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Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.

Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

DESIGN PROBLEM

Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

DESIGN PROBLEM
Ship design is a complex process. The principal fact in this process is the creativity
involved in designing a good functional unit, the ship which meets the various regulatory body
requirements and the design practices and meets the owners requirement.
It must satisfy the:
(a) Mission Profile:
(b) The support function:
(c) The protection function:
Basic Design involves the determination of major characteristics affecting cost &
performance.
(a) Main Dimensions: L, B, T, D
(b) Hull form: Lines Design.
(c) Power: Resistance & propulsion
(d) Preliminary General Arrangement
(e) Major structure.
The proper selection of the above should satisfy the following mission requirements
(a) Good sea keeping performance.
(b) Maneuverability
(c) The desired speed.
(d) Endurance
(e) Cargo capacity
(f) Dead weight.
The project involves the Basic Design of a Double hull tanker with the said specifications
and encompasses:
(a) Concept Design
(b) Preliminary Design.

Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

(a)

Concept Design

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This translates the mission requirements into Naval Architectural & Engineering
Characteristics. It includes the Technological feasibility studies to determine the fundamental
elements of the proposed vessel such as Length, Breadth (B), Draught (T), Depth (D), fullness
(Cb), power or alternative sets of characteristics which meet the required speed, cargo cubic &
Dead weight. It includes preliminary lightship weight estimation. The selected concept design
forms the basis of obtaining approximate cost (which may be detrimental in initiating the
future step).
(b) Preliminary Design

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It refines the major ship characteristics affecting cost & performance. Certain controlling
factors like Length, Beam, Horsepower and Dwt. are not expected to change upon completion
of this phase. Its completion provides a precise definition of the vessel that would meet the
mission requirements (This provides the basis for the development of contract plans &
specifications).
A ship is essentially apart of the profitable transportation, industrial or service system.
Hence the viability of its Economic operation is a major factor. It also involves a continuous
interaction with the production processes and procedures in shipyards. The design that is
created therefore must be producible at a low initial cost.
OWNERS REQUIREMENT
The main aim of this project is to design a double hull crude oil tanker of the following
specifications.

a) Type

Double hull crude oil tanker

b) Dead Weight

38000t

c) Service speed

14.75 knots

d) Classification

Lloyds Register of Shipping

Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION

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According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) MARPOL convention the oil
tanker are defined as a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in its cargo spaces
and include combination carrier and chemical tanker when they are carrying a cargo of oil in
bulk
Oil is defined as petroleum in any form including crude oil; fuel oil sludge and oil refuse
and refined product

1.2 TANKER DESIGN OPTIMIZATION


Tanker design is influenced by a number of diverse and sometimes competing factors.
Independent ship owners control about 70% of the tanker tonnage and most of these ships are
on the spot market. These owners tend to build versatile vessel that are less likely to become
obsolete as market and condition changes specific requirements related to the type of oil
carried. The environments vessel will be operating in and the intended service encouraging
specialized design optimized about specific set of requirements. Shuttle tanker lightening
vessel and coastline product carrier often fall into this category.

1.3 TYPE OF OIL TANKER


a) Crude oil tanker
b) Product tanker
c) Lightening vessel
d) Tanker barges
a) CRUDE OIL TANKER
Crude oil carriers are typically designed to carry up to three grades of oil. These designs are
generally configured with as few tanks as practical. Tankers are fitted with crude oil washing
(COW) which utilizes the natural dissolving action of crude oil to reduce linage and residue.
b) PRODUCT TANKERS
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Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

Common features of these tankers are:i) Coating of cargo tanks


ii) Heating system for the cargo oil
iii) Segregated piping system allowing for the carriage a number of grades of cargo.
c) LIGHTENING VESSELS AND SHUTTLE TANKERS
Lightening involves much operation such as
i) Approach maneuverability and mooring
ii) Hose connection
iii) Cargo transfer
iv) Hose connection and unmooring
Special equipments necessary on board such vessels for safe transfer includes well designed
mooring system to secure the vessel to each other, effective tendering to keep the vessel from
touching and the hose handling equipment.
d) TANK BARGES AND COASTAL TANKER
These vessels often have confined waterways and therefore effective navigation system and
maneuverability are critical safe operation. The tank barges include barges, towed or pushed, as
well as integrated and tug and barge system.

1.4 TYPE OF OIL


a) Black oil
i) Crude oil
ii) Crude oil blends
iii) Fuel oils
iv) Asphalt solutions
b) White oil: these include lighter, refined product such as
i) Gasoline
ii) Jet fuel
iii) Kerosene
Black oil tends to be more viscous and more persistent, making handling of the oil more
difficult and complicated cleaning efforts oil spills. White oil is generally more volatile than
black oil except for crude oil, which tends to be highly inflammable.
Crude oil is liquid hydrocarbon mixture that occurs naturally in earth and their physical
and chemical properties vary considerably. Most crude oil has a flash point below 27oC and a
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Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

vapour pressure between 42 Kpa and 84 Kpa. Most crude oils have pour point below 15oC,
although some crude oils have pour points above 35oC. The API gravity for crude oils varies
from about 10(specific gravity of 1.00at 15oC) to 40(specific gravity of 0.82at 15oC)

1.5 MARITIME ROUTES

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Maritime routes are spaces of a few kilometers wide trying to avoid the discontinuities of
land transport. They are obligatory points of passage (which are strategic places), physical
constraints (coast wind reef etc) and political border. The majority of the maritime circulation
takes place along coasts and three continents have limited trade (Africa, Australia, and Asia,
except china)
In 1999, average daily production of oil was about 70 million barrel per day. Fuel costs
indicate a rise in demand of 20% to 30%.marine transportation and pipelines are principal
means for moving oil productivity region to the refinery and to consumer.
Tankers offer greater versatility and comparatively lower capital costs. Roughly 50% of
the total crude oil production is shipped to consumer countries by sea. Approximately 80% of
the oils moved in tankers and crude oils.

1.6 LIMITATIONS
The project is a preliminary design only. Many of the calculations are done using
empirical formulae and hence need not be accurate. For example, the mass estimation is done
using empirical formulae and hence value of LCG may not be correct.

1.7 PROCEDURE

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Many other prerequisites like stability booklet, docking plan etc have also not been made.
Only preliminary dimension fixing, design of hull form, calculation of hydrostatic particulars,
powering, general arrangement plan, midship section design and checks on trim and stability
have been carried out.
The major problem faced during design of a ship is the selection of main dimensions
which are suitable for the development of design meeting all the specified requirements of
deadweight or capacity of speed and range of cargo handling facilities and of limitations have
to be stated .The ship requirements finally selected should be a compromise between those
which would maximize the profits and those which would result in smallest losses.

Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT , B.Tech(NA&SB), Batch- XXVI

There are three ship design categories which are generally adopted in the selection of main
dimension. These are
a. Deadweight carrier category
b. Capacity carrier
c. Linear dimension ship category
The linear dimension ship is distinguished by the fact that its dimensions are primarily
fixed by considering factors other than those of dead weight or of volume.
An initial estimate of ship mass displacement is made by assuming a value of
displacement coefficient (CD). Using mass displacement of ship range of ship length is
calculated using Ashiles formula or parent ship analysis data. Various ratios such as L/B, L/D,
B/T, B/D, T/D, are also calculated from parent ship analysis. The average value of all ratios is
considered in calculating the ships beam depth and draught. Number of iteration taking
suitable interval of lengths within its selected range is performed to calculate the lightweight,
displacement and consequently the dead weight of ship.
The lightweight of ship is calculated using various empirical relations. Lightweight of the
ship is given as
Wlightship

=Wsteel+Woutfit+Wmargin plate

Various other parameters such as CB, Fn, PD are calculated using empirical relations. Once
the deadweight corresponding to the various lengths are calculated, a graph is plotted with
length as X-axis and deadweight at Y- axis. From the graph the length corresponding to ships
required deadweight is obtained. All other dimension is subsequently calculated following the
same procedure. The length obtained can be increased or decreased in order to fit in to
requirements.