Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1

The Protestant Reformation

A.

B.

C.

D.

Erasmus and Christian Humanism


a. The Protestant Rev. is the religious reform movement that divided the Church into
Catholic and Protestant groups. Martin Luther began the Reformation in the 16th cen.
b. Christian humanism, was Northern Renaissance humanism from the 15th cen. Its goal
was Church reform.
i.
They thought if they read classic, esp. Christian, works they would
become more pious.
1. To change society, they must change the humans
that make it up.
c. Desiderius Erasmus was a Christian humanist who wanted to provide Christian
education and criticized the issues in the church. He didnt want to break away from the the church.
Religion on the Eve of Reformation
a. People wanted reform b/c they thought popes were becoming corrupt.
i.
Since the Renaissance popes (1450-1520) failed to meet spiritual
needs , because they had to rule the Papal States. Also, Julius II lead a military campaign, and many
popes were too concerned with money.
ii.
Since people wanted salvation, the Church started selling
indulgences, which was a release from all or part of the punishment for sin, in the form of relics or
certificates
iii.
People started following the mystical movement, the Modern
Devotion, which downplayed dogma and stressed Jesus teachings.
Martin Luther
a. He was a German Monk who lectured the Bible, and believed that peoples fate was
decided by God.
i.
Believed in justification ,which meant that faith alone gave salvation.
b. On Oct 31, 1517, he sent a list of Ninety-five Theses to his church superiors, but the pope
, Pope Leo X, didnt take the issues seriously.
i.
The theses were a stunning attack on the indulgences.
c. By 1520, Luther began to want a break with the Catholic Church and called on German
princes to overthrow the papacy and create a new German church.
i.
He also attacked sacraments except baptism and the Eucharist, and
said clergy should marry.
d. He was excommunicated from the Church in 1521 and had to appear in front of the
imperial diet ,and was made an outlaw by the Edict of Worms. However, Elector Frederick of Saxony,
protected him from being killed.
e. His religious movement became a revolution when he gained support of many German
rulers, which set up state churches.
i.
Instead of Mass the services had Bible readings, preaching, and song.
This made up Lutheranism.
f. In 1524, peasants revolted against their lords and expected Luther to side w/ them, but he
instead sided with the lords, because he thought ruler were called by God to maintain peace.
Politics in the German Reformation
a. Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, ruled Spain, Bohemia, Hungary, the Low
Countries, the duchy of milan, and the Kingdom of Naples. He wanted to keep the empire under his Hapsburg
family, and Catholic.
i.
He had conflict with the French king, Francis I, which lead to 20 yrs.
of wars. He also had conflict w/ the pope, Clement VII
1. The German states freed themselves, and tried to
assert their local authority over the empire and Charles V.
ii.
The Peace of Augsburg, was an agreement signed in 1555 which
ended religious war in Germany.
1. This gave the freedom to choose btw.
Catholicism and Lutheranism.