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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
1.1

Background of the Study


Speaking is one of the most important skills to be mastered in foreign

language learning. Speaking is a productive skill to construct meaning that


involves producing, receiving and processing information which popular
expression either verbal or non-verbal symbols. According to Brown, speaking is
an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and
receiving and processing information. While Chaney states that speaking is the
process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal
symbols, in a variety of contexts. Bygate adds that speaking is often thought of as
a popular form of expression, which uses the unprestigious colloquial register:
literary skills are on the whole more prize. Speaking is important skill because it
make us easy to communicate with others. By speaking, we can share idea and
informations to others. To express an idea, students have to speak. Its success is
measured in terms of the ability to carry out conversation in an interactive process
of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing
information. By active speaking, it is very useful to increase their ability as
students who learn English as a foreign language.
Speaking is one of four important skills in foreign language learning.
Speak fluently is needed to comunicate with the other people in the other country,
the basic skill of speaking is actually ready to have in junior high school. But in
reality, there are so many students are not able to speak English well. Commonly,
they only have capability in grammar, reading or writing. It is because English is
not spoken in society, so the accuracy and fluency to speak English is difficult for
the students. Moreover, the use of conventional teaching techniques which only
use the same way for each section of teaching English becomes the second reason
of the problem in speaking English. Setiyadi (2006: 21) states that speaking is
the productive skill in the oral mode. It likes the other skills, is more complicated
that it seems at first and involves more than pronouncing words.

However, students speaking ability is very low. Evident the result of the
data from tenth B Grade of SMA Negeri 1 Tugu in speaking ability shown that
there are 26 students from 30 that still under average in speaking ability.
The effect above is caused by some factors. The first is because the teacher
used traditional methode in teaching learning process, they teach based on the text
book only without any interaction and use modern technique. So, the teacher as a
model and the student is as a listener. By this technique it is surely make the
student lazy to be more lazier. Even less to speaking.
To solve the problem above, the researcher is interested in using InsideOutside Circle Technique to improve students speaking ability. Inside and
Outside the Circle is a technique which is introduced by Spencer Kagan. Inside
outside is a terrific cooperative learning strategy that really engages English
language learners. This technique can give chance to all students to share
information at the same time with different partner in a short time and in such
structural way. Students stand in two concentric circles, facing a partner. The
inside circle faces out; the outside circle faces in. Students ask questions to their
partner, or they may take turns responding to a teacher questions. Partners switch
roles: outside circle students ask, listen, then praise or coach. After each question
or set of questions are already answer, students in the outer or inner circle rotate to
the next partner.
This technique gives many advantages in improving speaking skill. There
are many reasons to use this technique in learning English, especially to improve
students speaking ability. This technique can make the students get different
information at the same time on the material, and also this technique can
make the students easier and fun in learning English.
The model of teaching and learning is very important because it influences
the way of learning process. By using the right learning model, the learning
process will more directed. The students will be enjoyable and fun during teaching
learning process. They will not bored join to class activity which has interested
learning model. Based on the explanation above, the researcher takes a title

Improving the Tenth B Grade Students Speaking Ability Trough Inside-Outside


Circle Technique at SMA Negeri 1 Tugu in The 2015/2016 Academic Year.
1.2

Statement of the Problem


Referring to the background of the study previously presented, the

researcher formulates the statement of the problem as follows: How can the use of
Inside-Outside Circle Technique improve the students speaking ability of the
tenth B grade students at SMA Negeri 1 Tugu?
1.3

The Objectives of the Study


The objective of the study is to improve the tenth B grade students

speaking ability through Inside Outside-Circle Technique at SMA Negeri 1 Tugu.


1.4

The Significances of the Study


The advantages that can be acquired from this research are:
a. For the students
This research can encourage them to learn English especially in
learning speaking, so that they can enhance their speaking ability and
find the interesting teaching and learning process. It can be new
experience for them in learning English so that their speaking
achievement can be better.
b. For the teachers
It can be input and reference to the English teachers in teaching
speaking. They can get an appropriate technique so that they can
enhance their students speaking ability and make the students
speaking achievement can be better than before.
c. For other researcher
It can be used to be reference in conducting further research to develop
another technique to motivate the students to speak English.

1.5

Hypothesis
If the Inside-Outside Circle Technique is applied well, it will improve the

tenth B grade students speaking ability at SMA Negeri 1 Tugu in academic year
2015/2016.
1.6

Scope and Limitation of the Study


The researcher limits the problem only on improving students speaking

ability by using Inside-Outside Circle Technique.


1.7

Definition of Key Terms


To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpreting of any terms used in this

class action research, the researcher defines the key words as follow:
Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves
producing, receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burn & Joyce,
1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs,
including the participant themselves, their collective experience, the physical
environment and the purposes for speaking. However, speaking is not always
unpredictable.
Inside-Outside Circle is an interesting strategy in teaching English
speaking, an English teacher is able to develop students speaking .This technique
can give chance to all students to share information at the same time with different
partner in a short time and in such structural way. By applying the strategy, the
teacher could improve students speaking, vocabulary, and motivation.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Speaking
2.1.1

The Definition of Speaking

2.1.2

The Importance of Speaking

2.1.3

The Elements of Speaking

2.1.4

Teaching Speaking Skill

2.1.5

The Principle of Teaching Speaking

2.1.6

Classroom Speaking Activities

2.2 Inside-Outside Circle Technique


2.2.1

The Definition of Inside-Outside Circle Technique

2.2.2

The Steps of Inside-Outside Technique

2.2.3

The Advantages of Inside-Outside Technique

2.2.4

The Disadvantages of Inside-Outside Technique

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1

Research Design
The researcher used Classroom Action Research to conduct research.

Classroom action research designed to solve practical problems in the process of


teaching and learning, especially in teaching speaking. According to Arikunto
(2009:58) classroom action research is an action research which is carried out at
the classroom that aims to improve learning practical quality. Millis defines an
action research as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers or researchers,
principals, and school counselors in the teaching and learning environment to
gather information about (a) how their particular school operates, (b) how teachers
teach, and (c) how well their students learn.
In Classroom Action Research there are 3 words must be explain that:
Research is activity to observe an object with certain methodology to get data or
information which useful into develop quality about something which think
interesting by the researcher. Action is activity which intentional to conduct with
certain purposes. Class is a group of students receive lesson and teach by teacher
in same time and place. And classroom action research is an observation toward
activity which intentional to rise and happen in a classroom.
Based on the model of Classroom Action Research in this study,
preliminary study is first steps to know the teaching and learning problems in
speaking ability. The next step is planning, to solve the problems and preparing
the action. The next step is doing the action research based on the planning and
the preparation. In the implementation the researcher act as the practitioner and
the observer is the English teacher. The main of the collaborative teacher was
observing the activities done by researcher and the student participation in the
teaching activity. In observing, the researcher used observation sheets, test and the
field note.

In conducting the Classroom Action Research, the researcher uses a set of


one modified figure of Classroom Action Research Spiral which is proposed by
Kemmis and Mc Taggart.
Figure 1.
The Steps of Classroom Action Research
Preliminary Study:
Cycle I

set of the problem

New problem from

Planning I

Acting I

Reflecting I

Observing I

Planning II

Action II

Reflecting II

Observing II

reflection I
Cycle II(replanning)

Next cycle

If the problem not

Next Step

yet finished
Based on the procedure of classroom action research above, we know
that the first step of the design is preliminary study. The scond step is
preparing a plan of action based on what have done in preliminary study.
Next, the third step is doing the action based on what have prepared and made
in planning activity. Here, in implementing the action, the researcher as an
observer and the teacher as a practitioner. Then the fourth step is observing
the implementation of the technique during the teaching learning process.
And the last step is reflecting, in which the researcher makes reflection to all
activities that have done in learning process and make analyze for the result.
3.2 Setting and subject of the Study
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The place of this research will be carried out at SMA Negeri 1 Tugu,
Trenggalek subjects studied were in tenth A grade and consists of 30 students.
This school had been selected as a research site because many students who find
difficulties to learn English especially in speaking.
3.3

Research Procedure
According to Kemmis and Taggart (in Aqib 2006: 22), Classroom Action

Research has four components. Those components are:


3.3.1 Preliminary Study
Preliminary observation was important to be done to find and define the
real problems in speaking mastery. It was done before the researcher
started the action research. The reasercher consulted to the teacher to
find information about the situation of the class XB, in SMA Negeri 1
Tugu as preliminary study on November 2015 and December 2015, It
could be improved by using Inside-Outside Circle Technique. Based on
findings of preliminary observation, the reasercher proposed solution
for solving the problem used Inside-Outside Circle Technique as the
new strategy to teach speaking skill.
3.3.2 Planning
Based on Kemmis and Mc Taggarts model, planning is a step to
prepare the classroom instructional strategy to be developed in the
study to solve the problems. The plannings are:
a

Providing a Suitable Strategy


The strategy of this study is using Inside-Outside Circle Technique.
Inside outside is a terrific cooperative learning strategy that really
engages English language learners. This technique can give chance
to all students to share information at the same time with different
partner in a short time and in such structural way.

Designing a Lesson Plan

The lesson plan consists of (a) course identity, (b) Standard


Competence, (c) Basic Competence, (d) Indicators, (e) Learning
Objective, (f)Learning material, (g) Approach and Techniques,
(h)Teaching-learning process and, (i) assessment.
c

Preparing the Criteria of Success


The criteria of success was set to determine whether the learning
activities in the research were successful of not.

3.3.3

Acting
To start this strategy, students stand in two concentric circles, facing a
partner. The inside circle faces out; the outside circle faces in. Students
ask questions to their partner, or they may take turns responding to a
teacher questions. Partners switch roles: outside circle students ask,
listen, then praise or coach. After each question or set of questions are
already answer, students in the outer or inner circle rotate to the next
partner. By using this strategy, hopefully can help the students solve
their speaking ability.

3.3.4

Observing
Observing is the process of collecting data indicating the success of the
strategy in solving the classroom problems. The researcher doing
observation is the process collecting data about many aspects which
happened during the implementation of the action in the class. In this
phase, the researcher observes and takes notes during teaching learning
process.

3.3.5

Reflecting
In this stage, the researcher reflected and analyzed whether the teaching
learning of reading was done successfully or not to reach the objectives
of the learning in the first cycle. If the reasearcher find some problems
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in learning reading, the researcher will makereflection from the action


in cycle I based on the observation sheet and the result of post-test to
decide and plan the next cycles steps.

3.4 Data and Source of Data


In this part discusses about the data and source of data during the action
research. Those are explained as follows:
3.4.1

Data
Kinds of the data collected in this study were both qualitative and
quantitative. In this study, qualitative data was the result of the
observation, the assessment process which include the activities of
teacher and student, and evaluation. Quantitative data were related to
the result or score of students speaking test.

3.4.2

Source of Data
In this research, the sources of data are the observer and the students.

3.5 Data Collection


In this part discusses about the collection of data during the action
research. Those are explained as follows:
3.5.1

Observation
The researcher plans this observation fixable and writes something that
happens in the classroom. It is used to know the situation of the
teaching learning process and the use of method applied in learning
process, namely Inside-Outside Circle Technique.

3.5.2

Documentation
Documentation is collecting data by looking or noting of report that is
available. Documentation technique benefits in the collecting students
grade to know their advancement speaking ability, the condition of
teachers, students, staffs, and location of SMA Negeri 1 Tugu.

3.5.3

Speaking test (testing)

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Testing is a number measuring a person ability, knowledge, or


performance in a given domain. In this research the researcher used oral
pre test and post test. Testing is used to measure the students speaking
ability after being taught by using Inside-Outside Circle Technique in
teaching learning process. In the oral test, the writer used speaking
assessment rubric.
3.6 Data Analysis
Technique of data analysis comes from the data collection. In analysis
the data, the researcher gets the data from observing the teaching learning
process, document, and the result of the students test. The result is analyzed
such as below:

Score = total score x 100%


Max score
In this research, the researcher also uses mean formula to know the average
of students score and to check students improvement in speaking. The formula is
as follow:
M = x
N
Explanation:
M : The average of students score

x : Total score
N : The number of students
Mean of score from first cycle will be compared with mean of second cycle. It is
to know how far the progress of students in this research.

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