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CMSC 858M/AMSC 698R

Fast Multipole Methods


Nail A. Gumerov & Ramani Duraiswami

Lecture 5

Outline
Laplace equation in 3D (continued)
Helmholtz equation in 2D
Helmholtz equation in 3D

3D Laplace Equation

Translation and Differentiation


Properties for Laplace Equation

Introduction of Multipoles for


Laplace Equation

Multipole Expansion of Laplace


Equation Solutions

Legendre Polynomials

Legendre Polynomials (2)


First six polynomials (n = 0,,5):

Legendre Polynomials (3)

A lot of other nice properties!

Expansion of Fundamental
Solution

Addition Theorem for Spherical


Harmonics
Spherical Harmonics
order

degree

s2

s1
y

Vector form of the addition theorem


x

S- and R- expansions of
Fundamental Solution

O r

ir

i
i

Multipole (!)

`Multipole expansion` means


S-expansion

Associated Legendre Functions

Orthogonal!

Spherical Harmonics
n

Orthonormality of Spherical Harmonics

R- and S- expansions of arbitrary


solutions of the 3D Laplace equation

Helmholtz Equation

Helmholtz Equation

Wave equation in frequency domain

Acoustics
Electromagneics (Maxwell equations)
Diffusion/heat transfer/boundary layers
Telegraph, and related equations
k can be complex

Quantum mechanics
Klein-Gordon equation
Shroedinger equation

Relativistic gravity (Yukawa potentials, k is purely imaginary)


Molecular dynamics (Yukawa)
Appears in many other models

2D Helmholtz Equation

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2D Helmholtz Equation
Helmholtz equation:
Wave equation:
wavenumber
Time harmonic
solution

circular
frequency

Helmholtz equation:
wave speed
Fourier transform:

Construction of basis for 2D


Helmholtz equation
Polar coordinates
Helmholtz
equation
Elementary solution

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Construction of basis for 2D Helmholtz


equation (2): Angular dependence

Periodicity condition

Discontinuous at the ends


(use Analytical continuation)

Construction of basis for 2D Helmholtz


equation (3): Radial dependence

Bessel equation:

Bessel functions
of order n
First kind

Second kind

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Bessel functions of integer order

Learn properties of Bessel functions! Abramowitz & Stegun (1964)


(Handbook on special functions: available online!)

Construction of basis for 2D


Helmholtz equation (4)
Hankel functions

first kind
second kind

Sommerfeld radiation
condition
Usual basis functions

Radiating
functions

Regular expansion
Singular (radiating)
expansion

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Factorization of Greens function


Addition
theorem

3D Helmholtz Equation

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Reference
N.A. Gumerov & R. Duraiswami
Fast Multipole Methods for the Helmholtz Equation in Three
Dimensions
Academic Press, Oxford, UK (2004).

Spherical Basis Functions


Spherical Bessel Functions

O r

Regular Basis Functions


ir

i
i

Singular Basis Functions

y
Spherical Harmonics

Spherical Hankel Functions


of the First Kind

x
Spherical Coordinates
Associated Legendre Functions

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Spherical Harmonics

Spherical Bessel Functions

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Isosurfaces For Regular Basis Functions

Isosurfaces For Singular Basis Functions

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Factorization of Greens function


Addition
theorem

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