft

d = d0

y 2.5

KDt

!

! 0.715 + 2 ! 0.048

y0 3.5

SL

KDt

!

+ L ! 71.34 ft

0.048S 0.048 " 0.14

r = 0.7 ft

d

3

!

! 2.968 ft

8d

8d

8" 3

8" 3

1,

ln 3

1,

ln 3

AS A r

A " 71.34 A " 0.7

3.5

D ! 2.968 ,

! 4.72 ft

2

de !

L!'

(

) 0.048 " 0.14 *

0.5

! 71.11 ft

q!C

2A ky0 D % A &

' (

86400 L ) L *

C = 0.79

2 " A " 3.6 " 3.5 " 4.72 8709365

q ! 0.79 "

"

! 5.88 ft 3 / s

86400 " 71.11

71.11

25. There is a drainage system with the following situation:

Steady rate of rainfall l= 0.009 m/day

Surface runoff = 0.001 m/day

Deep seepage = 0.001 m/day

Hydraulic conductivity = 0.1 m/day.

The drain pipes are placed at a depth of 1.2 m. The impermeable layer is at a depth of 2.5 m, and the water table

should not be allowed to be closer than 70 cm from the soil surface. Determine drainage spacing.

R = 0.009 m / day

m = 0.5 m

K

0.1

d

!

! 14.3 6 100 + ! 2.6 + L ! 8.1 m

n 0.007

m

K = 0.1 m / day

26. The E.C. of irrigation water is 1.3 mmhos /cm. Assume a consumptive use of 3.5 in/day, a crop tolerance of 6

mmhos /cm; a soil hydraulic conductivity of 0.3 in/hour. The drains are to be placed at 8 feet and have a radius of 0.30

foot. The water table is not to be closer than 4.5 feet from the soil surface. The impermeable layer is 10 feet from the

soil surface. (a) Determine drain spacing. (b) What will be the flow in cfs out of a 400-acre field? (c) If the outlet is on a

grade of 0.001 what size of pipe is required? (d) If the water table rises to within 2 feet of the soil surface following an

irrigation, how long will it take for it to drop to 4 feet below the soil surface (for the drain spacing calculated in a, using

the Bureau of Reclamation charts)?

ECiw

1.3

"100 !

"100 ! 21.67%

(a) LR !

ECdw

6

LR !

Ddw

Ddw

"100 + 21.67 !

"100 + Ddw ! V ! 0.097 in / day

DET , Ddw

3.5 , Ddw

K ! 0.3

in

! 7.2in / day

hr

d = de S = 109.43 ft

de !

ET = 3.5 in / day

4kH

4 " 7.2 " 3.5

- 2d e , H . !

- 2de , 3.5.

V

0.097

4

de !

! 3.587 ft + S ! 105.4 ft

8" 4

8" 4

1,

ln 3

A "109.43 A " 0.3

S2 !

4

! 3.57 + S ! 105.3 ft

8" 4

8" 4

1,

ln

A "105.4 A 3 " 0.3

(b) Q = AV = 17424000 x 8.067 x 10-3 = 1.63 ft3 / s

LR !

Ddw

"100

Diw

014

(e) Q ! AV ! A "

R S

n

S = 0.001

2

3

5

3

1.486 A

A

- 0.001. A ! 2.937 2 !

0.016 23

P

P3

Q!

8

r3 !

1

2

2.937 A r 2

5

3

- 2A r . 3

! 5.81r 3

1.63

Q

!

! 0.28 + r ! 0.62 ft + d ! 1.24 ft

5.81 5.81

(f) y ! 4 ! 0.67

y0 6

K ! 0.3

KDt

! 0.055

SL2

in

ft

! 0.6

+ S ! 0.043

hr

day

D ! 3.57 ,

6

! 6.57 ft

2

D ! de ,

t!

y0

2

L = 105.3ft

de = 3.57ft

!

! 6.65 days

KD

0.6 " 6.57

27. Given a soil with an impermeable layer 3 mete below the drain level (d = 3 m), K1 = 0.5 m/day (hydraulic

conductivity of layer below the drain). V=0.005 m/day, H=0.60m, r = 0.10 m (r = drain radius), determine drain spacing.

r = 0.1 m

K1 ! 0.5

H = 0.6 m

m

! Ka

day

S2 !

4

%8

&

K a H 2 , ' Kb de H (

V

)V

*

S2 !

4

8

&

"1" 3 " 0.6 ( ! 3024 + S ! 54.99 m

- 0.5 " 0.36 . , '%

0.005

) 0.005

*

de !

S2 !

K2 ! 1

m

! Kb

day

d = de

d

3

!

! 2.33 m

8d

8d

8" 3

8" 3

1,

ln 3

1,

ln 3

AS A r

A " 54.99 A " 0.1

4

8

&

"1" 2.33 " 0.6 ( ! 2380 + S ! 48.79 m

- 0.5 " 0.36 . , %'

0.005

0.005

)

*

3

! 2.27 m

8" 3

8" 3

1,

ln 3

A " 48.79 A " 0.1

4

8

&

S2 !

"1" 2.27 " 0.6 ( ! 2325 + S ! 48.21 m

- 0.5 " 0.36 . , %'

0.005

0.005

)

*

de !

28. Seepage from a canal is causing a drainage problem on adjacent land. The canal is 2.5 meters deep and rests on

an impermeable layer. The water level in the canal is 2.4 meters above the bottom. The soil has a hydraulic conductivity

of 20 mm/hr. (a) What will be the flow into an interceptor drain located 25, 50, and 100 meters from the canal?

dy

dx

q ! KiA ! K

dy

" y "1 + qdx ! Kdyy

dx

x=0y=0

qx]0L ! K

qL !

K 2

h

2

y2

2

x = L y = h1

h2

y 2 h1

]0 + qL ! K 1

2

2

h1=2.4 m

% 20 &

'

(

1000 *

L ! 25 m + q ! )

" 2.42 ! 6 "10$7 m3 / s

50

% 20 &

'

(

1000 *

L ! 50 m + q ! )

" 2.42 ! 3 "10$7 m3 / s

100

i!

015

% 20 &

'

(

1000 *

L ! 100 m + q ! )

" 2.42 ! 1.6 "10$7 m3 / s

200

SL = 0.010 m/m (ft/ft)

Sx = 0.020 m/m (ft/ft)

n = 0.016

Find: (1) Spread at a flow of 0.05 m3 /s (1.8 ft3 /s)

(2) Gutter flow at a spread of 2.5 m (8.2 ft)

/

- Qn .

T !1

0.5

13 K u S 1.67

x SL

0

2

24

0.375

/

- 0.05 " 0.016 .

!1

1 - 0.367 .- 0.020 .1.67 - 0.010 .0.5

31

0.5 2.67

Qn ! K u S 1.67

! - 0.367 .- 0.020 .

x SL T

1.67

- 0.010 . - 2.5.

0.5

2.67

0

2

2

42

0.375

! 2.7 m

! 0.00063

m3

s

Q!

Qn 0.00063

!

! 0.039 m3 / s

n

0.16

SL = 0.01

Sx1 = 0.25

Sx3 = 0.02

n = 0.016

Sx2 = 0.04

BC = 0.6 m

Sx !

S x1S x 2

0.25 " 0.04

!

! 0.0345

- S x1 , S x 2 . 0.25 , 0.04

Step 2: Find the hypothetical spread, T, assuming all flow contained entirely in the V-shaped gutter.

/

- Qn .

T? ! 1

0.5

13 K u S 1.67

x SL

0

2

24

0.375

/

- 0.05 " 0.016 .

!1

1 - 0.376 .- 0.0345 .1.67 - 0.01.0.5

13

0

2

2

24

0.375

! 1.94 m

Step 3: To determine if T is within Sx1 and Sx2, compute the depth at point B in the V- shaped gutter knowing BC and

Step 1: Calculate Sx assuming all flow is contained entirely in the V-shaped gutter section defined by Sx1 and Sx2.

016

dB = BCSx2 = 0.6 x 0.04 = 0.024 m

AB !

d B 0.024

!

! 0.096 m

S x1 0.25

0.7 m < T therefore, spread falls outside V-shaped gutter section. An iterative solution technique must be used to solve

for the section spread, T, as illustrated in the following steps.

Step 4: Solve for the depth at point C, dc and compute an initial estimate of the spread, TBD along BD,

dc = dB BC (Sx2)

From the geometry of the triangle formed by the gutter, an initial estimate for dB is determined as:

(dB / 0.25) + (dB / 0.04) = 1.94 dB = 0.067 m

dc = 0.067 0.6 x 0.04 = 0.043

Ts !

d c 0.043

!

! 2.15 m

S x 3 0.02

Step 5: Using a spread along BD equal to 2.75 m and develop a weighted slope for Sx2 and Sx3.

0.6 m at Sx2 (0.04) and 2.15 m at Sx3 (0.02):

! 0.0243

2.75

Use this slope along with Sx1, find Sx.

Sx !

S x1S x 2

- S x1 , S x 2 .

! 0.0221

0.25 , 0.0243

Step 6: Compute the gutter spread using the composite cross slope, Sx.

/

- Qn .

T !1

0.5

13 K u S 1.67

x SL

0

2

24

0.375

/

- 0.05 " 0.016 .

!1

1 - 0.376 .- 0.0221.1.67 - 0.01.0.5

31

0

2

2

42

0.375

! 2.57 m

This (2.57 m) is lower than the assumed value of 2.75 m. Therefore, assume TBD = 2.50 m and repeat Step 5 and Step 6.

Step 7: 0.6 m at Sx2 (0.04) and 1.95 m at Sx3 (0.02):

! 0.0248

2.50

Use this slope along with Sx1, find Sx.

Sx !

S x1S x 2

0.25 " 0.0248

!

! 0.0226

S

,

S

0.25

, 0.0248

- x1 x 2 .

/

- Qn .

T !1

0.5

13 K u S 1.67

x SL

0

2

24

0.375

/

- 0.05 " 0.016 .

!1

1 - 0.376 .- 0.0226 .1.67 - 0.01.0.5

13

0

2

2

24

0.375

! 2.53 m

31. Given: A curb-opening inlet with the following characteristics:

Sx = 0.02 m/m (ft/ft)

Q = 0.05 m3/s (1.77 ft3/s)

n = 0.016

Find:

(1) Qi for a 3 m (9.84 ft) curb-opening.

017

(2) Qi for a depressed 3 m (9.84 ft) curb opening inlet with a continuously depressed curb section.

a = 25 mm (1 in)

W = 0.6 m (2 ft)

Step 1: Determine the length of curb opening required for total interception of gutter flow.

% 1 &

LT ! K u Q 0.42 S L0.3 '

(

) nS x *

0.6

! 0.817 - 0.05 .

0.42

- 0.01.

0.3

1

%

&

'

(

0.016

0.02

"

)

*

0.6

! 7.29 m

L

3

!

! 0.41

LT 7.29

1.8

%

L &

E ! 1 $ '1 $ (

) LT *

! 1 $ -1 $ 0.41.

1.8

! 0.61

Q1 = EQ = 0.61 x 0.05 = 0.031 m3 / s

Determine the W/T ratio.

Determine spread

Assume Qs = 0.018 m3/s

Qw = Q Qs = 0.05 0.018 = 0.032 m3 / s

Eo !

Qw 0.032

!

! 0.64

Q

0.05

Sw ! S x ,

a

25

! 0.02 ,

! 0.062

W

1000 " 0.6

S w 0.062

!

! 3.1

Sx

0.02

W

! 0.24

T

T!

W

0.6

!

! 2.5 m

% W & 0.24

' (

)T *

Obtain Qs

m3

%K&

% 0.376 &

0.5 2.67

1.67

0.5

2.67

!'

! Qs assumed

Qs ! ' ( S 1.67

x S L Ts

( 0.02 0.01 1.9 ! 0.019

s

)n*

) 0.016 *

25

%

&

Se ! S x , S w' Eo ! S x , - a / W . Eo ! 0.02 , '

( 0.64 ! 0.047

) 1000 " 0.6 *

% 1 &

LT ! K u Q 0.42 S L0.3 '

(

) nSe *

0.6

! 0.817 - 0.05 .

0.42

- 0.01.

0.3

1

%

&

'

(

) 0.016 " 0.047 *

0.6

! 4.37 m

L

3

!

! 0.69

LT 4.37

1.8

%

L &

E ! 1 $ '1 $ (

) LT *

! 1 $ -1 $ 0.69 .

1.8

! 0.88

The depressed curb-opening inlet will intercept 1.5 times the flow intercepted by the undepressed curb opening.

32. Given: A combination curb-opening grate inlet with a 3 m (9.8 ft) curb opening, 0.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft)

curved vane grate placed adjacent to the downstream 0.6 m (2 ft) of the curb opening. This inlet is located in a gutter

section having the following characteristics:

W = 0.6 m (2 ft)

Q = 0.05 m3/s (1.77 ft3/s)

018

Sx = 0.02 m/m (ft/ft)

SW = 0.062 m/m (ft/ft)

n = 0.016

Find: Interception capacity, Qi

Step 1: Compute the interception capacity of the curb-opening upstream of the grate, Qic.

L = 3 0.6 = 2.4 m

LT = 4. 37 m

2.4

L

!

! 0.55

LT 4.37

1.8

%

L &

E ! 1 $ '1 $ (

) LT *

! 1 $ -1 $ 0.55 .

1.8

! 0.76

Step 2: Compute the interception capacity of the grate.

Flow at grate

Qg = Q Qic = 0.05 0.038 = 0.012 m3 / s

Determine Spread

Assume Qs = 0.0003 m3/s

Qw = Q Qs = 0.0120 0.0003 = 0.0117 m3 / s

Eo !

Qw 0.0117

!

! 0.97

Q 0.0120

S w 0.062

!

! 3.1

0.02

Sx

1

W

!

! 0.62

T %

&

'

(

'

(

'

(

'

(

1

'

$ 1( - 3.1. , 1

0.375

' /%

(

0

&

' 1'

(

2

(

1

' 1'

(

( - 3.1. , 12

' 1' % 1

(

&

2

$1 (

2

'' 1)' )' 0.97 *( *(

((

4

)3

*

T!

W

0.6

!

! 0.97 m

% W & 0.62

' (

)T *

W

1

!

T %

&

'

(

'

(

'

(

'

(

'

(% S &

1

'

( ' w ( ,1

$

1

0.375

' /%

( ) Sx *

0

&

' 1'

(

2

(

%

&

S

1

' 1'

(

2

( w ,1

' ( 2

' 1' % 1

(

(

& ) Sx *

' 1' '

(

$

1

2

(

((

' ' E

(

42

) 31) ) o * *

*

019

Qs = 0.0003 m3 / s

Qs Assumed = Qs calculated

Determine velocity

Q

Q

0.012

!

! 0.68 m / s

V! !

2

A - 0.5T S x , 0.5aW . /

2

% 25 & 0

,

0.5

0.97

0.02

0.5

0.6

.

.

'

( 2

1

) 1000 * 4

3

Rf = 1.0

Rs !

1

1

!

! 0.13

1.8

1.8

K uV

0.0828

0.68

..

1,

1,

2.3

S x L2.3

- 0.02 .- 0.6 .

Step 3: Compute the total interception capacity. (Note: Interception capacity of curb opening adjacent to grate was

neglected.)

Qi = Qic + Qig = 0.038 + 0.011

Qi ! 0.049

m3

- approximately 100% of thetotal initial flow .

s

L = 2.5 m (8.2 ft)

h = 0.13 m (0.43 ft)

(1) Undepressed curb opening

Sx = 0.02

T = 2.5 m (8.2 ft)

(2) Depressed curb opening

Sx= 0.02

a = 25 mm (1 in) local

W = 0.6 m (2 ft)

T = 2.5 m (8.2 ft)

Find: Qi

Step 1: Determine depth at curb.

d = TSx = 2.5 x 0.02 = 0.05 m = 0.05 h = 0.13 m

Therefore, weir flow controls

Step2. Find Qi.

Qi = Cw Ld1.5 = 1.6 x 2.5 x 0.051.5 = 0.045 m3 / s

Determine depth at curb, di

25

! 0.075 m 6 h ! 0.13 m

1000

Qi = Cw (L + 1.8W) d1.5 = 1.25 x 3.58 x 0.051.5 = 0.048 m3 / s

The depressed curb-opening inlet has 10 percent more capacity than an inlet without depression.

34. Given: A combination inlet in a sag location with the following characteristics:

Grate -0.6 m by 1.2 m (2 ft by 4 ft) P-50

Find Qi.

020

h = 0.1 m (3.9 in)

Q = 0.15 m3/s (5.3 ft3/s)

Sx = 0.03 m/m (ft/ft)

Find: Depth at curb and spread for:

(1) Grate clears of clogging

(2) Grate 100 percent clogged

Step 1: Compute depth at curb.

Assuming grate controls interception:

P = 2W + L = 2 (0.6) + 1.2 = 2.4 m

d avg

/ Qi 0

!1

2

31 - Cw P . 42

0.67

/ 0.15 0

!1

2

31 -1.66 " 2.4 . 42

0.67

! 0.11 m

d ! d avg ,

T!

S xW

0.6

! 0.11 , 0.03 "

! 0.119 m

2

2

d 0.119

!

! 3.97 m

0.03

Sx

Assuming grate clogged.

m3

Q ! 0.15

s

2

DF Q EF

G

H

FI - Co hL . FJ h

d!

, !

2

- 2g .

DF

EF

0.15

G

H

FI - 0.67 " 0.1"1.2 . FJ 0.1

,

! 0.24 m

2

- 2 " 9.81.

T!

d 0.24

!

! 8.0 m

Sx 0.03

Interception by the curb-opening only will be in a transition stage between weir and orifice flow with a depth at the curb

of about 0.24 m (0.8 ft). Depth at the curb and spread on the pavement would be almost twice as great if the grate should

become completely clogged.

35. Given: A shallow basin with the following characteristics:

Average surface area = 1.21 ha (3 acres)

Bottom area = 0.81 ha (2 acres)

Watershed area = 40.5 ha (100 acres) C Post-development runoff coefficient = 0.3

Average infiltration rate for soils = 2.5 mm per hr (0.1 in per hr)

Mean annual evaporation is 89 cm (35 in or 2.92 ft).Find: For average annual conditions determine

if the facility will function as a retention facility with a Permanent pool.

Step 1: The computed average annual runoff as:

Runoff = CQDA = 0.3 x 1.27 x 40.5 x 10000 = 154305 m3

Step 2: The average annual evaporation is estimated to be:

Evaporation = Evaporation depth x Watershed area = 0.89 x 1.21 = 10769 m3

From rainfall records, the average annual rainfall is about 127 cm (50 in or 4.17 ft)

021

Infiltration = infiltration rate x Time x Bottom area = 2.5 x 24 x 365 x 0.81

Infiltration = 177390 m3

Step 4: Neglecting basin outflow and assuming no change in storage, the runoff (or inflow) less evaporation and

infiltration losses is:

Net Budget = 154305 10769 177390 = -33854 m3

Since the average annual losses exceed the average annual rainfall, the proposed facility will not function as a retention

facility with a permanent pool. If the facility needs to function with a permanent pool, this can be accomplished by reducing

the pool size as shown below.

Step 5: Revise the pool surface area to be = 0.81 ha and bottom area = 0.40 ha

Step 6: Recomputed the evaporation and infiltration

Evaporation = 0.89 x 0.81 = 7210 m3

Infiltration = 2.5 x 24 x 365 x 0.4 = 87600m3

Step 7: Revised runoff less evaporation and infiltration losses is:

Net Budget = 154305 7210 87600 = 59495 m3

The revised facility appears to have the capacity to function as a retention facility with a permanent pool. However, it

must be recognized that these calculations are based on average precipitation, evaporation, and losses. During years of low

rainfall, the pool may not be maintained.

36. Given: Corn will be grown on a soil with a maximum root depth of 24 inches. The site has good surface drainage.

Refer to the figure for details. Determine: Determine the drain spacing needed to provide sub irrigation using the

design drainage rate (DDR) method.

Step 1- Determine the gradient m between drains. Using the DDR method, we assume that the water table at the

midpoint between drains is at the surface. Therefore, m is equal to the drain depth of 4 feet.

Step 2 - Since this site has good surface drainage, the design drainage rate is 1.1 centimeters

inch per day = .018 inch per hour.

Step 3 - Determine the equivalent hydraulic conductivity (Ke). Since flow occurs over the entire profile, the hydraulic

conductivity is:

14 , 34 , 36

Step 4 - Determine the first estimate of the drain spacing needed for drainage using equation 10-5. As with the previous

examples, de is needed. For the first calculation of Sd assume de is equal to d, which is 3 feet:

1

/ 4 K m - 2d , m . 0 2 / 4 "1.71" 4 - 2 " 3 , 4 . 0 2

Sd ! 1 e

2 !1

2 ! 123.3 ft

q

0.018

3

4

3

4

Step 5 - Now determine de using Hooghoudts equation and the value of Sd = 123.3

Ke !

022

de !

1,

&

d %8& %d

' ( ln ' $ 3.4 (

S d ) A * ) re

*

!

1,

0

3 /8 % 3 &

ln '

( $ 3.4 2

123.3 13 A ) 0.017 *

4

! 2.74 ft

1

Sd ! 1 e

2 !1

2 ! 120.0 ft

q

0.018

3

4

3

4

Step 7 - Recalculate de for Sd = 112 ft:

de !

d

&

d %8& %d

1 , ' ( ln ' $ 3.4 (

Sd ) A * ) re

*

!

1,

0

3 /8 % 3 &

ln '

( $ 3.4 2

120.0 31 A ) 0.017 *

4

! 2.41 ft

1

Sd ! 1 e

2 !1

2 ! 112.0 ft

q

0.018

3

4

3

4

This is close enough to the previous value that no further iteration is necessary. Using the design drainage rate method,

this is the spacing recommended for drainage alone. To determine the spacing for sub irrigation requires one additional

step.

Step 9 - Determine the fixed percentage of the design drainage rate. Since good surface drainage was provided, the fixed

percentage is 0.63.

Ss = 0.63

Using this method, the design spacing for sub irrigation is 72.9 feet. This compares favorably with the design spacing of

80 feet actually determined for this problem using DRAINMOD. For comparison, the estimated spacing as determined by

each shortcut method is shown in the table.

Method

Estimated spacing

(65% of 100 ft)

65

59

49

73

Drainmod

80

!"#$%"&'(%"$)&"*%%+",)-.%/",0-"&%1%-)2"3%)-&4"*5("'&"+)(5-)223"600-23"/-)'+%/7"8".)'+"05(2%("/'(9$":'($"2)(%-)2"/'(9$%&")(")+"'+(%-1)2"0,";<<",%%("

:)&"'+&()22%/":$%+"($%"&'(%":)&"=-&("6-%6)-%/",0-"=%2/"-06%&7">0:%1%-4"'+"'(&"6-%&%+("90+/'('0+4"($%"/-)'+)?%"&3&(%."@6-%/0.'+)+(23"&5-,)9%"

drainage) is inadequate and is the most dominant factor limiting yields.

!"A%1%-)2"&.)22"/%6-%&&'0+")-%)&"@)*05("BC"0,"($%"(0()2"952('1)(%/")-%)D"$)1%":)(%-")995.52)('0+&":$'9$"+%)-23"/-0:+"($%"9-06"'+".)+3"3%)-&7

!"E1%+"($05?$"($'&"&'(%"'&"600-23"/-)'+%/4"3'%2/&")-%")2&0"&566-%&&%/"/5%"(0"/-05?$("&(-%&&"'+"&0.%"3%)-&7"A0.%"0,"($%".)F0-"90.60+%+("90&(&"

5&%/"'+"($%"%90+0.'9"%1)25)('0+"'&"&5..)-'G%/"'+"($%"=?5-%&7"#$%&%"1)25%&")-%")1%-)?%"1)25%&")&"/%(%-.'+%/",-0.".)+5,)9(5-%-&H"2'(%-)(5-%4"

discussions with sales representatives, or actual costs as quoted by farmers who have installed systems. While these values are reasonable for

($%"&6%9'=9"90+/'('0+&")&&5.%/4"($%3"&$052/"*%"5&%/"0+23")&")"?5'/%")+/":$%-%"60&&'*2%4"%I)9("1)25%&",0-"($%"&6%9'=9"&'(5)('0+"&$052/"*%"5&%/"

instead.

Component

J%&9-'6('0+KA6%9'=9)('0+&

Initial Cost

Drainage tubing

5##%()6#78%#'%9:%#7%."**)8;(+,%<$;'(#.%<#<+%=#(>%-$(+*%?#7'(;$$+,@

$ 1.00/ft

Deep well

8-in gravel packed, 300 ft deep, 80-ft vertical lift, 700gpm (@ $50/ft)

15,000

25-hp vertical hollow shaft electric motor with single stage deep well turbine (230V, 3-phase

<"=+*%')<<$AB%C9D1%*<&B%EDF%<)&<%+G-.#+7.A@

7,000

50-hp vertical hollow shaft electric motor with 3-stage deep well turbine (230V, 3-phase

<"=+*%')<<$AB%C9D1%*<&B%2HF<)&<%+G-.#+7.A@

12,750

8-hp air cooled engine dive, type A single stage centrifugal pump rated at 700 gpm @ 40-ft

TDH

3,500

40-hp air cooled engine dive, type A single stage centrifugal pump rated at 700 gpm @ 125-ft 8,500

TDH

Control structure

Used average value for aluminum or galvanized steel: 6-ft raiser, 36-in weir, 24-in outlet, 30- 1,650

ft outlet pipe (installed)

Center pivot

Low pressure (30 psi) 1,200 ft long w/ 6-5/8in dia. Galvanized pipe @ $30/ft

Component

Repair maintenance

J%&9-'6('0+KA6%9'=9)('0+K*)&'&

36,000

Cost

Water supply

023

Drainage tubing

2%/yr

None assumed

1%/yr

Center pivot

1%/yr

Land grading*

6.4%/yr

Fuel

Sub irrigation well

21.0 brake hp required (assumed 75% turbine eff, 90% motor eff @ $.07/kw-hr)

1.47%/yr

Surface source

6.2brake hp required (@ 20 ft TDH, 80% pump eff, 75% engine eff, 11 hp-hr/gal

8;'"$#7+%I%J0301K8;$B%"#$%L%-$(+*%I%0DF%"G%G)+$@

.71/hr

44.6brake hp required (assumes 80% turbine eff, 90% motor eff @ $.07/kw-hr)

3.12/hr

Surface source

37.6 brake hp required (@ 112 ft TDH, 70% pump eff, 75% engine eff, 15.5 hp-hr/gal

diesel @ $1.10/gal)

2.67/hr

Self-propulsion

6 towers w/1hp motor each, half of motors operating at any given time requiring 3 hp,

85%eff @ $0.07/kw - hr

.25/hr

Labor

Sub irrigation

Based on 0.5hr/d from May 1 to July 31 to check water level in observation wells, adjust 2.30/ac

riser level, etc., @ $5.00/hr, 100 acres

Center pivot

2.30/ac

* Based on estimates by farmers of $8 per acre per year where the initial cost was $125 per acre.

The individual components necessary to make up a complete system vary, depending on the particular option being

considered. An example calculation is described for each component. Total annual costs are normally divided into two

categories: fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs include depreciation, interest, property taxes, and insurance. Insurance

would be recommended on components subject to damage or theft. Most components of a subsurface drainage or sub

irrigation system are underground. Therefore, it is probably unnecessary to protect these components with insurance; so,

insurance was not considered in this example.

Also, property tax values vary from county to county, are generally small compared to the other component costs, and

were neglected. However, when the tax rate is known for a given location, it could be considered in the economic evaluation.

Depreciation and interest costs can be determined together by using an amortizing factor for the specific situation. The

amortization factor considers the expected life of the component and the interest rate. Once these are known, the factor can

be determined from amortization tables. In this example, the interest rate was assumed to be 12 percent and a design life of

either 15, 20, or 30 years was used, depending on the particular component. Amortization factors were 0.14682 for 15 years;

0.13388 for 20 years; and 0.12414 for 30 years. Most economic textbooks contain a table of amortization factors for a wide

range of interest rates and design lives. Your local banker or financial planner/accountant could also provide these values.

The amortized cost that must be recovered annually is then determined as:

Annual amortized cost = (initial cost) (amortization factor)

Variable costs include any costs that vary according to how much the equipment is used. These costs include repair and

maintenance, fuel, and labor. It is customary to estimate repair and maintenance costs as either a fixed percentage of the

initial investment for such components as tubing, pumps and motors; a fixed rate or percentage per hour of use for each

component, such as an internal combustion engine; and as a fixed rate per year, for a land graded surface drainage system.

Fuel and labor costs should be estimated based on the anticipated usage. The criteria used to determine the variable costs in

the example are summarized in the figures.

Drainage tubing costs are determined by first determining the length of tubing required for a given spacing. For a

spacing of 60 feet:

length

area

43560

ft $435.60

!

!

! 726 !

initial invest

acre

spacing

60

ac

ac

Tubing cost can be amortized over 30 years. Thus, the annual amortized costs would be:

$435.60

" 0.12414 ! $54.08 / ac

ac

The operating costs (repair and maintenance) for drain tubing are estimated as 2 percent of the annual amortized costs.

Thus, for the 60-foot spacing:

Operating costs = 0.02x $54.08 = $1.08 / ac

3 structures "

$1650

! $4950 initial investment

structure

Annual amortized costs $4950 x 0.13388 = 4 662.71

This value represents the control structure costs for the entire 100 acre field. Per acre annual cost would be:

The surface elevations in the example field vary by 2.5 feet. To provide adequate water table control in this field, assume

three control structures are needed.

024

$662.71

! $6.63 / ac

100 acres

Operating costs (repair and maintenance) for the control structures can also be estimated as 2 percent of the annual

amortized costs.

$6.63

operating costs ! 0.02 "

! 0.13 / ac

ac

The operating costs for the control structure are so small that they are neglected throughout the remainder of this

example. This situation normally occurs on large, flat fields. When fields are small, however, repair and maintenance costs

for the control structures should be considered.

The expected life of a deep well is about 30 years, and the life of the pump and electric power unit is about 20 years.

Well = $15,000 0.12414 = $1,862.10

Annual amortized cost: Pump and power unit = $7,000 0.13388 = $937.16

Total annual water supply = $2,799.26

This is the cost for the entire 100 acres. The acre cost is:

$2799.26

! $27.99 / ac

100acres

Normally, no operating costs are associated with the water source. Repair, maintenance, and fuel costs are considered

for the pump and power unit. Using the pump/power unit for the sub irrigation system, the repair and maintenance costs

would be estimated as 1 percent of the initial cost. Thus:

Repair and maintenance = $7,000 0.01 = $70 /year

Since this is the cost for the entire 100 acres, the acre cost is:

70

! $0.70 / ac

100

Fuel costs vary depending on the amount of water that must be applied, the friction loss in the system, and the operating

pressure of the system. For the example area, average irrigation volumes range from 6 to 8 acre-inches per year. This

example uses 7 inches per year. Sub irrigation may only be about 75 percent efficient because of the water loss by seepage to

nonirrigated areas. Thus, the total amount of water that must be pumped to provide 7 acre inches of usable water is:

7

! 9.33 ac $ in / year

0.75

To pump 9.33 acre-inches of usable water on 100 acres with a 700-gpm capacity pump requires 603.4 hours per year.

The power required to pump the water can be determined by:

hp !

3960 " pump efficiency " motor efficieny

Assume that the sub irrigation water must be lifted 80 feet in the well and is discharged into an open ditch with 0

discharge pressure. For a pump efficiency of 75 percent and an electric motor efficiency of 90 percent, the power required

for sub irrigation is:

hp !

700 " 80

! 21.0 hp

3960 " 0.75 " 0.90

21.0 x 1 x 0.07 = $1.47 / hr

As previously determined, 603.4 hours would be required to provide the irrigation water for the entire 100 acres, thus

the pumping cost per ace is:

Two levels of land grading were considered in this example. The first level assumes that only the potholes are eliminated

using the farmers land plane at an estimated cost of $75 per acre. This would be equivalent to providing poor to fair

surface drainage. For the second case, a laser control land leveler is used at an estimated cost of $125 per acre. This would

be equivalent to providing fair to good surface drainage. Land grading costs are normally amortized over 20 years, thus:

Annual amortized cost = $75/ac .13388 = $10.04/ac

! $8.85 / ac

100

Operating costs for surface drainage generally include routine maintenance of the outlet ditches (moving and clean out),

construction of hoe drains, and periodic smoothing of the field as it becomes uneven because of tillage. For an extensive 025

surface drainage system (good surface drainage), maintenance costs average about $8 per acre per year. These maintenance

costs are closely correlated to the intensity of the surface drainage provided. As the cost of establishing the surface drainage

increases, the cost of maintaining the same level of surface drainage also increases. For the purpose of comparing alternatives,

it is reasonable to assume that maintenance costs for a surface drainage system costing $125 per acre are about $8 per acre

per year, and adjusts this value linearly as the initial cost of the system varies from $125 per acre. Therefore, the operating

costs for the fair surface drainage system (initial costs of $75/ac) are assumed to be $4.80 per acre per year. Total system

costs include fixed costs plus variable costs. Taking the sub irrigation system with fair surface drainage, a drain spacing of

60 feet, and the deep well water supply as an example, the total annual system costs would be:

Fixed costs: Tubing @ 60 ft $54.08

Landing grading (fair) 10.04

Control structure 6.63

Water supply (well) 27.99

Total annual fixed costs $98.74

Variable costs: Repair and maintenance

Tubing $1.08

Land grading 4.80

Control structure neglected water supply .70

Fuel (electric motor & pump) $8.85

Labor $2.30

Total variable costs $17.73

Total annual system cost (fixed costs + variable costs): $116.47

Thus, the annual amortized cost for this one system design with a drain spacing of 60 feet is $116.47.

To compare the profit potential of several drain spacings, water table control settings, or management strategies, a

DRAINMOD simulation must be ran for each case to be considered, and then compute the cost. The optimum system

design would then be determined by selecting the alternatives that provide the optimum profit. An example of this process

is shown in the figure. This table compares profit with sub irrigation for several drain spacings, levels of surface drainage,

and water supplies. In this example, maximum profit for sub irrigation occurs at a spacing of 50 feet for both fair and good

surface drainage. The cost of the improved surface drainage cannot be recovered on this example site when good subsurface

drainage is provided. As the level of subsurface drainage decreases, surface drainage becomes more important. However,

proper modeling of irregular land surfaces would require simulations on the higher land elevations and low ponding areas

to properly reflect surface storage, depth to water table, and yield variations within the field. This was not done because it

was not found to be critical to the drain spacing. The additional costs of the well water supply, as compared to a surface

supply, are also reflected in this example.

Level of surface

drainage

Drain

spacing(ft)

Yield (Predicted)

bu/ac

Gross income

System cost

Production cost

Total cost

Net return

($/ac)

($/ac)

($/ac)

($/ac)

($/ac)

Good

33

168.5

505.58

161.60

224.73

386.33

50

162.9

488.78

127.49

224.73

352.22

119.25

136.56

60

158.6

475.65

116.47

224.73

341.20

134.45

75

152.1

456.23

105.44

224.73

330.17

126.06

100

138.3

414.75

94.39

224.73

319.12

95.63

150

108.3

324.98

83.37

224.73

308.10

16.88

200

90.5

271.43

77.83

224.73

302.58

-31.15

300

79.5

238.35

66.24

224.73

290.97

-52.62

33

168.7

506.10

171.50

224.73

396.23

109.87

50

163.3

489.83

137.39

224.73

362.12

127.71

60

159.3

477.75

126.37

224.73

351.10

126.65

75

154.5

463.58

115.34

224.73

340.07

123.51

100

140.9

422.63

104.29

224.73

329.02

93.61

150

118.3

354.90

93.27

224.73

318.00

36.90

200

102.6

307.65

87.75

224.73

312.48

-4.83

300

91.5

274.58

76.92

224.73

301.65

-27.07

147.02

Surface water

supply

Fair

33

168.5

133.80

224.73

358.58

50

162.9

99.72

224.73

324.45

164.33

60

158.6

88.70

224.73

313.43

162.22

75

152.1

77.67

224.73

302.40

153.83

Fair

026

100

138.3

66.62

224.73

291.35

123.40

150

108.3

55.60

224.73

280.33

44.65

200

90.5

50.08

224.73

274.81

-3.38

300

79.5

39.25

224.73

263.98

-25.63

Find: Weighted runoff coefficient, C, for existing and proposed conditions.

Existing conditions (unimproved):

Land Use

Area, ha

(ac)

Unimproved grass

8.95

(22.1)

0.25

Grass

8.60

(21.2)

0.22

Total

17.55

43.3

L5+0,,"M0%,=9'%+(4"M

Land Use

Area, ha

(ac)

L5+0,,"M0%,=9'%+(4"M

Paved

2.20

5.4

0.90

Lawn

0.66

1.6

0.15

Unimproved grass

7.52

18.6

0.25

Grass

7.17

17.7

0.22

Total

17.55

43.3

Weighted C = Sum (Cx Ax)/A = [(8.95) (0.25) + (8.60) (0.22)] / (17.55) = 0.235

Step 2: Determine Weighted C for proposed (improved) conditions.

Weighted C = [(2.2) (0.90) + (0.66) (0.15) + (7.52) (0.25) + (7.17) (0.22)] / (17.55) = 0.315

39. Given: The following site characteristics:

t4JUFJTMPDBUFEJO5VMTB 0LMBIPNB

t%SBJOBHFBSFBJTTRNJ

t.FBOBOOVBMQSFDJQJUBUJPOJTJO

t6SCBOQBSBNFUFSTBTGPMMPXT

SL = 53 ft/mi

RI2 = 2.2 in/hr

ST = 5

BDF = 7

IA = 35

Find: The 2-year urban peak flow.

Step 1: Calculate the rural peak flow from appropriate regional equation.

The rural regression equation for Tulsa, Oklahoma is

RQ2 = 0.368A.59P1.84= 0.368(3).59(38)1.84 = 568 ft3/s

Step 2: Calculate the urban peak flow.

UQ2 = 2.35As.41SL.17 (RI2 + 3)2.04(ST + 8)-.65(13 - BDF)-.32IAs.15RQ2.47

UQ2 = 2.35(3).41(53).17(2.2+3)2.04(5+8)-.65 (13-7)-.32(35).15(568).47 = 747 ft3/s

40. What is the theoretical oxygen demand in mg/L for a 1.6710-3 molar solution of glucose, C6H1206 to decompose

completely?

First balance the decomposition reaction (which is an algebra exercise):

As

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

This is, for every mole of glucose decomposed, 6 mol of oxygen are required. This gives us a constant to use change moles

per liter of glucose to milligrams per liter of O2 required, a (relatively) simple unit conversion.

/1.67 "10$3 KmolK glu cos e 0 / 6KmolKof KO2 0 / 32K g KO2 0 /1000Kmg 0

mg KO2

1

2"1

2 " 1 molKO 2 " 1

2 ! 321K L

K

L

mol

glu

e

g

cos

4 3

4

3

4 3

2 4 3

027

$BMDVMBUF UIF #0%5 if the temperature of the sample and seeded dilution water are 209c (saturation is 9.07

NH-

UIFJOJUJBM%PTBSFTBUVSBUJPO
BOEUIFTBNQMFEJMVUJPOJTXJUITFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSFOBM%0PGUIF

TFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSJTNH-
BOEUIFOBM%0PGUIFTBNQMFBOETFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSJTNH-3FDBMMUIBUUIF

WPMVNFPGB#0%CPUUMFJTN-

D!

30KmL

Vs

Therefore

Vs = 10 mL and X = 300 mL 10 mL = 290 mL

/

% 290KmL & 0

BOD5 ! 1- 9.07Kmg / L $ 2Kmg / L . $ - 9.07Kmg / L $ 8Kmg / L . '

( 2 30 ! 181Kmg / L

) 300KmL * 4

3

- 0.25 d .- 3d . 0 + L ! 280Kmg / L

148Kmg / L ! LK/1 $ e

13

24

$

1

$- 0.25 d .- 5 d .

/

0

y5 ! - 280Kmg / L . 11 $ e

2 ! 200Kmg / L

3

4

F#0%WFSTVTUJNFEBUBGPSUIFSTUWFEBZTPGB#0%UFTUBSFPCUBJOFEBTGPMMPXT

Time, t (days)

BOD, y (mg/L)

10

16

20

Calculate k1 and L.

From the graph, the intercept is b = 0.545 and the slope is m = 021. Thus

% 0.021 &

$1

k1 ! 6 '

( ! 0.23Kd

) 0.545 *

L!

1

6 - 0.021.- 0.545 .

! 27Kmg / L

44. A laboratory runs a solids test. The weight of the crucible = 48.6212 g. A 100-mL sample is placed in the crucible

and the water is evaporated. The weight of the crucible and dry solids = 48.6432 g. The crucible is placed in a 6009c

furnace for 24 hr and cooled in desiccators. The weight of the cooled crucible and residue, or unburned solids, = 48.6300

g. Find the total, volatile, and fixed solids.

TS !

FS !

100KmL

100KmL

VS = 220 88 = 132 mg / L

$BMDVMBUFUIF#0%PGBXBUFSTBNQMF
HJWFOUIFGPMMPXJOHEBUB

Temperature of sample = 209c (dissolved oxygen saturation at 209c is 9.2 mg/L,

Initial dissolved oxygen is saturation,

Dilution is 1:30, with seeded dilution water,

Final dissolved oxygen of seeded dilution water is 8 mg/L,

Final dissolved oxygen bottle with sample and seeded dilution water is 2 mg/L,

7PMVNFPG#0%CPUUMFJTN-

BOD5 !

0.033

And

46. A water treatment plant is designed for 30 million gallons per day (mgd). The flocculator dimensions are length

= 100 ft, width = 50 ft, depth = 16 ft. Revolving paddles attached to four horizontal shafts rotate at 1.7 rpm. Each shaft

supports four paddles that are 6 in. wide and 48 in. long. Paddles are centered 6 ft from the shaft. Assume CD = 1.9 028

and the mean velocity of water is 35% of the paddle velocity. Find the velocity differential between the paddles and the

XBUFS"U0P'
UIFEFOTJUZPGXBUFSJTMCT2/ft3 and the viscosity is 2.73lb-s /f2. Calculate the value of G and the

time of flocculation (hydraulic retention time).z

The rotational velocity is

2A m

vt !

60

2

- A .- 6 .-1.7 .

vt !

60

! 1.07K ft / s

The velocity differential between paddles and fluid is assumed to be 65% of vt, so that

v = 0.65

P!

2

%

243

G! '

' -100 .- 50 .-16 . 2.73 "10$5

)

! 243K ft $ lb / s

&

ft / s

( ! 10.5K

(

ft

*

t!

!

! 28.7Kmin

Q

- 30 .105

so that the Gt value is 1.8 104. This is within the accepted range.

47. A community normally levies a sewer charge of 20 cents/in3'PSEJTDIBSHFTJOXIJDIUIF#0%NH-BOE

TVTQFOEFETPMJET 44

NH-
BOBEEJUJPOBMLH#0%BOEMLH44BSFMFWJFE"DIJDLFOQSPDFTTJOHQMBOU

uses 2000 m3XBUFSQFSEBZBOEEJTDIBSHFTXBTUFXBUFSXJUI#0%NH-BOE44NH-8IBUJTUIFQMBOUT

daily wastewater disposal bill?

The excess BOD and SS are, respectively,

(480 - 250) mg/L 2000 in.3 1000 L/m3 10-6 kg/mg = 460 kg excess BOD

(1530 - 300) mg/L 2000 m3 1000 L/m3 10-6 kg/mg = 2460 kg excess SS.

The daily bill is thus

(2000 m3) ($0.20/m3) + (460 kgBOD) ($0.50/kgBOD) + (2460 kgSS) ($1.00/kgSS) = $3090.00.

48. A chemical waste at an initial SS concentration of l000 mg/L and flow rate of 200 m3/h is to be settled in a tank,

H = 1.2 m deep, W = 10 m wide, and L = 31.4 m long. The results of a laboratory test are shown in the figure. Calculate

the fraction of solids removed the overflow rate, and the velocity of the critical particle.

A = WL = (31.4) (10) = 314m2

Q/A = 200/314 = 0.614m3 / h-m2

The critical velocity is thus v0 = 0.614m3 / h-m2. However, the waste in this instance undergoes flocculent settling

rather than settling at the critical velocity. The hydraulic retention time is

t!

V AH - 314 .-1.2 .

!

!

! 1.88Kh

Q

Q

200

In the figure the 85% removal line approximately intersects the retention time of 1.88 h. Thus, 85% of the solids are

029

removed. In addition to this, however, even better removal is indicated at the top of the water column. At the top 20cm,

assume the SS concentration is 40mg/L, equal to [(l000 - 4) 100]/1000 = 96% removal, or 11% better than the entire

column. The second shows [(l000 - 60) l00]/ 1000 = 94% removal and so on. The total amount removed, ignoring the

bottommost section, is

n $1

% h&

R ! P , @ ' ( - Pi $ P . ! 85 , -1/ 6 .-11 , 9 , 5 , 4 . ! 90.9%

i $1 ) H *

F#0%5 of the liquid from the primary clarifier is 120 mg/L at a flow rate of 0.05mgd. The dimensions of the

aeration tank are 20 10 20 ft3 and the MLSS = 2000 mg/L. Calculate the F/M ratio:

% 3.8KL & % 1Klb & % 1K g & % 50Klb &

lbKBOD % 120Kmg &

!'

('

('

(!'

(

( - 0.05Kmgd . '

day

L

)

*

) gal * ) 454K g * ) 1000Kmg * ) day *

% 2000Kmg & % 3.8KL & % 7.48K gal & % 1Klb & % 1K g &

lbKMLSS ! - 20 "10 " 20 .K ft 3 '

('

('

('

( ! 229Klb

('

3

L

)

* ) gal * ) ft

* ) 454K g * ) 1000Kmg *

F

50

lbKBOD / day

!

! 0.22

M 229

lbKMLSS

50. An activated sludge system operates at a flow rate (0) of 4000m3EBZ
XJUIBOJODPNJOH#0% 40) of 300 mg/L.

"QJMPUQMBOUTIPXFEUIFLJOFUJDDPOTUBOUTUPCF:LH44LH#0%
,TNH-
EBZ8FOFFEUPEFTJHO

B USFBUNFOU TZTUFN UIBU XJMM QSPEVDF BO FVFOU #0% PG NH- SFNPWBM

%FUFSNJOF B

UIF WPMVNF PG UIF

aeration tank, (b) the MLSS, and (c) the sludge age. How much sludge will be wasted daily?

The MLSS concentration is usually limited by the ability to keep an aeration tank mixed and to transfer sufficient oxygen

to the microorganisms. Assume in this case that X = 4000 mg/L the hydraulic retention is then obtained by:

t!

2 - 30 .- 4000 .

! 0.129Kday ! 3.1Kh

The sludge age is

Lc !

- 4000Kmg / L .- 0.129Kday .

! 3.8Kdays

- 0.5KkgKSS / kgKBOD .- 300 $ 30 . mg / L

1

kg KsludgeKwasted / day

!

Lc kg KsludgeKinKaerationKtan k

X r QW !

.-

3

3

6

XV - 4000 .- 516 . 10 KL / m 1/10 Kkg / mg

!

! 543Kkg / day

3.8

Lc

51. A binary separator, a magnet, is to separate a product, ferrous materials, from a feed stream of shredded refuse.

The feed rate to the magnet is 1000 kg/h, and contains 50 kg of ferrous materials. The product stream weighs 40 kg,

of which 35 kg are ferrous materials. What is the percent recovery of ferrous materials, their purity, and the overall

efficiency?

x0 = 50 kg

y0 = 1000-50= 950 kg

x1 = 35 kg

y1 = 40-35 = 5 kg

x2 = 50-35 = 15 kg

y1 = 950-5 = 945 kg

E- x , y . ! ' ( '

(100 ! 70%

) 50 * ) 950 *

$BMDVMBUF%0TBUVSBUJPODPODFOUSBUJPOGPSXBUFSUFNQFSBUVSFBU BOE$ BTTVNJOH

a. at T= 0C

% 35 &

R- x1 . ! ' (100 ! 70%

) 50 *

% 35 &

P- x1 . ! '

(100 ! 88%

) 35 , 5 *

Then

030

b. at T= 10C

DO sat =14.652 0.41022 10 +0.0079910 102 0.000077774 103 = 11.27 mg/L

c. at T= 20C

DO sat =14.652 0.41022 20 +0.0079910 202 0.000077774 203 = 9.02 mg/L

d. at T= 30C

DO sat =14.652 0.41022 30 +0.0079910 302 0.000077774 303 = 7.44 mg/L

'JOEUIFDPSSFDUJPOGBDUPSPG%0sat value for water at 640 ft above the MSL and air temperature of 25C. What is

%0sat at a water temperature of 20C?

Step 1:

f !

2116.8

2116.8

! 0.977

DO sat = 9.02 mg/L

With an elevation correction factor of 0.977

DOsat = 9.02 mg/L 0.977 = 8.81 mg/L

54. Determine BOD, milligrams per liter, given the following data:

t*OJUJBM%0NHt'JOBM%0NHt4BNQMFTJ[FN-

BOD !

5

"TFSJFTPGTFFEEJMVUJPOTXFSFQSFQBSFEJON-#0%CPUUMFTVTJOHTFFENBUFSJBM TFUUMFESBXXBTUFXBUFS

BOEVOTFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSFBWFSBHF#0%GPSUIFTFFENBUFSJBMXBTNH-0OFNJMMJMJUFSPGUIFTFFENBUFSJBM

was also added to each bottle of a series of sample dilutions. Given the data for two samples in the following table,

DBMDVMBUFUIFTFFEDPSSFDUJPOGBDUPS 4$

BOE#0%PGUIFTBNQMF

Bottle #

mL Sample

mL Seed/bottle

Do initial

.?KN"=+)2

Depletion, mg/L

12

50

8.0

4.6

3.4

13

75

7.7

3.9

2.8

204Kmg / L

! 0.68Kmg / LKBOD / mLKseed

300Kmg / L

SC = 0.68 mg/L BOD/mL seed 1 mL seed/bottle = 0.68 mg/L

Step 3: Calculate the BOD of each sample dilution:

3.4 $ 0.68

" 300 ! 16.3Kmg / L

50KmL

3.8 $ 0.68

BOD,Kmg / L,KBottle #13 !

" 300 ! 12.5Kmg / L

MNKmL

Step 4: Calculate reported BOD:

BOD,Kmg / L,KBottle #12 !

56. Calculate the oxygen deficit in a stream after pollution. Use the following equation and parameters for a stream

to calculate the oxygen deficit D in the stream after pollution.

D!

K1 LA

0.280 " 22

/e $ K1t $ e $ K2t 40 , DAe $ K2t !

/e $0.280"2.13 $ e $0.550"2.13 40 , 2e $0.550"2.13 ! 6.16Kmg / L

K 2 $ K1 3

0.550 $ 0.280 3

031

%

BOD5 &

% 135 &

$ log '1 $

( $ log '1 $

(

BOD

21 *

)

) 400 * ! 0.361/ day

!

K1 !

t

5

58. Given the following data, determine the mass balance of the biological process and the appropriate waste rate to

maintain current operating conditions.

Process

O+P5%+(

E,P5%+(

Waste

Flow

1.1 MGD

BOD

220 mg/L

TSS

240 mg/L

Flow

1.5 MGD

BOD

18 mg/L

TSS

22 mg/L

Flow

24,000 gpd

TSS

8710 mg/L

BOD out = 18 mg/L 1.1 MGD 8.34 = 165 lb/day

BOD Removed = 2018 lb/day 165 lb/day = 1853 lb/day

Solids Produced = 1853 lb/day 0.65 lb/lb BOD = 1204 lb solids/day

Solids Out, lb/day = 22 mg/L 1.1 MGD 8.34 = 202 lb/day

Sludge Out, lb/day = 8710 mg/L 0.024 MGD 8.34 = 1743 lb/day

Solids Removed, lb/day = (202 lb/day + 1743 lb/day) = 1945 lb/day

MassKBalance !

1204Klb / day

The sampling points, collection methods, and/or laboratory testing procedures are producing nonrepresentative results.

The process is removing significantly more solids than is required. Additional testing should be performed to isolate the

specific cause of the imbalance.

To assist in the evaluation, the waste rate based upon the mass balance information can be calculated.

Waste,KGPD !

! 1675K gpd

8710Kmg / L " 8.34

59. A dual medium filter is composed of 0.3 m anthracite (mean size of 2.0 mm) placed over a 0.6-m layer of sand

(mean size 0.7 mm) with a filtration rate of 9.78 m/h. Assume the grain sphericity is = 0.75 and a porosity for both

is 0.42. Although normally taken from the appropriate table at 15C, we provide the head loss data of the filter at 1.131

106 m2 sec.

Step 1: Determine head loss through anthracite layer using the Kozeny equation.

h k > -1 $ O . % A &

!

' ( u

L

gpO 3 ) V *

2

"

"'

( - 0.00272 .- 0.2 . ! 0.0410Km

9.81

0.423

) 0.002 *

Step 2: Compute the head loss passing through the sand.

h ! 6"

h ! 5"

"

"'

( - 0.00272 .- 0.2 . ! 0.5579Km

9.81

0.423

) 0.007 *

60. Point rainfalls due to a storm at several rain-gauge stations in a basin are shown in the figure. Determine the

mean areal depth of rainfall over the basin by the three methods.

032

Pave !

@P

1331Kcm

! 8.87Kcm

15

(ii) Thiessen polygon method-The Thiessen polygons are constructed as shown in the figure and the polygonal areas

are planimetered and the mean areal depth of rainfall is worked out below:

(iii) Isohyetal method-The isohyets are drawn as shown in the figure and the mean areal depth of rainfall is worked

out below:

61. A small water shed consists of 2 km2 of forest area (c = 0.1), 1.2 km2 of cultivated area (c = 0.2) and 1 km2

under grass cover (c = 0.35). A water course falls by 20 m in a length of 2 km. The IDF relation for the area may be

taken as

i = 80T0.2/ (t+12)0.5

Estimate the peak rate of runoff for a 25 yr frequency.

Time of concentration (in hr)

0.77

tc ! 0.06628KL

$0.385

! 0.06628 " 2

0.77

% 20 &

'

(

) 2 "1000 *

$0.385

! 40Kmin

80 " 250.2

- 40 , 12 .

0.5

! 21.1Kcm / hr

Qpeak = 2.78 C ic A, rational formula, CA = CiAi= 2.78 21.1 (0.1 2 + 0.2 1.2 + 0.35 1) = 46.4 cumec

62. The annual rainfall at a place for a period of 21 years is given below. Draw the rainfall frequency curve and

determine :

(a) The rainfall of 5-year and 20-year recurrence, interval

(b) The rainfall which occurs 50% of the times

ic !

033

(d) The probability of occurrence of rainfall of 75 cm and its recurrence interval.

Year

Rainfall (cm)

Year

Rainfall (cm)

1950

50

1961

56

1951

60

1962

52

1952

40

1963

42

1953

27

1964

38

1954

30

1965

27

1955

38

1966

40

1956

70

1967

100

1957

60

1968

90

1958

35

1969

44

1959

55

1970

33

1960

40

Arrange the yearly rainfall in the descending order of magnitude as given below. If a particular rainfall occurs in more

than one year, m = no. of times exceeded + no. of times equaled.

Draw the graph of P vs. F on a semi-log paper which gives the rainfall frequency curve. From the frequency-curve,

the required values can be obtained as

1

100

"100 !

! 20%K forKwhichKP ! 64Kcm

T

5

1

T ! 20 $ year ,KF ! " 100 ! 5%K forKwhichKP ! 97.5Kcm

20

- a .KT ! 5 $ yr ,KF !

(b) For F = 50%, P = 42.2 cm which is the median value, and the mean value

x!

@ x ! 1026 ! 48.8Kcm

n

21

1

100

"100 !

! 8K yr

F

12.4

63. For a given basin, the following are the infiltration capacity rates at various time intervals after the beginning

of the storm. Make a plot of the f-curve and establish an equation of the form developed by Horton. Also determine

the total rain and the excess rain (runoff).

034

Time (min)

O+=2(-)('0+"9)6)9'(3"@9.K$-D

5.0

3.9

5.0

3.4

5.0

3.1

5.0

2.7

5.0

2.5

7.5

2.3

7.5

2.0

10

7.5

1.8

12

7.5

1.54

14

7.5

1.43

16

2.5

1.36

18

2.5

1.31

20

2.5

1.28

22

2.5

1.25

24

2.5

1.23

26

2.5

1.22

28

2.5

1.20

30

2.5

1.20

The precipitation and infiltration rates versus time are plotted as shown in the figure. In the Hortons equation, the

Hortons constant

k!

f0 $ fc

Fc

% 1Kcm

&

" 2Kmin ( ! 0.275Kcm

Fc ! 8.25 '

) 60Kmin

*

- 4.5 $ 1.2 .Kcm / hr ! 12Khr $1

k!

0.275Kcm

The Hortons equation is

f = fc + (f0 fc) ekt = 1.2 + (4.5 1.2) e12t

is the equation for the infiltration capacity curve (f-curve) for the basin, where f is in cm/hr and t in hr.

3.3

12"-1/6 .

! 1.7Kcm / hr ,Kwhich is very near compared to the observed value of 1.8 cm/hr.

1

! 2.29Kcm

30

Excess rain Pnet = P Fp= 68.75 26.5 = 42.25 sq. units= 1.41 cm

1

! 0.88Kcm

30

The total infiltration loss Fp can also be determined by intergrating the Hortons equation for the duration of the

storm.

t

30

60

Fp ! 7 f Kdt !

3.3 &

3.3 %

1&

3.3 %

1 &

Kdt ! 1.2t ,

'1 $ ( ! 0.6 ,

'1 $

( ! 0.88Kcm

12 t (

12 ) e6 *

12 ) 408 *

*

7 ')1.2 , e

f ! 1.2 ,

035

This compares with the value obtained earlier.

Fp

t

0.88Kcm

! 1.76Kcm / hr

0.5K

The Hortons equation is

f = fc + (f0 fc) ekt

log (f fc) = log (f0 fc) kt log e

Solving for t,

t!

logK- f 0 $ f c .

k KlogKe

logK- f $ f c .

k KlogKe

Which is in the form of a straight line y = mx + c in which y = t, x = log (f fc), m = -1/k log e.

Hence, from a plot of t vs. (f fc) on a semi-log paper (t to linear scale), the constants in the Hortons equation can be

determined.

From the given data, fc = 1.2 cm/hr and the values of (f fc) for different time intervals from the beginning are: 2.7, 2.2,

1.9, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.46, 0.32, 0.22, 0.16, 0.12, 0.05, 0.04, 0.02, 0.0 cm/hr, respectively; (note: 3.9 1.2 = 2.7 cm/ hr

and like that for other readings).

These values are plotted against time on a semi-log paper as shown in the figure.

k!

1

! 12Khr $1

0.1933 " 0.434

f fc = 3.3 = f0 fc, (since f = f0 when t = 0)

f0 = 3.3 + 1.2 = 4.5 cm/hr

Hence, the Hortons equation is of the form

f = 1.2 + (4.5 1.2) e12t

5

10

15

TotalKrainKP ! 5 " , 7.5 " , 2.5 "

! 2.29Kcm

60

60

60

This compares with the value obtained earlier.

64. A 24-hour storm occurred over a catchment of 1.8 km2 area and the total rainfall observed was 10 cm. An

infiltration capacity curve prepared had the initial infiltration capacity of 1 cm/hr and attained a constant value of 0.3

cm/hr after 15 hours of rainfall with a Hortons constant k = 5 hr1. An IMD pan installed in the catchment indicated

BEFDSFBTFPGDNJOUIFXBUFSMFWFM BFSBMMPXJOHGPSSBJOGBMM

EVSJOHIPVSTPGJUTPQFSBUJPO0UIFSMPTTFTXFSF

found to be negligible. Determine the runoff from the catchment. Assume a pan coefficient of 0.7.

036

24

24

0.7 24

]0

Fp ! 7 /3 f c , - f 0 $ f c . e $ kt 04Kdt ! 7 /30.3 , -1.0 $ 0.3. e $5t 04Kdt ! 0.3t ,

$5e5t

0.7 0 /

0.7 0

0.7 %

1 &

/

! 10.3 " 24 $ 5"24 2 $ 10 $ 0 2 ! 7.2 ,

'1 $ 120 ( ! 7.34Kcm

5

5

5

e

e

e

3

4 3

4

)

*

Runoff = P Fp E = 10 7.34 (0.60 0.7) = 2.24 cm

Volume of runoff from the catchment = (2.24/100) (1.8 106) = 40320 m3

65. The 3-hr unit hydrograph ordinates for a basin are given below. There was a storm, which commenced on July

15 at 16.00 hr and continued up to 22.00 hr, which was followed by another storm on July 16 at 4.00 hr which lasted

up to 7.00 hr. It was noted from the mass curves of self-recording rain gauge that the amount of rainfall on July 15

was 5.75 cm from 16.00 to 19.00 hr and 3.75 cm from 19.00 to 22.00 hr, and on July 16, 4.45 cm from 4.00 to 7.00 hr.

Assuming an average loss of 0.25 cm/hr and 0.15 cm/hr for the two storms, respectively, and a constant base flow of

10 cumec, determine the stream flow hydrograph and state the time of occurrence of peak flood.

Time (hr):

12

15

18

21

24

27

UGO

(cumec)

1.5

4.5

8.6

12.0

9.4

4.6

2.3

0.8

Since the duration of the UG is 3 hr, the 6-hr storm (16.00 to 22.00 hr) can be considered as 2-unit storm producing a

net gain of 5.75 0.25 3 = 5 cm in the first 3-hr period and a net gain of 3.75 0.25 3 = 3 cm in the next 3-hr period.

The unit hydrograph ordinates are multiplied by the net rain of each period lagged by 3 hr. Similarly, another unit storm

lagged by 12 hr (4.00 to 7.00 hr next day) produces a net gain of 4.45 0.15 3 = 4 cm which is multiplied by the UGO

and written in col (5) (lagged by 12 hr from the beginning), the table. The rainfall excesses due to the three storms are

added up to get the total direct surface discharge ordinates. T;o this, the base flow ordinates (BFO = 10 cumec, constant)

are added to get the total discharge ordinates (stream flow).

The flood hydrograph due to the 3 unit storms on the basin is obtained by plotting col (8) vs. col. (1).

66. A 20-cm well penetrates 30 m below static water level (GWT). After a long period of pumping at a rate of 1800

lpm, the draw downs in the observation wells at 12 m and 36 m from the pumped well are 1.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively.

Determine: (i) the transmissibility of the aquifer.

(ii) The drawdown in the pumped well assuming R = 300 m.

Q!

A K - h22 $ h12 .

2.303log10 r2 / r1

037

2

2

1.800 A K 29.5 $ 28.8

!

60

2.303log10 36 /12

(i) Transmissibility T = KH = (2.62 104) 30 = 78.6 104 m2/sec

- ii .KQ !

2.72T - H $ hw .

log10 R / rw

$4

1.800 2.72 78.6 "10 S w

!

60

log10 300 / 0.10

(iii) The specific capacity of the well

Q

1.800

!

! 0.0062Km3 / sec$ m

S w 60 " 4.88

67. The highest annual floods for a river for 60 years were statistically analysed. The sixth largest flood was 30,000

cumec (30 tcm).

Determine:

(i) The period in which the flood of 30 tcm may reoccur once

(ii) The percentage chance that this flood may occur in any one year

(iii) The percentage chance that this flood may not occur in the next 20 years

(iv) The percentage chance that this flood may occur once or more in the next 20 years

(v) The percentage chance that a 50-yr flood may occur (a) once in 50 years, (b) one or more times in 50 years

n , 1 60 , 1

!

! 10K yr

m

6

1

1

"100 ! 10%

- ii .KPercentageKchance,Ki.e.,KP ! "100 !

10.1

T

- i .KWeibull;KT !

- iv .KPEx ! 1 $ -1 $ P .

- v .K- a .KP !

20

1 &

%

! '1 $

( ! 12.4%

) 10.1 *

1

1

"100 ! "100 ! 2%

50

T

50

1 &

( ! 0.3631

) 50 *

PEx ! 1 $ P- N ,0. ! 1 $ 0.3631 ! 64%

Time (hr)

12

24

36

48

60

72

84

96

108

120

M7N"=%?.)&+.@

42

45

88

272

342

288

240

198

162

133

110

Time (hr)

132

144

156

168

180

192

204

216

228

240

M7N"=%?.)&+.@

90

79

68

61

56

54

51

48

45

42

x = 0.15, K = 36 hr = 1.5 day; take the routing period (from the inflow hydrograph readings) as 12 hr = 1/2 day. Compute

C0, C1 and C2 as follows:

68. The inflow hydrograph readings for a stream reach are given below for which the Muskingum coefficients of K

= 36 hr and x = 0.15 apply. Route the flood through the reach and determine the outflow hydrograph. Also determine

UIFSFEVDUJPOJOQFBLBOEUIFUJNFPGQFBLPGPVUPX0VUPXBUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFPPENBZCFUBLFOBTUIFTBNF

as inflow.

038

1

1.5 " 0.15 $ 0.5 "

Kx $ 0.5t

2 ! 0.02

C0 ! $

!$

1

K $ Kx , 0.5t

1.5 $ 12 " 0.15 , 0.5 "

2

1

1.5 " 0.15 , 0.5 "

Kx , 0.5t

2 ! 0.31

C1 !

!

K $ Kx , 0.5t 1.5 $ 12 " 0.15 , 0.5 " 1

2

1

15 $ 1.5 " 0.15 $ 0.5 "

K $ Kx $ 0.5t

2 ! 0.67

C2 !

!

K $ Kx , 0.5t 1.5 $ 12 " 0.15 , 0.5 " 1

2

Check: C0 + C1 + C2 = 0.02 + 0.31 + 0.67 = 1

O2 = 0.02 I2 + 0.31 I1 + 0.67 O1

In the table, I1, I2 are known from the inflow hydrograph, and O1 is taken as I1 at the beginning of the flood since the

flow is almost steady.

Time (hr)

O+P0:"O"@95.%9D

0.02 I2 (cumec)

0.31 I2 (cumec)

0.67O2 (cumec)

42

Q5(P0:"Q2 (cumec)

42*

12

45

0.90

13.0

28.2

42.1

24

88

1.76

14.0

28.3

44.0

36

272

5.44

27.3

29.5

62.2

48

342

6.84

84.3

41.7

132.8

60

288

5.76

106.0

89.0

200.7

72

240

4.80

89.2

139.0

233.0

84

198

3.96

74.4

156.0

234.0

96

162

3.24

61.4

157.0

221.6

108

133

2.66

50.2

148.2

201.0

120

110

2.20

41.2

134.5

178.9

132

90

1.80

34.1

119.8

166.7

144

79

1.58

27.9

104.0

133.5

156

68

1.36

24.4

89.5

115.3

163

61

1.22

21.1

77.4

99.7

180

56

1.12

18.9

66.8

86.8

192

54

1.08

17.4

58.2

76.7

204

51

1.02

16.7

51.4

69.1

216

48

1.00

15.8

46.3

63.1

228

45

0.90

14.8

42.3

58.0

240

42

0.84

13.9

38.9

53.6

O2 = 0.02 45 + 0.31 42 + 0.67 42 = 42.06 cumec

This value of O2 becomes O1 for the next routing period and the process is repeated till the flood is completely routed

through the reach. The resulting outflow hydrograph is plotted as shown in the figure.

The reduction in peak is 108 cumec and the lag time is 36 hr, i.e., the peak outflow is after 84 hr (= 3.5 days) after the

commencement of the flood through the reach.

039

69. The following data are obtained from the records of the mean monthly flows of a river for 10 years. The head

available at the site of the power plant is 60 m and the plant efficiency is 80%.

R%)+".0+($23"P0:"-)+?%"@95.%9D

100-149

150-199

200-249

16

250-299

21

300-349

24

350-399

21

400-449

20

450-499

500-549

(a) Plot

(i) The flow duration curve (ii) The power duration curve

(b) Determine the mean monthly flow that can be expected and the average power that can develop.

(c) Indicate the effect of storage on the flow duration curve obtained.

(d) What would be the trend of the curve if the mean weekly flow data are used instead of monthly flows?

The mean monthly flow ranges are arranged in the ascending order as shown in the table. The number of times that

each mean monthly flow range (class interval, C.I.) has been equaled or exceeded (m) is worked out as cumulative number

of occurrences starting from the bottom of the column of number of occurrences, since the C.I. of the monthly flows, is

arranged in the ascending order of magnitude. It should be noted that the flow values are arranged in the ascending order

of magnitude in the flow duration analysis, since the minimum continuous flow that can be expected almost throughout

the year (i.e., for a major percent of time) is required particularly in drought duration and power duration studies, while

in flood flow analysis the CI may be arranged in the descending order of magnitude and m is worked out from the top

as cumulative number of occurrences since the high flows are of interest. The percent of time that each CI is equaled or

exceeded is worked out as the percent of the total number of occurrences (m) of the particular CI out of the 120 = (10 yr

12 = n) mean monthly

Flow values, i.e., = (m/n) 100. The monthly power developed in megawatts,

P!

gQH

% 9.81" 60

&

"P 0 ! '

" 0.80 ( Q

1000

) 1000

*

Where Q is the lower value of the CI Thus, for each value of Q, P can be calculated.

(i) The flow duration curve is obtained by plotting Q vs. percent of time, (Q = lower value of the CI).

(ii) The power duration curve is obtained by plotting P vs. percent of time.

(b) The mean monthly flow that can be expected is the flow that is available for 50% of the time i.e., 357.5 cumec from

the flow duration curve drawn. The average power that can be developed i.e., from the flow available for 50% of the time, is

167 MW, from the power duration curve drawn.

(c) The effect of storage is to raise the flow duration curve on the dry weather portion. And lower it on the high flow

portion and thus tends to equalize the flow at different times of the year, as indicated in the figure.

(d) If the mean weekly flow data are used instead of the monthly flow data, the flow duration curve lies below the curve

obtained from monthly flows for about 75% of the time towards the drier part of the year and above it for the rest of the

year as indicated in the figure.

In fact the flow duration curve obtained from daily flow data gives the details more accurately (particularly near the

ends) than the curves obtained from weekly or monthly flow data but the latter provide smooth curves because of their

averaged out values. What duration is to be used depends upon the purpose for which the flow duration curve is intended.

040

70. Annual rainfall and runoff data for the Damodar River at Rhondia (east India) for 17 years (1934-1950) are

given below. Determine the linear regression line between rainfall and runoff, the correlation coefficient and the

standard error of estimate.

Year

Rainfall (mm)

Runoff (mm)

1934

1088

274

1935

1113

320

1936

1512

543

1937

1343

437

1938

1103

352

1939

1490

617

1940

1100

328

1941

1433

582

1942

1475

763

1943

1380

558

1944

1178

492

1945

1223

478

1946

1440

783

1947

1165

551

1948

1271

565

1949

1443

720

1950

1340

730

The regression line computations are made in the table and is given by

R = 0.86 P 581

Where P = rainfall (mm) and R = runoff (mm)

The correlation coefficient r = 0.835, which indicates a close linear relation and the straight line plot is shown in the

figure, the relation is very close.

S y,x ! Q y 1 $ r 2

Qy !

@- y $ y.

n $1

@ - 5y .

n $1

40.10 "104

17 $ 1

71. A catchment of area 1040 km2 is divided into 9-hourly divisions by isochrones (lines of equal travel time) in the

figure. From the observation of a hydrograph due to a short rain on the catchment, ti = 9 hr and K = 8 hr. Derive: (a)

the IUH for the catchment. (b) a 3-hr UG.

041

(i) It will be assumed that the catchment is divided into sub-areas such that all surface runoff from each of these areas

will arrive during a 1-hr period at the gauging point. The areas are measured by plan metering each of the hourly areas as:

>05-

Area(km2)

40

100

150

180

160

155

140

80

35

(ii) The time-area graph (in full lines) and the distribution graph of runoff (in dotted lines) are drawn as shown in the

figure. The dotted lines depict the non-uniform areal distribution of rain.

Plot col (1) vs. col (5) to get the IUH, and col (1) vs. col (6) to get the 3-hr UGO, as shown in the figure.

042

C' !

1

K, t

2

1

K$ t

2

C2 !

1

K, t

2

1

1

!

! 0.1177

1

8 , "1 8.5

2

1

8 $ "1

2 ! 7.5 ! 0.882,KCheck :KC ' , C ! 1

!

2

1

8 , "1 5

2

O2 = 0.1177 I + 0.882 O1

O2 vs. time gives the required synthetic IUH from which the 3-hr UGO are obtained as computed in the table. The

conversion constant for Col (3) is computed as

1 $ cmKrainKonK1Kkm 2 KinK1Khr !

106 "10$2

! 2.78Km3 / s

3600

The 3-hr UGO is obtained by averaging the pair of IUH ordinates at 3-hr intervals and writing at the end of the intervals.

72. The recession ordinates of the flood hydrograph (FHO) for the Lakhwar dam site across river Yamuna are given

below. Determine the value of K.

Time(hr)

30

36

42

48

54

60

66

72

78

S>Q@95.%9D

1070

680

390

240

150

90

45

30

20

Qt ! Q0 e k ,KwhenKK !

t

% Q0 &

ln ' (

) Qt *

Q vs. t is plotted on the semi-log paper. K is the slope of the recession-flood hydrograph plot.

K!

31 $ 59

5t

5t

!

!

! $12.15,KsayK12Khr

5 ln Q 2.303log 1000 1.303 "1

100

73. The isochronal map of Lakhwar damsite catchment, the figure has areas between successive 3 hr isochrones as

32, 67, 90, 116, 135, 237, 586 and 687 km2. Taking k = 12 hr, derive the IUH of the basin by Clarks approach and hence

a 3-hr UG.

043

A = Ar = 1950 km2

tc = t N = 3 8 = 24 hr, K = 12 hr

No. of isochrones = N 1 = 8 1 = 7#

ComputationKintervalKt ! 5tc KbetweenKsuccessiveKisochrones ! 3Khr !

24 tc

!

8 N

Q2 = CI + C2Q1

3

!

! 0.2222

t

3

k,

12 ,

2

2

t

3

k$

12 $

2

2 ! 0.7778

!

C2 !

t

3

k,

12 ,

2

2

C' !

From the sub areas Ar,

I ! 2.78

Ar

A

! 2.78 " r

t

3

Q2 = IUHO

Plot Col. (5) vs. col (1) to get IUH, and Col (6) vs. col. (1) to get 3 - hr UG. Note that the two peaks are staggered by 3

hr; i.e., IUH is more skewed.

74. During a snow survey, the data of a snow sample collected are given below:

Depth of snow sample 2 m

Weight of tube and sample 25 N

Weight of sample tube 20 N

Diameter of tube 40 mm

Determine

(i) The density of snow

(ii) The water equivalent of snow

(iii) The quality of snow, if the final temperature is 5C when 4 lit. of water at 15 C is added.

(i) Density of snow is the same as its specific gravity

25 $ 20

A - 0.020 . " 2

2

Rs

!

!

! 0.203

1000 " 9.81

Rw Rw

- ii .KDensityKof Ksnow,KGs !

DepthKof KmeltKwaterK- d w .

DepthKof KsnowK- d s .

(iii) If the actual weight of ice content in the sample is Wc gm, then

Heat gained by snow = Heat lost by water

Heat required to melt + to rise temperature to 5C

Ws

Vs

044

5

"1000 " 5 ! 4000 -15 $ 5 .

9.81

Solving, Wc = 468.2 gm = 0.4682 9.81 = 4.6 N

4.6

QualityKof Ksnow !

! 0.92

5

Wc " 80 ,

75. The average snow line is at 1400 m elevation and a temperature index station located at 1800 m elevation

indicated a mean daily temperature of 8C on a certain day. Assuming a temperature decrease of 1C per 200 m increase

in elevation and a degree-day factor of 3 mm/degree-day, compute the snowmelt runoff for the day. An area elevation

curve for the snowpack is shown in the figure.

Freezing elevation = 1800 + (8 0) 200 = 3400 m. The area between the snow line elevation of 1400 m and the freezing

elevation of 3400 m is read out from the area-elevation curve, the figure as 680 km2. The average temperature over this area

is

/

1800 $ 1400 E0

D

1 109CKatKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK,KKG89C ,

H2 1

200

I

J2K! (0 , 10) ! 59C

1

2

2

13 freezing Kelevn.KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKatKsnowKlineKelevn.KK 24

Snowmelt runoff for the day= 0.003 5 C (680 106) = 10.2 106 m3= 10.2 km2-m

76. Equilibrium overland flow occurs over a rectangular area 100 m long due to a uniform net rainfall of 50 mm/hr.

At what distance from the upper edge of the area the flow changes from laminar to turbulent if the temperature is 20C

and the critical Reynolds number is 800.

Re !

vd

800 !

q

+ q ! 8 "10$4 Kcumec / m

1"10$6

q ! inet l

8 "10$4 !

50

"l

1000 " TU" TU

the

(b) What is the maixmum uniform demand that can be met and what is the storage capacity required to meet this

demand?

Month

135

23

27

21

15

40

120

185

112

87

63

42

Demand (mm3)

60

55

80

102

100

121

38

30

25

59

85

75

77. The runoff data for a river during a lean year along with the probable demands are given below. Can

demands be met with the available river flow? If so, how?

(a) Evaporation losses and the prior water rights of the downstream user are not given and hence not considered. The

computation is made in the table. Since the cumulative surplus is more than the cumulative deficit the demands can be met

with the available river flows, by constructing a reservoir with minimum storage capacity of 352 Mm3, which is also the 045

maximum departure of the mass curves (from the beginning of the severe dry period) of inflow and demand.

Month

O+P0:"@..3)

Cumulative

'+P0:"@..3)

Demand

(mm3)

Cumulative

demand (mm3)

Jan.

135

870

60

830

Surplus

Cumulative J%=9'("@..3)

(mm3) surplus (mm3)

75

Cumulative

demand (mm3)

75

Remarks

Reservoir full by

end of Jan

Feb.

23

23

55

55

32

March

27

50

80

135

53

April

21

71

102

237

81

May

15

86

100

337

85

June

40

126

121

458

81

July

120

246

38

496

82

Aug.

185

431

30

526

155

Sep.

112

543

25

551

87

Oct.

87

630

59

610

28

Nov.

63

693

85

695

22

Dec.

42

735

75

770

33

Total

870

332

Max draft =

storage

352

427

55

387

In the bar graph, the monthly inflow and demand are shown by full line and dashed line, respectively. The area of

maximum deficit (i.e., demand over surplus) is the storage capacity required and is equal to 332 Mm3.

The shaded area represents the surplus over the uniform demand (during the months of January, and July to October),

which is the storage capacity required to meet the uniform demand, and is equal to (135) + (120 + 185 + 112 + 87) 72.5

5 = 276.5 Mm3

m3

%K&

% 0.376 &

1.67

0.5

2.67

Qs ! ' ( S x1.67 S L0.5Ts2.67 ! '

! Qs assumed

( 0.02 0.01 1.9 ! 0.019

s

)n*

) 0.016 *

(b) The cumulative inflow in the lean year is 870 Mm3. The maximum uniform demand that can be met is 870/12=72.5

Mm3 per month. In the bar graph, the line of uniform demand is drawn at 72.5 M.m3/month.

78. A 200 mm-well is pumped at the rate 1150 lpm. The drawdown data on an observation well 12.3 away from the 046

pumped well are given below. Determine the transmissibility and storage coefficients of the aquifer. What will be the

drawdown at the end of 180 days (a) in the observation well, (b) in the pumped well? Use the modified This method;

under what conditions is this method valid?

Time(min)

12

Drawdown

2.42

2.46

2.52

2.58

2.61

2.63

Time(min)

15

20

40

60

90

120

Drawdown

2.67

2.71

2.79

2.85

2.91

2.94

The time-drawdown plot is shown in the figure, from which s = 0.28 m per log-cycle of t, and t0 (for s = 0) is 37 1010

min.

1.150

2.3 "

2.3Q

60 ! 0.0125Km 2 / s

!

T!

4A5s 4A - 0.28 .

S!

$10

2.25Tt0 2.25 - 0.0125 . 37 "10 " 60

!

! 4.12 "10$11

2

2

r

-12.3.

2.3Q

2.25Tt

log 2 ,Ku 6 0.01

4A T

r S

% 1.150 &

2.3 '

(

) 60 * log 2.25 - 0.0125 .180 " 86400 ! 3.89Km

s!

2

4A - 0.0125 .

-12.3. 4.12 "10$11

s!

% 1.150 &

2.3 '

(

) 60 * log 2.25 - 0.0125 .180 " 86400 ! 5.06Km

sw !

2

4A - 0.0125 .

- 0.100 . 4.12 "10$11

The Jacobs method is valid for

u 6 0.01

r 2S

6 0.01

4Tt

79. A vertical lock gate is 4 m wide and separates 20C water levels of 2 m and 3 m, respectively. Find the moment

about the bottom required to keep the gate stationary.

On the side of the gate where the water measures 3 m, F1 acts and has an hCG of 1.5 m; on the opposite side, F2 acts with

an hCG of 1m.

047

F2 = hCG2A2 = (9790) (1.0) (2) (4) = 78,320 N

yCP1 = [1/12) (4) (3)3 sin 90] / [(1.5) (4) (3)] 0.5 m; so F1 acts at 1.5 0.5 = 1.0 m above B

yCP2 = [(1/12) (4) (2)3 sin 90] / [(1) (4) (2)] = 0.333 m; F2 acts at 1.0 0.33 = 0.67 m above B

Taking moments about points B (see the figure),

MB = (176,220 N) (1.0 m) (78,320 N) (0.667 m) = 124,000 N m; Mbottom = 124 kNm

80. The pressure in the air gap is 8000 Pa gage. The tank is cylindrical. Calculate the net hydrostatic force (a) on the

bottom of the tank; (b) on the cylindrical sidewall CC; and (c) on the annular plane panel BB.

(a) The bottom force is simply equal to bottom pressure times bottom area:

Pbottom = Pair + water g|z| = 8000 Pa + (9790 N / m3) (0.25 + 0.12m) = 11622 Pa - gage

FCC = pCCACC = (10448 Pa) ( /4) [(0.36 m)2 (0.16 m)2 ] = 853 N

81. Determine (a) the total hydrostatic force on curved surface AB in the figure and (b) its line of action. Neglect

atmospheric pressure and assume unit width into the paper.

Avert = (9790 N/m3) (0.5 m) (11 m2) = 4895 N at 0.667 m below B.

FH = hCG

For the cubic-shaped surface AB, the weight of water above is computed by integration:

The line of action (water centroid) of the vertical force also has to be found by integration:

1

7 xdA ! 7

x!

7 dA 7 -1 $ x . dx

x 1 $ x3 dx

3

! 10 ! 0.4Km

3

4

3

%3&

FV ! R b 7 1 $ x 3 dx ! R b ! ' ( - 9790 .-1.0 . ! 7343KN

4

)4*

0

048

The vertical force of 7343 N thus acts at 0.4 m to the right of point A, or 0.6 m to the left of B, as shown in the sketch

above. The resultant hydrostatic force then is

Ftotal = [(4895)2 + (7343)2]1/2 = 8825 N acting at 56.31 down and to the right.

This result is shown in the sketch at above right. The line of action of F strikes the vertical above point A at 0.933 m above

A, or 0.067 m below the water surface.

82. In the figure all pipes are 8-cm-diameter cast iron. Determine the flow rate from reservoir (1) if valve C is (a)

closed; and (b) open, with Kvalve = 0.5.

For water at 20C, take = 998 kg/m3 and = 0.001 kg/m.s. For cast iron, 0.26 mm, hence /d = 0.26/80 0.00325

for all three pipes. Note p1 = p2, V1 = V2 0. These are long pipes, but we might wish to account for minor losses anyway:

Sharp entrance at A: K1 0.5; line junction from A to B: K2 0.9

Branch junction from A to C: K3 1.3; two submerged exits: KB = KC 1.0

If valve C is closed, we have a straight series path through A and B, with the same flow rate Q, velocity V, and friction

factor f in each. The energy equation yields

z1 z2 = hfA + hmA + hfB + hmB

25Km !

V 2 / 100

50

O&

0

%

f

, 0.5 , 0.9 , f

, 1.0 2 ,KwhereK f ! fcn ' Re, (

1

d*

2 - 9.81. 3 0.08

0.08

4

)

Guess f ffully rough 0.027, then V 3.04 m/s, Re 998(3.04) (0.08) / (0.001) 243000,

/ d = 0.00325, then f 0.0273 (converged). Then the velocity through A and B is V = 3.03 m/s, and Q = ( /4)

(0.08)2(3.03) 0.0152 m3/s.

If valve C is open, we have parallel flow through B and C, with QA = QB + QC and, with d constant, VA = VB + VC. The

total head loss is the same for paths A-B and A-C:

z1 z2 = hfA + hmA-B + hfB + hmB = hfA + hmA-C + hfC + hmC

25 !

!

VA2 / 100

VB2 /

50

0

0

,

0.5

,

0.9

,

f

A

2 2 - 9.81. 1 f B 0.08 , 1.0 2

2 - 9.81. 13 0.08

4

3

4

VC2 /

VA2 / 100

70

0

0

, 0.5 , 1.32 ,

, 1.0 2

fA

fC

1

2 - 9.81. 3 0.08

4 2 - 9.81. 13 0.08

4

Plus the additional relation VA = VB + VC. Guess f ffully rough 0.027 for all three pipes and begin. The initial numbers

work out to

2g (25) = 490.5 = VA2 (1250A + 1.4) + VB2 (625 B + 1) = VA2 (1250 A + 1.8) + VC2 (875 C + 1)

If f 0.027, solve (laboriously) VA 3.48 m/s, VB 1.91 m/s, VC 1.57 m/s

Repeat once for convergence: VA 3.46 m/s, VB 1.90 m/s, VC 1.56 m/s. The flow rate from reservoir (1) is QA = (/4)

(0.08)2 (3.46) 0.0174 m3/s. (14% more)

83. Two water tanks, each with base area of 1 ft2, are connected by a 0.5-indiameter long-radius nozzle as in the

figure. If h = 1 ft as shown for t = 0, estimate the time for h (t) to drop to 0.25 ft.

049

For water at 20C, take =1.94 slug/ft3 and = 2.09E - 5 slug/ft.s. For a long-radius nozzle with 0, guess Cd 0.98 and

Kloss 0.9. The elevation difference h must balance the head losses in the nozzle and submerged exit:

5z ! @ hloss !

Vt 2

Vt 2

K!

- 0.9nozzle , 1.0exit . ! h,KsolveKVt ! 5.82 h

@

2g

2 - 32.3.

2

%1&

1

1 dh

dh

% A &' 2 (

!$

henceKQ ! Vt ' ( ' ( V 0.00794 h ! $ Atan k

4

12

2

2 dt

dt

) *' (

) *

The boldface factor 1/2 accounts for the fact that, as the left tank falls by dh, the right tank rises by the same amount,

hence dh/dt changes twice as fast as for one tank alone. We can separate and integrate and find the time for h to drop from

1 ft to 0.25 ft:

1.0

0.25

dh

! 0.0159

h

t final !

t final

dt

1 $ 0.25

0.0159

. V 63Ks

84. A centrifugal pump with backward-curved blades has the following measured performance when tested with

water at 20C:

Q, gal/min:

400

800

1200

1600

2000

>4",(T

123

115

108

101

93

81

2400

62

P, hp:

30

36

40

44

47

48

46

(a) Estimate the best efficiency point and the maximum efficiency. (b) Estimate the most efficient flow rate, and the

resulting head and brake horsepower, if the diameter is doubled and the rotation speed increased by 50%.

(a) Convert the data above into efficiency. For example, at Q = 400 gal/min,

400

K ft

- 62.4Klbf / ft . %') 448.8

&

/ s ( -115K ft .

*

! 0.32 ! 32%

36

550

ft

.

lbf

/

s

"

K

.

3

P!

R QH

P

Q, gal/min:

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

U4"C

32%

55%

70%

80%

85%

82%

CQ* !

Q1

Q2

Q2

!

!

3

3

3

n1 D1

n2 D2

-1.5n1 .- 2 D1 .

C*H !

gH1

gH

gH 2

! 2 22 !

2 2

n1 D1 n2 D2 -1.5Kn1 .2 - 2 D1 .2

H 2 ! 9 H1 ! 9 - 81K ft . ! 729K ft

(b) We dont know the values of CQ* or CH* or CP*, but we can set them equal for conditions 1 (the data above) and 2

(the performance when n and D are changed):

050

CP* !

P1

P

P2

! 32 5 !

3 5

8 n1 D1 8 n2 D2 8 -1.5n1 .3 - 2 D1 .5

85. Suppose that the two pumps in the figure are instead arranged to be in series, again at 710 rpm? What pipe

diameter is required for BEP operation?

For water at 20C, take = 1.94 slug/ft3 and = 2.09E5 slug/ft.s. For cast iron, 0.00085 ft. The 35-inch pump has the

BEP values Q* 18 kgal/min, H* 190 ft. In series, each pump takes H/2, so a BEP series operation would match

2

H sys

/

0

1

2

1

2

18000

1

2

1 449 2

1 Ad2 2

1

2

2

LV

% 5280 & 3 4 4

! 2 H * ! 2 -190 . ! 5z , f

! 100 , f '

(

D 2g

) d * 2 - 32.2 .

O 0.00085

213800 f

48Q

KwhereK f KdependsKonKRe !

Kand K !

5

d

d

d

Ad>

This converges to f 0.0169, Re 2.84E6, V 18.3 ft/s, d 1.67 ft

380 ! 100 ,

% 18000 &

62.4 '

( -190 .

) 449 *

Power ! 2 P ! 2

! 1.09 E 6 W 550 V 2000Kbhp

0.87

*

We can save money on the smaller (20-inch) pipe, but putting the pumps in series requires twice as much power as one

pump alone.

86. The net head of a little aquarium pump is given by the manufacturer as a function of volume flow rate as listed:

Q, m3/s:

1E - 6

2E - 6

3E - 6

4E - 6

5E - 6

>4"..">2O:

1.10

1.00

.0.80

0.60

0.35

0.0

What is the maximum achievable flow rate if you use this pump to pump water from the lower reservoir to the upper

reservoir as shown in the figure?

NOTE: The tubing is smooth, with an inner diameter of 5 mm and a total length of 29.8 m. The water is at room

temperature and pressure, and minor losses are neglected.

051

highest pump flow rate:

H pump ! 5z , f

L V2

128> LQ

! 5z , h f ,lam ! 5z ,

! 0.8 ,

4

4

Ad 8g

d 2g

A - 0.005 . - 998 .- 9.81.

One can plot the two relations, as at right, or use EES with a look-up table to get the final result for flow rate and head:

Hp = 1.00 m

Q = 1.0E6 m3 /s

The EES print-out gives the results Red = 255, H = 0.999 m, Q = 1.004E6 m3/s.

87. Uniform water flow in a wide brick channel of slope 0.02 moves over a 10-cm bump as in the figure. A slight

depression in the water surface results. If the minimum depth over the bump is 50 cm, compute (a) the velocity over

the bump; and (b) the flow rate per meter of width.

For brickwork, take n 0.015. Since the water level decreases over the bump, the upstream flow is subcritical. For a wide

channel, Rh = y/2, and

y23 $ E2 y22 ,

q2

!0

2g

q ! V1 y1

V12

, y1 $ 5h

2g

5h ! 0.1Km

y2 ! 0.5Km

E2 !

5

1

% y &3

Meanwhile,K forKuniformK flow,Kq !

y1 ' 1 ( sin 0.029 ! 0.785 y13

0.015 ) 2 *

Solve these two simultaneously for y1 = 0.608 m, V1 = 0.563 m/s Ans. (a), and q = 0.342 m3/ s.m

%

V2 &

V 2 y2

y23 $ ' y1 , 1 ( y22 , 1 1 ! 0 ! y23 $ 1.00204 y22 , 0.00204

2g *

2g

)

88. Water approaches the wide sluice gate in the figure, at V1 = 0.2 m/s and y1 = 1 m. Accounting for upstream

kinetic energy, estimate, at outlet section 2, (a) depth; (b) velocity; and (c) Froude number.

052

And the correct solution: y2 = 0.0462 m

- b .KV2 !

V1 y1 -1.0 .- 0.2 .

!

! 4.33Km / s

0.0462

y2

- c .KFr2 !

V2

4.33

!

! 6.43

gy2

9.81- 0.0462 .

89. Consider the flow under the sluice gate of the figure. If y1 = 10 ft and all losses are neglected except the dissipation

in the jump, calculate y2 and y3 and the percentage of dissipation, and sketch the flow to scale with the EGL included.

The channel is horizontal and wide.

- 2 . ! 10.062K ft ! E ! y , V22

V12

! 10 ,

2

2

2g

2 - 32.2 .

2g

2

E1 ! y1 ,

V1 y1 ! V2 y2 ! 20

V2 V 24.4K ft / s

y2 V 0.820K ft

Fr2 !

Jump :K

24.4

32.2 - 0.820 .

V 4.75

y3 1 /

!

1 , 8 Fr2 $ 104 V 6.23

y2 2 3

y3 V 5.11K ft

E2 ! 10.062K ft ;Kh f !

Dissipation !

- y3 $ y2 .

4 y2 y3

4 - 0.82 .- 5.11.

3

4.71

V 47%

10.06

Consider the gradual change from the profile beginning at point a in the figure on a mild slope So1 to a mild but steeper

slope So2 downstream. Sketch and label the gradually-varied solution curve(s) y(x) expected.

There are two possible profiles, depending upon whether or not the initial M-2 profile slips below the new normal depth

yn2. These are shown on the next page:

053

90. February 1998 saw the failure of the earthen dam impounding California Jims Pond in southern Rhode Island.

The resulting flood raised temporary havoc in the nearby village of Peace Dale. The pond is 17 acres in area and 15 ft

deep and was full from heavy rains. The breach in the dam was 22 ft wide and 15 ft deep. Estimate the time required to

drain the pond to a depth of 2 ft.

d

dt

- 7 dX . , Q

pond

out

!0

1 3

dy

! $Qout ! $0.581- b $ 0.1 y . g 2 y 2

dt

b ! 22K ft

Apond

If we neglect the edge contraction term 0.1y compared to b = 22 ft, this first-order differential equation has the

solvable form

3

dy

V $Cy 2

dt

1

C!

V 9.8 E $ 5K ft

740520

2K ft

15K ft

tdrain $to $ 2K ft V

dy

y

3

2

1

2

sec $1

! $C 7 dt +

0

2

2

$

! Ct

2

5

1.414 $ 0.516

! 9160Ks ! 2.55Kh

9.8 E $ 5

If we used a spreadsheet and kept the term 0.1y, we would predict a time-to-drainto-2 ft or about 2.61 hours. The

theory is too crude to distinguish between these estimates.

91. The figure shows a tank full of water. Find:

(i) Total pressure on the bottom of tank.

(ii) Weight of water in the tank.

(iii) Hydrostatic paradox between the results of (i) and (ii) Width of tank is 2 m.

054

ht ! 3 , 0.6 ! 3.6Km

WidthKof Ktan k ! 2Km

LengthKof Ktan k KatKbottom ! 4Km

A ! 4 " 2 ! 8Km 2

(i )KTotalKpressureKF,KonKtheKbottomKis

F ! 8 gA h ! 1000 " 9.81" 8 " 3.6 ! 282528K N

- ii .KWeightKof KwaterKinKtan k ! 8 g " VolumeKof Ktan k ! 1000 " 9.81" Y3 " 0.4 " 2 , 4 " 0.6 " 2Z

! 1000 " 9.81Y 2.4 , 4.8Z ! 70632K N

- iii .KFromKtheKresultsKof K- i .Kand K- ii . ,KitKisKobserved KthatKtheKtotalKweightKof KwaterKinKtheKtankKisKmuch

lessKthanKtheKtotalK pressureKatKtheKbottomKof KtheKtank .KThisKisKknownKasKHydrostaticKparadox .K

92. A Sutro weir has a rectangular base of 30-cm width and 6-cm height. The depth of water in the channel is 12 cm

assuming the coefficient of discharge of the weir as 0.62; determine the discharge through the weir. What would be the

depth of flow in the channel when the discharge is doubled? (Assume the crest of the base weir to coincide with the bed

of the channel).

a ! 0.06Km

W ! 0.30 / 2 ! 0.15Km

H ! 0.12Km

K ! 2Cd 2 g ! 2 " 0.62 " 2 " [\]^ ! 5.4925

1

a&

0.06 &

%

%

3

Q ! b ' H $ ( ! 0.2018 ' 0.12 $

( ! 0.02018Km / s

3

3

)

*

)

*

WhenKtheKdisch arg eKisKdoubled ,KQ ! 2!0.02018 ! 0.04036Km3 / s

0.06 &

%

0.04036 ! 0.2018 ' H $

(

3 *

)

H ! 0.2 , 0.02 ! 0.22Km

93. Estimate the maximum depth of scour for design for the following data pertaining to a bridge.

Design discharge = 15000 m3/s

Effective Water way = 550 m

Median size of bed material = 0.1 mm

SinceKthisKisK greaterKthanKWe ! 550Km,

f s ! 1.76 d mm ! 1.76 0.1 ! 0.556

q ! 15000 / 550 ! 27.27Km3 / m.s

1

/ - 27.27 .2 0 3

D Lq ! 1.34 1

2 ! 14.76KmKbelowKHFL

13 0.556 24

Ds ! 2 DLq ! 2 "14.76 ! 29.52KmKbelowKHFL

94. While measuring the discharge in a river with unsteady flow, the depth y was found to increase at a rate of 0.06

m/hour. The surface width of the river is 30 m and discharge at this section is 35 m3/ sec. Estimate the discharge at

section 1 km upstream.

055

<Q <A

,

!0

<x <t

<A ! Tdy

<Q

<Y

,T

!0

<x

<t

Q2 $ Q1

<Y

! $T

<x

<t

<Y

0.6

0.06 2

! 30 "

!

Km / sec

T

<t

60 " 60 120

T <y

0.06

Q1 ! Q2 ,

.<x ! 35 ,

-1"1000 .

<t

120

<x ! 1Kkm ! 1000Km

Q2 ! 35Km3 / s

Q1 ! 35.5Km3 / s

95. A standard Parshall flume has a throat width of WT = 4 ft. Determine the free flow discharge corresponding to

h0 = 2.4 ft.

L ! 4K ft

h

2.4

! 0.6

Y0 ! 0 !

4

WT

X0 !

L 4

! !1

WT 4

Q0 !

- 0.6 .

Y01.5504

!

! 0.3459

0.0766

0.0766

1.3096 X 0

1.3096 -1.

1.5504

96. A reinforced concrete rectangular box culvert has the following properties:

D=1m

b=1m

L = 40 m

n = 0.012

S = 0.002

The inlet is square-edged on three edges and has a headwall parallel to the embankment, and the outlet is submerged

with TW=1.3 m. Determine the headwater depth, HW, when the culvert is flowing full at Q = 3 m3/s.

ke = 0.5. Also, for a box culvert, A = bD = (1) (1) = 1 m2 and R = bD / (2b+2D) = (1) (1) / [2(1) + 2(1)] = 0.25 m under

full-flow conditions.

2

2

/

0

2 - 9.81.- 0.012 . - 40 . 2

- 3.

HW ! 1.3 $ - 0.002 .- 40 . , 11 , 0.5 ,

! 2.24Km

4

1

2 2 - 9.81.-1.2

2

-1. - 0.25. 3

13

24

97. In the five-pipe horizontal network of the figure, assume that all pipes have a friction factor f = 0.025. For the

given inlet and exit flow rate of 2 ft3/s of water at 20C, determine the flow rate and direction in all pipes. If pA = 120 lbf/

in2 gage, determine the pressures at points B, C, and D.

056

For water at 20C, take =1.94 slug/ft3 and = 2.09E5 slug / ft.s. Each pipe has a head loss which is known except for

the square of the flow rate:

8 - 0.025 .- 3000 . QAC

8 fLQ 2

2

| !

,KwhereK_ AC V 60.42

! K AC QAC

5

2

5 AC

A gd

% 6&

2

A - 32.2 . ' (

) 12 *

! 19.12,KK BC ! 13.26,KK CD ! 19.12,KK BD ! 19.33

2

PipeK AC :Kh f !

Similarly,KK AB

There are two triangular closed loops, and the total head loss must be zero for each. Using the flow directions assumed

on the figure above, we have

Loop A-B-C: 19.12Q2AB +13.26Q2 BC 60.42Q2 AC = 0

Loop B-C-D: 13.26Q2BC +19.12Q2CD 19.33Q2BD = 0

And there are three independent junctions which have zero net flow rates:

Junction A: QAB + QAC = 2.0; B: QAB = QBC +QBD; C: QAC +QBC = QCD

These are five algebraic equations to be solved for the five flow rates. The answers are:

QAB = 1.19, QAC = 0.81, QBC = 0.99, QCD = 1.80, QBD = 0.20 ft3/s

The pressures follow by starting at a (120 psi) and subtracting off the friction losses:

2

pB ! p A $ 8 gK AB QAB

! 120 "144 $ 62.4 -19.12 .-1.19 .

15590K psf

! 108Klbf / in 2

144

Similarly,K pC V 103K psiKand K pD V 76K psi

pB !

0OBTVNNFSEBZ
OFUTPMBSFOFSHZSFDFJWFEBUBMBLFSFBDIFT.+QFSTRVBSFNFUFSQFSEBZ*GPGUIF

energy is used to vaporize water, how large could the depth of evaporation be?

1 MJm-2 day-1 = 0.408 mm/day

0.8 x 15 x 0.408 = 4.9 mm/day

The evaporation rate could be 4.9 mm/day.

99. Determine the atmospheric pressure and the psychometric constant at an elevation of 1800 m.

Z = 1800 m

/ 293 $ 0.0065 "1800 0

P ! 101.3 1

2

293

3

4

5.26

! 81.8 kPa

100. The daily maximum and minimum air temperature are respectively 24.5 and 15C. Determine the saturation

vapor pressure for that day.

/ 17.27 " 24.5 0

e9 - Tmax . ! 0.6108exp 1

2 ! 3.075 kPa

3 24.5 , 237.3 4

/ 17.27 "15 0

! 1.705 kPa

e9 - Tmin . ! 0.6108exp 1

315 , 237.3 24

Note that for temperature 19.759c (which is Tmean), e(T)=2.30 kPa

The mean saturation vapor pressure is 2.39 kPa.

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Environmental Crises and its Solutions, Kish Island, Iran.

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49. Valipour M, Mousavi SM, Valipour R, Rezaei E (2012) Air, Water, and Soil Pollution Study in Industrial Units Using Environmental Flow Diagram. Journal of

O;'#.%;7,%5<<$#+,%!.#+7(#-.%S+'+;*.>%H]%0HC_D:0HCEH3

50. R;$#<")*%P%?H10H@%!.*)(#7A%"G%d*+'')*+%g"''B%Y*#.(#"7%!$"<+B%M7N"=%R+$".#(AB%R+$".#(A%^+;,B%;7,%S+A7"$,'%W)&6+*%#7%T+7(+*%d#U"(3%M7(+*7;(#"7;$%[")*7;$%"G%

5,U;7.+,%!.#+7(#-.%;7,%\+.>7#.;$%S+'+;*.>%H]%%E1C:E003

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058

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064

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