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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM: ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Development in technology brings many things that people don't have many years
back. One of these things is online gaming that is provided by the internet.
Online gaming is one of the widely used leisure activities by many people. Teenagers
who are playing these online games said that they are playing these games just for fun, to
keep away from the heat of the sun, without knowing that there are a lot of effects of
playing these games that are more than what they think. Playing online games, according
to some research is beneficial. It enables the mind of the players to be more active,
especially those puzzle-based games. It helps the player to come up with decisions in
tight situations, especially those adventure games that keep the players to be alert, active
and strategic. Playing these types of games makes the player experienced different
feelings because it is as if the player is really the one taking the challenges.
Despite those benefits, playing these games also bring negative effects. It requires much
of the player's time, leaving school activities and home works unattended.
(http://www.oppapers.com)
The home video game industry is now over 30 years old. In that time, computer
technology has improved at a geometric rate. A high speed elevator now has more
computing power than the Apollo spacecraft that landed on the moon. The promise of
computers and video games as teachers was clearly recognized in the 1980s when there
was a nationwide push to get computers into the classrooms. In the years that have

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followed, researchers found that educational software and games can indeed have several
very positive effects on children's academic skill. Over the same period, video games also
moved into children's homes. (I define video games broadly here, as including arcade
games, computer games, and home console games such as PlayStation.) Children began
playing video games for increasing amounts of time, and the games themselves became
more graphically violent over time. Parents, educators, physicians, and researchers began
to question what the impact of these changes might be. Among elementary and middleschool populations, girls play for an average of about 5.5 hours/week and boys average
13 hours/week. Playing games is not limited to adolescent boys. Recently, the Wall Street
Journal reported that several companies are now designing video game consoles for
preschoolers. Preschoolers aged two to five play an average of 28 minutes/day. The
amount of time spent playing video games is increasing, but not at the expense of
television viewing which has remained stable at about 24 hours/week. Similar to earlier
studies about television, the data about children's video game habits are correlated with
risk factors for health and with poorer academic performance. When video game play is
analyzed for violent content, additional risk factors are observed for aggressive behavior
and desensitization to violence. Video games are natural teachers. Children find them
highly motivating: by virtue of their interactive nature. children are actively engaged with
them: they provide repeated practice: and they include rewards for skillful play. These
facts make it likely that video games could have large effects, some of which are intended
by

game

designers,

and

some

of

which

may

not

(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0816/is_6_21/ai_n9772319/)

be

intended.

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Video and computer games, like many popular, entertaining and addicting kid
activities, are looked down upon by many parents as time-wasters, and worse, parents
think that these games rot the brain. Also, violent video games are readily blamed by the
media and some experts as the reason why some youth become violent or commit
extreme anti-social behavior. But many scientists and psychologists find that video
games actually have many benefits the main one being making kids smart. Video
games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skills that they will need in the future.
With the technology of a civilization becoming more and more advanced, the people
demand that their entertainment become more advanced as well. After a long hard day at
work or school, people like to come home to relax and just lose their minds in
meaningless entertainment, be it television or even online game. Online games provide an
escape into a virtual world, where you can forget about anything that is happening in real
life and just enjoy yourself, even play with your friends in a networking game. In the
past, for a group of online game players to play networking games, it was necessary for
them to all be together and all their computers and Xboxes connected to one another. Not
only were they just playing a game, they were interacting on a personal level. Now with
online gaming becoming a component of most every video game on the market today, it
is possible for gamers to have this same action in the privacy of their home. This
anonymity comes with a cost however, and it is becoming increasingly common that both
the social aspect of gaming and the gamers social skills themselves are degrading as
online gaming becomes more prevalent. (Gentile, Lynch, Linder & Walsh)

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Online games encourage players to identify with and role play their favorite
characters. This is referred to as a "first-person" game (Anderson & Dill, 2000, p. 788)
because players are able to make decisions affecting the actions of the character they are
imitating. After a limited amount of time playing a violent game, a player can
"automatically prime aggressive thoughts". The researchers concluded that players who
had prior experience playing violent games responded with an increased level of
aggression when they encountered confrontation (Bushman & Anderson, 2002).
Gentile & Anderson(2003) states that playing online games may increase
aggressive behavior because violent acts are continually repeated throughout the game.
This method of repetition has long been considered an effective teaching method in
reinforcing learning patterns.
One of the dangers that society faces from video games is their anti-social ability
to stuck players in and not let them go for hours, even days at a time. Such an example of
this is World of Warcraft, a massively multiplayer online game where a player's character
exists in a worldwide virtual land. This fantasy land has its own economy, politics, and
jobs for you to do once you are in, and it is because of the sheer number of things to do
that many people remain trapped in this online world. Players spend hours leveling up
their character to make him more powerful, or collecting gold, or even just searching for
a special magic sword they need for their character. Currently the World of Warcraft is
populated by over ten million active players from both sexes and from every walk of life,
preteens to businessmen. With so many people playing this game, it would be proper to
think that some of them are addicted to the game. Driven by Warcraft's ultra-competitive

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nature, players hunt for weapons and farm gold with an intense fervor not normally
associated with games. This competition can lead to addiction to the game, and from
these budding addictions stem several problems. A child can lock himself in his room for
hours collecting gold, or a college student could skip classes to keep searching for that
magical mace. (http://www.associatedcontent.com)
In the case of the child, this addiction can be very damaging to his or her
development to adulthood. As a parent, neglecting to spend time with your child and not
forming familial bonds can distance yourself from your child. (Kiefaber, 2002)
In a Joint Statement (2000) before the Congressional Public Health Summit, a
number of American medical associations -- the American Medical Association,
American Academy of Pediatrics, American Psychological Association, American
Academy of Family Physicians and American Academy of Child & Adolescent
Psychiatry -- caution parents about violence in the media and its negative effect on
children. Their report states that exposure to violent media can elevate aggressive feelings
and thoughts, especially in children. These effects on aggressive behavior can be longterm. Although fewer studies have been conducted on interactive online games, evidence
suggests that playing violent online games may have a more dramatic influence on the
behavior of children and adolescents. The effects of online games might have on children
are controversial and continue to be debated. (Joint Statement, 2000)
The researcher felt the need to determine the effects of online gaming to students
academic

performance,

problem-solving

strategy,

decision-making

and

spatial

visualization. This study would prove whether online gaming really affects students

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academic

performance,

problem-solving

strategy,

decision-making

and

spatial

visualization.

Statement of the Problem


The study will aim to determine the effects of online gaming to students
academic

performance,

problem-solving

strategy,

decision-making

and

spatial

visualization in year 2010-2011.


Specifically, this study will aim to answer the following questions:
1. How are the students be described in terms of:
1.1. Problem-Solving Strategy
1.2. Decision-Making
1.3. Spatial Visualization
1.4. Academic Performance
2. How does online gaming affect the following factors?
2.1. Problem-Solving Strategy
2.2. Decision-Making
2.3. Spatial Visualization
2.4. Academic Performance
3. How does the academic performance of students affected by the following
gaming factors?
3.1. Type of Games
3.2. Number of Hours Spent

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3.3. Frequency
3.4. Extent of Playing
4. What is the implication of the study to Educational Management?
Hypotheses
In this study, the researcher will hypothesize that:
There is a significant difference between students with varied exposure time to
online gaming to their academic performance, problem-solving strategy, decision-making
and spatial visualization.

Significance of the Study


The findings of the study will have a great value in helping the parents, teachers,
administrators, especially the learners.
To the Parents, it will serve as basis to help share with other parents the
information about certain games or ideas to help each other in parenting.
To the Teachers, it will provide additional knowledge on what strategy to use to
educate students about the well-known effects of online gaming to students academic
performance, problem-solving strategy, decision-making and spatial visualization.
To the Administrator, it will serve as a basis on the kind of programs and policies
that might be complemented to lessen the effects of online gaming to students.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

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This study will be conducted to determine the effects of online gaming to
students academic performance, problem-solving strategy, decision-making and spatial
visualization.
This study specifically will determine the level of academic performance of the
students based on the Grade Point Average. The problem-solving strategy and decisionmaking was measured using a researcher-made graphic questionnaire. The Spatial
Visualization was tested through Spatial Visualization Test.
The respondents of this study were students from the Central Luzon Doctors
Hospital Educational Institution in Tarlac City during the school year 2010-2011.

Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined in accordance with their conceptual and
theoretical meaning to have a working knowledge and better understanding of the
research study.
Academic Performance is measured by taking written and oral tests, performing
presentations, turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions.
Teachers evaluate in the form of letter or number grades and side notes, to describe how
well a student has done.
Decision-Making - Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes
(cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several
alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an
action or an opinion of choice.

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Interactive Media refers to products and services on digital computer-based
systems which respond to the users actions by presenting content such as text, graphics,
animation, video, audio etc.
Internet is an electronic network of computers that includes nearly every
university, government, and research facility in the world.
Online gaming are games that are played online via the Internet
Problem-Solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process
that includes problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all
intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process
that requires the modulation and control of more routine or fundamental skills. Problem
solving occurs when an organism or an artificial intelligence system needs to move from
a given state to a desired goal state.
Spatial Visualization - Spatial visualization ability or Visual-spatial ability is
the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional figures. It is typically
measured with simple cognitive tests and is predictive of user performance with some
kinds of user interfaces.
Virtual World It is a genre of online community that often takes the form of a
computer-based simulated environment, through which users can interact with one
another and use and create objects. Virtual worlds are intended for its users to inhabit and
interact, and the term today has become largely synonymous with interactive 3D virtual
environments, where the users take the form of avatars visible to others graphically.
These avatars are usually depicted as textual, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional

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graphical representations, although other forms are possible(auditory and touch
sensations for example). Some, but not all, virtual worlds allow for multiple users.
Xbox It is a sixth-generation video game console manufactured by Microsoft. It
was released on November 15, 2001 in North America, February 22, 2002 in Japan, and
March 14, 2002 in Australia and Europe and is the predecessor to the Xbox 360.

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Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies which served as a
frame of references for this study.
The foregoing related literature and studies presented are similar to the present
study as far as the testing effective methodology is concerned.

Related Literature
Much attention has been directed to the use of video games for learning in the
recent years, in part due to the staggering amounts of capital spent on games in the
entertainment industry, but also because of their ability to captivate player attention and
hold it for lengthy periods of time as players learn to master game complexities and
accomplish objectives. (Dondlinger 2007)
According to the authors, Chen and Voderer, gamers fit into certain categories: the
competitor, explorer, collector, achiever, joker, director, storyteller, performer, and the
craftsmen. Each of these types of players has a specific goal for playing games,
motivating them to spend hours staring at a screen. For example the explorer plays to
experience the boundaries of the play world. At the same time there are players who
play to escape from the harsh realities of their life and change into a respected
character that in the fantasy world is a hero. Unfortunately some people feel compelled to
escape into these fantasy worlds because of depression and oppression daily.

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Paducah, Kentucky. Jonesboro, Arkansas. Littleton, Colorado. These three towns
recently experienced similar multiple school shootings. The shooters were students who
habitually played violent video. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, the Columbine High
School students who murdered 13 people and wounded 23 in Littleton, before killing
themselves, enjoyed playing the bloody video Doom. Harris created a customized version
of Doom with two shooters, extra weapons, unlimited ammunition, and victims who
could not ght back features that are eerily similar to aspects of the actual shootings. The
one positive result of these tragedies is the attention brought to the growing problem of
video-violence, from the newsroom to the U.S. Senate (2000). At a Commerce
Committee hearing, several researchers testied that there are indeed valid reasons, both
theoretical and empirical, to be concerned about exposing youths to violent
video(Anderson, 2000).
As individual beings, we have difficulty accepting deriving from what violence is
and how video games are to different people. Children who watch television and go to the
movies see thousands of murders and countless other acts of violence. Many people
believe that being exposed to all this violence causes children to be more aggressive and
to commit crimes. (Shin, 2003)
Recently, attention has turned toward the violence in video games. It seems
reasonable to many people that if passively watching violence in movies and on
television causes aggression, actively participating in violence in video games should
have an even greater effect. Surely, so the argument goes, spending hours shooting
images of various creatures and of human beings and watching them blow up, break

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apart, scream in pain, spew blood all over, and so on must have a harmful effect on those
who play - it must teach them that violence is acceptable, that it is a way to deal with
problems, perhaps make them insensitive to real violence, and thus cause them to be
more

aggressive

and

more

violent

themselves.

(2000,

April,

23)

Video-industry leaders deny the harmful effects of their products. For example, in
a May 12, 2000, CNN interview on The World Today, Doug Lowenstein, president of the
Inter-active Digital Software Association, said, I think the issue has been vastly
overblown and overstated, often by politicians and others who dont fully understand,
frankly, this industry. There is absolutely no evidence, none, that playing a violent video
leads to aggressive behavior.There is one grain of truth in the industrys denials.
Specically, the fact that some highly publicized school killings were committed by
individuals who habitually played violent video is not strong evidence that violent video
increase aggression. Society needs solid scientic evidence in addition to such case
studies. And here is where media researchers and the video-industry differ. Research
evidence has been slowly accumulating since the mid-1980s. This article reviews the
research. (Anderson and Bushman 2000).
Anderson and Bushman (2001) have recently published a meta-analysis of the
research. Their analysis concludes that exposure to violent video games has a negative
effect on a variety of measures. The analysis of greatest import is the one indicating that
playing violent video games causes an increase in aggressive behavior. On the basis of
their overall analysis and presumably especially the one regarding aggressive behavior,
the authors assert that video games pose a threat to public health.

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The U.S. population consumes much media violence. Youths between the ages of
8 and 18 spend more than 40 hr per week using some type of media, not counting school
or

home-work

assignments

(Rideout,

Foehr,

Roberts,

&

Brodie,

1999).

Television is most frequently used, but electronic video are rapidly growing in
popularity. About 10% of children aged 2 to 18 play console and computer video more
than 1 hr per day (Rideout et al., 1999). Among 8- to 13-year-old boys, the average is
more than 7.5 hr per week (Roberts, Foehr, Ride-out, & Brodie, 1999).
College students also play lots of video . The Cooperative Institutional Research
Program (1998, 1999) found that in 1998, 13.3% of men entering college played at least 6
hr per week as high school seniors. By 1999, that gure had increased
to 14.8%. Furthermore, 2% of the men reported playing video more than 20 hr per week
in 1998. In 1999, that gure increased to 2.5%. Although the rst video emerged in the
late 1970s, violent video came of age in the 1990s, with the killing Mortal Kombat, Street
Fighter, and Wolfenstein 3D. In all three, the main task is to maim, wound, or kill
opponents. The graphics (e.g., blood) and sounds (e.g., screams) of these were cutting
edge at the time of their introduction.
By the end of the 20th century, even more graphically violent became available to
players of all ages (Walsh, 1999).
Numerous educational, nonviolent strategy, and sports exist, but the most heavily
marketed and consumed are violent ones. Fourth-grade girls (59%) and boys (73%)
report that the majority of their favorite are violent ones (Buchman & Funk, 1996).

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Another problem involves the lack of parental oversight. Teens in grades 8
through 12 report that 90% of their parents never check the ratings of video before
allowing their purchase, and only 1% of the teens parents had ever prevented a
purchase based on its rating (Walsh, 2000).
Also, 89% reported that their parents never limited time spent playing video.
Ratings provided by the video- industry do not match those provided by other adults and
playing youngsters. Many involving violence by cartoonlike characters are classied by
the industry as appropriate for general audiences, a classication with which adults and
youngsters disagree. (Funk, Flores, Buchman, & Germann, 1999)
The field of instructional technology has experienced dramatic growth in the
research and development of multimedia learning environments. This growth has been
especially pronounced in computer based and web based learning environments
(Jonassen, 1988; Marsh & Kumar, 1992; Rieber, 1996; Yoder, 1994). A number of
researchers have indicated that gaming motivates learners (Keller, 1987; Malone, 1980,
1981; Thiagarajan, 1976). The motivation generated in competitive gaming may translate
into increased achievement of the content (Laveault & St. Germain, 1997). Gaming also
provides a rehearsal dimension and is capable of delivering various forms of feedback
essential in sustaining motivation. Feedback guides the learning process and provides
students with a sense of satisfaction and/or accomplishment. Satisfaction can result from
extrinsic or intrinsic factors. An instructional game can be defined as any training format
that involves competition and is rule-guided (Jones, 1987). A well-designed instructional
game must develop confidence in success by generating positive expectancies (Jonassen,

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1988; Keller, 1979). Research on gaming (Molcho, 1988; Pierfy, 1977) has provided
evidence that instructional games can promote retention and the ability to transfer
knowledge to new domains. Instructional games are attractive to learners because they
offer a simple and creative means of providing high-level motivation, clear and consistent
goals, and sustained interactivity. Gaming as an instructional variable may be analyzed as
methods of rehearsal by facilitating the organization and retention of content (Dwyer &
Dwyer, 1985; Orbach, 1979). The theory of intrinsic motivation (Malone, 1981) is by far
the dominant source of support for instructional gaming. Research has provided evidence
that instructional gaming has the intrinsic ability to develop the learners' confidence in
determining their own destiny. Additional research has shown that as the learner's selfconcept improves, cognitive learning also increases (Coleman, 1967; Olliphant, 1990).
The competition inherent in instructional games and the proper use of feedback needs to
convey the relevance of the game to the learner (Jonassen, 1988; Malone, 1981). This
theory suggests that intrinsic motivation in an instructional gaming context is comprised
of an optimal relationship between fantasy, challenge, curiosity, and control (Malone,
1981; Malone & Lepper, 1987). Additional research has provided evidence that
instructional games provide opportunities for repeated responses to specific information
that improves delayed retention by focusing attention and facilitating the encoding of
information into long term memory (Anderson & Biddle, 1975; Anderson & Faust, 1973;
Andre, 1979, 1987; Hamaker, 1986). A well-designed instructional game must develop
confidence in success by generating positive consequences (Jonassen, 1988; Keller,
1979). Both feedback and instructional games have the capacity to function as advance

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organizers by stating objectives, providing learning guidance, and suggesting meaningful
organization of the content to be learned. In addition to providing appropriate feedback, a
well-designed instructional game should be based on specific instructional objectives
(Atkinson, 1977; Orbach, 1979).

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Related Studies
A. Foreign
Video games have been available to consumers for the last 30 years. They are a
unique form of entertainment, because they encourage players to become a part of the
game's script. Today's sophisticated online games require players to pay constant
attention to the game, rather than passively watching a movie. This has both positive and
negative impacts on players. Several studies have been published that explore these
impacts on todays children. The most widely used "positive" impact online games are
said to have on children is that they may improve a player's manual dexterity and
computer literacy. Ever-improving technology also provides players with better graphics
that give a more "realistic" virtual playing experience. This quality makes the online
game industry a powerful force in many adolescent lives. However, numerous studies
show that online games, especially ones with violent content, make teens more
aggressive. Part of the increase in aggressive behavior is linked to the amount of time
children are allowed to play online games.
In the study by Walsh (2000), a majority of teens admitted that their parents do
not impose a time limit on the number of hours they are allowed to play online games.
The study showed that most parents are unaware of the content or the Entertainment
Software Rating Board (ESRB) rating of the games their children play.

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In a study conducted by Gentile, Lynch, Linder & Walsh (2004, p.6) "adolescent
girls played video games for an average of 5 hours a week, whereas boys averaged 13
hours a week". The authors also stated that teens who play violent games for extended
periods of time tend to be more aggressive, are more prone to confrontation with their
teachers, may engage in fights with their peers and see a decline in school achievements.
(Gentile et al, 2004).
Five decades of research into the effects of exposure to violent television and
movies have produced a thoroughly documented and highly sophisticated set of research
ndings. They concluded that even brief exposure to violent TV or movie scenes causes
signicant increases in aggression, that repeated exposure of children to media violence
increases their aggressiveness as young adults, and that media violence is a signicant
risk factor in youth violence. (Bushman & Huesmann,2001; Huesmann et al., 2001)
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing
violent video will increase aggressive behavior. A meta-analytic review of the videoresearch literature reveals that violent video increase aggressive behavior in children and
young adults. Experimental and non-experimental studies with males and females in
laboratory and eld settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to
violent video increases physiologicalarousal and aggression-related thoughts and
feelings. Playing violent video also decreases prosocial behavior. (Bushman, September
2001).
Given the ubiquity of violent video games and the findings from
experimental studies indicating that playing violent video games may

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lead to increased aggression in young children immediately following
play, we believe that additional well-designed, experimental studies
are needed. New research would utilize games with levels of violence
that reflect games currently available to children. We recommend that
studies focus on moderate to long term effects of playing violent video
games among young children. The lack of experimental studies for
students in middle and high school also needs to be addressed.
(Bensley, Ph.D. and VanEenwyk, Ph.D. May 2000)

B. Local
Lojo (2008) conducted a study on the effects of playing computer games on the
academic performance and behavior of high school students. The results of her study
disclosed that to maintain the good academic performance of students, parents should set
limits on how often and how long their child is allowed to play video games.
The effects of electronic games and other factors in the grade five pupils
academic performance at A. Quezon elementary school, DEPED, Manila was looked into
by Dorol (2009). Dorol concluded that electronic games were related significantly to
pupils academic performance with correlation of .194 significant .o21 levels. This means
that the computer games played by the pupils before going to sleep, after taking lunch or
supper, and during recess significantly related to their performance in school.
Mandanas (2007) conducted a study on the effects of playing computer games and
students profile in the socialization and academic performance of selected students in

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Kapayapaan National High School, Canlubang, Calamba City. The study concluded that
most of the students playing computer games and the students profile both have a
significant effect on the socialization on the students but no significant effect on the
academic performance of the students.

Conceptual Framework
This study will be undertaken to determine the effects of playing online games on
the academic performance, problem-solving strategy, decision-making and spatial
visualization of students.
The types of games being played by the students were the basis somehow if it has
effects on attitudes of the player. These games are RPG, Action, Adventure, God, Team
Sports, Strategic, Units and the like.

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Chapter 3
METHODS OF STUDY AND SOURCES OF DATA
This chapter presents the method of research, the subjects of the study, the method
of gathering data, the research instruments or tools and the statistical treatment of the
gathered data.

Research Design
The Descriptive Method will be used in this research to test the effects of playing
online games on the academic performance, problem-solving strategy, decision-making
and spatial visualization of students. It will describe the data and characteristics about
what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies,
averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it
does not gather the causes behind a situation.
The 100 randomly selected intermediate students of Tarlac West Central
Elementary School and high school level students from Tarlac National High School will
be selected prior to the conduct of the study.

Subjects of the Study


The subjects of this study will be 100 randomly selected intermediate students of
Tarlac West Central Elementary School and high school level students from Tarlac
National High School for the academic year 2013-2014.

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Methods of Gathering Data
The researcher will then administer the questionnaire to the respondents, conduct
test and analyze the pertinent records to get the necessary data, retrieve the questionnaire
from the class, collate and classify the questionnaire to examine and compare carefully in
order to note points and verify the order, necessary for the completeness of the study.
Statistically analyze and interpret the data.

Instrument Used
The main tool that will be used in gathering the data for this research is the
researcher-made instrument. The questionnaire is divided into three main parts.
Part I includes personal data information , which was used to draw important
information about their gender, age, level and their final average based on the

previous

grading.
Part II includes the game session and activities of the online game players. It
determines the type of computer game being played, how often the students play online
games and the number of hours spent in playing the games.
Part III of the questionnaire was used to draw information about the perceptions
of the students playing online games about the behavior and other performance-related
factors.

Statistical Treatment
The following were used in the analysis and interpretation of data.

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Tables were used for the presentation of data to facilitate understanding.
Frequency and percentage distributions were used to facilitate the analysis of data.
Graphs were used to show the difference in profiles and other factors at a glance. For the
interpretation of the performances of the pupils, the following categories were used:

Numerical Rating
5
4
3
2
1

Descriptive Rating
Always
Oftentimes
Sometimes
Seldom
Never

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