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HANDBOOK OF
WATER ENGINEERING
PROBLEMS
Cutoff Time

OMICS Group eBooks

Mohammad Valipour

001

Handbook of Water Engineering Problems


Author: Mohammad Valipour
Published by OMICS Group eBooks
731 Gull Ave, Foster City. CA 94404, USA

Copyright 2014 OMICS Group


This book is Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license,
which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial
purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum
dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. However, users who aim to disseminate
and distribute copies of this book as a whole must not seek monetary compensation for such
service (excluded OMICS Group representatives and agreed collaborations). After this work
has been published by OMICS Group, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or
part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the
work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify
the original source.

Notice:
Statements and opinions expressed in the book are these of the individual contributors and
not necessarily those of the publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of
information contained in the published chapters. The publisher assumes no responsibility
for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials,
instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book.
Cover OMICS Group Design team
First published April, 2014
A free online edition of this book is available at www.esciencecentral.org/ebooks
Additional hard copies can be obtained from orders @ www.esciencecentral.org/ebooks

Preface
In the near future, energy is converted as a luxury item and water is considered as the most
vital item in the world due to reduction of water resources in most areas. In this condition,
role of water science researchers is more important than ever. If a water engineering student
is not educated well, he/she will not solves problems of water sciences in the future. Many
engineer students learn all necessary lessons in university, but they cannot to answer to the
problems or to pass the exams because of forgetfulness or lack of enough exercise. This book
contains one hundred essential problems related to water engineering with a small volume (20
problems about irrigation, 20 problems about drainage, 20 problems about water quality, 20
problems about hydrology, and 20 problems about hydraulics). Undoubtedly, many problems
can be added to the book but the author tried to mention only more important problems and
to prevent increasing volume of the book due to help to feature of portability of the book.
To promotion of student skill, both SI and English systems have been used in the problems.
All of the problems were solved completely. This book is useful for not only exercising and
passing the university exams but also for use in actual projects as a handbook. The handbook
of water engineering problems is usable for agricultural, civil, and environmental students,
teachers, experts, researchers, engineers, designers, and all enthusiastic readers in surface
and pressurized irrigation, drainage engineering, agricultural water management, water
resources, hydrology, hydrogeology, hydroclimatology, hydrometeorology, and hydraulics
!"#$%&'()")"*+,%,-"'-.'%-+$/'.0'-1"'2..3'45$'-.'%.#6"'-1"'7).2#"8%',%'"491'477).7),4-"'2..3'
about water engineering; however, the author recommends studying the references to better
understanding of the problems and presented solutions. It is an honor for the author to receive
any review and suggestion for improvement of book quality.

Mohammad Valipour

About Author

Mohammad Valipour is a Ph.D. candidate in Agricultural Engineering-Irrigation and Drainage


at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. He completed his
B.Sc. Agricultural Engineering-Irrigation at Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran in 2006 and
M.Sc. in Agricultural Engineering-Irrigation and Drainage at University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
in 2008. Number of his publications is more than 50. His current research interests are surface
and pressurized irrigation, drainage engineering, relationship between energy and environment,
agricultural water management, mathematical and computer modeling and optimization, water
resources, hydrology, hydrogeology, hydro climatology, hydrometeorology, hydro informatics,
1/$).$/548,9%:'1/$)4+#,9%:';+,$'8"9145,9%:'45$'1"4-'-)45%0")',5'%.,#'8"$,4&

Contents
Problems
References

Page
06
57

Handbook of Water
Engineering Problems
Mohammad Valipour*
Department of Water Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad
University, Kermanshah, Iran
*Corresponding author: Mohammad Valipour, Department of
Water Engineering, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Kermanshah, Iran; Email: vali-pour@hotmail.com

Problems
1. In a trickle irrigation system, maximum allowable depletion is 35 percent, moisture area is 46 percent, root depth
is 1.8 meters, soil water holding capacity is 95 millimeters (in root depth), water requirement is 5 millimeters,
canopy is 75 percent, electrical conductivity of saturated paste extract is 8 decisiemens per meter, and electrical
conductivity of irrigation water is 0.3 decisiemens per meter. Determine maximum net irrigation depth, maximum
daily transpiration, maximum irrigation interval, and leaching requirement.
MAD = 35 %

Pw = 46 %

Z = 1.8 m

Ud = 5mm

Pd = 75%

95 mm
ECw = 0.3 dS / m
ECe =8dS/m
wa !
1.8 m
MAD Pw
35 46
95
Maximum net irrigation depth !
"
" Z " wa !
"
"1.8 "
! 15.295 mm
100 100
100 100
1.8
P
75
Maximum daily transpiration ! Maximum net irrigation depth " d ! 15.295 "
! 11.5 mm / day
100
100

Ud
5
!
! 10.461 hr # 10 hr
Td 11.471
EC w
0.3
Leaching requirement !
!
! 0.008
5 " ECe $ EC w 5 " 8 $ 0.3
Maximumirrigationinterval !

2. According to the table (related to the corn), if irrigation efficiency is 40 percent and performance ratio is 70 percent,
determine optimum irrigated area.

T1 = 25 days

Growth stage

Plant establishment

Chlorophyll

Flowering

Product formation

Time (day)

25

30

30

38

ETm (mm/day)

3.6

6.4

9.5

7.2

Available water (m3)

130000

240000

260000

370000

ky

0.4

0.4

1.5

0.5

T2 = 30 days

T3 = 30 days

ETm2 = 6.4mm/day ETm3 = 9.5 mm/day


V1= 130000m3

V2 = 240000m3

Ky2 = 0.4

Ky3 = 1.5

Ya
! 70%
Ym
ETa1 !

T4 = 38 days

ETml = 3.6 mm/ day

ETm4=7.2mm/day

V3 = 260000m3
Ky4 = 0.5

V4 = 370000m3

Ky1 = 0.4

E = 40%

% ET &
Ya
! 1 $ k y " '1 $ a (
Ym
) ETw *

V1 " E
130000 " 40 "1000 2.08 "106
"1000 !
!
100 " A1 " T1
100 " A1 " 25
A1

ETa 2 !

V2 " E
240000 " 40 "1000 3.2 "106
"1000 !
!
100 " A2 " T2
100 " A2 " 30
A2

% 5 "105 &
1 $ 0.7 ! 0.4 " '1 $
( + A2 ! 200 ha
A2 *
)
ETa 3 !

V3 " E
260000 " 40 "1000 3.467 "106
"1000 !
!
100 " A3 " T3
100 " A3 " 30
A3

OMICS Group eBooks

% 5.778 "105 &


1 $ 0.7 ! 0.4 " '1 $
( + A1 # 231 ha
A1
)
*

006

% 3.644 "105 &


1 $ 0.7 ! 1.5 " '1 $
( + A3 # 46 ha
A3
)
*
ETa 4 !

V4 " E
370000 " 40 " 1000 3.895 " 106
" 1000 !
!
100 " A4 " T4
100 " A4 " 38
A3

% 5.409 "105 &


1 $ 0.7 ! 0.5 " '1 $
( + A4 # 135 ha
A4
)
*
Maximum irrigated area is related to the plant establishment stage (231 ha), however optimum irrigated area is calculated
as follows:
A0 = min {A1, A2, A3, A4} = min {231, 200, 46, 135} = 46ha
Due to high value of ky3 and for achievement to relative performance (70%), 46 hectares from area can only be irrigated
as optimum in flowering stage.
3. In a basin irrigation system, infiltration equation is Z = 6T0.5 (T as min and Z as millimeter), discharge in width
unit is 0.000286 cubic meters per second per meter, available discharge for irrigation is 0.00283 cubic meters per
second, there is not runoff, basin width is 6 meters, requirement effective storage in root depth is 100 millimeters, and
final infiltration after 4 hours (when water reach to the end of basin) is 10 millimeters per hour. Determine length of
basin, irrigation time, and average deep percolation.

q ! 0.286 "10$3

m3
s.m

Q = 0.00283 m3/s

Dy = 100mm

Tco !

Tt = 4 hr

in " L
dz
i!
q
dt

i!

Runoff = 0

w = 6m

i = 10 mm/hr

dz
dt

10
! 3 " Tco $0.5
60

Tco = 324 min

d 2Z
0.05 dz
0.05
!$
! $1.5 " T $1.5 ! $
" 3 " Tl $0.5 + Tl ! 600 min
2
dt
60 dt
60
Z = 6 x 6000.5 = 146.969mm
in = i x TCO= 10 x 5.4 = 54mm

ddp = Z Dr - Runoff = 146.969 100 - 0 = 46.969mm

60 " 324 !

54 "10$3 " L
+ L ! 102.96 m
0.286 "10$3

4. In a border irrigation system, equation of infiltration rate into the soil is I=20t-0.5, net irrigation requirement is
5 centimeters, and advance time is 48 minutes. Determine amount of infiltrated water in beginning of border.
in = 5cm

Tt = 48min

i = I dt = 20t-0.5 dt = 40t0.5 + C
tn = 4 x tt = 4 x 48 = 192 min
% 192 &
50 ! 40 " '
(
) 60 " 24 *

0.5

, C + C ! 35.394 mm

dI
0.05
! $10 " to $1.5 ! $
" 20 " to $0.5 + to ! 600 min
dt
60
% 600 &
i ! 40 " t 0.5 , 35.394 ! 40 " '
(
) 60 " 24 *

0.5

, 35.394 ! 61.214 mm

x = 8tx0.7

40 = 8tx10.7

tx1 = 9.966 min


tx5 = 99.325 min

80 = 8tx20.7

120 = 8tx30.7

tx2 = 26.827 min


tn = tco tx

160 = 8tx40.7 200 = 8tx50.7

tx3 = 47.877 min tx4 = 72.213 min

tco = 240 min

tn1 = 240 - 9.966 = 230.034 min

tn2 = 240 26,827 = 213.173 mm

tn3 = 240 47.877 = 192.123 mm

tn4 = 240 72.2136 = 167.787 mm

tn5 = 240 99.325 = 140.675 mm

OMICS Group eBooks

5. In a furrow irrigation system, length of furrow is 200 meters, advance time is 240 minutes, advance equation is
x = ptxr that p and r are 8 and 0.7, respectively. Distances of selected stations from beginning of furrow are 40, 80,
120, 160, and 200 meters. Integrated infiltration equation is Z = 5t0.56 (t as minute and Z as millimeter). Determine time
of infiltration opportunity and depth water into the soil in each station. In addition, if width of furrow is 0.8 meters,
input discharge into the furrow is 1.5 liters per second, and root depth is 90 millimeters, determine deep percolation
and runoff.

007

Z1 = 5 x 230.0340.56 = 105.093 mm

Z2 = 5 x 213.1730.56 = 100.707 mm

Z3 = 5 x 192.1230.56 = 95.011 mm

Z4 = 5 x 167.7870.56 = 88.071 mm

Z5= 5 x 140.6750.056 = 79.794 mm

in " w ""L
tco

Q!

1.5 !

in " 0.8 " 200


+ in ! 135 mm
240 " 60

Z1 , Z 2 , Z 3 , Z 4 , Z 5 105.093 , 100.707 , 95.011 , 88.071 , 79.794


!
! 93.735 mm
5
5
ddp = Zavg dy = 93.735 90 = 3.3735 mm
Runoff = in Zavg = 135 93.735 mm
Z avg !

6. In a basin irrigation system, length of basin is 200 meters, advance time is 80 minutes, and infiltration equation
is Z = 0.00210.331+0.00015. Non-erosive velocity in the soil is 13 meters per minute, considered depth to store in
the end of basin is 10 centimeters, and Mannings coefficient is 0.04. Determine cutoff time, infiltrated water depth in
beginning of the basin, and deep percolation.
10 = 0.0021 x 0.331 + 0.00015 x = 1103.744 min
tco = + tt = 1103.744 + 80 = 1183.744 min

Z ! 0.0021" - 60 "1183.744 .
1.827

Qmax

0.23
/
% n2 L & 0
! 1Vmax " '
( 2
) 7200 * 42
31

Qmax ! Vmax " in

0.331

, 0.00015 " - 60 "1183.744 . ! 10.738 cm


1.827

0.23
/
% 0.042 " 200 & 0
! 113 " '
( 2
) 7200 * 42
31

1.608 ! 13 " in + in ! 12.369 cm

ddp = in Z = 12.369 10.738 = 1.631 cm

! 1.608 m3 / min

5y
5x

7. In a sprinkle irrigation system, length of lateral is 390 meters, discharge of sprinkler is 21 liters per minute,
height of riser is 1.5 meters, downhill slop is 0.015, kd = 3.8, Se = 13 m, and C =130. Determine allowed pressure loss,
proper diameter (among 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) as inch, input pressure, end pressure, and value and position of minimum
pressure. Furthermore, investigate pressure variations in the lateral.
Hfa = 0.2 x Ha

21 ! 3.8 " H a + H a ! 30.54 m

qa ! kd H a

Hfa = 0.2 x 30.54 = 6.108m


1.75
/
x 0
7
S ! 7.89 "10 " 1QL $ qa 2 D $4.75
Se 4
3
L
390 " 0.35
QL ! " qa !
! 10.5 l / s
Se
13
1.75

x
/
0
0.015 ! 7.89 "107 " 110.5 $ " 0.352 D $4.75
13
3
4
dy
If: D ! 2 in ! 50.8 mm + x # 390 m

dx

If: D ! 6 in ! 152.4 mm + x # 303 m + H end ! H min


Hmax Hmin = 6.108 = Hf 0.5x 0.015 x 390 Hf = 9.033m

9.033 !

J " 0.36 " 390


+ J ! 6.434
100

6.434 ! 7.89 "107 "10.51.75 " D $4.75 + D ! 73.886 mm ! 2.91in # 3 in


J = 7.89 x 107 x 10.51.75 x (3 x 25.4)-4.75 = 5.557
J " F " L 5.557 " 0.36 " 390
!
! 7.802 m
100
100
3
1
3
1
H L ! H a , H r , H f $ 5EL ! 30.54 , 1.5 , " 7.802 $ " 0.015 " 390 ! 34.967 m
4
2
4
2

1
1
H end ! H L $ H f , EL ! 34.967 $ 7.802 , " 0.015 " 390 ! 30.09 m
2
2
1.75
x
/
0
7
0.015 ! 7.89 "10 " 110.5 $ " 0.352 " 76.2$4.75 + x ! 376.721 m
13
3
4
J " F " L 0.015 " 0.36 " 376.721
!
! 0.02 m
Hf !
100
100

1
H min ! 34.967 $ 7.802 , " - 0.015 " 376.721. ! 29.99 m + H min 6 H end 6 H L + OK
2

OMICS Group eBooks

Hf !

008

8. In a farm soil, infiltration rate equation is i = 0.095t0.36, which t is time as minute and i is infiltration rate as
centimeter per minute. Determine time to reach the final infiltration rate and amount of infiltrated water in the soil.

di
! $0.0342t $1.36
dt
0.05
$0.0342t $1.36 ! $
0.095t $0.36 . + t ! 432 min
60
t

I ! 7i dt !
0

432

7 0.095t

$0.36

dt ! 7.215 cm

9. A trial configuration of a hand- move sprinkler system has a lateral running down slope form a mainline along
a constant grade of 0.005m/m. the design operating pressure of the nozzle is 310 kpa. The trial length of the lateral
results in a distance of 400m between the first and the last sprinkler. Determine maximum allowable head loss to
friction as m/m.

Ha !

310 "103
P
! 3
! 31.61 m
8 g 10 " 9.81

Since the elevation decreases along the lateral, the increase in elevation is ve
He = - s x l = - .005 x 400 = 2 m
Setting the allowable pressure difference between the critical sprinklers equal to 20%

Hc !

0.2 " 31.61 $ 2


! 0.021m / m
400

10. For the following data, calculate the total available water and soil-moisture deficit.
Soil depth (cm)

Gb

Wfc

Wwp

0-15

1.25

0.24

0.13

0.16

15-30

1.30

0.28

0.14

0.18

30-60

1.35

0.31

0.15

0.23

60-90

1.40

0.33

0.15

0.26

90-120

1.40

0.31

0.14

0.28

Depth of soil layers d


(mm)

Wfc = Gb.Wfc

Wwp = Gb.Wwp

Wt = (wfc - wwp)d (mm)

W = Gb.W

Ds = (wfc-w)d (mm)

150

0.3

0.1625

20.625

0.2

15.0

150

0.364

0.182

27.300

0.234

19.5

300

0.4185

0.2025

64.800

0.3105

32.4

300

0.462

0.21

75.600

0.364

29.4

300

0.434

0.196

71.400

0.392

12.6

Total

259.725

108.9

Total available water = 259.725 mm ! 260 mm


!"#$%&"#'()*+%,+-.#(%/%01234%&&%! 109 mm

11. The culturable command area for a distributary channel is 15000 hectares. The intensity of irrigation is 35%
for wheat and 20% for rice. The kor period for wheat and rice are 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. The kor watering depths
for wheat and rice are 135 and 190 mm, respectively. Estimate the distributary discharge.
Since the water demands for wheat and rice are at different times, these are not cumulative. Therefore, the distributary
channel should be designed for higher of the two values, i.e., 3.14 cms.
12. A soil core was drawn with a core sampler having an inside dimension of 5 cm diameter and 15 cm length
from a field two days after irrigation when the soil water was near field capacity. The weight of the core sampler
with fresh soil sample was 1.95 kg and the weight of the same on oven drying was 1.84 kg. The empty core sampler
weighted 1.4 kg. Calculate the (a) bulk density of soil, (b) water holding capacity of soil in per cent on volume basis
and (c) depth of water held per meter depth of soil.
Weight of the oven dry soil core = 1.84 1.4 = 0.44 kg
0.55 $ 0.44
0.11
Soil water content !
"100 !
"100 ! 25%
0.44
0.44
(a) Volume of the soil core = r2h = x 2.52 x 15 = 294.64 cm3

Bulk density ! Bd !

0.44 "1000
g
! 1.51 3
294.64
cm

OMICS Group eBooks

Weight of the moist soil core = 1.95 1.4 = 0.55 kg

009

(b) Water holding capacity of the soil = Soil water content on weight basis x Bulk density = 25x 1051 = 37.75%
(c) Water holding capacity of the soil per meter depth of soil = 37.75 cm
13. Find out the water content of a soil on weight and volume basis just before irrigation from the following data.
The thermo-gravimetric method is followed for determination of the water content.
(i) Weight of the empty aluminium box (W1) = 35.23 g
(ii) Weight of the aluminum box + fresh soil sample (W2) = 95.33 g
(iii) Weight of oven dry soil + box (W3) = 85.12 g
(iv) Density of water (w) =1 g/cm3
(v) Bulk density of the soil =1.54 g/cm3
Weight of the fresh soil sample = W2 W1 = 95.33 35.23 = 60.1g
Weight of water in the soil sample = W2 W3 = 95.33 85.12 = 10.21g
Weight of the oven dry soil = 85.12 35.23 = 49.89g
Soil water content !

Weight of soil water


10.21
"100 !
"100 ! 20.47%
Weight of oven $ dry soil " density of water
49.89 "1

Soil water content = Soil water content on weight basis x bulk density
Soil water content = Pw x Bd = 2047 x 1.54 = 31.52%
14. The daily maximum and minimum air temperature are respectively 24.5 and 15C. Determine the saturation
vapour pressure for that day.
/ 17.27 " 24.5 0
! 3.075 kPa
e9 -Tmax . ! 0.6108exp 1
3 24.5 , 237.3 42

/ 17.27 "15 0
e9 -Tmin . ! 0.6108exp 1
2 ! 1.705 kPa
315 , 237.3 4
es !

(30.75 , 1.705)
! 2.39 kPa
2

Note that for temperature 19.75C (which is Tmean), e (T) = 2.30 kPa
The mean saturation vapour pressure is 2.39 kPa.
15. Given: Assume crop coefficient (Kc) = 1.0 for this period. Pan coefficient (Kp) = 0.75. Daily Evaporation from
a class A evaporation pan, in/d
Year
Day

10

0.64

0.32

0.24

0.30

0.15

0.22

0.28

0.35

0.23

0.27

0.25

0.41

0.26

0.17

0.31

0.42

0.18

0.42

0.66

0.28

0.35

0.30

0.17

0.25

0.52

0.15

0.32

0.23

0.22

0.27

0.31

0.10

0.39

0.16

0.16

0.45

0.31

0.42

0.60

0.26

0.20

0.14

0.29

0.30

0.42

0.45

0.33

0.43

0.39

0.54

0.49

0.36

0.36

0.60

0.39

0.30

0.38

0.22

0.55

0.39

0.38

0.35

0.33

0.23

0.22

0.49

0.36

0.36

0.68

0.43

0.27

0.36

0.11

0.36

0.21

0.30

0.41

0.21

0.23

0.42

0.61

0.45

0.23

0.35

0.22

0.45

0.26

0.26

0.23

0.43

10

0.55

0.47

0.40

0.43

0.06

0.52

0.45

0.35

0.30

0.30

Find: Determine the peak ETc rate for design.


Example calculation for day 1 of year 1:
ETo = KpEp an = 0.750.64 = 0.48 in/day
ETc = KcETo = 1.00.48 = 0.48 in/day
Daily crop evapotranspiration, in/d
year
Day

10

0.48

0.24

0.18

0.23

0.11

0.17

0.21

0.26

0.17

0.20

0.19

0.31

0.20

0.13

0.23

0.32

0.14

0.32

0.49

0.21

0.26

0.23

0.13

0.19

0.39

0.11

0.24

0.17

0.17

0.20

0.23

0.08

0.29

0.12

0.21

0.34

0.23

0.32

0.45

0.20

0.15

0.11

0.22

0.23

0.31

0.34

0.25

0.32

0.29

0.41

OMICS Group eBooks

The resulting daily ETc for the crop is:

0010

0.37

0.27

0.27

0.45

0.29

0.23

0.29

0.17

0.41

0.29

0.29

0.26

0.25

0.17

0.17

0.37

0.27

0.27

0.51

0.32

0.20

0.27

0.08

0.27

0.16

0.23

0.31

0.16

0.17

0.32

0.46

0.34

0.17

0.26

0.17

0.34

0.20

0.20

0.23

0.23

10

0.41

0.35

0.30

0.32

0.05

0.39

0.34

0.26

0.23

0.23

An.max

0.48

0.35

0.29

0.45

0.39

0.39

0.34

0.32

0.51

0.41

Ranking of annual maximum values (m)


1
Annual
0.29
maximums(in/d)
9.1

Pb

16. Given:

10

0.32

0.34

0.35

0.39

0.39

0.41

0.45

0.48

0.51

18.2

27.3

36.4

45.5

54.5

63.6

72.7

81.8

90.9

IF = 0.5

Fn= 4 in

s0 = 0.001 ft/ft

n = 0.15

E = 65%

Find: Qu and Ta

L= 650 ft
Tn = 328 min

TL = 8 to 20 min

Assume TL = 14 min
LFn
ft 3
650 " 4
!
! 0.018
+ TL ! 12 min
s
7.2 -Tn $ TL . E 7.2 - 328 $ 14 . 65

Qu !

Assume TL = 12 min

Qu !

LFn
ft 3
650 " 4
!
! 0.018
+ OK
s
7.2 -Tn $ TL . E 7.2 - 328 $ 12 . 65

Ta = 328 12 = 316 min


Check flow depth and stream size
Maximum depth of flow=0.15 ft OK
Minimum allowable Qu = 0.00001349 65 = 0.0088 OK
17. Given: IF = 1.0
d1 = 0.3 ft

Fn = 3 in

s0 = 0.001 ft/ft

n = 0.15

E = 75%

Find: Qu, Ta, L, Le, and E

Q u ! 0.049

Tn = 106 min
TL = 11 min

ft 3
s

Ta = Tn TL = 106 11 = 95 min

75
! 838 ft
3
Le ! -1 $ 0.75 . " 0.7 " 0.75 " 838 ! 110 ft

L ! 7.2 " 0.049 " -106 $ 11. "


Fg ! 720 " 0.049 "

E!

-106 $ 11. ! 3.54 in


-838 , 110 .

3
! 85%
3.54

18. Given: IF = 0.3


in = 75 mm

L = 275 m

Q = 0.6 l/s

S = 0.004 m/m

W = 0.75 m

n=0.04

Find: Tco, dro, ddp, and ed

g = 1.904 x 10-4
gx
1.904 "10$4 " 275
!
! 1.38
0.6 0.004
Q S

Tt !

x
275
exp : !
exp -1.38 . ! 144 min
f
7.61

% Qn &
P ! 0.265 '
(
) S*

0.425

% 0.6 " 0.04 &


, 0.227 ! 0.265 '
(
) 0.004 *

0 0.72
/ W
0 b / 0.75
1 75 0.4 $ 7 2
1 in $ c 2
!
Tn ! 1 P
1
2 ! 999 min
2
1 0.9246 2
1 a 2
3
4
3
4

Tco = Tt + Tn = 144 + 999 = 1143 min


ig !

60QTco
! 200 mm
0.75 " 275

0.425

, 0.227 ! 0.4 m
OMICS Group eBooks

:!

0011

T0$ L ! Tco $

0.0929
% 0.305: &
fL '
(
) L *

/3- : $ 1. exp - : . , 104

0.0929

/ 1.38 $ 1. exp -1.38 . , 104 ! 1095 min


2 3% 0.305 "1.38 &
7.61" 275 '
(
275
)
*
P
0.4
0.72
b
! / a -T0$ L . , c 0 ! /0.925 -1095 . , 7 0
! 80 mm
3
4W 3
4 0.75

T0$ L ! 1143 $

iavg

dro = ig iavg = 200 80 = 120 mm


ddp = iavg in = 80 75 = 5 mm

ed ! 100

in
75
! 100
! 37.5%
ig
200

19. The gross command area of an irrigation project is 1.5 lakh hectares, where 7500 hectare is uncultivable.
The area of kharif crop is 60000 hectares and that of Rabi crop is 40000 hectares. The duty of Kharif is 3000 ha/m3/s
and the duty of Rabi is 4000 ha/m3/s. Find (a) the design discharges of channel assuming 10% transmission loss. (b)
Intensity of irrigation for Kharif and Rabi.
Cultivable command area = 150000 7500 = 142500 ha
Discharge for Kharif crop,
Area of Kharif crop = 60000 ha
ha
Duty of Kharif crop ! 3000 3
m
60000
Required discharge of channel !
! 20 m3 / s
3000
Considering 10% loss

Design discharge ! 20 "

10
! 22 m3 / s
100

Discharge for Rabi crop,


Area of Rabi crop = 40000ha

Duty of Kharif crop ! 4000

ha
m3 / s

Required discharge of channel !

40000
! 10 m3
4000

Considering 10% loss

110
! 11 m3 / s
100
So, the design discharge of the channel should be 22 m3 /s, as it is maximum
60000
Intensity of irrigation for Kharif !
! 42.11%
142500
40000
Intensity of irrigation for Rabi !
! 28.07%
142500
20. Determine the head discharge of a canal from the following data. The value of time factor may be assumed as
0.75.
Design discharge ! 10 "

crop

Base period in days

Area in hectare

Duty in hectares/cumec

Rice

120

4000

1500

Wheat

120

3500

2000

Sugarcane

310

3000

1200

Discharge of canal required


4000
! 2.667 m3 / s - Kharif .
1500

3500
! 1.75 m3 / s - Rabi .
2000
3000
(c) For sugarcane !
! 2.5 m3 / s - perennial .
1200
As, the base period of sugarcane is 310 days, it will require water both in Kharif and Rabi seasons.
(b) For wheat !

Now, actual discharge required in Kharif season = 2.667 + 2.5 = 5.167 m3/s
Actual discharge required in Rabi season = 1.75 + 2.5 = 4.25 m3/s.

OMICS Group eBooks

(a) For rice !

0012

So, the maximum discharge in Kharif season (i.e. 5.167 m3 / s) should be taken into consideration as it will be able to
serve both the seasons.
Time factor ! 0.75 !

Actual discharge
5.167
!
Design discharge Design discharge

Design discharge !

5.167
! 6.889 m3 / s
0.75

Therefore, the required head discharge of the canal is 6.889 m3 / s.


21. In a farm, soil moisture is 30 percent (in saturated status) and actual density is 2.65 grams per cubic centimeters.
Determine bulk density and porosity. Volume of a soil sample of this farm is 80 cubic centimeters and its weight is 148
grams. After dehydration, weight of it is 120 grams. Determine porosity, drainable porosity and hydraulic conductivity.
s = 2.65 gr / cm3

m = 30%
Mt = 148 gr

Ms
Vs
M
2.65 ! s
Vs
Vs = 0.795Vs

Ms = 120 gr

8s !

Vt = Vs + Vw
Mw = 0.3

Ms = 0.3 x 2.65

Vt = 80 cm3
;m !

Mw
Ms

8b !

Ms
Vt

0.795Vs
M
< 2=
kg
gr
!1 3 ! w !
+ Vw ! 0.795Vs 2
3
m
cm
Vw
Vw
<v

8b !

Ms
Vs , Vw

8b !

2.65Vs
! 1.476 gr / cm3
Vs , 0.795Vs

>!

M w 28
!
! 0.189
M t 148

8 w ! 1000

Va = 0

n!

Va , Vw
0 , 0.795Vs
!
! 0.443
Vs , Va , Vw Vs , 0 , 0.795Vs

< n OK

> ! k + 18.9 ! k + k ! 3.572 m / day

22. In a drainage system, assume: K = 0.305 meters per day, d = 6.1 meters, depth to dmin = 2.7 meters, water table at
ground, surface at t = 0, specific yield = 7 percent, and existing drains, are 91 meters apart. Determine: Time required
for the water table to drop 1.5 meters, below the ground surface.
y
y
D? ! d ? , 0 ! 5.75 m
Y = 2.7 1.5 = 1.2 m
D = 4.4 m
D ! d , 0 ! 7.45 m
Y0 = 2.7 m
2
2
y 1.2
KD?t
!
! 0.444 +
! 0.096
y0 2.7
SL2
t!

0.096 SL2 0.096 " 0.07 " 912


!
! 31.7 days
KD?
0.305 " 5.75

The water table will drop 1.5 meters below the ground surface in about 32 days.
23. Piezometers are placed side by side in a field at depths of (a) 20, (b) 40, and (c) 60 feet below the ground surface.
The pressure heads are 21 feet, 43 feet, and 68 feet respectively. (a) What are the hydraulic gradients? (b) Which way is
the water flowing? (c) If the hydraulic conductivity from a-b is 2 inches per hour what is the conductivity b-c? (d) What
is the vertical conductivity a-c?
(a)

h1 = 21 ft

ia $b !

- h1 , Z1 . $ - h2 , Z 2 . ! - 21 , 80 . $ - 43 , 60 . ! 0.1

ib $c !

h2 = 43 ft

Z 2 $ Z1

h3 = 68 ft

60 $ 80

- h2 , Z 2 . $ - h3 , Z3 . ! - 43 , 60 . $ - 68 , 40 . ! 0.25

ib $c !

Z3 $ Z 2

40 $ 60

- 21 , 80 . $ - 40 , 68. ! 0.175
40 $ 80

(b) To up
(c) Ka-b = 2 in / hr

2 x 0.1 = Kb-c x 0.25 = 0.2

Kb-c = 0.8 in / hr

20 , 20
! 1.14 in / hr
20
20
i
,
2 0.8
i
24. Use the Bureau of Reclamation graphs to compute the spacing required for the water table to drop from the soil
surface to a depth of 1 foot in a 2-day period. The following information is available: The hydraulic conductivity is 1.8
inches per hour. Tile drains are to be placed 3.5 feet below the soil surface. The impermeable layer is 6.5 feet below the
soil surface. What is the average flow out of a 200-acre field for the 2-day period?
(d) K a $c !

OMICS Group eBooks

@L
L
@K

Ka-bia-b = kb-cib-c

013

t = 2 days

K = 3.6 ft / day

S = 14%

D ! de ,

3.5
D ! 3,
! 4.75 ft
2
L2 !

y0
2

Y = 2.5 ft
d = d0

y 2.5
KDt
!
! 0.715 + 2 ! 0.048
y0 3.5
SL

3.6 " 4.75 " 2


KDt
!
+ L ! 71.34 ft
0.048S 0.048 " 0.14

r = 0.7 ft
d
3
!
! 2.968 ft
8d
8d
8" 3
8" 3
1,
ln 3
1,
ln 3
AS A r
A " 71.34 A " 0.7
3.5
D ! 2.968 ,
! 4.72 ft
2

de !

% 3.6 " 4.72 " 2 &


L!'
(
) 0.048 " 0.14 *

0.5

! 71.11 ft

q!C

2A ky0 D % A &
' (
86400 L ) L *

A = 200 acres = 8709365


C = 0.79
2 " A " 3.6 " 3.5 " 4.72 8709365
q ! 0.79 "
"
! 5.88 ft 3 / s
86400 " 71.11
71.11
25. There is a drainage system with the following situation:
Steady rate of rainfall l= 0.009 m/day
Surface runoff = 0.001 m/day
Deep seepage = 0.001 m/day
Hydraulic conductivity = 0.1 m/day.
The drain pipes are placed at a depth of 1.2 m. The impermeable layer is at a depth of 2.5 m, and the water table
should not be allowed to be closer than 70 cm from the soil surface. Determine drainage spacing.
R = 0.009 m / day

m = 0.5 m

n = 0.009 0.001 0.001 = 0.007 m / day


K
0.1
d
!
! 14.3 6 100 + ! 2.6 + L ! 8.1 m
n 0.007
m

d = 2.5 1.2 = 1.3 m


K = 0.1 m / day

26. The E.C. of irrigation water is 1.3 mmhos /cm. Assume a consumptive use of 3.5 in/day, a crop tolerance of 6
mmhos /cm; a soil hydraulic conductivity of 0.3 in/hour. The drains are to be placed at 8 feet and have a radius of 0.30
foot. The water table is not to be closer than 4.5 feet from the soil surface. The impermeable layer is 10 feet from the
soil surface. (a) Determine drain spacing. (b) What will be the flow in cfs out of a 400-acre field? (c) If the outlet is on a
grade of 0.001 what size of pipe is required? (d) If the water table rises to within 2 feet of the soil surface following an
irrigation, how long will it take for it to drop to 4 feet below the soil surface (for the drain spacing calculated in a, using
the Bureau of Reclamation charts)?
ECiw
1.3
"100 !
"100 ! 21.67%
(a) LR !
ECdw
6

LR !

Ddw
Ddw
"100 + 21.67 !
"100 + Ddw ! V ! 0.097 in / day
DET , Ddw
3.5 , Ddw

K ! 0.3

in
! 7.2in / day
hr

d = de S = 109.43 ft
de !

ET = 3.5 in / day

4kH
4 " 7.2 " 3.5
- 2d e , H . !
- 2de , 3.5.
V
0.097
4
de !
! 3.587 ft + S ! 105.4 ft
8" 4
8" 4
1,
ln 3
A "109.43 A " 0.3
S2 !

4
! 3.57 + S ! 105.3 ft
8" 4
8" 4
1,
ln
A "105.4 A 3 " 0.3

(a) A = 400 x 43560 = 17424000 ft2


(b) Q = AV = 17424000 x 8.067 x 10-3 = 1.63 ft3 / s

OMICS Group eBooks

LR !

Ddw
"100
Diw

014

(e) Q ! AV ! A "

1.486 2/3 1/2


R S
n

S = 0.001

n = 0.016 (for plastic pipe)


2
3

5
3

1.486 A
A
- 0.001. A ! 2.937 2 !
0.016 23
P
P3

Q!
8

r3 !

1
2

2.937 A r 2

5
3

- 2A r . 3

! 5.81r 3

1.63
Q
!
! 0.28 + r ! 0.62 ft + d ! 1.24 ft
5.81 5.81

(f) y ! 4 ! 0.67
y0 6
K ! 0.3

KDt
! 0.055
SL2

in
ft
! 0.6
+ S ! 0.043
hr
day

D ! 3.57 ,

6
! 6.57 ft
2

D ! de ,
t!

y0
2

L = 105.3ft

de = 3.57ft

0.055 L2 S 0.055 "105.32 " 0.043


!
! 6.65 days
KD
0.6 " 6.57

27. Given a soil with an impermeable layer 3 mete below the drain level (d = 3 m), K1 = 0.5 m/day (hydraulic
conductivity of layer below the drain). V=0.005 m/day, H=0.60m, r = 0.10 m (r = drain radius), determine drain spacing.
r = 0.1 m

K1 ! 0.5

H = 0.6 m

m
! Ka
day

S2 !

4
%8
&
K a H 2 , ' Kb de H (
V
)V
*

S2 !

4
8
&
"1" 3 " 0.6 ( ! 3024 + S ! 54.99 m
- 0.5 " 0.36 . , '%
0.005
) 0.005
*

de !

S2 !

K2 ! 1

m
! Kb
day

d = de

d
3
!
! 2.33 m
8d
8d
8" 3
8" 3
1,
ln 3
1,
ln 3
AS A r
A " 54.99 A " 0.1
4
8
&
"1" 2.33 " 0.6 ( ! 2380 + S ! 48.79 m
- 0.5 " 0.36 . , %'
0.005
0.005
)
*

3
! 2.27 m
8" 3
8" 3
1,
ln 3
A " 48.79 A " 0.1
4
8
&
S2 !
"1" 2.27 " 0.6 ( ! 2325 + S ! 48.21 m
- 0.5 " 0.36 . , %'
0.005
0.005
)
*

de !

28. Seepage from a canal is causing a drainage problem on adjacent land. The canal is 2.5 meters deep and rests on
an impermeable layer. The water level in the canal is 2.4 meters above the bottom. The soil has a hydraulic conductivity
of 20 mm/hr. (a) What will be the flow into an interceptor drain located 25, 50, and 100 meters from the canal?

dy
dx

q ! KiA ! K

dy
" y "1 + qdx ! Kdyy
dx

7qdx ! 7Kdyy + q 7dx ! K 7 ydy + qx ! K


x=0y=0
qx]0L ! K
qL !

K 2
h
2

y2
2

x = L y = h1

h2
y 2 h1
]0 + qL ! K 1
2
2

h1=2.4 m

% 20 &
'
(
1000 *
L ! 25 m + q ! )
" 2.42 ! 6 "10$7 m3 / s
50
% 20 &
'
(
1000 *
L ! 50 m + q ! )
" 2.42 ! 3 "10$7 m3 / s
100

OMICS Group eBooks

i!

015

% 20 &
'
(
1000 *
L ! 100 m + q ! )
" 2.42 ! 1.6 "10$7 m3 / s
200

29. Given: Gutter section illustrated in the figure.


SL = 0.010 m/m (ft/ft)
Sx = 0.020 m/m (ft/ft)
n = 0.016
Find: (1) Spread at a flow of 0.05 m3 /s (1.8 ft3 /s)
(2) Gutter flow at a spread of 2.5 m (8.2 ft)

Step1: Compute spread, T, using the equation.

/
- Qn .
T !1
0.5
13 K u S 1.67
x SL

0
2
24

0.375

/
- 0.05 " 0.016 .
!1
1 - 0.367 .- 0.020 .1.67 - 0.010 .0.5
31

0.5 2.67
Qn ! K u S 1.67
! - 0.367 .- 0.020 .
x SL T

1.67

- 0.010 . - 2.5.
0.5

2.67

0
2
2
42

0.375

! 2.7 m

! 0.00063

m3
s

Compute Q from Qn.

Q!

Qn 0.00063
!
! 0.039 m3 / s
n
0.16

30. Given: V-shaped roadside gutter (the figure) with


SL = 0.01

Sx1 = 0.25

Sx3 = 0.02

n = 0.016

Sx2 = 0.04

BC = 0.6 m

Find: Spread at a flow of 0.05 m/s.

Sx !

S x1S x 2
0.25 " 0.04
!
! 0.0345
- S x1 , S x 2 . 0.25 , 0.04

Step 2: Find the hypothetical spread, T, assuming all flow contained entirely in the V-shaped gutter.
/
- Qn .
T? ! 1
0.5
13 K u S 1.67
x SL

0
2
24

0.375

/
- 0.05 " 0.016 .
!1
1 - 0.376 .- 0.0345 .1.67 - 0.01.0.5
13

0
2
2
24

0.375

! 1.94 m

Step 3: To determine if T is within Sx1 and Sx2, compute the depth at point B in the V- shaped gutter knowing BC and

OMICS Group eBooks

Step 1: Calculate Sx assuming all flow is contained entirely in the V-shaped gutter section defined by Sx1 and Sx2.

016

Sx2. Then knowing the depth at B, the distance AB can be computed.


dB = BCSx2 = 0.6 x 0.04 = 0.024 m
AB !

d B 0.024
!
! 0.096 m
S x1 0.25

AC = AB + BC = 0.096 + 0.60 = 0.7 m


0.7 m < T therefore, spread falls outside V-shaped gutter section. An iterative solution technique must be used to solve
for the section spread, T, as illustrated in the following steps.
Step 4: Solve for the depth at point C, dc and compute an initial estimate of the spread, TBD along BD,
dc = dB BC (Sx2)
From the geometry of the triangle formed by the gutter, an initial estimate for dB is determined as:
(dB / 0.25) + (dB / 0.04) = 1.94 dB = 0.067 m
dc = 0.067 0.6 x 0.04 = 0.043

Ts !

d c 0.043
!
! 2.15 m
S x 3 0.02

TBD = Ts + BC = 2.15 + 0.6 = 2.75 m


Step 5: Using a spread along BD equal to 2.75 m and develop a weighted slope for Sx2 and Sx3.
0.6 m at Sx2 (0.04) and 2.15 m at Sx3 (0.02):

0.6 " 0.04 , 2.15 " 0.02


! 0.0243
2.75
Use this slope along with Sx1, find Sx.
Sx !

S x1S x 2

- S x1 , S x 2 .

0.25 " 0.0243


! 0.0221
0.25 , 0.0243

Step 6: Compute the gutter spread using the composite cross slope, Sx.

/
- Qn .
T !1
0.5
13 K u S 1.67
x SL

0
2
24

0.375

/
- 0.05 " 0.016 .
!1
1 - 0.376 .- 0.0221.1.67 - 0.01.0.5
31

0
2
2
42

0.375

! 2.57 m

This (2.57 m) is lower than the assumed value of 2.75 m. Therefore, assume TBD = 2.50 m and repeat Step 5 and Step 6.
Step 7: 0.6 m at Sx2 (0.04) and 1.95 m at Sx3 (0.02):

0.6 " 0.04 , 1.90 " 0.02


! 0.0248
2.50
Use this slope along with Sx1, find Sx.
Sx !

S x1S x 2
0.25 " 0.0248
!
! 0.0226
S
,
S
0.25
, 0.0248
- x1 x 2 .

Step 8: Compute the spread, T.

/
- Qn .
T !1
0.5
13 K u S 1.67
x SL

0
2
24

0.375

/
- 0.05 " 0.016 .
!1
1 - 0.376 .- 0.0226 .1.67 - 0.01.0.5
13

0
2
2
24

0.375

! 2.53 m

This value of T = 2.53 m is close to the assumed value of 2.50 m, therefore, OK


31. Given: A curb-opening inlet with the following characteristics:
Sx = 0.02 m/m (ft/ft)
Q = 0.05 m3/s (1.77 ft3/s)
n = 0.016
Find:
(1) Qi for a 3 m (9.84 ft) curb-opening.

OMICS Group eBooks

SL = 0.01 m/m (ft/ft)

017

(2) Qi for a depressed 3 m (9.84 ft) curb opening inlet with a continuously depressed curb section.
a = 25 mm (1 in)
W = 0.6 m (2 ft)
Step 1: Determine the length of curb opening required for total interception of gutter flow.
% 1 &
LT ! K u Q 0.42 S L0.3 '
(
) nS x *

0.6

! 0.817 - 0.05 .

0.42

- 0.01.

0.3

1
%
&
'
(
0.016
0.02
"
)
*

0.6

! 7.29 m

Step 2: Compute the curb-opening efficiency.


L
3
!
! 0.41
LT 7.29
1.8

%
L &
E ! 1 $ '1 $ (
) LT *

! 1 $ -1 $ 0.41.

1.8

! 0.61

Step 3: Compute the interception capacity.


Q1 = EQ = 0.61 x 0.05 = 0.031 m3 / s
Determine the W/T ratio.
Determine spread
Assume Qs = 0.018 m3/s
Qw = Q Qs = 0.05 0.018 = 0.032 m3 / s

Eo !

Qw 0.032
!
! 0.64
Q
0.05

Sw ! S x ,

a
25
! 0.02 ,
! 0.062
W
1000 " 0.6

S w 0.062
!
! 3.1
Sx
0.02
W
! 0.24
T

T!

W
0.6
!
! 2.5 m
% W & 0.24
' (
)T *

Ts = T W = 2.5 0.6 = 1.9 m


Obtain Qs
m3
%K&
% 0.376 &
0.5 2.67
1.67
0.5
2.67
!'
! Qs assumed
Qs ! ' ( S 1.67
x S L Ts
( 0.02 0.01 1.9 ! 0.019
s
)n*
) 0.016 *

Determine efficiency of curb opening

25
%
&
Se ! S x , S w' Eo ! S x , - a / W . Eo ! 0.02 , '
( 0.64 ! 0.047
) 1000 " 0.6 *
% 1 &
LT ! K u Q 0.42 S L0.3 '
(
) nSe *

0.6

! 0.817 - 0.05 .

0.42

- 0.01.

0.3

1
%
&
'
(
) 0.016 " 0.047 *

0.6

! 4.37 m

Obtain curb inlet efficiency


L
3
!
! 0.69
LT 4.37
1.8

%
L &
E ! 1 $ '1 $ (
) LT *

! 1 $ -1 $ 0.69 .

1.8

! 0.88

Q1 = EQ = 0.88 x 0.05 = 0.044 m3 / s


The depressed curb-opening inlet will intercept 1.5 times the flow intercepted by the undepressed curb opening.
32. Given: A combination curb-opening grate inlet with a 3 m (9.8 ft) curb opening, 0.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft by 2 ft)
curved vane grate placed adjacent to the downstream 0.6 m (2 ft) of the curb opening. This inlet is located in a gutter
section having the following characteristics:
W = 0.6 m (2 ft)
Q = 0.05 m3/s (1.77 ft3/s)

OMICS Group eBooks

Step 3: Compute curb opening inflow

018

SL = 0.01 m/m (ft/ft)


Sx = 0.02 m/m (ft/ft)
SW = 0.062 m/m (ft/ft)
n = 0.016
Find: Interception capacity, Qi
Step 1: Compute the interception capacity of the curb-opening upstream of the grate, Qic.
L = 3 0.6 = 2.4 m
LT = 4. 37 m

2.4
L
!
! 0.55
LT 4.37
1.8

%
L &
E ! 1 $ '1 $ (
) LT *

! 1 $ -1 $ 0.55 .

1.8

! 0.76

Qic = EQ = 0.76 x 0.05 = 0.038 m3 / s


Step 2: Compute the interception capacity of the grate.
Flow at grate
Qg = Q Qic = 0.05 0.038 = 0.012 m3 / s
Determine Spread
Assume Qs = 0.0003 m3/s
Qw = Q Qs = 0.0120 0.0003 = 0.0117 m3 / s

Eo !

Qw 0.0117
!
! 0.97
Q 0.0120

S w 0.062
!
! 3.1
0.02
Sx

1
W
!
! 0.62
T %
&
'
(
'
(
'
(
'
(
1
'
$ 1( - 3.1. , 1
0.375
' /%
(
0
&
' 1'
(
2
(
1
' 1'
(
( - 3.1. , 12
' 1' % 1
(
&
2
$1 (
2
'' 1)' )' 0.97 *( *(
((
4
)3
*

T!

W
0.6
!
! 0.97 m
% W & 0.62
' (
)T *

OMICS Group eBooks

W
1
!
T %
&
'
(
'
(
'
(
'
(
'
(% S &
1
'
( ' w ( ,1
$
1
0.375
' /%
( ) Sx *
0
&
' 1'
(
2
(
%
&
S
1
' 1'
(
2
( w ,1
' ( 2
' 1' % 1
(
(
& ) Sx *
' 1' '
(
$
1
2
(
((
' ' E
(
42
) 31) ) o * *
*

019

Ts = T W = 0.97 0.6 = 0.37 m


Qs = 0.0003 m3 / s
Qs Assumed = Qs calculated
Determine velocity
Q
Q
0.012
!
! 0.68 m / s
V! !
2
A - 0.5T S x , 0.5aW . /
2
% 25 & 0
,
0.5
0.97
0.02
0.5
0.6
.
.
'
( 2
1
) 1000 * 4
3
Rf = 1.0

Rs !

1
1
!
! 0.13
1.8
1.8
K uV
0.0828
0.68
..
1,
1,
2.3
S x L2.3
- 0.02 .- 0.6 .

Qig = Qg [Rf E0 + Rs (1 E0)] = 0.012 [(1.0) (0.97) + (0.13) (1 0.97)] = 0.011 m3 / s


Step 3: Compute the total interception capacity. (Note: Interception capacity of curb opening adjacent to grate was
neglected.)
Qi = Qic + Qig = 0.038 + 0.011
Qi ! 0.049

m3
- approximately 100% of thetotal initial flow .
s

33. Given: Curb opening inlet in a sump location with


L = 2.5 m (8.2 ft)
h = 0.13 m (0.43 ft)
(1) Undepressed curb opening
Sx = 0.02
T = 2.5 m (8.2 ft)
(2) Depressed curb opening
Sx= 0.02
a = 25 mm (1 in) local
W = 0.6 m (2 ft)
T = 2.5 m (8.2 ft)
Find: Qi
Step 1: Determine depth at curb.
d = TSx = 2.5 x 0.02 = 0.05 m = 0.05 h = 0.13 m
Therefore, weir flow controls
Step2. Find Qi.
Qi = Cw Ld1.5 = 1.6 x 2.5 x 0.051.5 = 0.045 m3 / s
Determine depth at curb, di

di ! d , a ! TS x , a ! 2.5 " 0.02 ,

25
! 0.075 m 6 h ! 0.13 m
1000

Therefore, weir flow controls

P = L + 1.8W = 2.5 + 1.8 x 0.6 = 3.58 m


Qi = Cw (L + 1.8W) d1.5 = 1.25 x 3.58 x 0.051.5 = 0.048 m3 / s
The depressed curb-opening inlet has 10 percent more capacity than an inlet without depression.
34. Given: A combination inlet in a sag location with the following characteristics:
Grate -0.6 m by 1.2 m (2 ft by 4 ft) P-50

OMICS Group eBooks

Find Qi.

020

Curb opening L = 1.2 m (4 ft)


h = 0.1 m (3.9 in)
Q = 0.15 m3/s (5.3 ft3/s)
Sx = 0.03 m/m (ft/ft)
Find: Depth at curb and spread for:
(1) Grate clears of clogging
(2) Grate 100 percent clogged
Step 1: Compute depth at curb.
Assuming grate controls interception:
P = 2W + L = 2 (0.6) + 1.2 = 2.4 m

d avg

/ Qi 0
!1
2
31 - Cw P . 42

0.67

/ 0.15 0
!1
2
31 -1.66 " 2.4 . 42

0.67

! 0.11 m

Step 2: Compute associated spread.

d ! d avg ,
T!

S xW
0.6
! 0.11 , 0.03 "
! 0.119 m
2
2

d 0.119
!
! 3.97 m
0.03
Sx

Compute depth at curb.


Assuming grate clogged.

m3
Q ! 0.15
s
2

DF Q EF
G
H
FI - Co hL . FJ h
d!
, !
2
- 2g .

DF
EF
0.15
G
H
FI - 0.67 " 0.1"1.2 . FJ 0.1
,
! 0.24 m
2
- 2 " 9.81.

Step 3: Compute associated spread.

T!

d 0.24
!
! 8.0 m
Sx 0.03

Interception by the curb-opening only will be in a transition stage between weir and orifice flow with a depth at the curb
of about 0.24 m (0.8 ft). Depth at the curb and spread on the pavement would be almost twice as great if the grate should
become completely clogged.
35. Given: A shallow basin with the following characteristics:
Average surface area = 1.21 ha (3 acres)
Bottom area = 0.81 ha (2 acres)
Watershed area = 40.5 ha (100 acres) C Post-development runoff coefficient = 0.3
Average infiltration rate for soils = 2.5 mm per hr (0.1 in per hr)
Mean annual evaporation is 89 cm (35 in or 2.92 ft).Find: For average annual conditions determine
if the facility will function as a retention facility with a Permanent pool.
Step 1: The computed average annual runoff as:
Runoff = CQDA = 0.3 x 1.27 x 40.5 x 10000 = 154305 m3
Step 2: The average annual evaporation is estimated to be:
Evaporation = Evaporation depth x Watershed area = 0.89 x 1.21 = 10769 m3

OMICS Group eBooks

From rainfall records, the average annual rainfall is about 127 cm (50 in or 4.17 ft)

021

Step 3: The average annual infiltration is estimated as:


Infiltration = infiltration rate x Time x Bottom area = 2.5 x 24 x 365 x 0.81
Infiltration = 177390 m3
Step 4: Neglecting basin outflow and assuming no change in storage, the runoff (or inflow) less evaporation and
infiltration losses is:
Net Budget = 154305 10769 177390 = -33854 m3
Since the average annual losses exceed the average annual rainfall, the proposed facility will not function as a retention
facility with a permanent pool. If the facility needs to function with a permanent pool, this can be accomplished by reducing
the pool size as shown below.
Step 5: Revise the pool surface area to be = 0.81 ha and bottom area = 0.40 ha
Step 6: Recomputed the evaporation and infiltration
Evaporation = 0.89 x 0.81 = 7210 m3
Infiltration = 2.5 x 24 x 365 x 0.4 = 87600m3
Step 7: Revised runoff less evaporation and infiltration losses is:
Net Budget = 154305 7210 87600 = 59495 m3
The revised facility appears to have the capacity to function as a retention facility with a permanent pool. However, it
must be recognized that these calculations are based on average precipitation, evaporation, and losses. During years of low
rainfall, the pool may not be maintained.
36. Given: Corn will be grown on a soil with a maximum root depth of 24 inches. The site has good surface drainage.
Refer to the figure for details. Determine: Determine the drain spacing needed to provide sub irrigation using the
design drainage rate (DDR) method.

Step 1- Determine the gradient m between drains. Using the DDR method, we assume that the water table at the
midpoint between drains is at the surface. Therefore, m is equal to the drain depth of 4 feet.
Step 2 - Since this site has good surface drainage, the design drainage rate is 1.1 centimeters
inch per day = .018 inch per hour.

per day, which is 0.433

Step 3 - Determine the equivalent hydraulic conductivity (Ke). Since flow occurs over the entire profile, the hydraulic
conductivity is:

-14 " 3.5. , - 34 "1.2 . , - 36 "1.5. ! 1.71in / hr


14 , 34 , 36

Step 4 - Determine the first estimate of the drain spacing needed for drainage using equation 10-5. As with the previous
examples, de is needed. For the first calculation of Sd assume de is equal to d, which is 3 feet:
1

/ 4 K m - 2d , m . 0 2 / 4 "1.71" 4 - 2 " 3 , 4 . 0 2
Sd ! 1 e
2 !1
2 ! 123.3 ft
q
0.018
3
4
3
4
Step 5 - Now determine de using Hooghoudts equation and the value of Sd = 123.3

OMICS Group eBooks

Ke !

022

de !
1,

&
d %8& %d
' ( ln ' $ 3.4 (
S d ) A * ) re
*

!
1,

0
3 /8 % 3 &
ln '
( $ 3.4 2
123.3 13 A ) 0.017 *
4

! 2.74 ft

Step 6 - Recalculate Sd using the new value of de = 2.41 ft:


1

/ 4 K m - 2d , m . 0 2 / 4 "1.71" 4 - 2 " 2.74 , 4 . 0 2


Sd ! 1 e
2 !1
2 ! 120.0 ft
q
0.018
3
4
3
4
Step 7 - Recalculate de for Sd = 112 ft:

de !

d
&
d %8& %d
1 , ' ( ln ' $ 3.4 (
Sd ) A * ) re
*

!
1,

0
3 /8 % 3 &
ln '
( $ 3.4 2
120.0 31 A ) 0.017 *
4

! 2.41 ft

Step 8 - Recalculate Sd for de = 2.38 ft:


1

/ 4 K m - 2d , m . 0 2 / 4 "1.71" 4 - 2 " 2.41 , 4 . 0 2


Sd ! 1 e
2 !1
2 ! 112.0 ft
q
0.018
3
4
3
4
This is close enough to the previous value that no further iteration is necessary. Using the design drainage rate method,
this is the spacing recommended for drainage alone. To determine the spacing for sub irrigation requires one additional
step.
Step 9 - Determine the fixed percentage of the design drainage rate. Since good surface drainage was provided, the fixed
percentage is 0.63.
Ss = 0.63

Sd = 0.63 x 112 = 72.9 ft

Using this method, the design spacing for sub irrigation is 72.9 feet. This compares favorably with the design spacing of
80 feet actually determined for this problem using DRAINMOD. For comparison, the estimated spacing as determined by
each shortcut method is shown in the table.
Method

Estimated spacing

Fixed percentage of drainage guide 65


(65% of 100 ft)

65

Drainage during controlled drainage

59

Sub irrigation using design ET value

49

Fixed percentage of design drainage

73

Drainmod

80

37. Given: The site contains 100 acres.


!"#$%"&'(%"$)&"*%%+",)-.%/",0-"&%1%-)2"3%)-&4"*5("'&"+)(5-)223"600-23"/-)'+%/7"8".)'+"05(2%("/'(9$":'($"2)(%-)2"/'(9$%&")(")+"'+(%-1)2"0,";<<",%%("
:)&"'+&()22%/":$%+"($%"&'(%":)&"=-&("6-%6)-%/",0-"=%2/"-06%&7">0:%1%-4"'+"'(&"6-%&%+("90+/'('0+4"($%"/-)'+)?%"&3&(%."@6-%/0.'+)+(23"&5-,)9%"
drainage) is inadequate and is the most dominant factor limiting yields.
!"A%1%-)2"&.)22"/%6-%&&'0+")-%)&"@)*05("BC"0,"($%"(0()2"952('1)(%/")-%)D"$)1%":)(%-")995.52)('0+&":$'9$"+%)-23"/-0:+"($%"9-06"'+".)+3"3%)-&7
!"E1%+"($05?$"($'&"&'(%"'&"600-23"/-)'+%/4"3'%2/&")-%")2&0"&566-%&&%/"/5%"(0"/-05?$("&(-%&&"'+"&0.%"3%)-&7"A0.%"0,"($%".)F0-"90.60+%+("90&(&"
5&%/"'+"($%"%90+0.'9"%1)25)('0+"'&"&5..)-'G%/"'+"($%"=?5-%&7"#$%&%"1)25%&")-%")1%-)?%"1)25%&")&"/%(%-.'+%/",-0.".)+5,)9(5-%-&H"2'(%-)(5-%4"
discussions with sales representatives, or actual costs as quoted by farmers who have installed systems. While these values are reasonable for
($%"&6%9'=9"90+/'('0+&")&&5.%/4"($%3"&$052/"*%"5&%/"0+23")&")"?5'/%")+/":$%-%"60&&'*2%4"%I)9("1)25%&",0-"($%"&6%9'=9"&'(5)('0+"&$052/"*%"5&%/"
instead.
Component

J%&9-'6('0+KA6%9'=9)('0+&

Initial Cost

Drainage tubing

5##%()6#78%#'%9:%#7%."**)8;(+,%<$;'(#.%<#<+%=#(>%-$(+*%?#7'(;$$+,@

$ 1.00/ft

Deep well

8-in gravel packed, 300 ft deep, 80-ft vertical lift, 700gpm (@ $50/ft)

15,000

Subirrigation pump & power unit

25-hp vertical hollow shaft electric motor with single stage deep well turbine (230V, 3-phase
<"=+*%')<<$AB%C9D1%*<&B%EDF%<)&<%+G-.#+7.A@

7,000

Center pivot pump

50-hp vertical hollow shaft electric motor with 3-stage deep well turbine (230V, 3-phase
<"=+*%')<<$AB%C9D1%*<&B%2HF<)&<%+G-.#+7.A@

12,750

Surface water supply

River, stream, creek or major drainage canal

Subirrigation pump 7 power unit

8-hp air cooled engine dive, type A single stage centrifugal pump rated at 700 gpm @ 40-ft
TDH

3,500

Center pivot pump & power unit

40-hp air cooled engine dive, type A single stage centrifugal pump rated at 700 gpm @ 125-ft 8,500
TDH

Control structure

Used average value for aluminum or galvanized steel: 6-ft raiser, 36-in weir, 24-in outlet, 30- 1,650
ft outlet pipe (installed)

Center pivot

Low pressure (30 psi) 1,200 ft long w/ 6-5/8in dia. Galvanized pipe @ $30/ft

Component
Repair maintenance

J%&9-'6('0+KA6%9'=9)('0+K*)&'&

36,000
Cost

OMICS Group eBooks

Water supply

023

Drainage tubing

Fixed percentage of initial cost

2%/yr

Control structure water supply well

None assumed

Pumps 7 power unit

Fixed percentage of initial cost

1%/yr

Center pivot

Fixed percentage of initial cost

1%/yr

Land grading*

Fixed percentage of initial cost

6.4%/yr

Fuel
Sub irrigation well

21.0 brake hp required (assumed 75% turbine eff, 90% motor eff @ $.07/kw-hr)

1.47%/yr

Surface source

6.2brake hp required (@ 20 ft TDH, 80% pump eff, 75% engine eff, 11 hp-hr/gal
8;'"$#7+%I%J0301K8;$B%"#$%L%-$(+*%I%0DF%"G%G)+$@

.71/hr

Center pivot well

44.6brake hp required (assumes 80% turbine eff, 90% motor eff @ $.07/kw-hr)

3.12/hr

Surface source

37.6 brake hp required (@ 112 ft TDH, 70% pump eff, 75% engine eff, 15.5 hp-hr/gal
diesel @ $1.10/gal)

2.67/hr

Self-propulsion

6 towers w/1hp motor each, half of motors operating at any given time requiring 3 hp,
85%eff @ $0.07/kw - hr

.25/hr

Labor
Sub irrigation

Based on 0.5hr/d from May 1 to July 31 to check water level in observation wells, adjust 2.30/ac
riser level, etc., @ $5.00/hr, 100 acres

Center pivot

Based on 0.05hr/ ac-in, 7 ac-in/yr @ $5.00/hr, 100 acres

2.30/ac

* Based on estimates by farmers of $8 per acre per year where the initial cost was $125 per acre.

The individual components necessary to make up a complete system vary, depending on the particular option being
considered. An example calculation is described for each component. Total annual costs are normally divided into two
categories: fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs include depreciation, interest, property taxes, and insurance. Insurance
would be recommended on components subject to damage or theft. Most components of a subsurface drainage or sub
irrigation system are underground. Therefore, it is probably unnecessary to protect these components with insurance; so,
insurance was not considered in this example.
Also, property tax values vary from county to county, are generally small compared to the other component costs, and
were neglected. However, when the tax rate is known for a given location, it could be considered in the economic evaluation.
Depreciation and interest costs can be determined together by using an amortizing factor for the specific situation. The
amortization factor considers the expected life of the component and the interest rate. Once these are known, the factor can
be determined from amortization tables. In this example, the interest rate was assumed to be 12 percent and a design life of
either 15, 20, or 30 years was used, depending on the particular component. Amortization factors were 0.14682 for 15 years;
0.13388 for 20 years; and 0.12414 for 30 years. Most economic textbooks contain a table of amortization factors for a wide
range of interest rates and design lives. Your local banker or financial planner/accountant could also provide these values.
The amortized cost that must be recovered annually is then determined as:
Annual amortized cost = (initial cost) (amortization factor)
Variable costs include any costs that vary according to how much the equipment is used. These costs include repair and
maintenance, fuel, and labor. It is customary to estimate repair and maintenance costs as either a fixed percentage of the
initial investment for such components as tubing, pumps and motors; a fixed rate or percentage per hour of use for each
component, such as an internal combustion engine; and as a fixed rate per year, for a land graded surface drainage system.
Fuel and labor costs should be estimated based on the anticipated usage. The criteria used to determine the variable costs in
the example are summarized in the figures.
Drainage tubing costs are determined by first determining the length of tubing required for a given spacing. For a
spacing of 60 feet:

length
area
43560
ft $435.60
!
!
! 726 !
initial invest
acre
spacing
60
ac
ac
Tubing cost can be amortized over 30 years. Thus, the annual amortized costs would be:

annual amortized costs !

$435.60
" 0.12414 ! $54.08 / ac
ac

The operating costs (repair and maintenance) for drain tubing are estimated as 2 percent of the annual amortized costs.
Thus, for the 60-foot spacing:
Operating costs = 0.02x $54.08 = $1.08 / ac

3 structures "

$1650
! $4950 initial investment
structure

The expected life of a control structure is about 20 years.


Annual amortized costs $4950 x 0.13388 = 4 662.71
This value represents the control structure costs for the entire 100 acre field. Per acre annual cost would be:

OMICS Group eBooks

The surface elevations in the example field vary by 2.5 feet. To provide adequate water table control in this field, assume
three control structures are needed.

024

$662.71
! $6.63 / ac
100 acres

Operating costs (repair and maintenance) for the control structures can also be estimated as 2 percent of the annual
amortized costs.
$6.63
operating costs ! 0.02 "
! 0.13 / ac
ac
The operating costs for the control structure are so small that they are neglected throughout the remainder of this
example. This situation normally occurs on large, flat fields. When fields are small, however, repair and maintenance costs
for the control structures should be considered.
The expected life of a deep well is about 30 years, and the life of the pump and electric power unit is about 20 years.
Well = $15,000 0.12414 = $1,862.10
Annual amortized cost: Pump and power unit = $7,000 0.13388 = $937.16
Total annual water supply = $2,799.26
This is the cost for the entire 100 acres. The acre cost is:

$2799.26
! $27.99 / ac
100acres
Normally, no operating costs are associated with the water source. Repair, maintenance, and fuel costs are considered
for the pump and power unit. Using the pump/power unit for the sub irrigation system, the repair and maintenance costs
would be estimated as 1 percent of the initial cost. Thus:
Repair and maintenance = $7,000 0.01 = $70 /year
Since this is the cost for the entire 100 acres, the acre cost is:

70
! $0.70 / ac
100
Fuel costs vary depending on the amount of water that must be applied, the friction loss in the system, and the operating
pressure of the system. For the example area, average irrigation volumes range from 6 to 8 acre-inches per year. This
example uses 7 inches per year. Sub irrigation may only be about 75 percent efficient because of the water loss by seepage to
nonirrigated areas. Thus, the total amount of water that must be pumped to provide 7 acre inches of usable water is:

7
! 9.33 ac $ in / year
0.75
To pump 9.33 acre-inches of usable water on 100 acres with a 700-gpm capacity pump requires 603.4 hours per year.
The power required to pump the water can be determined by:

hp !

flow " total dynamic head


3960 " pump efficiency " motor efficieny

Assume that the sub irrigation water must be lifted 80 feet in the well and is discharged into an open ditch with 0
discharge pressure. For a pump efficiency of 75 percent and an electric motor efficiency of 90 percent, the power required
for sub irrigation is:

hp !

700 " 80
! 21.0 hp
3960 " 0.75 " 0.90

The energy costs required to provide this power is then:


21.0 x 1 x 0.07 = $1.47 / hr
As previously determined, 603.4 hours would be required to provide the irrigation water for the entire 100 acres, thus
the pumping cost per ace is:

Two levels of land grading were considered in this example. The first level assumes that only the potholes are eliminated
using the farmers land plane at an estimated cost of $75 per acre. This would be equivalent to providing poor to fair
surface drainage. For the second case, a laser control land leveler is used at an estimated cost of $125 per acre. This would
be equivalent to providing fair to good surface drainage. Land grading costs are normally amortized over 20 years, thus:
Annual amortized cost = $75/ac .13388 = $10.04/ac

OMICS Group eBooks

1.47 " 603.4


! $8.85 / ac
100

Operating costs for surface drainage generally include routine maintenance of the outlet ditches (moving and clean out),
construction of hoe drains, and periodic smoothing of the field as it becomes uneven because of tillage. For an extensive 025
surface drainage system (good surface drainage), maintenance costs average about $8 per acre per year. These maintenance

costs are closely correlated to the intensity of the surface drainage provided. As the cost of establishing the surface drainage
increases, the cost of maintaining the same level of surface drainage also increases. For the purpose of comparing alternatives,
it is reasonable to assume that maintenance costs for a surface drainage system costing $125 per acre are about $8 per acre
per year, and adjusts this value linearly as the initial cost of the system varies from $125 per acre. Therefore, the operating
costs for the fair surface drainage system (initial costs of $75/ac) are assumed to be $4.80 per acre per year. Total system
costs include fixed costs plus variable costs. Taking the sub irrigation system with fair surface drainage, a drain spacing of
60 feet, and the deep well water supply as an example, the total annual system costs would be:
Fixed costs: Tubing @ 60 ft $54.08
Landing grading (fair) 10.04
Control structure 6.63
Water supply (well) 27.99
Total annual fixed costs $98.74
Variable costs: Repair and maintenance
Tubing $1.08
Land grading 4.80
Control structure neglected water supply .70
Fuel (electric motor & pump) $8.85
Labor $2.30
Total variable costs $17.73
Total annual system cost (fixed costs + variable costs): $116.47
Thus, the annual amortized cost for this one system design with a drain spacing of 60 feet is $116.47.
To compare the profit potential of several drain spacings, water table control settings, or management strategies, a
DRAINMOD simulation must be ran for each case to be considered, and then compute the cost. The optimum system
design would then be determined by selecting the alternatives that provide the optimum profit. An example of this process
is shown in the figure. This table compares profit with sub irrigation for several drain spacings, levels of surface drainage,
and water supplies. In this example, maximum profit for sub irrigation occurs at a spacing of 50 feet for both fair and good
surface drainage. The cost of the improved surface drainage cannot be recovered on this example site when good subsurface
drainage is provided. As the level of subsurface drainage decreases, surface drainage becomes more important. However,
proper modeling of irregular land surfaces would require simulations on the higher land elevations and low ponding areas
to properly reflect surface storage, depth to water table, and yield variations within the field. This was not done because it
was not found to be critical to the drain spacing. The additional costs of the well water supply, as compared to a surface
supply, are also reflected in this example.
Level of surface
drainage

Drain
spacing(ft)

Yield (Predicted)
bu/ac

Gross income

System cost

Production cost

Total cost

Net return

($/ac)

($/ac)

($/ac)

($/ac)

($/ac)

Well water Supply

Good

33

168.5

505.58

161.60

224.73

386.33

50

162.9

488.78

127.49

224.73

352.22

119.25
136.56

60

158.6

475.65

116.47

224.73

341.20

134.45

75

152.1

456.23

105.44

224.73

330.17

126.06

100

138.3

414.75

94.39

224.73

319.12

95.63

150

108.3

324.98

83.37

224.73

308.10

16.88

200

90.5

271.43

77.83

224.73

302.58

-31.15

300

79.5

238.35

66.24

224.73

290.97

-52.62

33

168.7

506.10

171.50

224.73

396.23

109.87

50

163.3

489.83

137.39

224.73

362.12

127.71

60

159.3

477.75

126.37

224.73

351.10

126.65

75

154.5

463.58

115.34

224.73

340.07

123.51

100

140.9

422.63

104.29

224.73

329.02

93.61

150

118.3

354.90

93.27

224.73

318.00

36.90

200

102.6

307.65

87.75

224.73

312.48

-4.83

300

91.5

274.58

76.92

224.73

301.65

-27.07

147.02

Surface water
supply
Fair

33

168.5

133.80

224.73

358.58

50

162.9

99.72

224.73

324.45

164.33

60

158.6

88.70

224.73

313.43

162.22

75

152.1

77.67

224.73

302.40

153.83

OMICS Group eBooks

Fair

026

100

138.3

66.62

224.73

291.35

123.40

150

108.3

55.60

224.73

280.33

44.65

200

90.5

50.08

224.73

274.81

-3.38

300

79.5

39.25

224.73

263.98

-25.63

38. Given: The following existing and proposed land uses:


Find: Weighted runoff coefficient, C, for existing and proposed conditions.
Existing conditions (unimproved):
Land Use

Area, ha

(ac)

Unimproved grass

8.95

(22.1)

0.25

Grass

8.60

(21.2)

0.22

Total

17.55

43.3

L5+0,,"M0%,=9'%+(4"M

Proposed conditions (improved):


Land Use

Area, ha

(ac)

L5+0,,"M0%,=9'%+(4"M

Paved

2.20

5.4

0.90

Lawn

0.66

1.6

0.15

Unimproved grass

7.52

18.6

0.25

Grass

7.17

17.7

0.22

Total

17.55

43.3

Step 1: Determine Weighted C for existing (unimproved) conditions.


Weighted C = Sum (Cx Ax)/A = [(8.95) (0.25) + (8.60) (0.22)] / (17.55) = 0.235
Step 2: Determine Weighted C for proposed (improved) conditions.
Weighted C = [(2.2) (0.90) + (0.66) (0.15) + (7.52) (0.25) + (7.17) (0.22)] / (17.55) = 0.315
39. Given: The following site characteristics:
t4JUFJTMPDBUFEJO5VMTB 0LMBIPNB
t%SBJOBHFBSFBJTTRNJ
t.FBOBOOVBMQSFDJQJUBUJPOJTJO
t6SCBOQBSBNFUFSTBTGPMMPXT
SL = 53 ft/mi
RI2 = 2.2 in/hr
ST = 5
BDF = 7
IA = 35
Find: The 2-year urban peak flow.
Step 1: Calculate the rural peak flow from appropriate regional equation.
The rural regression equation for Tulsa, Oklahoma is
RQ2 = 0.368A.59P1.84= 0.368(3).59(38)1.84 = 568 ft3/s
Step 2: Calculate the urban peak flow.
UQ2 = 2.35As.41SL.17 (RI2 + 3)2.04(ST + 8)-.65(13 - BDF)-.32IAs.15RQ2.47
UQ2 = 2.35(3).41(53).17(2.2+3)2.04(5+8)-.65 (13-7)-.32(35).15(568).47 = 747 ft3/s
40. What is the theoretical oxygen demand in mg/L for a 1.6710-3 molar solution of glucose, C6H1206 to decompose
completely?
First balance the decomposition reaction (which is an algebra exercise):
As
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
This is, for every mole of glucose decomposed, 6 mol of oxygen are required. This gives us a constant to use change moles
per liter of glucose to milligrams per liter of O2 required, a (relatively) simple unit conversion.
/1.67 "10$3 KmolK glu cos e 0 / 6KmolKof KO2 0 / 32K g KO2 0 /1000Kmg 0
mg KO2
1
2"1
2 " 1 molKO 2 " 1
2 ! 321K L
K
L
mol
glu
e
g
cos
4 3
4
3
4 3
2 4 3

OMICS Group eBooks

C6H12O6 + aO2 bCO2 + cH2O

027

 $BMDVMBUF UIF #0%5 if the temperature of the sample and seeded dilution water are 209c (saturation is 9.07
NH-
UIFJOJUJBM%PTBSFTBUVSBUJPO BOEUIFTBNQMFEJMVUJPOJTXJUITFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSFOBM%0PGUIF
TFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSJTNH- BOEUIFOBM%0PGUIFTBNQMFBOETFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSJTNH-3FDBMMUIBUUIF
WPMVNFPGB#0%CPUUMFJTN-
D!

30KmL
Vs

Therefore
Vs = 10 mL and X = 300 mL 10 mL = 290 mL
/
% 290KmL & 0
BOD5 ! 1- 9.07Kmg / L $ 2Kmg / L . $ - 9.07Kmg / L $ 8Kmg / L . '
( 2 30 ! 181Kmg / L
) 300KmL * 4
3

42. Assuming a deoxygenating constant of 0.25 d-1 DBMDVMBUFUIFFYQFDUFE#0%5JGUIF#0%3 is 148 mg/L.

- 0.25 d .- 3d . 0 + L ! 280Kmg / L
148Kmg / L ! LK/1 $ e
13
24
$
1
$- 0.25 d .- 5 d .
/
0
y5 ! - 280Kmg / L . 11 $ e
2 ! 200Kmg / L
3
4
F#0%WFSTVTUJNFEBUBGPSUIFSTUWFEBZTPGB#0%UFTUBSFPCUBJOFEBTGPMMPXT
Time, t (days)

BOD, y (mg/L)

10

16

20

Calculate k1 and L.
From the graph, the intercept is b = 0.545 and the slope is m = 021. Thus

% 0.021 &
$1
k1 ! 6 '
( ! 0.23Kd
) 0.545 *
L!

1
6 - 0.021.- 0.545 .

! 27Kmg / L

44. A laboratory runs a solids test. The weight of the crucible = 48.6212 g. A 100-mL sample is placed in the crucible
and the water is evaporated. The weight of the crucible and dry solids = 48.6432 g. The crucible is placed in a 6009c
furnace for 24 hr and cooled in desiccators. The weight of the cooled crucible and residue, or unburned solids, = 48.6300
g. Find the total, volatile, and fixed solids.

TS !

- 48.6432Kg . $ - 48.6212Kg . "106 ! 220Kmg / L

FS !

- 48.6300Kg . $ - 48.6212Kg . "106 ! 88Kmg / L

100KmL

100KmL

VS = 220 88 = 132 mg / L
$BMDVMBUFUIF#0%PGBXBUFSTBNQMF HJWFOUIFGPMMPXJOHEBUB
Temperature of sample = 209c (dissolved oxygen saturation at 209c is 9.2 mg/L,
Initial dissolved oxygen is saturation,
Dilution is 1:30, with seeded dilution water,
Final dissolved oxygen of seeded dilution water is 8 mg/L,
Final dissolved oxygen bottle with sample and seeded dilution water is 2 mg/L,
7PMVNFPG#0%CPUUMFJTN-
BOD5 !

- 9.2 $ 2 . $ - 9.2 $ 8.- 290 / 300 . ! 183Kmg / L


0.033

OMICS Group eBooks

And

46. A water treatment plant is designed for 30 million gallons per day (mgd). The flocculator dimensions are length
= 100 ft, width = 50 ft, depth = 16 ft. Revolving paddles attached to four horizontal shafts rotate at 1.7 rpm. Each shaft
supports four paddles that are 6 in. wide and 48 in. long. Paddles are centered 6 ft from the shaft. Assume CD = 1.9 028
and the mean velocity of water is 35% of the paddle velocity. Find the velocity differential between the paddles and the

XBUFS"U0P' UIFEFOTJUZPGXBUFSJTMCT2/ft3 and the viscosity is 2.73lb-s /f2. Calculate the value of G and the
time of flocculation (hydraulic retention time).z
The rotational velocity is
2A m
vt !
60
2
- A .- 6 .-1.7 .
vt !

60

! 1.07K ft / s

The velocity differential between paddles and fluid is assumed to be 65% of vt, so that
v = 0.65
P!

vt = (0.65) (1.7) = 0.70 ft/s

-1.9 .-16 .- 0.5K ft .- 48K ft . -1.94Klb $ s 2 / ft 3 . - 0.70K ft / s .


2

%
243
G! '
' -100 .- 50 .-16 . 2.73 "10$5
)

! 243K ft $ lb / s

&
ft / s
( ! 10.5K
(
ft
*

This is a little low. The time of flocculation is


t!

V -100 .- 50 .-16 .- 7.48 .- 24 .- 60 .


!
! 28.7Kmin
Q
- 30 .105

so that the Gt value is 1.8 104. This is within the accepted range.
47. A community normally levies a sewer charge of 20 cents/in3'PSEJTDIBSHFTJOXIJDIUIF#0%NH-BOE
TVTQFOEFETPMJET 44
NH- BOBEEJUJPOBMLH#0%BOEMLH44BSFMFWJFE"DIJDLFOQSPDFTTJOHQMBOU
uses 2000 m3XBUFSQFSEBZBOEEJTDIBSHFTXBTUFXBUFSXJUI#0%NH-BOE44NH-8IBUJTUIFQMBOUT
daily wastewater disposal bill?
The excess BOD and SS are, respectively,
(480 - 250) mg/L 2000 in.3 1000 L/m3 10-6 kg/mg = 460 kg excess BOD
(1530 - 300) mg/L 2000 m3 1000 L/m3 10-6 kg/mg = 2460 kg excess SS.
The daily bill is thus
(2000 m3) ($0.20/m3) + (460 kgBOD) ($0.50/kgBOD) + (2460 kgSS) ($1.00/kgSS) = $3090.00.
48. A chemical waste at an initial SS concentration of l000 mg/L and flow rate of 200 m3/h is to be settled in a tank,
H = 1.2 m deep, W = 10 m wide, and L = 31.4 m long. The results of a laboratory test are shown in the figure. Calculate
the fraction of solids removed the overflow rate, and the velocity of the critical particle.

The surface area of the tank is


A = WL = (31.4) (10) = 314m2
Q/A = 200/314 = 0.614m3 / h-m2
The critical velocity is thus v0 = 0.614m3 / h-m2. However, the waste in this instance undergoes flocculent settling
rather than settling at the critical velocity. The hydraulic retention time is

t!

V AH - 314 .-1.2 .
!
!
! 1.88Kh
Q
Q
200

In the figure the 85% removal line approximately intersects the retention time of 1.88 h. Thus, 85% of the solids are

OMICS Group eBooks

The overflow rate is therefore

029

removed. In addition to this, however, even better removal is indicated at the top of the water column. At the top 20cm,
assume the SS concentration is 40mg/L, equal to [(l000 - 4) 100]/1000 = 96% removal, or 11% better than the entire
column. The second shows [(l000 - 60) l00]/ 1000 = 94% removal and so on. The total amount removed, ignoring the
bottommost section, is
n $1
% h&
R ! P , @ ' ( - Pi $ P . ! 85 , -1/ 6 .-11 , 9 , 5 , 4 . ! 90.9%
i $1 ) H *

F#0%5 of the liquid from the primary clarifier is 120 mg/L at a flow rate of 0.05mgd. The dimensions of the
aeration tank are 20 10 20 ft3 and the MLSS = 2000 mg/L. Calculate the F/M ratio:
% 3.8KL & % 1Klb & % 1K g & % 50Klb &
lbKBOD % 120Kmg &
!'
('
('
(!'
(
( - 0.05Kmgd . '
day
L
)
*
) gal * ) 454K g * ) 1000Kmg * ) day *
% 2000Kmg & % 3.8KL & % 7.48K gal & % 1Klb & % 1K g &
lbKMLSS ! - 20 "10 " 20 .K ft 3 '
('
('
('
( ! 229Klb
('
3
L
)
* ) gal * ) ft
* ) 454K g * ) 1000Kmg *
F
50
lbKBOD / day
!
! 0.22
M 229
lbKMLSS

50. An activated sludge system operates at a flow rate (0) of 4000m3EBZ XJUIBOJODPNJOH#0% 40) of 300 mg/L.
"QJMPUQMBOUTIPXFEUIFLJOFUJDDPOTUBOUTUPCF:LH44LH#0% ,TNH- EBZ8FOFFEUPEFTJHO
B USFBUNFOU TZTUFN UIBU XJMM QSPEVDF BO FVFOU #0% PG NH-  SFNPWBM
 %FUFSNJOF B
 UIF WPMVNF PG UIF
aeration tank, (b) the MLSS, and (c) the sludge age. How much sludge will be wasted daily?
The MLSS concentration is usually limited by the ability to keep an aeration tank mixed and to transfer sufficient oxygen
to the microorganisms. Assume in this case that X = 4000 mg/L the hydraulic retention is then obtained by:

t!

0.5 - 300 $ 30 .- 200 , 30 .


2 - 30 .- 4000 .

! 0.129Kday ! 3.1Kh

The volume of the tank is then

V ! tQ ! 4000 - 0.129 . ! 516Km3


The sludge age is

Lc !

- 4000Kmg / L .- 0.129Kday .
! 3.8Kdays
- 0.5KkgKSS / kgKBOD .- 300 $ 30 . mg / L

1
kg KsludgeKwasted / day
!
Lc kg KsludgeKinKaerationKtan k
X r QW !

.-

3
3
6
XV - 4000 .- 516 . 10 KL / m 1/10 Kkg / mg
!
! 543Kkg / day
3.8
Lc

51. A binary separator, a magnet, is to separate a product, ferrous materials, from a feed stream of shredded refuse.
The feed rate to the magnet is 1000 kg/h, and contains 50 kg of ferrous materials. The product stream weighs 40 kg,
of which 35 kg are ferrous materials. What is the percent recovery of ferrous materials, their purity, and the overall
efficiency?
x0 = 50 kg

y0 = 1000-50= 950 kg

x1 = 35 kg

y1 = 40-35 = 5 kg

x2 = 50-35 = 15 kg

y1 = 950-5 = 945 kg

% 35 & % 945 &


E- x , y . ! ' ( '
(100 ! 70%
) 50 * ) 950 *
$BMDVMBUF%0TBUVSBUJPODPODFOUSBUJPOGPSXBUFSUFNQFSBUVSFBU   BOE$ BTTVNJOH
a. at T= 0C

OMICS Group eBooks

% 35 &
R- x1 . ! ' (100 ! 70%
) 50 *
% 35 &
P- x1 . ! '
(100 ! 88%
) 35 , 5 *
Then

030

DO sat =14.652 -0 +0 -0 =14.652 mg/L


b. at T= 10C
DO sat =14.652 0.41022 10 +0.0079910 102 0.000077774 103 = 11.27 mg/L
c. at T= 20C
DO sat =14.652 0.41022 20 +0.0079910 202 0.000077774 203 = 9.02 mg/L
d. at T= 30C
DO sat =14.652 0.41022 30 +0.0079910 302 0.000077774 303 = 7.44 mg/L
'JOEUIFDPSSFDUJPOGBDUPSPG%0sat value for water at 640 ft above the MSL and air temperature of 25C. What is
%0sat at a water temperature of 20C?
Step 1:
f !

2116.8 $ - 0.08 $ 0.000115 A . E


2116.8

2116.8 $ - 0.08 $ 0.000115 " 25 . 640


2116.8

! 0.977

Step 2: Compute DO sat T = 20C.


DO sat = 9.02 mg/L
With an elevation correction factor of 0.977
DOsat = 9.02 mg/L 0.977 = 8.81 mg/L
54. Determine BOD, milligrams per liter, given the following data:
t*OJUJBM%0NHt'JOBM%0NHt4BNQMFTJ[FN-

BOD !

-8.2 $ 4.4 . ! 228Kmg / L


5

"TFSJFTPGTFFEEJMVUJPOTXFSFQSFQBSFEJON-#0%CPUUMFTVTJOHTFFENBUFSJBM TFUUMFESBXXBTUFXBUFS

BOEVOTFFEFEEJMVUJPOXBUFSFBWFSBHF#0%GPSUIFTFFENBUFSJBMXBTNH-0OFNJMMJMJUFSPGUIFTFFENBUFSJBM
was also added to each bottle of a series of sample dilutions. Given the data for two samples in the following table,
DBMDVMBUFUIFTFFEDPSSFDUJPOGBDUPS 4$
BOE#0%PGUIFTBNQMF
Bottle #

mL Sample

mL Seed/bottle

Do initial

.?KN"=+)2

Depletion, mg/L

12

50

8.0

4.6

3.4

13

75

7.7

3.9

2.8

Step 1: Calculate the BOD of each milliliter of seed material.

BOD / mLKof Kseed !

204Kmg / L
! 0.68Kmg / LKBOD / mLKseed
300Kmg / L

Step 2: Calculate the SC factor:


SC = 0.68 mg/L BOD/mL seed 1 mL seed/bottle = 0.68 mg/L
Step 3: Calculate the BOD of each sample dilution:

3.4 $ 0.68
" 300 ! 16.3Kmg / L
50KmL
3.8 $ 0.68
BOD,Kmg / L,KBottle #13 !
" 300 ! 12.5Kmg / L
MNKmL
Step 4: Calculate reported BOD:
BOD,Kmg / L,KBottle #12 !

56. Calculate the oxygen deficit in a stream after pollution. Use the following equation and parameters for a stream
to calculate the oxygen deficit D in the stream after pollution.
D!

K1 LA
0.280 " 22
/e $ K1t $ e $ K2t 40 , DAe $ K2t !
/e $0.280"2.13 $ e $0.550"2.13 40 , 2e $0.550"2.13 ! 6.16Kmg / L
K 2 $ K1 3
0.550 $ 0.280 3

57. Calculate deoxygenating constant K1GPSBEPNFTUJDTFXBHFXJUI#0%5 NH-BOE#0%21, 400 mg/L.

OMICS Group eBooks

Reported BOD = (16.3+12.5)/2 = 14.4 mg/L

031

%
BOD5 &
% 135 &
$ log '1 $
( $ log '1 $
(
BOD
21 *
)
) 400 * ! 0.361/ day
!
K1 !
t
5
58. Given the following data, determine the mass balance of the biological process and the appropriate waste rate to
maintain current operating conditions.
Process

Extended aeration (no primary)

O+P5%+(

E,P5%+(

Waste

Flow

1.1 MGD

BOD

220 mg/L

TSS

240 mg/L

Flow

1.5 MGD

BOD

18 mg/L

TSS

22 mg/L

Flow

24,000 gpd

TSS

8710 mg/L

BOD in = 220 mg/L 1.1 MGD 8.34 = 2018 lb/day


BOD out = 18 mg/L 1.1 MGD 8.34 = 165 lb/day
BOD Removed = 2018 lb/day 165 lb/day = 1853 lb/day
Solids Produced = 1853 lb/day 0.65 lb/lb BOD = 1204 lb solids/day
Solids Out, lb/day = 22 mg/L 1.1 MGD 8.34 = 202 lb/day
Sludge Out, lb/day = 8710 mg/L 0.024 MGD 8.34 = 1743 lb/day
Solids Removed, lb/day = (202 lb/day + 1743 lb/day) = 1945 lb/day

MassKBalance !

-1204KlbKSolids / day $ 1945Klb / day . "100 ! 62%


1204Klb / day

The mass balance indicates:


The sampling points, collection methods, and/or laboratory testing procedures are producing nonrepresentative results.
The process is removing significantly more solids than is required. Additional testing should be performed to isolate the
specific cause of the imbalance.
To assist in the evaluation, the waste rate based upon the mass balance information can be calculated.
Waste,KGPD !

SolidsKPr oduced ,Klb / day

-WasteKTSS ,Kmg / L " 8.34 .

1204Klb / day "1000000


! 1675K gpd
8710Kmg / L " 8.34

59. A dual medium filter is composed of 0.3 m anthracite (mean size of 2.0 mm) placed over a 0.6-m layer of sand
(mean size 0.7 mm) with a filtration rate of 9.78 m/h. Assume the grain sphericity is = 0.75 and a porosity for both
is 0.42. Although normally taken from the appropriate table at 15C, we provide the head loss data of the filter at 1.131
106 m2 sec.
Step 1: Determine head loss through anthracite layer using the Kozeny equation.

h k > -1 $ O . % A &
!
' ( u
L
gpO 3 ) V *
2

1.131"10$6 1 $ 0.422 % 8 &


"
"'
( - 0.00272 .- 0.2 . ! 0.0410Km
9.81
0.423
) 0.002 *
Step 2: Compute the head loss passing through the sand.
h ! 6"

h ! 5"

1.131"10$6 1 $ 0.582 % 8 &


"
"'
( - 0.00272 .- 0.2 . ! 0.5579Km
9.81
0.423
) 0.007 *

Step 3: Compute total head loss:


60. Point rainfalls due to a storm at several rain-gauge stations in a basin are shown in the figure. Determine the
mean areal depth of rainfall over the basin by the three methods.

OMICS Group eBooks

h = 0.0410 m + 0.5579 m=0.599 m

032

(i) Arithmetic average method

Pave !

@P

1331Kcm
! 8.87Kcm
15

P1 = sum of the 15 station rainfalls.


(ii) Thiessen polygon method-The Thiessen polygons are constructed as shown in the figure and the polygonal areas
are planimetered and the mean areal depth of rainfall is worked out below:
(iii) Isohyetal method-The isohyets are drawn as shown in the figure and the mean areal depth of rainfall is worked
out below:

61. A small water shed consists of 2 km2 of forest area (c = 0.1), 1.2 km2 of cultivated area (c = 0.2) and 1 km2
under grass cover (c = 0.35). A water course falls by 20 m in a length of 2 km. The IDF relation for the area may be
taken as
i = 80T0.2/ (t+12)0.5
Estimate the peak rate of runoff for a 25 yr frequency.
Time of concentration (in hr)
0.77

tc ! 0.06628KL

$0.385

! 0.06628 " 2

0.77

% 20 &
'
(
) 2 "1000 *

$0.385

! 40Kmin

i = ic when t = tc in the given IDF relation

80 " 250.2

- 40 , 12 .

0.5

! 21.1Kcm / hr

Qpeak = 2.78 C ic A, rational formula, CA = CiAi= 2.78 21.1 (0.1 2 + 0.2 1.2 + 0.35 1) = 46.4 cumec
62. The annual rainfall at a place for a period of 21 years is given below. Draw the rainfall frequency curve and
determine :
(a) The rainfall of 5-year and 20-year recurrence, interval
(b) The rainfall which occurs 50% of the times

OMICS Group eBooks

ic !

033

(c) The rainfall of probability of 0.75


(d) The probability of occurrence of rainfall of 75 cm and its recurrence interval.
Year

Rainfall (cm)

Year

Rainfall (cm)

1950

50

1961

56

1951

60

1962

52

1952

40

1963

42

1953

27

1964

38

1954

30

1965

27

1955

38

1966

40

1956

70

1967

100

1957

60

1968

90

1958

35

1969

44

1959

55

1970

33

1960

40

Arrange the yearly rainfall in the descending order of magnitude as given below. If a particular rainfall occurs in more
than one year, m = no. of times exceeded + no. of times equaled.
Draw the graph of P vs. F on a semi-log paper which gives the rainfall frequency curve. From the frequency-curve,
the required values can be obtained as

1
100
"100 !
! 20%K forKwhichKP ! 64Kcm
T
5
1
T ! 20 $ year ,KF ! " 100 ! 5%K forKwhichKP ! 97.5Kcm
20

- a .KT ! 5 $ yr ,KF !

(b) For F = 50%, P = 42.2 cm which is the median value, and the mean value

x!

@ x ! 1026 ! 48.8Kcm
n

21

which has a frequency of 37%

- d .KForKP ! 75Kcm,KF ! 12.4%,KT !

1
100
"100 !
! 8K yr
F
12.4

And its probability of occurrence = 0.124


63. For a given basin, the following are the infiltration capacity rates at various time intervals after the beginning
of the storm. Make a plot of the f-curve and establish an equation of the form developed by Horton. Also determine
the total rain and the excess rain (runoff).

OMICS Group eBooks

(c) For a probability of 0.75 F = 75% for which P = 32 cm

034

Time (min)

Precipitation rate (cm/hr)

O+=2(-)('0+"9)6)9'(3"@9.K$-D

5.0

3.9

5.0

3.4

5.0

3.1

5.0

2.7

5.0

2.5

7.5

2.3

7.5

2.0

10

7.5

1.8

12

7.5

1.54

14

7.5

1.43

16

2.5

1.36

18

2.5

1.31

20

2.5

1.28

22

2.5

1.25

24

2.5

1.23

26

2.5

1.22

28

2.5

1.20

30

2.5

1.20

The precipitation and infiltration rates versus time are plotted as shown in the figure. In the Hortons equation, the
Hortons constant

k!

f0 $ fc
Fc

From the figure, shaded area

% 1Kcm
&
" 2Kmin ( ! 0.275Kcm
Fc ! 8.25 '
) 60Kmin
*
- 4.5 $ 1.2 .Kcm / hr ! 12Khr $1
k!
0.275Kcm
The Hortons equation is
f = fc + (f0 fc) ekt = 1.2 + (4.5 1.2) e12t
is the equation for the infiltration capacity curve (f-curve) for the basin, where f is in cm/hr and t in hr.

3.3
12"-1/6 .

! 1.7Kcm / hr ,Kwhich is very near compared to the observed value of 1.8 cm/hr.

Total rain P = 68.75 sq. units = 68.75 "

1
! 2.29Kcm
30

Excess rain Pnet = P Fp= 68.75 26.5 = 42.25 sq. units= 1.41 cm

Total infiltration Fp = 26.5 "

1
! 0.88Kcm
30

The total infiltration loss Fp can also be determined by intergrating the Hortons equation for the duration of the
storm.
t

30
60

Fp ! 7 f Kdt !

3.3 &
3.3 %
1&
3.3 %
1 &
Kdt ! 1.2t ,
'1 $ ( ! 0.6 ,
'1 $
( ! 0.88Kcm
12 t (
12 ) e6 *
12 ) 408 *
*

7 ')1.2 , e

OMICS Group eBooks

f ! 1.2 ,

035

Pnet = P Fp= 2.29 0.88= 1.41 cm


This compares with the value obtained earlier.

Ave. infiltration loss f ave =

Fp
t

0.88Kcm
! 1.76Kcm / hr
0.5K

To determine the Hortons constant by drawing a semi-log plot of t vs. (f fc):


The Hortons equation is
f = fc + (f0 fc) ekt
log (f fc) = log (f0 fc) kt log e
Solving for t,

t!

logK- f 0 $ f c .
k KlogKe

logK- f $ f c .
k KlogKe

Which is in the form of a straight line y = mx + c in which y = t, x = log (f fc), m = -1/k log e.
Hence, from a plot of t vs. (f fc) on a semi-log paper (t to linear scale), the constants in the Hortons equation can be
determined.
From the given data, fc = 1.2 cm/hr and the values of (f fc) for different time intervals from the beginning are: 2.7, 2.2,
1.9, 1.5, 1.3, 1.1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.46, 0.32, 0.22, 0.16, 0.12, 0.05, 0.04, 0.02, 0.0 cm/hr, respectively; (note: 3.9 1.2 = 2.7 cm/ hr
and like that for other readings).
These values are plotted against time on a semi-log paper as shown in the figure.

From the figure, m = 0.1933 = 1/k log e

k!

1
! 12Khr $1
0.1933 " 0.434

Also from the graph, when t = 0,


f fc = 3.3 = f0 fc, (since f = f0 when t = 0)
f0 = 3.3 + 1.2 = 4.5 cm/hr
Hence, the Hortons equation is of the form
f = 1.2 + (4.5 1.2) e12t
5
10
15
TotalKrainKP ! 5 " , 7.5 " , 2.5 "
! 2.29Kcm
60
60
60

Excess rain (runoff), Pnet = P Fp= 2.29 0.88= 1.41 cm


This compares with the value obtained earlier.

OMICS Group eBooks

Infiltration loss Fp = 0.88 cm

64. A 24-hour storm occurred over a catchment of 1.8 km2 area and the total rainfall observed was 10 cm. An
infiltration capacity curve prepared had the initial infiltration capacity of 1 cm/hr and attained a constant value of 0.3
cm/hr after 15 hours of rainfall with a Hortons constant k = 5 hr1. An IMD pan installed in the catchment indicated
BEFDSFBTFPGDNJOUIFXBUFSMFWFM BFSBMMPXJOHGPSSBJOGBMM
EVSJOHIPVSTPGJUTPQFSBUJPO0UIFSMPTTFTXFSF
found to be negligible. Determine the runoff from the catchment. Assume a pan coefficient of 0.7.
036

24

24

0.7 24
]0
Fp ! 7 /3 f c , - f 0 $ f c . e $ kt 04Kdt ! 7 /30.3 , -1.0 $ 0.3. e $5t 04Kdt ! 0.3t ,
$5e5t
0.7 0 /
0.7 0
0.7 %
1 &
/
! 10.3 " 24 $ 5"24 2 $ 10 $ 0 2 ! 7.2 ,
'1 $ 120 ( ! 7.34Kcm
5
5
5
e
e
e
3
4 3
4
)
*
Runoff = P Fp E = 10 7.34 (0.60 0.7) = 2.24 cm
Volume of runoff from the catchment = (2.24/100) (1.8 106) = 40320 m3
65. The 3-hr unit hydrograph ordinates for a basin are given below. There was a storm, which commenced on July
15 at 16.00 hr and continued up to 22.00 hr, which was followed by another storm on July 16 at 4.00 hr which lasted
up to 7.00 hr. It was noted from the mass curves of self-recording rain gauge that the amount of rainfall on July 15
was 5.75 cm from 16.00 to 19.00 hr and 3.75 cm from 19.00 to 22.00 hr, and on July 16, 4.45 cm from 4.00 to 7.00 hr.
Assuming an average loss of 0.25 cm/hr and 0.15 cm/hr for the two storms, respectively, and a constant base flow of
10 cumec, determine the stream flow hydrograph and state the time of occurrence of peak flood.
Time (hr):

12

15

18

21

24

27

UGO
(cumec)

1.5

4.5

8.6

12.0

9.4

4.6

2.3

0.8

Since the duration of the UG is 3 hr, the 6-hr storm (16.00 to 22.00 hr) can be considered as 2-unit storm producing a
net gain of 5.75 0.25 3 = 5 cm in the first 3-hr period and a net gain of 3.75 0.25 3 = 3 cm in the next 3-hr period.
The unit hydrograph ordinates are multiplied by the net rain of each period lagged by 3 hr. Similarly, another unit storm
lagged by 12 hr (4.00 to 7.00 hr next day) produces a net gain of 4.45 0.15 3 = 4 cm which is multiplied by the UGO
and written in col (5) (lagged by 12 hr from the beginning), the table. The rainfall excesses due to the three storms are
added up to get the total direct surface discharge ordinates. T;o this, the base flow ordinates (BFO = 10 cumec, constant)
are added to get the total discharge ordinates (stream flow).
The flood hydrograph due to the 3 unit storms on the basin is obtained by plotting col (8) vs. col. (1).

66. A 20-cm well penetrates 30 m below static water level (GWT). After a long period of pumping at a rate of 1800
lpm, the draw downs in the observation wells at 12 m and 36 m from the pumped well are 1.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively.
Determine: (i) the transmissibility of the aquifer.
(ii) The drawdown in the pumped well assuming R = 300 m.

Q!

A K - h22 $ h12 .
2.303log10 r2 / r1

h2 = H s2 = 30 0.5 = 29.5 m; h1 = H s1 = 30 1.2 = 28.8 m

OMICS Group eBooks

(iii) The specific capacity of the well.

037

2
2
1.800 A K 29.5 $ 28.8
!
60
2.303log10 36 /12

K = 2.62 104 m/sec


(i) Transmissibility T = KH = (2.62 104) 30 = 78.6 104 m2/sec

- ii .KQ !

2.72T - H $ hw .
log10 R / rw

$4
1.800 2.72 78.6 "10 S w
!
60
log10 300 / 0.10

Drawdown in the well, Sw = 4.88 m


(iii) The specific capacity of the well

Q
1.800
!
! 0.0062Km3 / sec$ m
S w 60 " 4.88

67. The highest annual floods for a river for 60 years were statistically analysed. The sixth largest flood was 30,000
cumec (30 tcm).
Determine:
(i) The period in which the flood of 30 tcm may reoccur once
(ii) The percentage chance that this flood may occur in any one year
(iii) The percentage chance that this flood may not occur in the next 20 years
(iv) The percentage chance that this flood may occur once or more in the next 20 years
(v) The percentage chance that a 50-yr flood may occur (a) once in 50 years, (b) one or more times in 50 years

n , 1 60 , 1
!
! 10K yr
m
6
1
1
"100 ! 10%
- ii .KPercentageKchance,Ki.e.,KP ! "100 !
10.1
T

- i .KWeibull;KT !

- iii .KEncounterK probabilty,KP- N ,0. ! -1 $ P .


- iv .KPEx ! 1 $ -1 $ P .
- v .K- a .KP !

20

1 &
%
! '1 $
( ! 12.4%
) 10.1 *

! 1 $ P- N ,0. ! 1 $ 0.124 ! 87.6%

1
1
"100 ! "100 ! 2%
50
T

- b .KP- N ,0. ! %'1 $

50

1 &
( ! 0.3631
) 50 *
PEx ! 1 $ P- N ,0. ! 1 $ 0.3631 ! 64%

Time (hr)

12

24

36

48

60

72

84

96

108

120

M7N"=%?.)&+.@

42

45

88

272

342

288

240

198

162

133

110

Time (hr)

132

144

156

168

180

192

204

216

228

240

M7N"=%?.)&+.@

90

79

68

61

56

54

51

48

45

42

O2 = C0I2 + C1I1 + C2O1


x = 0.15, K = 36 hr = 1.5 day; take the routing period (from the inflow hydrograph readings) as 12 hr = 1/2 day. Compute
C0, C1 and C2 as follows:

OMICS Group eBooks

68. The inflow hydrograph readings for a stream reach are given below for which the Muskingum coefficients of K
= 36 hr and x = 0.15 apply. Route the flood through the reach and determine the outflow hydrograph. Also determine
UIFSFEVDUJPOJOQFBLBOEUIFUJNFPGQFBLPGPVUPX0VUPXBUUIFCFHJOOJOHPGUIFPPENBZCFUBLFOBTUIFTBNF
as inflow.

038

1
1.5 " 0.15 $ 0.5 "
Kx $ 0.5t
2 ! 0.02
C0 ! $
!$
1
K $ Kx , 0.5t
1.5 $ 12 " 0.15 , 0.5 "
2
1
1.5 " 0.15 , 0.5 "
Kx , 0.5t
2 ! 0.31
C1 !
!
K $ Kx , 0.5t 1.5 $ 12 " 0.15 , 0.5 " 1
2
1
15 $ 1.5 " 0.15 $ 0.5 "
K $ Kx $ 0.5t
2 ! 0.67
C2 !
!
K $ Kx , 0.5t 1.5 $ 12 " 0.15 , 0.5 " 1
2
Check: C0 + C1 + C2 = 0.02 + 0.31 + 0.67 = 1
O2 = 0.02 I2 + 0.31 I1 + 0.67 O1
In the table, I1, I2 are known from the inflow hydrograph, and O1 is taken as I1 at the beginning of the flood since the
flow is almost steady.
Time (hr)

O+P0:"O"@95.%9D

0.02 I2 (cumec)

0.31 I2 (cumec)

0.67O2 (cumec)

42

Q5(P0:"Q2 (cumec)
42*

12

45

0.90

13.0

28.2

42.1

24

88

1.76

14.0

28.3

44.0

36

272

5.44

27.3

29.5

62.2

48

342

6.84

84.3

41.7

132.8

60

288

5.76

106.0

89.0

200.7

72

240

4.80

89.2

139.0

233.0

84

198

3.96

74.4

156.0

234.0

96

162

3.24

61.4

157.0

221.6

108

133

2.66

50.2

148.2

201.0

120

110

2.20

41.2

134.5

178.9

132

90

1.80

34.1

119.8

166.7

144

79

1.58

27.9

104.0

133.5

156

68

1.36

24.4

89.5

115.3

163

61

1.22

21.1

77.4

99.7

180

56

1.12

18.9

66.8

86.8

192

54

1.08

17.4

58.2

76.7

204

51

1.02

16.7

51.4

69.1

216

48

1.00

15.8

46.3

63.1

228

45

0.90

14.8

42.3

58.0

240

42

0.84

13.9

38.9

53.6

*O1 assumed equal to I1 = 42 cumec


O2 = 0.02 45 + 0.31 42 + 0.67 42 = 42.06 cumec
This value of O2 becomes O1 for the next routing period and the process is repeated till the flood is completely routed
through the reach. The resulting outflow hydrograph is plotted as shown in the figure.

OMICS Group eBooks

The reduction in peak is 108 cumec and the lag time is 36 hr, i.e., the peak outflow is after 84 hr (= 3.5 days) after the
commencement of the flood through the reach.

039

69. The following data are obtained from the records of the mean monthly flows of a river for 10 years. The head
available at the site of the power plant is 60 m and the plant efficiency is 80%.
R%)+".0+($23"P0:"-)+?%"@95.%9D

No. of occurrences (in 10-yr period)

100-149

150-199

200-249

16

250-299

21

300-349

24

350-399

21

400-449

20

450-499

500-549

(a) Plot
(i) The flow duration curve (ii) The power duration curve
(b) Determine the mean monthly flow that can be expected and the average power that can develop.
(c) Indicate the effect of storage on the flow duration curve obtained.
(d) What would be the trend of the curve if the mean weekly flow data are used instead of monthly flows?
The mean monthly flow ranges are arranged in the ascending order as shown in the table. The number of times that
each mean monthly flow range (class interval, C.I.) has been equaled or exceeded (m) is worked out as cumulative number
of occurrences starting from the bottom of the column of number of occurrences, since the C.I. of the monthly flows, is
arranged in the ascending order of magnitude. It should be noted that the flow values are arranged in the ascending order
of magnitude in the flow duration analysis, since the minimum continuous flow that can be expected almost throughout
the year (i.e., for a major percent of time) is required particularly in drought duration and power duration studies, while
in flood flow analysis the CI may be arranged in the descending order of magnitude and m is worked out from the top
as cumulative number of occurrences since the high flows are of interest. The percent of time that each CI is equaled or
exceeded is worked out as the percent of the total number of occurrences (m) of the particular CI out of the 120 = (10 yr
12 = n) mean monthly
Flow values, i.e., = (m/n) 100. The monthly power developed in megawatts,

P!

gQH
% 9.81" 60
&
"P 0 ! '
" 0.80 ( Q
1000
) 1000
*

Where Q is the lower value of the CI Thus, for each value of Q, P can be calculated.
(i) The flow duration curve is obtained by plotting Q vs. percent of time, (Q = lower value of the CI).
(ii) The power duration curve is obtained by plotting P vs. percent of time.
(b) The mean monthly flow that can be expected is the flow that is available for 50% of the time i.e., 357.5 cumec from
the flow duration curve drawn. The average power that can be developed i.e., from the flow available for 50% of the time, is
167 MW, from the power duration curve drawn.
(c) The effect of storage is to raise the flow duration curve on the dry weather portion. And lower it on the high flow
portion and thus tends to equalize the flow at different times of the year, as indicated in the figure.
(d) If the mean weekly flow data are used instead of the monthly flow data, the flow duration curve lies below the curve
obtained from monthly flows for about 75% of the time towards the drier part of the year and above it for the rest of the
year as indicated in the figure.

OMICS Group eBooks

In fact the flow duration curve obtained from daily flow data gives the details more accurately (particularly near the
ends) than the curves obtained from weekly or monthly flow data but the latter provide smooth curves because of their
averaged out values. What duration is to be used depends upon the purpose for which the flow duration curve is intended.

040

70. Annual rainfall and runoff data for the Damodar River at Rhondia (east India) for 17 years (1934-1950) are
given below. Determine the linear regression line between rainfall and runoff, the correlation coefficient and the
standard error of estimate.
Year

Rainfall (mm)

Runoff (mm)

1934

1088

274

1935

1113

320

1936

1512

543

1937

1343

437

1938

1103

352

1939

1490

617

1940

1100

328

1941

1433

582

1942

1475

763

1943

1380

558

1944

1178

492

1945

1223

478

1946

1440

783

1947

1165

551

1948

1271

565

1949

1443

720

1950

1340

730

The regression line computations are made in the table and is given by
R = 0.86 P 581
Where P = rainfall (mm) and R = runoff (mm)
The correlation coefficient r = 0.835, which indicates a close linear relation and the straight line plot is shown in the
figure, the relation is very close.

Standard error of estimate

S y,x ! Q y 1 $ r 2

Qy !

@- y $ y.
n $1

@ - 5y .

n $1

40.10 "104
17 $ 1

S y , x ! 160 1 $ - 0.835 . ! 90.24Kmm


71. A catchment of area 1040 km2 is divided into 9-hourly divisions by isochrones (lines of equal travel time) in the
figure. From the observation of a hydrograph due to a short rain on the catchment, ti = 9 hr and K = 8 hr. Derive: (a)
the IUH for the catchment. (b) a 3-hr UG.

OMICS Group eBooks

041

(i) It will be assumed that the catchment is divided into sub-areas such that all surface runoff from each of these areas
will arrive during a 1-hr period at the gauging point. The areas are measured by plan metering each of the hourly areas as:
>05-

Area(km2)

40

100

150

180

160

155

140

80

35

(ii) The time-area graph (in full lines) and the distribution graph of runoff (in dotted lines) are drawn as shown in the
figure. The dotted lines depict the non-uniform areal distribution of rain.

OMICS Group eBooks

Plot col (1) vs. col (5) to get the IUH, and col (1) vs. col (6) to get the 3-hr UGO, as shown in the figure.

042

(iii) O2 = C< + C2O1

C' !

1
K, t
2
1
K$ t
2
C2 !
1
K, t
2

1
1
!
! 0.1177
1
8 , "1 8.5
2
1
8 $ "1
2 ! 7.5 ! 0.882,KCheck :KC ' , C ! 1
!
2
1
8 , "1 5
2

Hence, the routing equation becomes


O2 = 0.1177 I + 0.882 O1
O2 vs. time gives the required synthetic IUH from which the 3-hr UGO are obtained as computed in the table. The
conversion constant for Col (3) is computed as

1 $ cmKrainKonK1Kkm 2 KinK1Khr !

106 "10$2
! 2.78Km3 / s
3600

The 3-hr UGO is obtained by averaging the pair of IUH ordinates at 3-hr intervals and writing at the end of the intervals.
72. The recession ordinates of the flood hydrograph (FHO) for the Lakhwar dam site across river Yamuna are given
below. Determine the value of K.
Time(hr)

30

36

42

48

54

60

66

72

78

S>Q@95.%9D

1070

680

390

240

150

90

45

30

20

Qt ! Q0 e k ,KwhenKK !

t
% Q0 &
ln ' (
) Qt *

Q vs. t is plotted on the semi-log paper. K is the slope of the recession-flood hydrograph plot.

K!

31 $ 59
5t
5t
!
!
! $12.15,KsayK12Khr
5 ln Q 2.303log 1000 1.303 "1
100

OMICS Group eBooks

73. The isochronal map of Lakhwar damsite catchment, the figure has areas between successive 3 hr isochrones as
32, 67, 90, 116, 135, 237, 586 and 687 km2. Taking k = 12 hr, derive the IUH of the basin by Clarks approach and hence
a 3-hr UG.

043

A = Ar = 1950 km2
tc = t N = 3 8 = 24 hr, K = 12 hr
No. of isochrones = N 1 = 8 1 = 7#
ComputationKintervalKt ! 5tc KbetweenKsuccessiveKisochrones ! 3Khr !

24 tc
!
8 N

Q2 = CI + C2Q1
3
!
! 0.2222
t
3
k,
12 ,
2
2
t
3
k$
12 $
2
2 ! 0.7778
!
C2 !
t
3
k,
12 ,
2
2

C' !

Check: C + C2 = 0.2222 + 0.7778 = 1


From the sub areas Ar,

I ! 2.78

Ar
A
! 2.78 " r
t
3

Clarks: Q2 = CI + C2Q1, C2Q1 = 0.7778 Q1

Q2 = IUHO

CI = 0.2222 0.9267 Ar = 0.203 Ar


Plot Col. (5) vs. col (1) to get IUH, and Col (6) vs. col. (1) to get 3 - hr UG. Note that the two peaks are staggered by 3
hr; i.e., IUH is more skewed.
74. During a snow survey, the data of a snow sample collected are given below:
Depth of snow sample 2 m
Weight of tube and sample 25 N
Weight of sample tube 20 N
Diameter of tube 40 mm
Determine
(i) The density of snow
(ii) The water equivalent of snow
(iii) The quality of snow, if the final temperature is 5C when 4 lit. of water at 15 C is added.
(i) Density of snow is the same as its specific gravity
25 $ 20

A - 0.020 . " 2
2

Rs
!
!
! 0.203
1000 " 9.81
Rw Rw

- ii .KDensityKof Ksnow,KGs !

DepthKof KmeltKwaterK- d w .
DepthKof KsnowK- d s .

Water equivalent of snow, dw = Gsds = 0.203 2 = 0.406 m


(iii) If the actual weight of ice content in the sample is Wc gm, then
Heat gained by snow = Heat lost by water
Heat required to melt + to rise temperature to 5C

OMICS Group eBooks

Sp.K gr.Kof Ksnow,KGs !

Ws
Vs

044

5
"1000 " 5 ! 4000 -15 $ 5 .
9.81
Solving, Wc = 468.2 gm = 0.4682 9.81 = 4.6 N
4.6
QualityKof Ksnow !
! 0.92
5
Wc " 80 ,

75. The average snow line is at 1400 m elevation and a temperature index station located at 1800 m elevation
indicated a mean daily temperature of 8C on a certain day. Assuming a temperature decrease of 1C per 200 m increase
in elevation and a degree-day factor of 3 mm/degree-day, compute the snowmelt runoff for the day. An area elevation
curve for the snowpack is shown in the figure.

Freezing occurs at higher altitudes when the temperature falls to 0C.


Freezing elevation = 1800 + (8 0) 200 = 3400 m. The area between the snow line elevation of 1400 m and the freezing
elevation of 3400 m is read out from the area-elevation curve, the figure as 680 km2. The average temperature over this area
is

/
1800 $ 1400 E0
D
1 109CKatKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK,KKG89C ,
H2 1
200
I
J2K! (0 , 10) ! 59C
1
2
2
13 freezing Kelevn.KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKatKsnowKlineKelevn.KK 24
Snowmelt runoff for the day= 0.003 5 C (680 106) = 10.2 106 m3= 10.2 km2-m
76. Equilibrium overland flow occurs over a rectangular area 100 m long due to a uniform net rainfall of 50 mm/hr.
At what distance from the upper edge of the area the flow changes from laminar to turbulent if the temperature is 20C
and the critical Reynolds number is 800.
Re !

vd

800 !

q
+ q ! 8 "10$4 Kcumec / m
1"10$6

q ! inet l
8 "10$4 !

50
"l
1000 " TU" TU

l = 57.6 m, beyond which the flow becomes turbulent.


the

(b) What is the maixmum uniform demand that can be met and what is the storage capacity required to meet this
demand?
Month

River Flow (mm3)

135

23

27

21

15

40

120

185

112

87

63

42

Demand (mm3)

60

55

80

102

100

121

38

30

25

59

85

75

OMICS Group eBooks

77. The runoff data for a river during a lean year along with the probable demands are given below. Can
demands be met with the available river flow? If so, how?

(a) Evaporation losses and the prior water rights of the downstream user are not given and hence not considered. The
computation is made in the table. Since the cumulative surplus is more than the cumulative deficit the demands can be met
with the available river flows, by constructing a reservoir with minimum storage capacity of 352 Mm3, which is also the 045

maximum departure of the mass curves (from the beginning of the severe dry period) of inflow and demand.
Month

O+P0:"@..3)

Cumulative
'+P0:"@..3)

Demand
(mm3)

Cumulative
demand (mm3)

Jan.

135

870

60

830

Surplus
Cumulative J%=9'("@..3)
(mm3) surplus (mm3)
75

Cumulative
demand (mm3)

75

Remarks
Reservoir full by
end of Jan

Feb.

23

23

55

55

32

March

27

50

80

135

53

April

21

71

102

237

81

May

15

86

100

337

85

June

40

126

121

458

81

July

120

246

38

496

82

Aug.

185

431

30

526

155

Sep.

112

543

25

551

87

Oct.

87

630

59

610

28

Nov.

63

693

85

695

22

Dec.

42

735

75

770

33

Total

870

Start of dry period

332

Max draft =
storage

352

427

55
387

In the bar graph, the monthly inflow and demand are shown by full line and dashed line, respectively. The area of
maximum deficit (i.e., demand over surplus) is the storage capacity required and is equal to 332 Mm3.

The shaded area represents the surplus over the uniform demand (during the months of January, and July to October),
which is the storage capacity required to meet the uniform demand, and is equal to (135) + (120 + 185 + 112 + 87) 72.5
5 = 276.5 Mm3
m3
%K&
% 0.376 &
1.67
0.5
2.67
Qs ! ' ( S x1.67 S L0.5Ts2.67 ! '
! Qs assumed
( 0.02 0.01 1.9 ! 0.019
s
)n*
) 0.016 *

OMICS Group eBooks

(b) The cumulative inflow in the lean year is 870 Mm3. The maximum uniform demand that can be met is 870/12=72.5
Mm3 per month. In the bar graph, the line of uniform demand is drawn at 72.5 M.m3/month.

78. A 200 mm-well is pumped at the rate 1150 lpm. The drawdown data on an observation well 12.3 away from the 046
pumped well are given below. Determine the transmissibility and storage coefficients of the aquifer. What will be the

drawdown at the end of 180 days (a) in the observation well, (b) in the pumped well? Use the modified This method;
under what conditions is this method valid?
Time(min)

12

Drawdown

2.42

2.46

2.52

2.58

2.61

2.63

Time(min)

15

20

40

60

90

120

Drawdown

2.67

2.71

2.79

2.85

2.91

2.94

The time-drawdown plot is shown in the figure, from which s = 0.28 m per log-cycle of t, and t0 (for s = 0) is 37 1010
min.

1.150
2.3 "
2.3Q
60 ! 0.0125Km 2 / s
!
T!
4A5s 4A - 0.28 .
S!

$10
2.25Tt0 2.25 - 0.0125 . 37 "10 " 60
!
! 4.12 "10$11
2
2
r
-12.3.

(a) Drawdown in the observation well after 180 days,


2.3Q
2.25Tt
log 2 ,Ku 6 0.01
4A T
r S
% 1.150 &
2.3 '
(
) 60 * log 2.25 - 0.0125 .180 " 86400 ! 3.89Km
s!
2
4A - 0.0125 .
-12.3. 4.12 "10$11
s!

(c) Drawdown in the pumped well after 180 days,

% 1.150 &
2.3 '
(
) 60 * log 2.25 - 0.0125 .180 " 86400 ! 5.06Km
sw !
2
4A - 0.0125 .
- 0.100 . 4.12 "10$11
The Jacobs method is valid for
u 6 0.01
r 2S
6 0.01
4Tt

79. A vertical lock gate is 4 m wide and separates 20C water levels of 2 m and 3 m, respectively. Find the moment
about the bottom required to keep the gate stationary.

OMICS Group eBooks

On the side of the gate where the water measures 3 m, F1 acts and has an hCG of 1.5 m; on the opposite side, F2 acts with
an hCG of 1m.

047

F1 = hCG1A1 = (9790) (1.5) (3) (4) = 176,220 N


F2 = hCG2A2 = (9790) (1.0) (2) (4) = 78,320 N
yCP1 = [1/12) (4) (3)3 sin 90] / [(1.5) (4) (3)] 0.5 m; so F1 acts at 1.5 0.5 = 1.0 m above B
yCP2 = [(1/12) (4) (2)3 sin 90] / [(1) (4) (2)] = 0.333 m; F2 acts at 1.0 0.33 = 0.67 m above B
Taking moments about points B (see the figure),
MB = (176,220 N) (1.0 m) (78,320 N) (0.667 m) = 124,000 N m; Mbottom = 124 kNm
80. The pressure in the air gap is 8000 Pa gage. The tank is cylindrical. Calculate the net hydrostatic force (a) on the
bottom of the tank; (b) on the cylindrical sidewall CC; and (c) on the annular plane panel BB.

(a) The bottom force is simply equal to bottom pressure times bottom area:
Pbottom = Pair + water g|z| = 8000 Pa + (9790 N / m3) (0.25 + 0.12m) = 11622 Pa - gage
FCC = pCCACC = (10448 Pa) ( /4) [(0.36 m)2 (0.16 m)2 ] = 853 N
81. Determine (a) the total hydrostatic force on curved surface AB in the figure and (b) its line of action. Neglect
atmospheric pressure and assume unit width into the paper.

The horizontal force is


Avert = (9790 N/m3) (0.5 m) (11 m2) = 4895 N at 0.667 m below B.

FH = hCG

For the cubic-shaped surface AB, the weight of water above is computed by integration:

The line of action (water centroid) of the vertical force also has to be found by integration:
1

7 xdA ! 7
x!
7 dA 7 -1 $ x . dx

x 1 $ x3 dx

3
! 10 ! 0.4Km
3
4

OMICS Group eBooks

3
%3&
FV ! R b 7 1 $ x 3 dx ! R b ! ' ( - 9790 .-1.0 . ! 7343KN
4
)4*
0

048

The vertical force of 7343 N thus acts at 0.4 m to the right of point A, or 0.6 m to the left of B, as shown in the sketch
above. The resultant hydrostatic force then is
Ftotal = [(4895)2 + (7343)2]1/2 = 8825 N acting at 56.31 down and to the right.
This result is shown in the sketch at above right. The line of action of F strikes the vertical above point A at 0.933 m above
A, or 0.067 m below the water surface.
82. In the figure all pipes are 8-cm-diameter cast iron. Determine the flow rate from reservoir (1) if valve C is (a)
closed; and (b) open, with Kvalve = 0.5.

For water at 20C, take = 998 kg/m3 and = 0.001 kg/m.s. For cast iron, 0.26 mm, hence /d = 0.26/80 0.00325
for all three pipes. Note p1 = p2, V1 = V2 0. These are long pipes, but we might wish to account for minor losses anyway:
Sharp entrance at A: K1 0.5; line junction from A to B: K2 0.9
Branch junction from A to C: K3 1.3; two submerged exits: KB = KC 1.0
If valve C is closed, we have a straight series path through A and B, with the same flow rate Q, velocity V, and friction
factor f in each. The energy equation yields
z1 z2 = hfA + hmA + hfB + hmB
25Km !

V 2 / 100
50
O&
0
%
f
, 0.5 , 0.9 , f
, 1.0 2 ,KwhereK f ! fcn ' Re, (
1
d*
2 - 9.81. 3 0.08
0.08
4
)

Guess f ffully rough 0.027, then V 3.04 m/s, Re 998(3.04) (0.08) / (0.001) 243000,
/ d = 0.00325, then f 0.0273 (converged). Then the velocity through A and B is V = 3.03 m/s, and Q = ( /4)
(0.08)2(3.03) 0.0152 m3/s.
If valve C is open, we have parallel flow through B and C, with QA = QB + QC and, with d constant, VA = VB + VC. The
total head loss is the same for paths A-B and A-C:
z1 z2 = hfA + hmA-B + hfB + hmB = hfA + hmA-C + hfC + hmC
25 !
!

VA2 / 100
VB2 /
50
0
0
,
0.5
,
0.9
,
f
A
2 2 - 9.81. 1 f B 0.08 , 1.0 2
2 - 9.81. 13 0.08
4
3
4

VC2 /
VA2 / 100
70
0
0
, 0.5 , 1.32 ,
, 1.0 2
fA
fC
1
2 - 9.81. 3 0.08
4 2 - 9.81. 13 0.08
4

Plus the additional relation VA = VB + VC. Guess f ffully rough 0.027 for all three pipes and begin. The initial numbers
work out to
2g (25) = 490.5 = VA2 (1250A + 1.4) + VB2 (625 B + 1) = VA2 (1250 A + 1.8) + VC2 (875 C + 1)
If f 0.027, solve (laboriously) VA 3.48 m/s, VB 1.91 m/s, VC 1.57 m/s
Repeat once for convergence: VA 3.46 m/s, VB 1.90 m/s, VC 1.56 m/s. The flow rate from reservoir (1) is QA = (/4)
(0.08)2 (3.46) 0.0174 m3/s. (14% more)
83. Two water tanks, each with base area of 1 ft2, are connected by a 0.5-indiameter long-radius nozzle as in the
figure. If h = 1 ft as shown for t = 0, estimate the time for h (t) to drop to 0.25 ft.

OMICS Group eBooks

ComputeKRe A ! 278000,K f A V 0.0272,KRe B ! 153000,K f B ! 0.0276,KReC ! 125000,K f C ! 0.0278

049

For water at 20C, take =1.94 slug/ft3 and = 2.09E - 5 slug/ft.s. For a long-radius nozzle with 0, guess Cd 0.98 and
Kloss 0.9. The elevation difference h must balance the head losses in the nozzle and submerged exit:
5z ! @ hloss !

Vt 2
Vt 2
K!
- 0.9nozzle , 1.0exit . ! h,KsolveKVt ! 5.82 h
@
2g
2 - 32.3.
2

%1&
1
1 dh
dh
% A &' 2 (
!$
henceKQ ! Vt ' ( ' ( V 0.00794 h ! $ Atan k
4
12
2
2 dt
dt
) *' (
) *
The boldface factor 1/2 accounts for the fact that, as the left tank falls by dh, the right tank rises by the same amount,
hence dh/dt changes twice as fast as for one tank alone. We can separate and integrate and find the time for h to drop from
1 ft to 0.25 ft:
1.0

0.25

dh
! 0.0159
h

t final !

t final

dt

1 $ 0.25
0.0159

. V 63Ks

84. A centrifugal pump with backward-curved blades has the following measured performance when tested with
water at 20C:
Q, gal/min:

400

800

1200

1600

2000

>4",(T

123

115

108

101

93

81

2400
62

P, hp:

30

36

40

44

47

48

46

(a) Estimate the best efficiency point and the maximum efficiency. (b) Estimate the most efficient flow rate, and the
resulting head and brake horsepower, if the diameter is doubled and the rotation speed increased by 50%.
(a) Convert the data above into efficiency. For example, at Q = 400 gal/min,

400
K ft
- 62.4Klbf / ft . %') 448.8

&
/ s ( -115K ft .
*
! 0.32 ! 32%
36
550
ft
.
lbf
/
s
"
K
.
3

P!

R QH
P

When converted, the efficiency table looks like this:


Q, gal/min:

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

U4"C

32%

55%

70%

80%

85%

82%

So maximum efficiency of 85% occurs at Q = 2000 gal/min

CQ* !

Q1
Q2
Q2
!
!
3
3
3
n1 D1
n2 D2
-1.5n1 .- 2 D1 .

Q2 ! 12Q1 ! 12 - 2000K gpm . ! 24000K gal / min


C*H !

gH1
gH
gH 2
! 2 22 !
2 2
n1 D1 n2 D2 -1.5Kn1 .2 - 2 D1 .2

H 2 ! 9 H1 ! 9 - 81K ft . ! 729K ft

OMICS Group eBooks

(b) We dont know the values of CQ* or CH* or CP*, but we can set them equal for conditions 1 (the data above) and 2
(the performance when n and D are changed):

050

CP* !

P1
P
P2
! 32 5 !
3 5
8 n1 D1 8 n2 D2 8 -1.5n1 .3 - 2 D1 .5

P2 ! 108 P1 ! 108 - 48hp . ! 5180hp


85. Suppose that the two pumps in the figure are instead arranged to be in series, again at 710 rpm? What pipe
diameter is required for BEP operation?

For water at 20C, take = 1.94 slug/ft3 and = 2.09E5 slug/ft.s. For cast iron, 0.00085 ft. The 35-inch pump has the
BEP values Q* 18 kgal/min, H* 190 ft. In series, each pump takes H/2, so a BEP series operation would match
2

H sys

/
0
1
2
1
2
18000
1
2
1 449 2
1 Ad2 2
1
2
2
LV
% 5280 & 3 4 4
! 2 H * ! 2 -190 . ! 5z , f
! 100 , f '
(
D 2g
) d * 2 - 32.2 .

O 0.00085
213800 f
48Q
KwhereK f KdependsKonKRe !
Kand K !
5
d
d
d
Ad>
This converges to f 0.0169, Re 2.84E6, V 18.3 ft/s, d 1.67 ft
380 ! 100 ,

% 18000 &
62.4 '
( -190 .
) 449 *
Power ! 2 P ! 2
! 1.09 E 6 W 550 V 2000Kbhp
0.87
*

We can save money on the smaller (20-inch) pipe, but putting the pumps in series requires twice as much power as one
pump alone.
86. The net head of a little aquarium pump is given by the manufacturer as a function of volume flow rate as listed:
Q, m3/s:

1E - 6

2E - 6

3E - 6

4E - 6

5E - 6

>4"..">2O:

1.10

1.00

.0.80

0.60

0.35

0.0

What is the maximum achievable flow rate if you use this pump to pump water from the lower reservoir to the upper
reservoir as shown in the figure?

OMICS Group eBooks

NOTE: The tubing is smooth, with an inner diameter of 5 mm and a total length of 29.8 m. The water is at room
temperature and pressure, and minor losses are neglected.

051

For water, take = 998 kg/m3BOELHNtT/05&FUVCJOHJTTPTNBMMUIBUUIFPXJTMBNJOBS FWFOBUUIF


highest pump flow rate:
H pump ! 5z , f

128 - 0.001.- 29.8 . Q


L V2
128> LQ
! 5z , h f ,lam ! 5z ,
! 0.8 ,
4
4
Ad 8g
d 2g
A - 0.005 . - 998 .- 9.81.

H pump ! 0.8 , 198400Q ! H pump - Q .K fromKtheK pumpKdataKabove

One can plot the two relations, as at right, or use EES with a look-up table to get the final result for flow rate and head:
Hp = 1.00 m
Q = 1.0E6 m3 /s
The EES print-out gives the results Red = 255, H = 0.999 m, Q = 1.004E6 m3/s.

87. Uniform water flow in a wide brick channel of slope 0.02 moves over a 10-cm bump as in the figure. A slight
depression in the water surface results. If the minimum depth over the bump is 50 cm, compute (a) the velocity over
the bump; and (b) the flow rate per meter of width.

For brickwork, take n 0.015. Since the water level decreases over the bump, the upstream flow is subcritical. For a wide
channel, Rh = y/2, and
y23 $ E2 y22 ,

q2
!0
2g

q ! V1 y1
V12
, y1 $ 5h
2g
5h ! 0.1Km
y2 ! 0.5Km
E2 !

5
1
% y &3
Meanwhile,K forKuniformK flow,Kq !
y1 ' 1 ( sin 0.029 ! 0.785 y13
0.015 ) 2 *
Solve these two simultaneously for y1 = 0.608 m, V1 = 0.563 m/s Ans. (a), and q = 0.342 m3/ s.m

(a) If we assume frictionless flow, the gap size is immaterial,

%
V2 &
V 2 y2
y23 $ ' y1 , 1 ( y22 , 1 1 ! 0 ! y23 $ 1.00204 y22 , 0.00204
2g *
2g
)

OMICS Group eBooks

88. Water approaches the wide sluice gate in the figure, at V1 = 0.2 m/s and y1 = 1 m. Accounting for upstream
kinetic energy, estimate, at outlet section 2, (a) depth; (b) velocity; and (c) Froude number.

052

EES yields 3 solutions: y2 =1.0 m (trivial); -0.0442 m (impossible);


And the correct solution: y2 = 0.0462 m

- b .KV2 !

V1 y1 -1.0 .- 0.2 .
!
! 4.33Km / s
0.0462
y2

- c .KFr2 !

V2
4.33
!
! 6.43
gy2
9.81- 0.0462 .

89. Consider the flow under the sluice gate of the figure. If y1 = 10 ft and all losses are neglected except the dissipation
in the jump, calculate y2 and y3 and the percentage of dissipation, and sketch the flow to scale with the EGL included.
The channel is horizontal and wide.

First get the conditions at 2 by assuming a frictionless acceleration:

- 2 . ! 10.062K ft ! E ! y , V22
V12
! 10 ,
2
2
2g
2 - 32.2 .
2g
2

E1 ! y1 ,

V1 y1 ! V2 y2 ! 20
V2 V 24.4K ft / s
y2 V 0.820K ft
Fr2 !
Jump :K

24.4
32.2 - 0.820 .

V 4.75

y3 1 /
!
1 , 8 Fr2 $ 104 V 6.23
y2 2 3

y3 V 5.11K ft
E2 ! 10.062K ft ;Kh f !
Dissipation !

- y3 $ y2 .
4 y2 y3

- 5.11 $ 0.82 . V 4.71K ft


4 - 0.82 .- 5.11.
3

4.71
V 47%
10.06

OMICS Group eBooks

Consider the gradual change from the profile beginning at point a in the figure on a mild slope So1 to a mild but steeper
slope So2 downstream. Sketch and label the gradually-varied solution curve(s) y(x) expected.

There are two possible profiles, depending upon whether or not the initial M-2 profile slips below the new normal depth
yn2. These are shown on the next page:
053

90. February 1998 saw the failure of the earthen dam impounding California Jims Pond in southern Rhode Island.
The resulting flood raised temporary havoc in the nearby village of Peace Dale. The pond is 17 acres in area and 15 ft
deep and was full from heavy rains. The breach in the dam was 22 ft wide and 15 ft deep. Estimate the time required to
drain the pond to a depth of 2 ft.

d
dt

- 7 dX . , Q
pond

out

!0

1 3
dy
! $Qout ! $0.581- b $ 0.1 y . g 2 y 2
dt
b ! 22K ft

Apond

Apond ! 17Kacres ! 740520K ft 2


If we neglect the edge contraction term 0.1y compared to b = 22 ft, this first-order differential equation has the
solvable form
3
dy
V $Cy 2
dt
1

C!

0.581- 22K ft .- 32.2 . 2

V 9.8 E $ 5K ft

740520

2K ft

SeparateKand Kint egrate :K

15K ft

tdrain $to $ 2K ft V

dy
y

3
2

1
2

sec $1

! $C 7 dt +
0

2
2
$
! Ct
2
5

1.414 $ 0.516
! 9160Ks ! 2.55Kh
9.8 E $ 5

If we used a spreadsheet and kept the term 0.1y, we would predict a time-to-drainto-2 ft or about 2.61 hours. The
theory is too crude to distinguish between these estimates.
91. The figure shows a tank full of water. Find:
(i) Total pressure on the bottom of tank.
(ii) Weight of water in the tank.

OMICS Group eBooks

(iii) Hydrostatic paradox between the results of (i) and (ii) Width of tank is 2 m.

054

ht ! 3 , 0.6 ! 3.6Km
WidthKof Ktan k ! 2Km
LengthKof Ktan k KatKbottom ! 4Km
A ! 4 " 2 ! 8Km 2
(i )KTotalKpressureKF,KonKtheKbottomKis
F ! 8 gA h ! 1000 " 9.81" 8 " 3.6 ! 282528K N

- ii .KWeightKof KwaterKinKtan k ! 8 g " VolumeKof Ktan k ! 1000 " 9.81" Y3 " 0.4 " 2 , 4 " 0.6 " 2Z
! 1000 " 9.81Y 2.4 , 4.8Z ! 70632K N
- iii .KFromKtheKresultsKof K- i .Kand K- ii . ,KitKisKobserved KthatKtheKtotalKweightKof KwaterKinKtheKtankKisKmuch
lessKthanKtheKtotalK pressureKatKtheKbottomKof KtheKtank .KThisKisKknownKasKHydrostaticKparadox .K

92. A Sutro weir has a rectangular base of 30-cm width and 6-cm height. The depth of water in the channel is 12 cm
assuming the coefficient of discharge of the weir as 0.62; determine the discharge through the weir. What would be the
depth of flow in the channel when the discharge is doubled? (Assume the crest of the base weir to coincide with the bed
of the channel).

a ! 0.06Km
W ! 0.30 / 2 ! 0.15Km
H ! 0.12Km
K ! 2Cd 2 g ! 2 " 0.62 " 2 " [\]^ ! 5.4925
1

b ! WKa 2 ! 0.15 " 5.4925 " - 0.06 . 2 ! 0.2018


a&
0.06 &
%
%
3
Q ! b ' H $ ( ! 0.2018 ' 0.12 $
( ! 0.02018Km / s
3
3
)
*
)
*
WhenKtheKdisch arg eKisKdoubled ,KQ ! 2!0.02018 ! 0.04036Km3 / s
0.06 &
%
0.04036 ! 0.2018 ' H $
(
3 *
)
H ! 0.2 , 0.02 ! 0.22Km
93. Estimate the maximum depth of scour for design for the following data pertaining to a bridge.
Design discharge = 15000 m3/s
Effective Water way = 550 m
Median size of bed material = 0.1 mm

P ! 4.75 Q ! 4.75 15000 ! 581.8Km


SinceKthisKisK greaterKthanKWe ! 550Km,
f s ! 1.76 d mm ! 1.76 0.1 ! 0.556
q ! 15000 / 550 ! 27.27Km3 / m.s
1

/ - 27.27 .2 0 3
D Lq ! 1.34 1
2 ! 14.76KmKbelowKHFL
13 0.556 24
Ds ! 2 DLq ! 2 "14.76 ! 29.52KmKbelowKHFL

OMICS Group eBooks

94. While measuring the discharge in a river with unsteady flow, the depth y was found to increase at a rate of 0.06
m/hour. The surface width of the river is 30 m and discharge at this section is 35 m3/ sec. Estimate the discharge at
section 1 km upstream.

055

<Q <A
,
!0
<x <t
<A ! Tdy
<Q
<Y
,T
!0
<x
<t
Q2 $ Q1
<Y
! $T
<x
<t
<Y
0.6
0.06 2
! 30 "
!
Km / sec
T
<t
60 " 60 120
T <y
0.06
Q1 ! Q2 ,
.<x ! 35 ,
-1"1000 .
<t
120
<x ! 1Kkm ! 1000Km
Q2 ! 35Km3 / s
Q1 ! 35.5Km3 / s
95. A standard Parshall flume has a throat width of WT = 4 ft. Determine the free flow discharge corresponding to
h0 = 2.4 ft.
L ! 4K ft
h
2.4
! 0.6
Y0 ! 0 !
4
WT
X0 !

L 4
! !1
WT 4

Q0 !

- 0.6 .
Y01.5504
!
! 0.3459
0.0766
0.0766
1.3096 X 0
1.3096 -1.
1.5504

Q f ! Q0WT2 g ! - 0.3459 .- 4 . 2 32.2 ! 62.8Kcfs

96. A reinforced concrete rectangular box culvert has the following properties:
D=1m
b=1m
L = 40 m
n = 0.012
S = 0.002
The inlet is square-edged on three edges and has a headwall parallel to the embankment, and the outlet is submerged
with TW=1.3 m. Determine the headwater depth, HW, when the culvert is flowing full at Q = 3 m3/s.
ke = 0.5. Also, for a box culvert, A = bD = (1) (1) = 1 m2 and R = bD / (2b+2D) = (1) (1) / [2(1) + 2(1)] = 0.25 m under
full-flow conditions.
2
2
/
0
2 - 9.81.- 0.012 . - 40 . 2
- 3.
HW ! 1.3 $ - 0.002 .- 40 . , 11 , 0.5 ,
! 2.24Km
4
1
2 2 - 9.81.-1.2
2
-1. - 0.25. 3
13
24

OMICS Group eBooks

97. In the five-pipe horizontal network of the figure, assume that all pipes have a friction factor f = 0.025. For the
given inlet and exit flow rate of 2 ft3/s of water at 20C, determine the flow rate and direction in all pipes. If pA = 120 lbf/
in2 gage, determine the pressures at points B, C, and D.

056

For water at 20C, take =1.94 slug/ft3 and = 2.09E5 slug / ft.s. Each pipe has a head loss which is known except for
the square of the flow rate:
8 - 0.025 .- 3000 . QAC
8 fLQ 2
2
| !
,KwhereK_ AC V 60.42
! K AC QAC
5
2
5 AC
A gd
% 6&
2
A - 32.2 . ' (
) 12 *
! 19.12,KK BC ! 13.26,KK CD ! 19.12,KK BD ! 19.33
2

PipeK AC :Kh f !
Similarly,KK AB

There are two triangular closed loops, and the total head loss must be zero for each. Using the flow directions assumed
on the figure above, we have
Loop A-B-C: 19.12Q2AB +13.26Q2 BC 60.42Q2 AC = 0
Loop B-C-D: 13.26Q2BC +19.12Q2CD 19.33Q2BD = 0
And there are three independent junctions which have zero net flow rates:
Junction A: QAB + QAC = 2.0; B: QAB = QBC +QBD; C: QAC +QBC = QCD
These are five algebraic equations to be solved for the five flow rates. The answers are:
QAB = 1.19, QAC = 0.81, QBC = 0.99, QCD = 1.80, QBD = 0.20 ft3/s
The pressures follow by starting at a (120 psi) and subtracting off the friction losses:
2
pB ! p A $ 8 gK AB QAB
! 120 "144 $ 62.4 -19.12 .-1.19 .

15590K psf
! 108Klbf / in 2
144
Similarly,K pC V 103K psiKand K pD V 76K psi
pB !

0OBTVNNFSEBZ OFUTPMBSFOFSHZSFDFJWFEBUBMBLFSFBDIFT.+QFSTRVBSFNFUFSQFSEBZ*GPGUIF
energy is used to vaporize water, how large could the depth of evaporation be?
1 MJm-2 day-1 = 0.408 mm/day
0.8 x 15 x 0.408 = 4.9 mm/day
The evaporation rate could be 4.9 mm/day.
99. Determine the atmospheric pressure and the psychometric constant at an elevation of 1800 m.
Z = 1800 m
/ 293 $ 0.0065 "1800 0
P ! 101.3 1
2
293
3
4

5.26

! 81.8 kPa

= 0.665 x 10-3 x 81.8 = 0.054 kPa/C


100. The daily maximum and minimum air temperature are respectively 24.5 and 15C. Determine the saturation
vapor pressure for that day.
/ 17.27 " 24.5 0
e9 - Tmax . ! 0.6108exp 1
2 ! 3.075 kPa
3 24.5 , 237.3 4

/ 17.27 "15 0
! 1.705 kPa
e9 - Tmin . ! 0.6108exp 1
315 , 237.3 24
Note that for temperature 19.759c (which is Tmean), e(T)=2.30 kPa
The mean saturation vapor pressure is 2.39 kPa.

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058

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135. Agricultural Research Service. (1994) Personal communication regarding the dry weight fraction value for hay between G. F. Fries, Glenn Rice, and
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P"7(>$A%M7N"=%"G%V+Z%S+'+*U"#*3%[")*7;$%"G%Q7U#*"7&+7(;$%!.#+7.+'%;7,%\+.>7"$"8A3%0C]%0:093
139. Belcher GD, CC Travis (1989) Modeling Support for the RURA and Municipal Waste Combustion Projects: Final Report on Sensitivity and Uncertainty

OMICS Group eBooks

134. Wohl E (2000) Mountain Drainage Basins, in Mountain Rivers, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.

060

57;$A'#'%G"*%(>+%\+**+'(*#;$%Y"",%T>;#7%P",+$3%M7(+*;8+7.A%58*++&+7(%W"3%02H9:51H1:50B%cG-.+%"G%S#'X%57;$A'#'B%^+;$(>%;7,%!;G+(A%S+'+;*.>%V#U#'#"7B%
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140. Bidleman TF (1988) Atmospheric Processes. Environ. Sci. and Tech 22: 361-367.
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143. Briggs GG, RH Bromilow, AA Evans (1982) Relationships between lipophilicity and root uptake and translocation of non-ionized chemicals by barley.
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144. %T;$#G"*7#;% Q7U#*"7&+7(;$% d*"(+.(#"7% 58+7.A% ?TQd5@3% 044C3% d;*;&+(+*% R;$)+'% ;7,% S;78+'% G"*% T5g\ch3% V*;G(3% cG-.+% "G% !.#+7(#-.% 5GG;#*'3% T;$#G"*7#;%
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170. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) (1992) Preliminary Soil Action Level for Superfund Sites. Draft Interim Report.
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OMICS Group eBooks

172. Riederer M (1990) Estimating Partitioning and Transport of Organic Chemicals in the Foliage/Atmosphere System: Discussion of a Fugacity-Based Model.
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178. U.S. Bureau of the Census (1987) Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1987. (107th edn), Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
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180. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). (1994) Personal Communication Regarding Soil Ingestion Rate for Dairy Cattle. Between G. F. Fries, Agricultural
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181. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (1994) Vegetables 1993 Summary. National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board. Washington,
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184. USEPA. 1985. Water Quality Assessment: A Screening Procedure for Toxic and Conventional Pollutants in Surface and Groundwater. Part I (Revised
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185. %a!Qd5%?0422@%!)<+*G)7,%Qm<"')*+%5''+''&+7(%P;7);$3%cG-.+%"G%!"$#,%b;'(+3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%5<*#$3
186. USEPA (1990) Interim Final Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions. Environmental Criteria
;7,%5''+''&+7(%cG-.+3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%Qd5%_11:41:11C3%[;7);*A3
187. USEPA (1990) Exposure Factors Handbook. March.
188. USEPA (1993) Addendum to the Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions. External Review
V*;G(3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%W"U+&6+*3
189. %a!Qd5%?0449@%Q'(#&;(#78%Qm<"')*+%("%V#"m#7:g#X+%T"&<")7,'3%V*;G(%S+<"*(3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%Qd5K_11K_:22K11D63
190. %a!Qd5%?044H@%\+.>7#.;$%!)<<"*(%V".)&+7(%G"*%g;7,%5<<$#.;(#"7%"G%!+=;8+%!$),8+3%R"$)&+'%M%;7,%MM3%cG-.+%"G%b;(+*3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%Qd5%2HHKS:4C:
001a.
191. USEPA (1993) Addendum to the Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions. Working Group
S+."&&+7,;(#"7'3%cG-.+%"G%!"$#,%b;'(+3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%!+<(+&6+*%H93
192. USEPA (1993) Addendum to the Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions. External Review
V*;G(3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%W"U+&6+*3
193. %a!Qd5% ?044C@% V+*#U;(#"7% "G% d*"<"'+,% ^)&;7% ^+;$(>% ;7,% b#$,$#G+% O#";..)&)$;(#"7% Y;.("*'% G"*% (>+% e*+;(% g;X+'% M7#(#;(#U+3% cG-.+% "G% S+'+;*.>% ;7,%
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195. USEPA 57 Federal Register 20802 (1993) Proposed Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System. April 16. USEPA 1994. Draft Guidance for
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196. USEPA (1994) Draft Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analysis at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Wastes. Attachment C, Draft
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198. USEPA (1994) Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds. Volume II: Properties, Sources, Occurrence, and Background Exposures. External Review
V*;G(3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%b;'>#78("7B%V3T3%Qd5K_11K_:22K11DT63%[)7+3
199. a!Qd5% ?0449@% Q'(#&;(#78% Qm<"')*+% ("% V#"m#7:g#X+% T"&<")7,'3% R"$)&+% MMM]% !#(+:!<+.#-.% 5''+''&+7(% d*".+,)*+'3% Qm(+*7;$% S+U#+=% V*;G(3% cG-.+% "G%
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200. %a!Qd5%?0449@%e)#,;7.+%G"*%d+*G"*&#78%!.*++7#78%g+U+$%S#'X%57;$A'#'%;(%T"&6)'(#"7%Y;.#$#(#+'%O)*7#78%^;Z;*,")'%b;'(+'3%cG-.+%"G%Q&+*8+7.A%;7,%
S+&+,#;$%S+'<"7'+3%cG-.+%"G%!"$#,%b;'(+3%V+.+&6+*%093
201. USEPA (1994) Revised Draft Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Wastes. Attachment C,
V*;G(%Qm<"')*+%5''+''&+7(%e)#,;7.+%G"*%STS5%^;Z;*,")'%b;'(+%T"&6)'(#"7%Y;.#$#(#+'3%cG-.+%"G%Q&+*8+7.A%;7,%S+&+,#;$%S+'<"7'+3%cG-.+%"G%!"$#,%
Waste. December 14.
202. %a!Qd5% ?0449@% S+U#'+,% V*;G(% e)#,;7.+% G"*% d+*G"*&#78% !.*++7#78% g+U+$% S#'X% 57;$A'+'% ;(% T"&6)'(#"7% Y;.#$#(#+'% O)*7#78% ^;Z;*,")'% b;'(+'3% cG-.+% "G%
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203. %a!Qd5%?044D@%Y)*(>+*%M'')+'%G"*%P",+$#78%(>+%M7,#*+.(%Qm<"')*+%M&<;.('%G*"&%T"&6)'("*%Q&#''#"7'3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%b;'>#78("7B%
D.C. January 20.
204. %a!Qd5%?044D@%S+U#+=%V*;G(%V+U+$"<&+7(%"G%^)&;7%^+;$(>:O;'+,%;7,%Q."$"8#.;$$A:O;'+,%Qm#(%T*#(+*#;%G"*%(>+%^;Z;*,")'%b;'(+%M,+7(#-.;(#"7%d*"`+.(3%
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205. USEPA (1995) Waste Technologies Industries Screening Human Health Risk Assessment (SHHRA): Evaluation of Potential Risk from Exposure to
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206. %a!Qd5%?044D@%e*+;(%g;X+'%b;(+*%j);$#(A%M7#(#;(#U+3%\+.>7#.;$%!)<<"*(%V".)&+7(%G"*%(>+%d*".+,)*+%("%V+(+*&#7+%O#";..)&)$;(#"7%Y;.("*'3%cG-.+%"G%b;(+*3%
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207. %a!Qd5%?044E@%Qm<"')*+%Y;.("*'%^;7,6""X3%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%Qd5K_11Kd:4DK11HY3%5)8)'(3

209. %a!Qd5%?044E@%P+*.)*A%!(),A%S+<"*(%("%T"78*+''3%R"$)&+%MMM]%Y;(+%;7,%\*;7'<"*(%"G%P+*.)*A%#7%(>+%Q7U#*"7&+7(3%cG-.+%"G%5#*%j);$#(A%;7,%d$;77#78%;7,%
!(;7,;*,'%;7,%cG-.+%"G%S+'+;*.>%;7,%V+U+$"<&+7(3%Qd5%9DHKS:4E:%11D3%V+.+&6+*3
210. %a!Qd5% ?044E@% P+*.)*A% !(),A% S+<"*(% ("% T"78*+''3?% R"$)&+% MMM3% V*;G(3% cG-.+% "G% 5#*% j);$#(A% ;7,% d$;77#78% ;7,% !(;7,;*,'% ;7,% cG-.+% "G% S+'+;*.>% ;7,%
Development. December.
211. USEPA (1998) Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Multiple Pathways of Exposure to Combustor Emissions. Update to EPA/600/641K11C3% cG-.+% "G% S+'+;*.>% ;7,% V+U+$"<&+7(B% W;(#"7;$% T+7(+*% G"*% Q7U#*"7&+7(;$% 5''+''&+7(B% a!Qd53% Qd5K_11KS:42K0CE3% V+.+&6+*3% Q7U#*"7&+7(;$%
T*#(+*#;%;7,%5''+''&+7(%cG-.+3%cSV3%T#7.#77;(#B%c>#"3
212. Hofelt CS, Honeycutt M, McCoy JT, Haws LC (2001) Development of a metabolism factor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for use in multipathway risk
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OMICS Group eBooks

208. USEPA (1997) Exposure Factors Handbook. Food Ingestion Factors. Volume II. SAB Review Draft. EPA/600/P-95/002F. August.

062

213. %a!Qd5%?H11D@%^)&;7%^+;$(>%S#'X%5''+''&+7(%d*"("."$%G"*%^;Z;*,")'%b;'(+%T"&6)'(#"7%Y;.#$#(#+'B%Qd5DC1:S:1D:11_B%Y#7;$B%cG-.+%"G%!"$#,%b;'(+%;7,%
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214. Undergraduate Handbook for Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 2012-2013.
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217. USEPA-84/02 (1984) Wet scrubber plan review, Course SI: 412C, USEPA Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI), EPA450-2-82-020.
218. USEPA-84/03, Web scrubber plan review, Course SI: 412C, USEPA Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI), EPA450-2-82-020, March, 1984.
219. USEPA-84/09 (1984) Control of gaseous and particulate emission, Course SI: 412D. USEPA Air Pollution Training Institute (APTI), USEPA450-2-84-007.
220. Vanoni VA (1975) Sedimentation Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers. New York, pp. 460-463.
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P"7(>$A%M7N"=%"G%V+Z%S+'+*U"#*3%[")*7;$%"G%Q7U#*"7&+7(;$%!.#+7.+'%;7,%\+.>7"$"8A%0C]%0:093
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OMICS Group eBooks

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063

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P"7(>$A%M7N"=%"G%V+Z%S+'+*U"#*3%[")*7;$%"G%Q7U#*"7&+7(;$%!.#+7.+'%;7,%\+.>7"$"8A%0C]%0:093%
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