You are on page 1of 168

GR

THROUGH ENGLISH

Hoi.

3-3

3M

SPECfMEN.

'^7iQ0^

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

A RAPID
LATIN COURSE
BY

WALTER RIPMAN
Cloth Boards.
This book, which

is

13 years of age,
features.

& M.
3s.

V.

HUGHES.

256 Pages.

intended for pupils of


many novel

embodies

A LATIN READER
PLINY, MARTIAL, SALLUST,

OVID & CATULLUS.


BY

WALTER RIPMAN & M.


Cloth Boards.

35.

V.

HUGHES.

234 Pages.

GREEK
THROUGH ENGLISH
ARTHUR

S.

WAY,

D.Lit.

AUTHOR OF
TRANSLATIONS INTO ENGLISH VERSE OF HOMER'S ILIAD AND ODVSSEV,
THE GREEK DRAMATISTS, PINDAR, SAPPHO,
THEOCRITUS, ETC.

1926
LONDON y TORONTO
J.

M.

DENT ^

SONS, LTD.

Prinlcd in Great Britain

PREFACE
The

primary object of

this

work being

to introduce

the learner to Greek through the words already familiar


to

him

in their

compiled from

English dress, the vocabularies have been


all periods of the language, and from

With the minimum


grammar employed, pure Attic style and

poets as well as from prose writers.


of formal

idiom have of course been sacrificed at the outset, that


the learner may get on quickly so as to be able to make
acquaintance with authors where he will find these. So
have been occaalso some verbs, as
sionally used with

much

,,,
somewhat

strained significance, to

more words
no English form in common use.
Scholar-critics and schoolmasters who may be in-

save as

as possible the introduction of

of which there
clined to find

is'

Fifth- form

them no

of this work
by no means a Sixth- or
for beginners
and it takes
proposes to do, warning them

fault with the omissions

should recognise that

book.

It

farther than

that there will be

it

is
it

is

many gaps

to

fill

if

the student aspires

to anything approaching a thorough acquaintance with

The young traveller can carry only a


Hence the omissions and simplifications,

the language.
light

as

load.

of the

neuters in

contractions
-o?),

in

declensions

(especially

of

the free use of Ionic forms such as are

found in Homer and Herodotus, as being simpler, the


admission not only of the Greek of all periods, but of
V

vi

PREFACE

Hellas proper, the implied recognition


is, for many who wish (and need)
to use the Greek Testament, also good Greek
my
great aim being that the learner may progress swiftly,
lands outside

that Hellenistic Greek

pleasantly, and as effortlessly as possible.


So I have
shrunk from attempting to pour a quart into a pint flask.
I have also purposely omitted from this book Englishinto- Greek exercises, because, when sandwiched between
Greek-English ones, they render progress slower and
add greatly to its difficulty, and because I have found by
long teaching experience as head-master and formmaster that boys who begin Greek at the commencement of a school year without this drag on their progress
could, by the end of the second term, thoroughly master
a book of Xenophon.
Then they (for examination
purposes) turned to English-Greek exercises, and had
in a fortnight's lessons covered as much ground, and
that easily, swiftly and surely, as they would have done
in the course of the two terms' work under the usual
method. So great a difference is made by gaining some
previous familiarity with a language before attempting
to write it.
In my opinion, thus based on experience,
those who have to write Greek for high-school or
university work may safely postpone its commencement
while those
till they have worked through this book
who wish to learn Greek for the sake of its literature
only can dispense with such practice.
I have pleasure in acknowledging my obligations to
Dr. W. Rhys Roberts, Emeritus Professor of Classics
at Leeds University, for his helpful criticism and advice,
and for assistance in correcting the proofs of this work.
;

A.

S.

WAY.

INTRODUCTION
People who know no better speak of Greek as a
dead language" it is anything but that. In the first
the language of
place, the language of modern Greece
its literature, that is is so little removed from the
ancient form, that anyone who knows enough Greek to
be able to read the Greek Testament will find, if he
procures from the British and Foreign Bible Society a
modern Greek Testament, that he can read it as easily
The few differences in grammar
as the ancient one.
"leap to the eye" so obviously that he will not need to
In the
refer to a modern grammar to interpret them.
second place, we are all like the simple citizen in
Moliere's play, who was proud to find that he had been
" talking prose " all his life without knowing it
we too
have been talking Greek all our lives, and, in the case
of most of us, without knowing it.
The vocabularies in this book contain some seven
hundred words familiar to persons of ordinary education,
which are pure and simple Greek words thinly disguised
And these are by no means all that
in English letters.
have found a place in our language. There are hosts
beside which are familiar only to the specialists in the
various sciences
and these are purposely omitted here.
Every garden-lover talks Greek this book gives a
"

vii

INTRODUCTION

viii
list

of

loved

some

sixty

from -a

little

child.

Greek friends known to him and


It is by no means exhaustive,

As
as a glance at any grower's catalogue will show.
soon as a pretty wild flower is developed by culture into
a garden one, it forgets its old rustic dress, and flaunts
and so the snapdragon becomes the
in Greek attire
;

antirrhinum (nose-to-nose flower), and the larkspur the


delphinium (dolphin flower), and the professional
gardener or amateur knows the old names no more.
In the animal world there are some fifty names
given, from the cat to the nautilus, which are familiar
as household words.

Our bodies are walking Greek dictionaries, from our


craniums down to the bones of our feet. Our very food
(some of it Greek) passes down a Greek lane to a Greek
stomach, where a Greek converts it into another little
Greek, and so it passes on its way through Greek highways and byways, ever suffering a Greek change into
something new and strange.
Of our Greek ailments and their remedies the list is
lamentably long. Our diseases are undesirable aliens,
whereof a very few masquerade under English aliases,
and still more under Roman ones. But the physician
(himself a Greek) knows them all by their true names,
and sometimes exposes them in a court of justice and
when an honest magistrate asks him why he doesn't
" speak plain English," he ups and gives their Roman
so
aliases, and the majesty of the law nods approval
little do we recognise how large a portion of the words
in common use are really not of the pure English stock.
;

In the household, in our social relations, in political


in our amusements, in our talk of inventions and

life,

arts,

we babble Greek

all

the time.

Every new

inventor,


INTRODUCTION

ix

whether of a hydroplane or a tooth-paste, rushes to the


Greek dictionary to find a name for it.

As

for religion,

the ministers and

ministrations of

coffin and the


arms about us all the

the Church, from our baptism to the

cemetery, Greek

is

folding

its

time.

In our education, the infant and the scientist alike,


from the alphabet to the most intricate calculations in

physical research, are children of Greece.

Of our

Christian

names over

thirty here given

are

Greek (but these are not all) and very suggestive and
beautiful in their meanings they are.
It is clear, then, that anyone who has a mind to
learn a little Greek already possesses a very respectable
vocabulary to start with. It is of this fact that I have
availed myself in the preparation of Part I of this
book for beginners. I have limited its vocabularies to
words which the learner already knows as English
;

that

is,

so far as possible

and connexions between the

make

to

clauses,

sentences at

all,

has been neces-

it

sary to introduce a few verbs, prepositions and particles,

but they are very few, fewer,


is

it

may

Greek style would demand.

for

limited to the very

minimum

of weaving thoughts together;

be,

than a stickler
given

The grammar

that will do the


since

grammar

work
is

the

most repellent and discouraging subject for the learner,


if it is thrust upon him in great gobbets at the outset.
It is

not absolutely necessary that the learner should


several grammar pages to memory before

commit the

proceeding to the exercises on them

he might simply
and after this has been
keep referring back to them
done through a few exercises, so much will stick in
the memory that the labour of memorising the remain;


INTRODUCTION
ing inflexions

given will be very slight.

words of the

first

English
familiar

letters,

with

The Greek

few vocabularies are repeated

in

so that the learner will insensibly grow


the alphabet without grinding it up

Some English equivalent words in the


human physiology, science and diseases
may not be found in the talk of " the man in the
street "
but now that the various branches of elemen-

beforehand.

vocabularies on

tary science
generally,

it

form part of the curriculum of schools

assumed that the learner


and will seldom need to

is

pretty nearly

will

know

an
English dictionary. The learner will not trouble himself with the accents (learners never do).
They are
always given in the most elementary works of this kind,
all,

demand

refer to

and would unhesitatingly


which omitted them
but, as a rule, our scholars pay no regard to them in their
own pronunciation of the language though the modern
Greek does. They were not known to the Greeks of
the "golden age" of its literature, to whom it was their
native tongue (any more than we put accents on our
stressed syllables), but were invented by grammarians
because scholars

damn

Greek book

it,

for beginners

of a later period to guide foreign learners in pronouncing the language.

In the case of a few words which

are spelt alike, but are distinguished

by

their accents,

convenient to know them


but even here the
context will generally tell the learner which is intended,
it

is

as, for instance,

thuinos "

mind

"

and thumos

in

"

thyme "

our desert and desert. The only one in this book


which you must note the difference is
interrogative

like

and

Ti9 indefinite.

The

learner

will

understand that

Part

is

but a

beginner's book, an introduction to the study of Greek.

INTRODUCTION
It

designed to show

is

how easy

xi
to

is

it

make

a begin-

So some
ning in what is miscalled a difficult language.
but so are some parts of
parts of some authors are
Browning and even Greeks found Thucydides difficult.
We find a Greek writer heaping maledictions on his
;

and saying that his countrymen, instead of


merely banishing him, ought to have hurled him into the
Barathrum (the " bottomless pit ") with his book.

obscurity,

The

lessons

constructed, in

are

the

first

place,

to

familiarise the beginner with the English-Greek vocabuin the second, to impart some facility in translating
passages framed on it. Then, if the learner is encouraged
to proceed to the reading of Greek authors, it is necessary

lary

that he should acquire

some

further

matical inflexions, and of just a

knowledge of grammore syntax to

little

This is given in Part II, in the Supplementary Grammar; after which he may with some
confidence try his hand at easy passages from Greek
writers, of which examples are given, that he may so
estimate the progress which he has made. They are
taken from the Greek New Testament, Xenophon and
begin with.

Euripides.

Then

follows

some information respecting

the dialects in which great authors have written, with

examples for translation of the Ionic from Herodotus


and Homer of the Doric, a lyric from a Greek play
and a few lines from Theocritus of the Aeolic, from
Sappho. All the passages are chosen as possessing
;

interest or

beauty

hint of the interest

Greek

literature.

in

Of

given, that the learner

by the small

themselves, to give the student a

and beauty that are so abundant

in

those in dialect translations are

may

not be too

initial difficulty

much discouraged

of novel forms of words

those in verse are of course not

literal.

think he will

INTRODUCTION

xii

be surprised to find how many of the words in these


passages he already knows. On an average, only about
one per line has to be supplied in the vocabularies
prefixed to them.
The student will find that what he now principally
needs is to enlarge his vocabulary and to extend his
acquaintance with grammar as he needs it in the course
of his reading.

done
I

for

him

will often find this latter obligingly

authors he

may take

up.

think that, after working through this book, he will

find himself

as

He

in the notes to the

about as well qualified for future progress


for their first year at the
and matriculate on even less Greek than he

some students who go up

university

has acquired.

Perhaps the greatest discouragement and bar to one's


Greek literature is the necessity it
imposes (when pursued under the usual conditions) of
continual reference to the dictionary, and the consequent
slow progress made. Those who wish to read Greek,
not to pass university examinations, which would require
their studying the niceties of philology and the intricacies
of idioms, but for the enjoyment of it as literature, for
its living interest, for the treasures of wisdom and beauty
that it contains, are now in a position to do this without
such hindrance as I have referred to, through the Loeb
Classical Library, which gives the Greek and an English
The reader will find
translation on opposite pages.
that, after having worked through this book, he is fairly
qualified to use these volumes, especially if he begins
with Xenophon, the tragedians, Herodotus and Homer.
interest in the study of

CONTENTS
PREFACE

CONTENTS
Lesson

32.

Philosophy

33.

History

....
....
....

34, 35.

Geography

36, 37

Geology and Precious Stones

Lessons
>.

Lesson 38.

Botany and Zoology

Lessons 39, 40. Mathematics

Lesson 41.
42.

Grammar

V.

Physics and Chemistry

Astronomy

VL

.....

Future and Aorist

Formation of Tenses.

Lessons 43-48. Religion

Grammar

Formation of Perfect Active, Passive and


Middle, Present and Imperfect

Lessons 49-57. Our Ailments and their Remedies

Cognate W^ords, and Grimm's Law


Lesson

58.

One

illustrated

of a Family

PART
Supplementary Grammar

II

1.

The Vocative and Dual

2.

Peculiarities of Declension of

3.

Adjectives

4.

Pronouns

5.

Numerals

in

Declension

Nouns

.....
.....

Declension and Comparison

....
....

6.

Full Conjugation of Regular

7.

A^erbs in

8.

Irregular Verbs

9.

Principal Parts of

Verb

.....
Common

10.

Prepositions

1 1

Conditional Sentences

Verbs

CONTENTS

XV

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION


Greek Testament.-

PAGE

St.

Mark

2.

St.

John

(4,
6.

.....

Euripides.

Deathbed of

The

Homer.J
i

Trial of a Traitor

Two

/-Iliad:

[9, 10.

1-5

xxi. 9, 10, xxii.

Xenophon.
and Dates

7,8. Herodotus.

Ionic

1-12;

i.

Revelation

[3.
5.

1-5;

i.

and

Alcestis

Night-scene: the

129

....

Lotus-land

Doric

ri.

Euripides: a Lyric

12.

Theocritus, from the Idylls

Aeolic 13. Sappho: a Lover; the

125

Moon

Stars

Odyssey

119

.124

Stories of Child Life

Palms

Moon and

130
i3t

132
Stars

.........

132

Translations of the Passages (7-13) in Dialect

133

Index

137

PART

THE GREEK ALPHABET


Name

of

letter

Name of

Eng.

/long, as in ah

Alpha

1 short,

as in at

Beta

Gamma
Delta
Epsilon
Zeta

Eta
Theta

g
d

hard, as in gilt

as in set

as mft-te

th

flong) as in ravine

Iota

Kappa
Lambda

Mu

\ short, as
k

m fin

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

GRAMMAR I Declensions
There are three Declensions in Greek.
In the First Declension most nouns are feminine, and
end in - or -a. Masculines end in -7/9 or -a<;.
a cane or reed.
The model form is seen in

DECLENSIONS

,
. -

The Second Declension contains masculine, feminine


and neuter nouns. Masculine and feminine nouns end
a crocus.
in -09, and the model form is seen in

!-

Singular

Nom.
Ace.
Gen.
Bat.

Noui.

a crocus
a crocus
of a crocus
to, for,

with a

Gen.
Baf.

crocus

Neuter nouns end

in -ov.

crocuses
crocuses
of crocuses
to, for, with
crocuses

The model form

is

seen in

jepdvi-ov, a geranium.

Plural

Singular

Nom.

yepcii'i-ov

Nom.

Ace.

ryepavi-OV

Gen.
Dai.

yepavi-ov

Ace.
Gen.

'yepavi-to

Bat.

yepdvi-a

<yepavL-a

or
masculine -09, feminine
in
The feminine
precedes) -a, neuter -ov.
is declined like nouns of the same termination in the
First Declension, the masculine and neuter like nouns
of the same terminations in the Second Declension.
beautiful,
Examples are seen in --09,

Most adjectives end

(if

a vowel or

and

, -, -, -, -,
small.

\- \- \- -)
\'
\\--Sino-itlar

N!as<r.

Nom.
Ace.
Gen.

Bat.

fem.

KoK-fi

Plural

Nom.
Ace.
Gen.

Bat.

neut.

Singular
fem.

Pliirai

as fem. of

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

The Third Declension

contains masculine, feminine

and neuter nouns their cases are generally not got


directly from the nominative, but the endings are
appended to what is called the Stem, which will be
:

given

in

model

the vocabularies after the nominative.


The
masculine and feminine nouns is seen in
a panther.

for

Singular

Ace.
Geii.

Dat.

-,

The model form for neuter nouns


drama, the stem of which is

seen

-,

Singular

is

in

Plural

Noin.
Ace.

-<;
-,
-,
Geii.

Dat.

Not

-,
Plural

a panther
a panther
of a panther
to, for, by a panther

Noiii.

because when the


is preceded by
these letters are elided {i.e. rubbed out).
If
is preceded by
(or
, or they form, with
the -, -, as in
(stem
a calyx,

T, B,

or

V,

becomes
If

the

is

preceded by

-, -,

becomes

.
as in

),

-),,

ir

(or

), , or , they

(stem

form, with

-), a hoopoe,

THE ARTICLE

GRAMMAR
There

The

is

II The Article

no Indefinite Article

Definite Article

is

in Greek.
masculine,

GREEK THROUCxH ENGLISH


LESSON I Plants and Flowers
The numbers (i, 2, 3) following the words denote the
declensions to which they belong.
The gender is
indicated by the letters ;//.,/., n.

,
,
,
,
,
,
),

Greek 7uord

English form

/".,

/.,

bryonia
krokos

bryony

narkissos

akanthos
in., hyakinthos

acanthus
hyacinth

in.,

in.,

in.,

ryepaviov, 2

,
,

anemone
crocus
narcissus

in.,

anemone

thymos
2

11.,

11.,

thyme

heliotropion

heliotrope

geranion

geranium

poBov, 2 n., rhodon (a rose)


S^vSpov, 2 n., dendron (a tree)

7,
'

2
2

., petalon

(a flower)

;/.

plural (all)
(before consonants),

-^

ca/otype
I /.,

/;/.,

^,

chrysanthemum

;/.,

kalos (beautiful)
3

/.,

ij\

chrysos (gold)

in.,

rhododendron
petal

(a leaf)

anthemon

;/.,

^
2 in.,

(the god)
ypan-\om'\me

JPan

(before vowels),

(before

aspirates), not.

and, also, even.

\,

Neuter plurals take the verb


1.

2.

3-

5-

6.

y.
8.

in

roses are beautiful.

'

the singular, as

^.

.
'^ ' .
., .
SevBpa e^ei ireraXa.

)(

yepavia
poha,

rjXiOTpomov,


PLANTS AND FLOWERS

,
,
,
,
,
,
,

LESSON

II

Plants and Flowers

Greek word

Eitqlish

kanne (a reed, cane)


I /"., mesembria (mid-

/.,

day)

^<,
-<?
I

vicseuibiydinuxemuva

agchousa
ui., aspharagos

anchusa
asparagus

_/!,

;//.,

-/"., -ov ., azaleos

(dry)

azalea

pea)
pelargos

vi.,

(a

pelargonium
asphodelos

2 m.,

.,

melon (an apple,

melon

fruit)

.,

2
2

asplenium

chrysan-

.,

themon

chrysanthemum

takes dative after


among, within)

(prep.)
(in,

asplenion

(spleenvvort, lad)'-fern)

iv

asphodel, daffodil
iodine ^

ion (a violet)

iov, 2 .,

pea

2 7/., pisos (a

ireXapyo^,
stork)

form

cane

it

i^z/grave

.
^
''
.
. .
] ,
^., .
;;/.,

-/.,

7i.,

mikros

microscope

(small)

TTeXapyol

1.

ol

2.

ai

3-

elab

7reXapyo<; iv

'

5-

6.

7-

8.

? 79

*
^

Sevhpa.

Tlie flower that blooms at mid-day.


Because its native home was a dry, rocky soil.
Because the seed-vessel is shaped like a stork's
Because of its violet colour.

The apple-shaped

fruit.

bill.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

10

LESSON III Plants, Flowers and


The stem

,
',
,

it

nouns of Decl.

inserted after

is

Greek word

Efigliih form

akakia
2 j/L, kaulos (a stalk)
2/., nardos
2/., myrtos
i/".,

,
,
,
<;,

i/3t9

pai5nios (a healer)

amaranth
paeony

petroselinon
m., orchis

parsley
orchis

{opxL-), 3

(-),

(tp*^-)>

3/.

[),

arum

ii.,

;//.,

aster

aster

kalyx

calyx

iris

iris

3/!,

'),

(before a vowel
.

re

both

must not be the

but
an J or re

first

poSov,

'

1.

2.
3-

45.

''

6<;

TTeXapyo^ ev

7-

<

word

re

hevhpa,

6.

8.

myrtle

amarantos

;;/.,

;//.,

acacia
cau/tiiower
nard, spikenard

aron

2 .,

where

from the nominative.

differs

<;,

Trees
Ill,

in

its

clause, as

xe

poha.

.
^.
.

hevhpov.

<;
re

.
.
.

vdpSov.

PLANTS, FLOWERS

AND TREES

11

LESSON IV Plants, Flowers and Trees

,
,

Greek word

,
,

English form

aloe

-f.,

<;,

aloe

i/, daphne (bay-tree)

daphne

kitron
2 111., kistos

citron

II.,

8,

auTtppivov, 2

,
,

cistus

., akoniton

antirrhinon (snapdragon)

n.,

antirrhinum
delphinium
centaury

., delphinion (larkspur)

\< (-),
{-),
Kevjavpiov, 2

aconite

kentaurion

n.,

ii.,

^ /.,

kyklamis

cyclamen

S/., klematis

clematis
dittany

diktamnon

kore (a maiden, daughter)


)
^^^'eopsis
opsis (face, appearance) /
., TjSu . {r]hk-),
hedonist
/., hcdys
m. ace. sing. i]hvv, pi. m. nom. and ace. ?;SeZ9.
I

o^ln^

;9

/.,

{6-), 3/,

Nouns ending
have

and

in -t?

1.

KLrpa

2.

6.
7
8.

of

-09,

as

in -e,
oi/re-

SevSpa.

whose stem ends

.
^
.
.

9.

3.

-v<;,

in the genitive singular instead

,^.' ..
rfj

ySea

re

iv

BevSpoi<; elal

hevhpov,

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

12

V Plants,

LESSON

Flowers and Trees

Greek word

English form

athanasia (tansy, immor-

/.,

tansy

telle)

-,(-),
, ?'
ayapiKov, 2

;/.,

agariknn (toadstool)
3/., kannabis (hemp)

\'''

aithra (clear light)

/.,

;/.,

I hclianthus

anthos (a ^
flower),

in./., -ov, n.,

eukalyptos (welleucalyptus

covered)
m.f., -ov,

,
,

name)

polyanthus
pyre

pyraethrum

^^'' (^^^^^"")

[-),

canvas

poly-

anthes (much-flowering)
3 n., pyr (fire)

,
,
'
TTvp,

. (--),

-<;,

in.f.,

agaric

euon}'mos (of good

n.,

euonymus

(-),

salpigx

/,

(a

trumpet)

salpiglossis

J
/, glossa (a tongue)
{-), If chion (snow)
\ ^^^^^^^^^^^
I /., doxa (glory, appearance, opniion)
I

88-),
ayyetov, 2
nor,

even

;/.,

and
.

| ^^^^^^

(a vessel, pitcher)

not

., kakos (bad,

evil,

nor yet
/.,

-,

r^ri^graphy

wicked)

'
,^.
ouSe

1.

.
2.

8, '

45-

iv

6,
78,
'
'^

'^

ouSe,

ouSe

not.

-,

m.,

hydor (water)

aggeion

n.,

ovSi,

-,

'. .

Through the French

From

...

?}

tanaisie.

the thick envelope enclosing the seed.

ovSe

ANIMAL LIFE
LESSON VI Animal

13

Life

Greek word

,^

English form

/.,

(-),

a cat

ace.

(-), 3

,(-),
^

,
-,

cat
3 ;//., a
a lioa

;/<;.,

mouse

mouse

lion

3 ;//., a panther
(XujK-), 3 ;., a lynx

eXfc'0as"

panther
lynx
elephant
camel

an elephant

;//.,

a camel

;/^.,

(--),

pivo-Kepw;
(nose-horn)
2

rhinoceros

;//.,

rhinoceros
;//.,

hippopotamos

(river-

hippopotamus

horse)

8\,

/ieya?,

-,^,^, . (/-)

aypi-o<;,
"^ ^

;//.,

a lizard, crocodile

m. sing,

great

2 ., a wild beast
J/i.,

-a.

3.
4

<\
^;

8.
^

-v<i

take

^.

^, '

'
6

at

elai

aypiav TiypiSa.

The popular word,

in the ace.

-i^

ouBe

7.

onager
^

and

TLypte^.

5.

6.

1
J

in -i?

'

1.

2.

wild

'

2 in. or/;,

instead of

megatherium

-a,/., -ov, ., fierce,'


^-^

an ass
Most nouns ending

ovo<i,

crocodile

/.,

7/^.,

ace.

aypiov
least

in later

Greek.

We

find

an annotator

writing " ai/ouros (tail-waver), which the vulgar call kalta" as an explanatory note to a passage in the poet Callimachus.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

14

LESSON

Animal Life

Vll

Greek word

Eiii^lish

ippvy-), 3

an oryx, gemsbok

;//.,

bison

a bison

7//.,

(-),
(-),

3 /.,

an ox-like

antelope

vaiva,

buffalo
3

ichneumon
chameleon
hyena

ichneumon
;//., chameleon

;//.,

(-XeovT-), 3

hyena

<;,
I

/.,

(shadowing

m.

tail),

squirrel

squirrel

(-),

7-8<;

{-),

;;/.,

a beaver

castor (oil)

pachyderm

-ov n., thick-skinned

Di.f.^

hybrid^

an outrage

3/".,

(--)

w/._/!,

.,

flat-

platypus
ornithology
ornithorhynchus
rhinoceros

footed

(-), 3

bird
pvyxo<; (pvyxe-), 3 n., a snout
Kepa;
3 ., a horn
/.,

(-),

6<-,
9,

as,

1.

flee

how

from

/^, ' ..

(that, after a

statement)

ovBe

2.

? yXa

.^
3

form

oryx

yXa

(Egypt)

6.

8.

Because

it is

regarded as an outrage on nature.

ANIMAL LIFE

15

LESSON VIII Animal

Life

Greek word

English form

(-),

cuckoo

a cuckoo
(interjection), the cry of the

cuckoo
/39 {"), if., the

,
,

3 VI.,

('-),

;y/.,

ibis

ibis

pelican

a pelican
3 ;//., a hoopoe
3/., a kingfisher
-ov n., wingless

hoopoe

{-),

-?

in./.,

^,

in.

king),

(a little

halcyon
apteryx
a

crested serpent
2 in., a scorpion
3 ;/, a dragon, python
3 ;/, a dolphin
2 111., a tunny

,
,

basilisk

scorpion

python

(-),

dolphin

tunny

Seiv-o<;, -], -ov, terrible

-,
9

2
I

in.,

a lizard

1.

Seiva

2.

OL

r/

_;;,

dinosaur

say. call

saying,
description

.
.
..
^^

word, speech,

t/3i?

ol

,.

,
.
'

SevSpa,

Beivov
ev

6.

iari

7.

Beiva

^^^^^^ ^^^^i

^^^.^

iu rot? BevBpo\<i Xeyovac

8.

/?

''.

''

eiat.

^^.^

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

16

LESSON LX Animal

-^

Gieek word

(--)

in.f.,

footed
/

(-),
/

{6-),

,
],

/.,

,-<;,

-,
^,

3 .,

-ov,

oarpeov

..
ev

conch
cochineal
chrysalis

3/, a chrysalis

| phylloxera

.
8 .
8. .
8 8. .
ian

ascidian
bacteria

Seiva

iari

;.

ev

6.

8.

nautilus
oyster

a leaf
withered, dry
2 ;/., a little bottle, sac
2 ;/., a little stick
;/.,

sperrriciceti

a nautilus

(--),

\\ 7

.
|

a shell-fish

4-

an oyster

iu

2.

octopus

., seed, spawn
a sea-monster, whale
3

-?;,-oy, -scarlet

f ^^V^'-a,

1.

n.,

English form

eight-

;/.,

j_

2 in.,

oarpeov, 2

Life

<
*

Anciently believed to be the spawn of the whale.

j^

MAN AND

,
,

X Man

LESSON

G7-eck

;;/.,

man
woman,

wife

11.,

[piv-),

skeleton

ophthalmia

3/., the pupil


f; the nose

iris

-<;,
the stomach
(-],
2)

3/!, belly

4
5

6.
7.
8.

f.,

an artery

stomach

^<

^^

.
.

palm

(e'9,

yvvTj rot?

Ipi'i

gastric

artery

/.,

r)

al

rhinoceros

2 m.,

the palm
(lakes accusative) into

1.

pedagogue
cranium

skull

2 ;/., a skeleton
2 7/1. an eye

{IpiS-),

misogynist

3 ;//., boy, son


guide, lead, bring

KpavLov, 2

2.

Body
philanthropy

hate

ei?

his

English form
2

{yvvaiK-), 3/.,

ay -,

and

17

word

-,(-),
71^^?;

BODY

HIS

<=;

a form used in poetry)

?.

<;.

.
,
.
.

ayet, et?

yuvaiKO;

eyXa<i

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

18

LESSON XI Man and

,
,
,

Body

his

Greek word

opyavov, 2

n.,

or

;/.,

/.,

,^

megaphone
bronchitis

2 in.,

7<? (-),

tympanum

/.,

-'
,

(-^-),

j ^^iropodist
^
J
''>

dia-

t^^^

phragm

diaphragm

the heart
2 11., the
the heart
I
f., the aorta

cardiac

,
-,
I

/!,

76-8,
1

vup,

\^

a tongue

drum

a voice, sound
the windpipe
(X^H. 3/, the hand
3 ;;/., the foot
I

^<;,
%">

English form

organ

an instrument

(--),

membrane round
pericardium
aorta

epidermis

,/., the outer skin

hear, hsten to

now

/.,

acoustic

. . .
,
.' .
.
^
^
^
m.,

and

1.

2.

n.

(jravr-), dat. pi.

al

ai

m.

all

;,

pantheon^
opyava

3-

ayovatv

et?

6.

opyavov.

7
8.

temple dedicated to

all

the gods

's,

in.,

a god).

MAN AND
LESSON

BODY

HIS

Man and

XII-

his

Greek word

;/.,

3/., a vein

phlebitis

the ear

otoscope

(--),

3/, (the gland) beside


parotid

the ear

(-),

,
7-

;//.,

larynx

the larynx

sternum

arepvov, 2 n., the breast


2 ;, bone

<
^,

m.f., -ov

osteology
(the

ii.,

membrane)

round the bone

,
,

{-),

periosteum
physiology

3/., nature

physiognomy

/, mind, thought
side

I _/.,

(/-),

the liver

;/.,

lobe
the spleen
eK (e'l before a vowel), with genitive,
out of
with dative, together with
2 w., a
3

Body
English for/11

(6/3-),

(-),

19

;//.,

pleurisy
hepatic
lobe
spleen
ircentric
all

words be-

ginning with
sjni-.
;

m.f.,
;;/./.,

2,

iv

6.

8.

(stem

-),

plural

,.
is

e^ec

Xapvy^ ayei

what

interrogative sign

Tt<?

al

?}?
3

who

The Greek
1.

.,

e^et

<^(

^.
.
'^

.
Xyov.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

20

LESSON XIII Man and

his

Body
Engliih fonit

Greek 7vord

{irarep-), 3

{]-),

;;/.,

,_,
,
(-),
or
or

^
,
,
(^a<ye,

2>

pairidirch.

^ mother

/>

7Jiairra.xc\\y

papa

;;/.,

3/,

a father

_f-,

papa or pa

mamma

mama

flesh

he devoured
2

in.,

juice,

pharynx

chyme
chyle

chyle

',
,
-,
{-),
ira'yKpea'i

{ira'yKpiar-),

n.,

the

sweet-

pancreas

bread

2 ., the

,
I

11.,

mesentery

mesentery

colon

the colon

make

.
.
.
<
^.
?
/
, .

3 Ji., a thing made,


composition, poem
I
7//., a maker, poet

'

iv

7]

.
6.

ayei

et?

<; .

el^

iv

Xy

"

<;
"

y.

."
8.

poem

poet

1.

2.
3

ma

{<^apvy-), 3/!, the gullet


;., juice, chyme

or

\ sarcophagus

/;

'

PROPER NAMES

21

LESSON XIV Proper Names

Greek word

*,
*77,

English form

a wreath, crown
2 7//., a lover of horses
2 vi., helper of men
[tivtp-), 2 ni., a man, husband
*avhpel-o<i, -a, -ov, manly, brave
TTerpa, I /., a rock
*76/509, 2 ;;/., a piece of rock, stone
2 /;/., conqueror of people
2

*(960-9,

*'6^,

Stephen

;;/.,

;./.,

-ov

71.,

dear to

Philip

Alexander

Andrew
petrify

Peter

Nicholas
Theophilus

God

honouring God
*^6/3>;-9, 111./., -ov, n., god-given

?,

2
I

Timothy

til.,

Theodore
Philadelphia

a brother

in.,

/, a

'
?
/?

sister

.
.

Proper names may take the article,


names of famous persons, or mentioned
1.

2.
3-

5-

.
6.

7-

^.
.

\ @\
\7.

8.

especially when
shortly before.

al

4-

The above common nouns and

.
adjectives were all used

proper nouns.
" The city of brotherly love," so named when founded
^
by William Penn, head of the Society of Friends.

in

by Greeks

as

Pennsylvania

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

22

LESSON XV Proper Names


Greek word

7609,

English form

;;/.,

husbandman

-<;, -, -, immortal
(-),

<;,

ui.,

eU76i^-7;9, ;;//., -e?,

m.f.,

Ambrose

a king
bearer of Christ
//. {v<yeve-), high-born,
3 w.,

noble

-,
',

George

(-),

-, .

Basil

Christopher

Eugene
stead-

Eustace
Gregory

fast

7/5);/5,

keep watch

the greatest beauty of Greek

/.,

,
,
story

(-), 3/,

Helen, Ellen

name '?;),

(as a proper

Dorcas

a gazelle
i

/.,

a rose-

Rhoda

bush

-,

/, the faithful wife of Greek

Penelope

story
I

send

^?

I /.,
a
procession

sending, escort,

'^, .

1.

2.

).
45-

6.

Xyo
'
.

J.
8.

pomp

^
,
' .

'^/

3-

solemn

avSpl

Xoyov

.
.

(fine addresses)

'
^

..

?}

PROPER NAMES
LESSON XVI

23


GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

24

GRAMMAR

III Pronouns and

The Demonstrative Pronouns


and

',

take the
6

that.

article, as

<; ).

?,
When

in

Greek are

or
means "this

it

that man.
is thus declined

must

(never

,
is

man"; for
They
man

being omitted.
then the predicate,
this
also be used independently

is

may

ovro<;, this,

they qualify a noun,

RECAPITULATORY

25

LESSON XVII Recapitulatory


Greek word

English

(-), 3

pet,

blood
(it) flows, peovat, they flow
2 JH
a horse

?,

rheum

'\

in.,
I

/".,

a river J
the sea

(fcpdre-),

3 ., strength,

(-),

3-

e'/c

5-

et9

'

6.

iv

a lung

;//.,

pneumonia

pel

pel

eh

pel

. ,8

.. "
pel.

8.

Tiy

.
12.

thalassocracy

.
.
^.
V

pel

\ev

.
7-

power,

TO

2.

'j

dominion

1.

hippopotamus
^^ ^

,
'

fji in

anaemic

^^.,

'^

'^

.
.
.

Seivov

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

26

LESSON XVIII The Home

,
,

,
,

English

Greek ivord

a house

;//.,

;//.,

law, custom, regulation

/, management of the

antinomian

economy

house

a house

2 m.,

{8-),

3 ;/., a house
j
a seat, chair
2 /, an
oven, furnace
I /., a (vaulted) chamber
Siaira, I /., way of living, (medical)
dieting
broad,
-ela, -v

KaOehpa,

/.,

,
,
-,
,
-,

., butter

(-),

;//.,

coal

2/., Corinth

-,

,^
.
.
flower

2 m.,

-,

cathedral and chair

chimney
chamber
diet

moulded
pomegranate

balustrade

wine

- .
avhpaai

1.

2.

ev

plate
butter
anthracite
currant ^
plaster

2 .,

'

ev

5-

6.

dome

(-),

flat

foi'tn

dioecious (plants)

7-

8.

yvvai^L.

ev

Trj

SiauTrj,

-..

t]8ea,

imported from Corinth.

First

Used as an ornament for tops of railing-pillars.


Through the Latin viiium, which was the same word.

THE HOME

.. )

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

28

3.

iv

iv

5-

6.

opyava
elal

(Olympus).
y.

8.

\<;

avoyyoi

/ /.
ev

Oeol

\\< \ }
ajyelov

'EXivij

,
^].


PERSONAL AND SOCIAL
LESSON XX Personal and

29

Social

Greek word

,
^,

English form

(-),

7)1.,

I'ayl>,

-^;,

<,

hero

nymph

antagonist
-, -, bereaved, orplianed
I
., a. professional informer

/,

;/.,

'

antagonist

;//.,

orphan
sycophant

a sailor

;//.,

ivepyeia,
/"''' if.,
-^

epyov, 2

a hero

a bride, n}'mph

/.,

nautical

energy
working)
i./
s/ (inward
^

~l
\

work
2

-,

'=''

panegyric
scandal

-, -, affectionate, amorous
-, -, imitative
yiyavTiK -, -, -, gigantic

erotic

ip(i)rLK-6<;,

The
whole

ai

ayaOoU

is often used, as with us,


to denote a
not a particular individual as ol

,^

yvvaiKcov

eye

roi<;

yiyavTiKov

3-

vayvv.

..

ayaOoiv.

yvao

'avypLov

6.

8.

\<;

lions are terrible wild beasts.

elai.

2,

y.

mimic
gigantic

article
class,

Seiva eari
1.

energy

laudatory address
., a snare, an offence

2 in., a

ivepyeia

eya

Seivt]

evepyeiav

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

30

LESSON XXI Personal and

Social
English form

Greek word

,
,
,

-',
^-,

;//.,

something cut deep

in,

character

character

Trei^ta,

-,

-,

ascetic

laborious, ascetic

ni.f., -ov,

;/.,

polygamous

polygamist
penury

poverty

/.,

monopoly

I /., exclusive sale, monopoly


pleasure
2 ;/., a bow
m.f., -ov, n., burnt whole
or all together
I

hedonist
toxophilite

/.,

{)-,

/.,

'^-<;,
by oneself
(/-),

-,
,
,

-,

vi.f., -ov,

ouTo?

dry

/
.

<;

TrevLav

ayei

parasite

\\,

e^eL

,.

)(.

'

BevBpa

8.

<

i)hova\

5-

7.

austere

Chnsio//u'r

., food

'

4-

6.

2.

autograph
stigma

a mark, stigma

;/.,

2 in., or

3-

written wholly

carry, bring, bear

1.

n.,

, /^?
<
-,

holocaust
philanthropy

philanthropy

(make a bonfire

Greek

irapa-atros,

of).

ev

one who

his expense, a toady, hanger-on.

sits

by

(trapa) another's food,

and

eats at

PERSONAL AND SOCIAL


LESSON XXII Personal and

,
,
-,

(-), 3/, a nymph who lived

()

an oak
2

;//.,

Dryad
sarcasm
pragmatic
fancy

(flesh-tearing) sarcasm

{^-),

npaypa

3 .,

a deed, thing

/, phantasy, imagination

-,

-],

per-

sensitive,

ceptive

aesthetic

(-),

transport,

/,

ecstasy
eremite, hermit

ecstasy

-, -,
-,
yjrevS-yj'i,

desert
eccentric

-ov, lonely,
in.f., -ov, n.,

., a talent

-, .

m.f.,

(-),

eccentric
talent ^
false,

lying

(-),

',
-,

;/.,

name

in.f.,

1.

ev

-ov,

n.,

dialogue

anonymous

^.

2.

6.

platonic

unnamed,

]
.
^ .
eloLv.

pseudonym

BuiXoyof, 2 ;/, a dialogue


3 7//., Plato, the philosopher

nameless

Social
English form

Gfcek ivord

in

31

^ ...
?;'

ev

8.
^ Our use of the
of the Talents.

word

in the sense

of ability

is

taken from the Parable

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

32

GRAMMAR IV The
The

Present of most verbs

Indicative

full

conjugated

Verb, the Relative,

-,
-,

2.

So
have

go,

-,
-,
-, -, Plural

am

we go

going

you go

paiv-ere, ye

go

they go

he goes

-et,,

3.

thus

Siiigu/ai-

aXko<i

is

'-, -, -.
-,
-etre in the

ist

But
and 2nd persons

plural.

The Imperfect

of verbs that begin with a consonant


is got by putting e- before the stem,^ and -ov after it.
It
This tense denotes a continued or repeated action.

thus conjugated

is

--,
--<;,
'--,

Plural

was going, used to go


you were going, used to go
he was going, used to go
I

1.

-OVV
-ei9

3.

-eu

Plural

am
eare

he

is

^, we were
, was
you were , ye were
they were
, he was
I

you are

This

of the

6- is

called the Syllabic

word by a

syllable.

Plural

Singular

But the Imperfect of


minations as
^

Imperfect

Present

Singular

el,

end thus

irregular

is

iari,

f-ySatV-ere

--

Plural

Singular

2.

-, \-,

But the Imperfects of

--

S^//,ular

is

,
,

with the same ter-

Augment, because

it

augments the length

THE VERB
or

The Past Indefinite,


momentary action.
is
The Aorist of

'

or Aorist/ denotes a concluded

with the same terminations


as the Imperfect.
The Relative Pronoun is o? ;//., /., 6
OtJier, the other is
-, -. Both are declined
like 09, except that the nom.and ace. neuter singular

-,

end
1

in -o,
Aorist

not

-ov.

(-

-os)

means unlimited,

from which comes our horizon.

indefinite,

from

),

limit,

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

34

LESSON XXIII Amusements

,
,
8
/,

Greek word

English for7n

a theatre
/., (a tent) scene, stage
I /., orchestra

Oearpov, 2

theatre

.,

(-),

,
',

;/.,

action,

Trpo-ypappa (-ypdppaT-),
I /., tragedy
I

;/.,

scene
orchestra

drama
programme

drama
programme
tragedy

comedy

_/!,

comedy

a foreword, prologue
one who uses only imitative action, not words
a pantomimist

7rpo\oyo<i, 2

,
-,

vi.,

(-),
an
I

w.,

w/./.,

eih-ov, -e?,

;/.,

movement

cinema

athlete
-ov,

n.,

athlete

climbing and

acrobat

aloft

-opev, -ere, -ov,

-e,

1.

eavoev

2.

iv

ei?

saw

Bearpov,

etSopev

elSov

8<;.

Xeyei ve<i avSpe^

pantomime

\ ,.
^?
\
] ' ,..

walking

3-

prologue

ni.,

yvvacKe<; elaiv

\eyei

5
6.
7-

iv

<S.

iv iKeu>(p

e^iv

iv

.
.

AMUSEMENTS

,
,

35

LESSON XXIV AxMUSEMENTS

Greek word

English form

where

2 ., a place

,
,

athletic sports

were held

,
.

stadium

hippodrome

a race-course

/!,

fire

?i.,

/,

science

art, skill,

<-,

2 ., a

-,

gymnasium

-,

trapeze ^
calligraphy

',

., strength

callisthenics
lyre

a lyre

/.,

all

(-),

Ui.

.^.
.
}
^
' ,
-,

-,

3 ., sight, view
fond of: as noun,

-ov, loving,

friend

-<;,

?;/./.,

(areXe-), tax-free

iv

iv

panorama
^

philatelist

raU

?;?,

e/c

From

. .

Te^yrj.

'^ '.

<^6

iv

6.

a^l

iarlv

1.

2.

-e9, n.

gymnasium

/, a table
3 ., beauty

(-),
I

Pyrotechnic

gymnastics

devoted to athletics

(/-),

\,

"i

heivov <yap

the square enclosed by the ropes and crossbarr


stamp-collector, because the stamp makes the letter tax-free.


GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

36

LESSON XXV

Politics

? ?,?,
,
7\-,
-,
G7-eek

and Government

wora

(-),

and

gen.

,
,
-,
,
,
,
,
-,

a citizen

/;/.,

-,

-,

?//./.,

nom.

3/., city, state

ace.
I

English form
pi.

polity, police

politics

political

-ov,

.,

self-

autonomous
monarchy

ruling

/., sole rule

;;/.,

;;/.,

;//.,

a despot

a ruler
-e?, n., autocratic
a master, despot

;//./.,

;/.,

rule,

government-

a staff, sceptre

? '
.
I

despot
all

words ending

[in -archy

if., citadel
I /., rule of the noblest

1.

tyrant
d}'nasty
autocrat
Tarchaic

/., beginning,
2

metropolis

of a few, a clique

/., rule

e%ei

/;

sceptre
acropolis
aristocracy
oligarchy

2.

'^'1^

^PXW

U^

4-

6.

7
8.

ayaOal

6Xi'yap\LaL

.
.
.

.,
eVrt.

POLITICS

,
,
,

AND WAR

37

LESSON XXVI Politics and War

?,

Greek wofd

///.,

English form

I /., rule

i/,

1)1.,

plutoXo^y
plutocracy

wealth
rule

of the rich

common

the

democracy

by the people
people,

the

masses

ep'ide;/ lie'

/^?,
demagogue

,
,
-,

a leader of the people

;;/.,

demagogue
anarchy

if., anarchy

2 in.,

/37/?,

,
,
,

an army

;//.,

army-leader, general

if., generalship
good at arranging
-,

/-,
-,
\ay (-),

3/., rank,

,
^.
I

2.

6.

^.
8.

armour

., a trophy
/., a hollow reed (bamboo)
2 111., a humming sound
I

;;/.,

;, stratagem

phalanx
panoply
trophy
cannon

bomb
catapult

a catapult

{--),

stratagem

,
^
.
^^^ ^
^
/}?

^
^.
'

45-

/i, full

tactics

phalanx

strategy

BaJyo

yap

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

38

LESSON XXVII Inventions and Arts


Greek word

^-,
<\>,

/,

English form

write, draw, paint

/., writing, description,

scripture

telescope

adv., far off

('-), 3

., a letter (of the


alphataet), anything written

<ypap,fia

<,

vyp -,

-a, -6v, liquid, wet,

(-),

.,

aerial

aerodrome
anemometer

wind

damp

hygrometer

stone
KvK\o<i, 2 in., a circle, wheel
I /., a contrivance, machine
Takes genitive,
around, about.
irepi,
dative, or accusative
ace. of motion
round, dative, when it means close
round, gen. when not close round
2

in.,

The Greek

colon

is

(at

'. <; ?
1.

ovTo<;

2.

8.

pya

lithography
bicycle

machine

' '.'
top of

perimeter

line).

.
..

''', , ..
5-

6.

telegram

photograph

light

(aep-), 3 ;., air


2 in., a race-course
;;/.,

graphic
telegraph

INVENTIONS AND ARTS

39

LESSON XXVIII Inventions and Arts

,
-,
,
Greek word
I

-,
I

English form

a broad blade, sword-blade


see, look at

/.,

/., a view round


m./., -ov, n., self-struck

,/,

{-),

-',
-,

periscope

(-),

spade
scope

arrangement, rank

autotype
syntax

., skin

ta.x[derm/si

-, -, self-moved
water
(el'Be-), 3 fi-, form, appearance
3 ., a marvel

,
,,

{ -),

automaton
hydrant
kaleidoscope

thaumatrope

trope, tropic
/., a turning
^/., 1. nymphs whose song lured
sailors to destruction
siren
sketch
-a, -ov, off-hand, impromptu
The infinitive pres. active ends in -eiv, as

-,

-,

.'\

iv

1.

2.

ttj

3-

4
5

78.

vypo<;

'^.

.,

],

6.

ypacpr]

<.
\ .
}. .
.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

40

,
,
,
?,
,
,
,
,

LESSON XXIX Education. The Child

Greek word

English form

learn

{--),

;/.,

branch of study,

mathematics

subject, science
I
in., pupil, scholar, disciple
I

/., leisure,

school

school

guidealphabet (two

pedagogue

2 w., boys'

7)1.,

first

alphabet

letters of)

paper

papyrus, paper
a sheet of paper
I /., beautiful writing

2 in.,

7n.,

-,

,
,
-,

chart
calh'graphy

6-, -, -, upright, straight, correct


1

/.,

correct

writing,
all

orthography
I /,
correct speaking, orthoepy
I /., true account of words
-, -ov, first (neuter used as
adverb)

7,

words begin-

ning with ortho-

etymology
protomartyr

then, afterwards

-,

Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by changing


beautifully.
-?, as

The
as 6
6

,'
,
' ^,^'
, ^

-09 into

article

is

sometimes used as a possessive pronoun,


the boy and his father.
ayet

eh

ev

Xeyeiv

meant properly a lecture-room attended by men in their leisure


time; but we do find it in later Greek used of a school in our sense.
* A male servant who was put in charge of little boys.
He accompanied
them everywhere, kept them out of harm's way, and took them to their
schools and home again.
1

THE BOY

EDUCATION.

XXX Education.

LESSON

41

The Boy

Greek word

English form
I

/, grammar

(-),

st)'le,

way

3 /.,

grammatical
of speaking,

phrase
lexicon

clause

?,
^,

Xe^t? (Xe|e-), 3/!, speech, talk, diction


2 ;//., voice, sound

,
,

/!,

[-),

3 ;/., a cut, comma


a limb, member of a sentence
2/, a period
3/., a pause
I /., a syllable

,
-,
2

diphthong
paragraph

paragraph

;/.,

(-),

{-),

2,

m.f., -ov,

The Present
into

vi.,

it.,

synonymous

Participle of verbs

is

pause
syllable

syntax
diaeresis

., peculiarity, idiom

-ov n. (-oj^t-),

colon
period

synonymous

3/, separation

(BiaLpeae-),

{-),

/> co-arrangement

comma

idiom

got by changing

-ovaaf.

'^,

(with infin. and ace. of subject), "so as":


so as to know,
(with indie), so that "
so that

^^,

''

he (actually) knows.
The former denotes the natural consequence, which
j-Z/i'/^/i/ happen
the latter the actual consequence, which
really does happen.

?
/
,? ^^
,
,
,
;

ol

<?

7'], ?

Jpaav

<;

yyvev

Siaipecriv

^.

Xoyoi,

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH


LESSON XXXI Literature

42

<

Greek word

English form

(-),

-, -, -,
{-),

,
,
,
,
,
-,
,
8<,,
8,
I

epic

epic

method

2/.,

ode
prosody
parody

an ode, lyric poetry


I /., prosody
I /., parody
-, -ov, alone (neut. adv., only)
I

\-<;,
I

n.,

monody
elegy

an elegy

-,

-,

lyric

the soul,

/.,

/.,

1>

8-',

;//.,

-],

symmetry

symmetry
3

fit

teaching
uneven, irregular

'
,?,

",

2 w.,

didactic

for

vi.f., -ov, n.,

2/.,

epigram
apologue

., epigram

a fable

-,

anomalous
dialect

dialect

Homer

Homer

TO

'^

ric

psychology

life

('-),
I

monarch

a solo

/.,

eXeyetov, 2

1.

scheme
method

., form, figure, scheme

/.,

-,
/],

poesy

3y., poetry

8 }

. .

iv

. ^.
.
^ ' ^^.
.
'
"
'
''
2.

6.

7
8.

PHILOSOPHY

,
,

43

LESSON XXXIl Philosophy

Greek word

-,

-,

English form

-,

sophism

wise, clever

lover of wisdom
/, love of wisdom, phi-

;;/.,

losophy

philosophy

professor

;//.,

,
,
/?,

of wisdom,

sophist^
I teach

sophist
didactic

88,

XoyiKTj

I /, art of reasoning
moral science, ethics
/, education

technical, logic
ethics

/.,

TTaiBeia,

philosopher

;;/.,

(--),

'^-,
8-,

between two

a syllogism
3 ., an entrapping

cyclopaedia
syllogism

dilemma

(difficulties)

{--),

3 ., a terse pointed
saying, "telling hit"

-,

-,

hyperbolical

],

hyperbolical

in./.,

-ov,

n.,

contrary

to

opinion

paradoxical
a wearing away, invective

-,
, '
'
I

/.,

ovypaov,

-,

n.,

-,

fit

/.,

speculation

ot

The

for

diatribe

monogram

an outline, sketch

practical
I

apophthegm

extravagant,

business,
practical

,
'
theory

XoyiKrjv

-.

iv

sophists were professors of, and lecturers on, rhetoric, political


theory, practical ethics, and the science of the time.
The word had
anciently no sinister significance.
Plato in his "Dialogues" represents
them as both immoral in their teaching and blunderers in argument. But
these " Dialogues," in which Socrates so easily disposes of them, are onesided, and perhaps partly imaginary.
W^e have no extant account of these
discussions written by any sophist.
They enjoyed a great reputation
throughout all Greece and the Greeks were no fools.
^

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

44

rfi

TTatheia

o'l

avSpe^

TTOieh'

(against)

.,

. ^<
<;

\,

'

ihihaa

\<,

'
;'

^/^,
ha'yyv,

Xejeiv 8iaeXejov

\ejiv

';

HISTORY

45

LESSON XXXIII History

English form

Greek word

-<,

,
,

,
,
2

ancient

-a, -ov,

stopping-place, epoch

/.,

time

VI.,

111.,

Hfe (only of man),

2 ;;,

,
],
?,(-),
,
in.,

way

of living

war

{eOve-), 3
3

Neo-Catholic
epoch
chronometer

new, young, recent

-a, -ov,

I'e'-o?,

history
archaic

investigation, history

/.,

a nation

//.,

an age

in.,

story, fable,

/.,

myth

mythology
parchment^

parchment

pen, style
a memorial
thus, so
before a consonant
2 in., (pillar),

;/.,

or

,,

earl

style

mnemonics

,
]
,.
,
,
iv

re

yevv

First

biology
polemics
ethnology
aeon

.
made

in

the city of Pergamos in Asia Minor.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

46

LESSON XXXIV Geography


Greek word

,
,
<;,
7?},

English jorm

cosmic
geography

2 ;;, the world, universe

/, earth, land

/;/.,

(-),
,
7-,
/.,

-<,

-,
-,

-,
-,
3

ft.,

zone
tropic

tropical
arctic

arctic

a\2igram

lines

-,

,,
'-<?, -,

pole
clime

3 ., climate
a girdle, zone

,
,
',
I

sphere

a ball, sphere
a pivot, pole (of the earth)

/.,

11.,

equal
heat
2

.,

Wi7sceles

[soihenu

the Hyperboreans^

hyperborean

differ

or

dat.,

adv., above and below


nom. and ace, Bvotv gen. and
two

dyarchy

^
,
?
- ] ,} ?;
}
'
.. .
6 < ,.
The

as

accusative sometimes denotes "with respect to,"


TO elSo<;, beautiful in form.

'
<;
'

yi]

Trepl

iv

yap

iv

<;

iv

el^ov,

eXeyov

iv

eya

iv,

iv at^

,<;

T-rj

ypaa

iv

iv at?

<;

iv

yap

Tfi

'

()

the North Wind,


people said in Greek myihs to live beyond
free from disease or crime in a
; a people

so that it never blew on them


land of plenty and peace.

GEOGRAPHY

47

LESSON XXXV Geography

,
,
-,
Greek

English form

-.cord

Ai7U7rT09, 2/, Egypt


Nei\o9, 2 w., the Nile
the three-cornered
.,

Egypt
Nile
letter,

the

Delta

Delta

;;/.,

(-),

down-rushing, cataract

3/.,
2 m., obelisk
m.f., -ov, n.,

{-),

,
,
,

;;/.,

cataract

pyramid

pyramid

obelisk

monolith

of one stone
that which limits,

horizon

horizon

orography
Yo\y nesia

a mountain
2 f., an island
3 ;//., a bowl, crater

0/309 {ope-), 3

.-, -,

II.,

-ov,

crater
mesozo'ic

middle

2 VI., a place
of
to be
through.
Bid,
Takes genitive and accusative,
elvat, infinitive

/i?/i?graphy

diameter

Sta T/}9 >59, through the land

and out of it.


'yvjv, through and all about the land.
ireviav, through, on account of, poverty.

,
,
,
,
^

Alyvinov
?}9

^
.

pel 6

Net\o9

,',

iv

eK
iv

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

48

,
,
-,

LESSON XXXVI Geology

Greek worn

English form

dig

find

;/.,

heuristic^

mine

metal

-,

-,

ancient, of old
(neut. pi. of participle o)v),
thines existing

,
-,
\-<;
\^,
,
-,

-,

-ov,

//^liontology

ontology
cainozoxc

new

form

/.,

m/.,

inorp/iology

-op,

amorphous

formless
;/., a yawning,

;/.,

[-],

chasm

rift

(--), 3/., a dripping

stalactite

{--),

stalagmite
antre (Milton,

11.,

;/.,

a drop

a cave

., a

living thing,

-?,

-), -ov, whole


and other adverbs

of the present day


the overlying rock

^,(-),

,
]

;
ev

^
.

The method

for himself.

whole

-i

chalybeate
avBpe<;

elBov

hetvoyv

in

S^^

'
^
, ,
;

<;

etc.)

zoology

be used

3 w., iron

ev

ev

ev

may

adjectivally, as oi

men

animal

ev

elSov

education by which the pupil

,
is

set

K.0

find out things

GEOLOGY AND PRECIOUS STONES

,
,

LESSON XXXVII Geology and

Precious

Stones

Greek word

English form

%-?, -, -,

schist

cleft (adj.)

,
-, [-],
^,
(-),
\8
-,

2 w., a downrush (of water)


honour, value, price
-a, -ov, precious, valuable

cataclysm
timocracy

/.,

,
,

, ;;, adamant,
2/., sapphire

diamond

2/.,

,
,

amethyst

jasper

3/., jasper

chalcedony

chalcedony
chrysolite

2 7/., chrysolite

(-),

8-' (-),
3

7/i.,

(finger-nail)

diamond

amethyst
emerald

2/., emerald

{-Sov-), 3/.,

onyx

onyx

sardonyx
porphyry

3 7/i., sardonyx
porphyry

.
) ,
,
. ^ ^ 8 ^,
I

down.

?;/.,

With

genitive,

below ; pel
along; pel
ev

sapphire
beryl
topaz

2/., beryl
2 m., topaz

payBo,

49

down
down

down
With

froin or
accusative,

^<

.^^-^-^*^ iTJ

.,
'
,
,
,
,,.,, ,,
<yfj

iv

yvvaiKl

yfj

^^,

aya0r]v

'

is

(fortune),

form of government under which a certain amount of property

a necessary qualification for office.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

50

,,

LESSON XXXVIII Botany and Zoology


English form

Gi-eek ivord
I

/.,

a herb, plant
science of plants,
I /., the

[-),
,
-?,
-,
-<;,
-,(-),
botany
I

//.,

mouth

-, -6v, green
-, -ov, blooming, flowering
vi.f., -ov, n., lasting but a day
-, -ov, long
3 fi., a body

,
,
'
,

(^'-,

/.,

{-

/.,

{-),

investigation of nature

change

/.,

-), 2 f; change of form

a cutting
3

botanical
stomatitis

rhizome

a root

/.,

botany

7/1.,

chlorine

anther

ephemeral

macrocosm
somatology
ph)'siology

metabolism
metamorphosis

anatomy

up

ichthyology

a fish

often
on the one hand
on the other hand, but, and.
But these are used in Greek whenever a contrast, however slight, is expressed.
They may often be left unnearly always, as,
translated,
the girl likes this flower,
the boy does not.
some
others.
at
\o[
;

/;

', ^,,

?
.

^.
'^ ,
o\oya

, ,,.}

^'

jfj,

),
.

MATHEMATICS

51

LESSON XXXIX Mathematics

,
-,

English jorm

Greek word

Jii.,

,
,

number
-,

-ov,

connected with

-,

connected

numbers

-<;,

arithmetic

with

mathematics

learning
2

',
,

;/.,

,
8<,
,

71.,

/.,

VI.,

2 ., parallelogram

trapezium
parabola

,
-

cone

cone

centre

(a thorn-prick), centre

diameter
periphery
chord

diameter
circumference
chord

2 /.,

,
,
I

cylinder

a roller, cylinder

2 HI. (a pine-cone),

trigonometry
parallelogram
trapezium
parabola

triangle

/.,

/.,

{-),2,
from

;/.,

speculation, theorem

{--),

theorem
hypothesis

3/., supposition
(takes genitive)

<7/i'stasy

,
,
,
, .'^/,
,,,,,
, ,',
.
I

/.,

hyperbola

hyperbola

{-),

/.,

ellipse

ellipse

Be

irepl

7]

^-

?'],

'

<

<,

.
'

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

,
,,
^-',

XL xMathematics

LESSON

Greek word
I

/.,

English form

an angle
2 n.^ a four-sided figure
vi.f., -ov, 11.^ right-angled
3 ., a leg

polygon
tetragonal

orthogonal

(-),

\-<;,

vi.f.,

(-),

-^,
-,
7-\\-,

-,

., isosceles

,
,
,
',
,
,

in.j.,

-ov,

another, parallel
vi.f.,

nom. and ace,

in.f.,

ace.

isosceles

;/.,

in.j.,

name
upon. With

beside one

n.,

parallel

., three

four

rider sits

tria.a
1

onoj/iutopoea.

eVi.',

base

3/., a base, pedestal


-a (no nom.), one another

genitive, not set wholly on, as, " the


"
with dative, wholly upon,
;

'";

"the saddle lies eVt


with accusative,
"
motion on to, as, " the man mounts iirl
;
or motion against, as, " the king marches eVt.
as,

^^, a

,-^
7\

right angle.

'
'\\7}\'

,
'' , '.
,
',
-^
^
.
^
'.

^
a

Tpi'yoyvov

TpLjwvov

''

yap

hvo

Sk

pyvo

-,

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY

,,

53

LESSON XLI Physics and Chemistry

Greek word

English form

the

science

of

mechanism

7}

mechanics
/.,

the

science of

dynamics

force

vSpavXiKov opyavov, 2 n., an instrument


for drawing water
-, -, connected with
hearing
3 ., weight

-^,
(-),
-,
^-,

/.,

alchemy

-\

(--),

,
^-,
,

barometer

atom

indivisible
beget, produce

sing, evp-ov, -e?,

acoustic

chemistry

in./., -ov, n.,


I

hyclrauh'cs

3/1, division, analysis

-,

-e, pi.

hydrog-en
analysis

-ere, -ov,

found

gen.
a sound

7),

ace.

if. (no

pi.),

echo

vi.f., -e?,

7/.,

of uniform com-

homogeneous

position

^
,
,
8
,
^
.
6/36/-;9,

m./.,

-,

;, of

dififerent

ingredients

heterogeneous

irepl

iv

irepl

ivpya

,
,

^.

^,
~"

'

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

54

,
,
,
,
,

LESSON XLl I Astronomy

Greek word

<,
\'-,

English form

astrology

a star

71.,

/.,

science

of

star-law,

astronomy
the sky, heaven
-, -ov, of glass
{aWep-), 3 ;//., the upper
2

astronomy
Uranus

1)1.,

hyaline
air,

aether,

sky

<;,

2
I

;;/.,

f.,
I

?,

aether
scotoscope^
scotia^

darkness
darkness

Way

7;, the Milky


7u., a wanderer, planet
2

in.,

galaxy
planet

Arcturus

3/, the Pleiads

Arcturus

(stars of sailing-

Pleiads

season)

'9,

,
-,
,

3 /, the

'.,

Hyades

(stars of

rainy

Hyades

season)
the pole star
2 f., (bottomless) abyss
in./., -ov, n., lifted high, up
I

in

meteor

heaven
I

cynosure
abyss

/.,

hide

cryptic

and irpo) ending in a vowel


Prepositions (except
it before a word beginning with a vowel, also when
compounded with a word so beginning, as, hi

',

elide

Si

, '

,6< ?

'

yap

,
-

yaXa^iav

^
field -glass for seeing by night
- In architecture, a hollow moulding (so casting a shade) at the base of
a column.

-<?iiJLii3=*

'

,
'

'8

'

/5>}?,

iiTOLL

,
^,
' ,
ASTRONOMY

09

? iv

aWipo^.

,
yPjv

."

eV/

Sv^[i^

" iv

55

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

56

GRAMMAR V Formation

of Tenses

of most regular verbs is got by


all the terminato the stem, as
adding
If the stem
tions being the same as in the Present.
ends in a dental, guttural or labial, the same change is
made as that given for the dative plural of Declension III,

The Future Tense

-, \-,

thus:

, ,,-, ,

The stem

becomes

^^.

-,

of verbs ending in

in --, TTOte-, as of

-,

changed into -- before the

in

-a-,

as

of

and the

as

-,

ends

or -a

-e

<-.

is

The Aorist, or Past Indefinite, is formed by prefixing


to the stem of the Future the Augment e-, as for the
Imperfect, and adding the ending -a, as i-hiha^-a,
-ypa\}r-a,

--.

It

wrote
-jpaylr-a<} you wrote
-'- he wrote
e-ypa-^-a

1.

2.
3.

is

thus conjugated:

-^-

Plural

Singiihir
I

we wrote
e-ypa^-are you wrote
e-ypayjr-av they wrote

-,

begins with a vowel, as e- or a-, like


the vowel is augmented by lengthening it, eor a- into -, alike for imperfect and aorist, as impf
If the verb

, .
aor.

01-,

.\tH

Diphthong

et-

becomes

jj-

ai-, rj-

-.

But many very common verbs are irregular in some


of their tenses (like our "strong" verbs). Thus the
of
evpov, with terminais
aorist of
is
That of
tions as in the imperfect.
the plural as the imperfect oi
fut.
Some borrow parts from other verbs, as
(compare our "go, went, gone ').
aor.
is
The future of

',

Singular
1.

2.
3

,,

Plural

-ovrai

FORMATION OF TENSES
For verbs

in

-,

a before an e sound becomes long


sound becomes long
-aet,^, -aei

before an

a;

become

-,

thus

-a,

rrescnt

^-(, 'yevv -

i-^^.--^

I.

2.

'-,

3.

<yevva-ei,

-, ^Plural

Singtilat

I I Afiv'

57

yvv-a<;

yevv-a

yevva-T, yew-are
yevva-ovai, jevv

Imperfect

Singular

Plural

iyevva-ov, iyevv-wv
2. iyevj'a-e^, iyevv
3 iy^vva-e, iyevv-d

aorist

see,

future,

takes

iyevv-oev, eyevv-ev
iyevva-ere, eyevv-cne
iyerva-ov, iyevv

),

from other verbs


(done like

its

future

and

aorist elSov.

k' ^'t

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

58

,
^
-,
,
-,
,
,
,
,
,

LESSON XLI II Religion

Greek word

0eo\oyLa,

English form
/.,

theology

theology

., a book

Bible
Genesis

(yeveae-), 3/!, birth, origin


2 /., journeying forth

^,

Exodus

D enteronomy

second
;//., the anointed one
I /., comparison, parable
///., one who spoke for a god,

-a, -ov,

Christ

parable

prophet

interpreter
2

evayyiXioVj 2

///.,

n.,

uayye\iaT}j<i,

one sent forth, apostle


good tidings

;;/.,

;//.,

evangelist

,,)

Singular

Nom.
Ace.
Gen.
Dat.

laity

tJianato^sy

Plural

Nom.

eyui, I

evangel

evangelist

people
2 m., death
2 ;;/.,a son (plural
2

apostle

egotist

Ace.
Gen.
Dat.

or /ze
or
or

-, -, -, my.

-,
)

-a, -ov, our.

'
'
,
/
^
.
) ]%, ,^ 3,
,
OeoXoyiav

XeyeL

iv

i/c

\6yov

iv

SeoO

yevee

Alyo,

eeyov

^, eyova

Aoyov,

yf]v iv

ayy\a

yeov

yrjv

ay-

RELIGION

,
-,

59

LESSON XLIV Religion

Greek word

English form

master, lord

;;z.,

TO
ayyeXo^, 2

-,

-,

belonging to a lord

(), the Lord's house

kirk,

a messenger, angel
2 ;;/., a Christian
I /., service of images
2 nt., a convert
3 ;;/., a wit-

;;/.,

'09,
/9,

',
or

(-),

martyr
I /., an assembly, church
avi/aywyt], I /., a gathering, synagogue
ness,

{-),

//.,

idolatry
proselyte

martyr
ecclesiastic

synagogue

dipping,

baptism

baptism

(eOve-),

3 n.,

nation

the

(plural,

ethnology

Gentiles)

church

angel
Christian

{-mare-), 3 /., belief, trust, faith


,/, favour, grace

{-),

charity

,
,

persuade

,
^
,,
, ,

(gen. or ace), with gen. zai'i/i, as


with a friend
with ace. after, as
he went after his friend.
;

ayy\Lo,

ol

-.

88
,
(Jews)

y\

vayy

yv

'
,
.

,,

rjyov

8\\-

7)8,

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

60

,
',
,
,

LESSON XLV Religion

Greek word

English form

reverence, religion
2 ., a secret, mystery
I /., a letter
2 ///., an elder
2
m., superintendent,
eVtV/coTTo?,
I

/.,

\-,(-),
bishop

-,

-?
-,
sion,

-ov,

.,

schism

(--),

3 /.,

desertion

apostasy

apostasy

-,

-ov,

bent on seeing

for oneself

<; (-), 3/., a choosing

sceptic
for

heresy

oneself

one who claims a


deeper wisdom than is revealed
-, -, secret, hidden

in.,

-',
-,

in./., -ov, n.,


i

slander,

The

who

godless

/.,

evil

hear,

he

hypocrite

,
, '

speaking,

blasphemy

^,

gnostic
cryptic
atheist

m., an actor, hypocrite

blasphemy

article before a participle

who," as

cleft, divi-

schism

<,

epistle

presbyter, priest
episcopal, bishop
catholic

universal
3

Eusebius
mystery

who

denotes

speaks,

" he,

or they,
those

^ The old spelling " biscop " gives the half-way stage in the change.
But many words in common use, as church, priest, chair, have been much
changed by attrition of time.

,
?
, 8\ ' ,
RELIGION

ov

61

jap
eoO

yvol

'

iyL'yvov,

ehiha^av

^.

eXeyov,

'

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

62

LESSON XLVI Religion


Greek word

Xarpeia,

English form

worship, service
3 //., an opinion, article

/.,

Mariolatry

(--),

,
^,

dogma

of belief

8-,

-ov,

7//./.,

-n.,

holding other

heterodox

opinions
1

holding

the

/.,

of

right

orthodoxy

opinion

,
,
,
',
,
2

an accuser, slanderer

;//.,

the devil

diabolical

a gathering, synod, con-

2 /.,

synod

gregation
2

in.,

one

who

has part or

lot,

cleric

iepapxia,

/.,

cleric

government of

(-),

;//.,

hierarchy

priests

rule,

regulation,

canon
2

canon
head, ruler

chief,

VI.,

canopy
-,

-',
on

;//.,

//.,

;r//angel

archbishop

arcliiepiscopal

mosquito-curtain,

canopy

-ov,

each

(before a statement), that

^^r^^.^ii.

.
,
,
,
,
,,
\
,
,
'
,.

Most (but not some of the commonest) adjectives


form their comparative and superlative by changing the

-, -,

-, -, -<,
-^ -,
';,

,
,
-0? into

short,

into

or, if

the preceding syllable be


as
But ayaOo^,

<;.

rfj

{^^

',

},
.

,
,
,
.'

\ \,

RELIGION
ev

ev

63

'

,V

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

64

LESSON XLVI I Religion


Greek word

English form

)],
Roman

,
,
I

/.,

/.,

an oblong

hall

with

aisles,

law-court

basilica

a winding stair, spire


3 /., curve, arch, apse
I
w., instructor in sacred

spire

(-),

apse
rites,

priest

hierophant

,
,
,
((,
,
,
,
,

XcLTovpyia, I /., a doing of service, liturgy


Xiraveia, I /., supplication, litany
2 VI., chorus, choir
2 ;., a psalm
2 VI., a hymn
I read
I sing
often
2 vi., a dweller alone, monk
-, -ov, desolate, desert
I ;;/.,
a dweller in the desert.l

-,

,
,

hermit
I

/.,

,
I

liturgy
litany

choir

psalm

hymn

monk
eremite

/ hermit

a headband, turban, mitre


a dress, upper garment (of

mitre

/.,

,
,
,
,
^'
^
,
, 8, ',,
,
,.
women)

stole

TO

he

77,

.'^

aeiSei

/?

ev

RELIGION

65

LESSON XLVIII Religion

,
,

Greek word

,
, ',
TTaiUov, 2
2

;//.,

a basket

1)1.,

English form

orthopaedic

a little boy, infant


a grave-mound, tomb

)i.,

tomb
/coffer

(? coffin)
I

place

.,

for

cemetery

cemetery
2

evXoyia,

in.,

/.,

,
,

burial, a

tomb

epitaph

an epitaph

epigram
eulogy

a benediction

?/.,

an

empty

(memorial)

tomb
I

/.,

cenotaph
hour

a season, hour

{--),

3 /.,

unveiling,

apocalypse
eschatology

revelation

^-,

-,

coffin

sleep,

-ov, last

I /., revelation by questionnecromancy


ing the dead
I care for
takes gen. or ace.
above, beyond
With gen. it indicates position over, as
a seaside city.
With ace. it indicates motion over, as
he sails over the sea.
on behalf of a friend
beyond one's power.

,
,,
,

,
^ 8 '

,
,
'
,^ ^ * ,
yap

(font),

\'

.
^
^
,
,
^

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

66
ol

.
rot^i

yap

evpov.
iv

Xeyei'


THE PERFECT

GRAMMAR VI The

67

Perfect: the Passive and

Middle Voices

The Perfect Active is got from the Future by changinto


ing the ending
into
into
and by reduplication, i.e. by repeating the initial consonant with -6 after it, as
I stop,
fut.
have stopped but the aspirates
perfect
I
and ",
prefix the
X then become ,

, ,

-,

, ,
--,,
\-,
--. The

instead, as

I live), e

tense

Singniar

1.

2.
3-

-,

--,

Augment
of

-,

-7-7-^
7--

is

-,

-,

(future

thus conjugated

---Plural

The Greek verb has a Passive and a Middle Voice.


In conjugation, the terminations are, most of them, the
same. The Middle Voice, strictly, is used to denote
doing a thing to ox for oneself; but very often it has
the same force as the Active, especially when the verb
has only the Middle form, like the Latin deponent and
some verbs have only such deponent forms for some of
the tenses of the Active.
The Active sometimes represents the transitive, and the Middle the intransitive
;

meaning, as

make

to cease,

stop,

The

,-,
I

Indicative Present, both Passive


and Middle, is got by changing the Active
into
and the terminations are the same as for
the future of
cease, leave off.

-,

- Singular

1.

2.

-ei

Plural

68

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

The Imperfect Passive or Middle is got by changing


the Active -ov into
and is thus conjugated

-,

1.

2.
3.

--Plural

Singtilar

-7-

-'

i-irav-eaOe

e-wav-ero

and
have the same contractions as in the Active. For verbs in -, -ee becomes
-ei, -eo becomes -ov, and the -e is dropped before long
vowels and diphthongs.
For verbs in
sound becomes
-a before an
{-aoi becomes -), -a before an e sound becomes -a
{-ai becomes -a).
Thus we have
Verbs ending

in

-,

-,

<^-,
-a

-el

-elrai

for

etc.

for

'^-,

etc.

OUR AILMENTS

69

LESSON XLIX Our Ailments

,
,
,
^,
,

Diseases of the Throat

and Lungs

Greek word

<;,

English form

nosology

2/., disease

(-),
I

/.,

3 ^^^'> lung
/, disease of the lung
a discharge from the head

'^ {^-),

,
,

pneumonia
coryza

down, catarrh
., phlegm
2 n.pL, the tubes of the windpipe
/., hard struggle, agony

2 in., a flowing

/.,
I

,
,
,

catarrh

phlegm

bronchitis

agony

loss of voice

aphasia

strangled

/.,

sensation,

as-

phyxia

(-),

(-),

asphyxia

., asthma
3/, wasting away, con-

asthma

bursting forth of blood


long-lasting

haemorrhage

sumption

-,
I

/.,

-a, -ov,

phthisis

chronic

begin

<r;r^^type

especially

6t,

,',
,
, , ^.,, ,
, , ,
.

when

then

times
has future

<;

eviore,

some-

eureka

perf.

',

rjv

Sia

7]
yap

QO

rj

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

70

,
,

LESSON L Diseases

of the Digestive System

Greek word

',

evrepa, 2

,
^?

English form

bad digestion
/., sea-sickness, nausea
;/./>/., the bowels

dyspepsia
nausea

dysentery

dysentery

/.,

diarrhcea
cholera
pain of body

hiappoia,

XoXepa,

/.,

/.,

/.,

pi.

?/.,

111.,

,
am

.,

f.,

labour,

am

[-),

fut.

anodyne
suffering,

pathetic
oxalic (acid)

acid, sharp, severe

in pain,

am

ill

the patient
aor.

fut.

become,

,
^,
^, ^,

an ailment
I

diarrhoea
cholera

/.,

(-),

,
,

enteric

arise (of

an occurrence)
aor.

genesis

dynamic

able, can

with indicative if the fact is assumed.


eav (=
), if: with the subjunctive for a supposition.
Both are followed by
for not.
instead of
The Subjunctive Present (the Aorist has the same
terminations) is thus conjugated
if:

Singular
1

2.

-V

- -

The Middle and


ing

Plural

-JJ9

or

Singular

-V

--

Passive Subjunctive
into

-.

got by chang-

is

Plural
'V

DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


eviore

, ,^, -

,, .
epyov

,, '
ei?

eav

71

evTepa.

eav

ttolwv

yiyveTai

]
,
iv

tjj

yfj,

V-S^


GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

72

LESSON

LI

Diseases of the Blood

Greek word

English form

--<;,

ui.f., -ov,

hard to guard

ii.,

against

^ophylactic

[-'),

., pollution, miasma
typhoidal
in.f., -, .
leaven, fermentation, corruption
-, -bv, causing fermentation

,
-,

8-<;,
I

/.,

],
78-,
I

/.,

people

-<;,

(-),

a stroke, plague

()

-ov,

m.f.,

;;/./.,

-ov,

-',

-,

-,

-,

among

11.,

-,

epidemic

endemic

breaking out

in scat-

away

a snapping

/.,

zymotic
plague

., located permanently

tered fashion ^
eKTCK
habitual, hectic
-,
I /., poverty of blood
I /., lack of nourishment, wasting
I

typhoid

coming upon a

a people, native

,
,

miasma

off,

apoplexy

sporadic
hectic

atrophy
apoplexy

The Possessive is often put between the article and


the thing possessed, as with us
the man's disease.

'

,,

' ,
<
al

iv

8,

'

aepc

From

SeivOTepac

yiyvovTai Sia

^^,
. ^,
\

Be

',

-ndp'ji,

scatter,

Be

sow,

a sowing of seed.

Be

DISEASES OF THE NERVES

LESSON

LI I Diseases of the Nerves


English form

Gi cek 7Vord

a nerve

(-),
,
\,
-^
7\,
vevpov, 2

n.,

,
,
^,
,
I

am
I

sensation, feeling

3 /.,

pain

in

head

/.,

{--),
/.,

,
,

-,

-6v,

2 in.,

neurotic
aesthetic
neuralgia

acephalous
s/., paralysis

epilepsy
I /., catalepsy
I /., loss of control of the limbs
I
/., lethargy
2 /;/., sleep (was one of the Greek
gods)
I

-,
<;,

73

ataxy
lethargy

hypnotism
hysteric

hysteric

spasm
rheumatism
syncope

spasm
;//., rheumatism

/., fainting,

paralysis
epilepsy
catalepsy

syncope

,
,
,
,, /
, '^},,
.
,
,
,
,
7]
^
^,
^
.
,
.,
The

neuter singular of comparatives and the neuter


plural of superlatives are used for the comparative and
beautifully,
superlative of the adverb, as
most beautifully
more beautifully,
so
;

most severely.
I

^,

have the headache (am in pain


I have the

with respect to the head)


toothache.

al

yap

'
^

opyava

yyva.

(Xy

yap

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

74

LESSON LIII Diseases

unspecified,

and

THOSE OF THE MiND


English form

Gi-eck xvord

(-),

,
,

., a boiling over,

eczema

{-),
(--),

epvai-TT\a<i

/.,

/.,

wound

traumatic

erysipelas

dropsy
quinsy

3 m.,

peculiar

/.,

temperament

madness

mad impulse to steal


., deep sleep, coma
-, -, suffering from disease
i

(-),

'-,

3 ., erysipelas
dropsy
a choking, quinsy

(--),

'^,

eczema
71.,

/.,

of the brain

^
^

idiosyncrasy

maniac
kleptomania

coma
frantic

,
, ,
'',
8\
,
,
.
')
.
<^ - .
, ,
,
.

under with gen., from under, also of the agent,


(done) by the boy.
as (done)
With dative, position under, as
a flower beneath the tree.
With accusative, motion to under, as
hevhpov, he went beneath the tree.
T>5?

,
?

'

JLyva

01(1 spelling hydropsy.

Old spelling sqiiiiiancy.


Old spelling phrenetic.

^^i^tosj

^^r^v-^


DOCTORS AND SURGEONS

75

LESSON LIV Doctors and Surgeons

,
,
,
Greek word

;//.,

English form

an inquirer into nature,


physician

scientist

';,

a doctor
2 ., a drug,

Y)syc\\iatry

;;/.,

remedy
a

7H.,

pharmacy

drug-seller,

pharmacopoea

chemist

a store, shop
Xeipovpyo^, 2 w., hand-operator, surgeon
vo\yo<;, 2 /;/., a physiologist
(--), 3 7n., a physioI /.,

^-),

physiognomy

gnomist

(fut.

(fut.
To/i,?;,

OTt

/.,
.

save

aor.

a cutting
.

apothecary
surgeon ^
physiology

'),

j-^'.rodont
I

cut

anatomy
not only

but also
aei, continually,

ha,

always

order that (takes subjunctive of


present time)
hel (impersonal), it is necessary
hel
speak.
in

^,

must

,
,
,
,
-^
^
,
^
.^
^,
,
,
, ,'
,
."
8

6,

opyavov

'

(without)

opyava

Old

spelling chiiiu-gcon.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH


LESSON LV Remedies and Drugs

76

,
Greek

word

English form

tendance, healing
treat, heal
-, -, based on experience,

/.,

6-<;,

empiric

-,
\-,
-<,
-,
-<;, -,
trial

-,
-,
-r],

-,

-,

-<;,
7,

-,
8,

-,
-,

^sychothei'apy
therapeutic

by the bedside

clinical

purging, cathartic
causing vomiting

cathartic

-, warding off
-, under the skin
-, benumbing, sleep-

-,

emetic
prophylactic

hypodermic

bringing
/.,

narcotic

panacea

an all-healing drug

-,

-,

give,

astringent

fut.

perf,

aor.

styptic

8,
dinudoie

Present Indicative

Plural

Singular
1.

2.

/ii

8<;

Infinitive BtBovai

-,

-,

the noun,

when it comes between


means tAe same, as 6

same man
otherwise it means
;

self^

as avTO<i

man himself.
The oblique cases

the

the article and


the
or

{not the nominative) are


of
used alone for the corresponding cases of he, she, it
as
but they must not begin a
I see him

,
;

sentence.

ael

,, ,< ^-^
)

-.
,
, ,

REMEDIES AND DRUGS

'

77

^.

Be

.
Se

ore

Bel

Bet

SiBovai.

irUx^

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

78

LESSON LVI Remedies and Drugs


Greek word

,
-,
-,

,
,
2

English fon/i

-,

vyieiv-o<;,

1)1.,

-,

healthful
a straining, tightening, tone
capable of tightening, tonic

-'^, -, -,
-],

-ov, n.,

in.f.,

(-),
I

/.,

poisonous

., arsenic

,
,
hoai<i

-,
3

/.,

given to avert evil

phial, vial

balm

unguent

aromatic

" (as

much)

as possible,"

as small a dose as possible,


(j^o^^t^S W>^/^ (""^
as quickly as possible.

JTr-ayei

vypov

, ,,,
vjieiva

apaeviKOv,

bolus

., scent

? with the superlative denotes

dose

a phial, bottle

(--),

,
,

tonic
toxic
arsenic
antidote

an administering, dose

2/., clod, lump (pill)


2 ., balsam, fragrant

as

hygiene
tone

6,

iav

67]

, -.
,

i7lBepLBo

Koito^-^o^^^^i^

iv

.,
iv

iv'ioTe Be

k^c^^^

iav

iviOTe

6\
rjBv

MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

79

LESSON LVI I Medical Instruments and


Operations

,
,
-,

English

Greek word

(takes dative),

avpiy^ (avpiyy-),

3 /., a pipe,

syringe

tube

trephine, trepan

a trephine

w.,

pierce

trypogrdLT^h.

(-), rough

the windpipe

trachea
bronchial

Hthotomy

lithotomy

-ela, -v

6^<,

-09,

w./., -ov, n., affording safe

111.,
I

for/)i

catai://ri'i-/i ^

use

/.,

asylum

refuge

<; (-),
-, {-),

(defective adj.), safe

god of dreams,

son of Sleep

,
,,
,?,
-,
,

-eta,

ev TOi.9 opyavoi^

Oi<?

ol

,
" ..
6

,
,
,

'^^''

"

vayyvov

brachycephalous

short

avpiyya,

^(^^>

morphia

sleep

^^

xeipovpyol
)) vypa

ol

'

opyava,

,,

hi

ypaa
^^^ ^^^ ^.^ ^^^

grammatical term for a strained use of a word or metaphor.


Ethnological term for short-headed (or round-headed) races of men.


GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

80

COGNATE WORDS
There

are several words in our language which are


not, like those already given, borrowed from Greek, but
are Greek for all that, and yet are really as much
English as Greek, just as the French "chateau" and our
"castle" are the same word, having a common origin
Even so, English and Greek
in the Latin " castellum."
have a common, though far-distant, origin they are, in
their beginnings, sister-languages, since they are children
of the same ancestor, and his speech was the fountain
from which many streams of language have flowed.
That first parent was what scholars have named the
Aryan or Indo-European race. These dwelt, in a past
farther back than any written history begins, in that
vast stretch of country, some thousand miles square,
between the Caspian and the Hindu-Koosh mountains
this would seem to have been well adapted for human
habitation, for its inhabitants so multiplied that host
Successive swarms left the
after host had to emigrate.
old home and drifted, some south-east to the Ganges
;

most north-westward, branching north-west


and so we recognise two great divisions
race and the languages born from their speech

valley, but

and south

of this
the Western, corresponding to the languages of Europe,^
and the Eastern, comprising Persia, Afghanistan, and
northern India. Of this latter, Sanscrit, which lives
only in its very rich literature, is the mother-tongue, and
more ancient than any of the western languages,
is
besides being more primitive in its structure, and so
presumably most nearly approximates to the lost speech
Hence it is that philologists go to it
of the parent race.
to find the root-forms of words of the Western tongues,
and not in vain. For in their new and widely-separated
homes differences of climate and surroundings affected
pronunciation, and changed the look of words out of all
^

Except Turkish, Magyar, Basque and Finnish.


COGNATE WORDS

81

But scientific philorecognition, save by trained eyes.


logists have ascertained a system, a law, in these variations, and have learned what changes to look for in
words of the same origin, in the group of languages to
which Greek belongs, from the same words in the group
Thus the languages of
to which English belongs.
Europe, having a common origin, are sister-languages
are like branches which spread out from the base of one
The law of
tree-trunk, whose roots are out of sight.
mutation of consonants (for vowel-sounds hardly count,
they vary so much, as our own ears tell us, in men's pronunciation of the same language) is known as Grimm's
Law, from the name of the great scholar who first
How it works is shown in the
reduced it to a system.
table, which tells you what forms the consonants (the skeleton-letters) in the Greek group will
assume in the English group, and illustrates them by a
few examples.

appended

82

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH


GREEK BECOMES

Greek
Consonant

IN

ENGLISH

ONE OF A FAMILY
LESSON LVIII One
On some of tJic words given

,
<

97/6/3-0?, -a, -OV,


I

/.,

of a Family

on the preceding page.

OUT

a country

(ace. pi.

6/), to
masc.

83

),

till,

in.

or/.,

cultivate.

an ox, cow

PART

II

SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR
I. The Vocative and Dual in Declension
Two items of elementary grammar have been pur-

posely omitted

in

the lessons hitherto, as the beginner

meet with them in the initial stages of his


study of Greek authors. They are
A. The Vocative. This is only different from the
Nominative, and then in the Singular only, in
Masculines in -a? and -r;? drop the?,
1. Declension I.
names
but those ending in -<;, as
Wepaa, and compound words, as
of peoples, as
change
into -a.
Nouns and adjectives ending in
2. Declension II.
-09 change -09 into -e, as
In most nouns it is like the
3. Declension III.
Nominative for the rest no one simple rule can be given.
Xeov
It often depends on the accent, as
The Dual Number. This is sometimes used in
nouns and adjectives, pronouns and verbs, to denote
two objects but the Greeks generally used the plural,

will

rarely

,,

^;,

^/, ^,

, ,.

even with hvo.

For Nouns and Adjectives


In Declension

I. it

ends

it is

thus formed

in -a for

the

nom.

ace.

and

voc, as
in -aLv for the gen. and dat., as
for the nom. ace. and
In Declension II. it ends in

voc, as
in -otv for the gen. and dat., as Xoyoiv
In Declension III. it ends in -e for the nom. ace.
voc, as Xeovre
in -otv for the gen. and dat., as Xeovrocv

The Dual

of the Article

is

wasc.

Nom. Ace
Gen.

Dat.
87

fern.

neut.

and

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

88

Pfxuliarities of Declension

II.

-,

Declension

II.

Words which end


-eov,

-ea, /.,

in.,

//.,

same

for those two terminations,


thus declined
:

/aSi-.

Nom.

Dat.

-eo9 or -009, as
contractions, the
golden, is

in

neiit.

fail.

-ovs
Voc.
Ace. xpua-ovf

Gen.

receive

(-f'os)

{-ov)

(-eou)

(-f'a)

-ris

{-()

- -f}

{-tau)

(-e'j)

Plural

Nom.

Voc.
Ace.

Gen.
Dat.

-$ [-)
{-)
-5
(eoi)

(-f'a)

{-()

Ace. Voc.
Gen. Dat.

{-()

-[-)
{-()

-{)

{-eoiv)

(-)

-OiS (-iois)

-ous (-e'ais)

Dual

Nom.

(-f

{-)

[fai)

-as (-eas)

(-t'oij)

{-iov)

{-fop)

{-4)

{-fas)

-oiv

{-(Uiv)

Adjectives whose stem ends in -p take -a as the


[vowel of the feminine singular, as apyvpeo^, silver.
/e;u.

apyvpa. {-ea)

apyvpdp {-eav)
apyvpa^ {-)
apjvpa (-ea)
Noiuis ending in -oo<; are done in the same way, but
their vocative ends in -ov, as <;, voc.
a mind.
Some nouns of Declension III. do not follow the
simple rules given in Grammar I, but are contracted
in some of their cases, as those ending in -ei;?, some in
-i? and -< or -, and neuters in
Examples are

Singula}

Nom.
Ace.
Voc.
Gen.
Dat.

-eus

<\\-'
\-(

Nom.

(--

Ace. irdA-ic
\Oc.
Cien.

Dat.

3(^-5

Nom.

Ace. Voc. yiv-os


Gen. yev-ous
Dat. yev-ei

PECULIARITIES OF DECLENSION
Norn. Ace. Voc.
Gen. Dat.

Nom.

Voc.
Ace.

Gen.
Dat.

Some
common

\-

\-45

89

Dual

-ee (or

Nom.

Norn. Ace. Voc.


(or -?)
Gen. Dat. iroX-ioiv

-f;)

Ace. Voc. yiv-r)


Gen. Dat. yev-oiv

Plural

Noni. Ace. Voc. Tr6\-eis

Gen.

\-(

Dat.

are irregular
ones are
:

in

Nom.

Ace. Voc.

({-6

certain

of their

Gen.

-yiu-r)

'-'

Dat. yiv-eai

cases;

two

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

90

Plural

Nom.

<;

Nom. Voc.

Ace, Trarepaf
Voc.
Gen.
Dat.

,,

same way

In the

(?A*,^*^

Dat.

yaanjp.

Adjectives

Ill,

i^U^i"

Ace. avhpa^
Gen.

Adjectives in -, as
tracted and thus dechned

AMft^,

-),

(stem

Dual

Singular
mast,

are con-

and

masc.

fern,

and neut.

jem.

Nom.

Nom. Acc. Voc.

Acc.
Voc.
Gen.
Dat.

Gen, Dat.

Plural
niasc.

andJem.

neut.

Nom,
Acc.
Voc.
Gen.
Dat.

Some

commonest

of the

irregular in their comparison


Positive

Comparative

adjectives are

more or

Superlative

(\5

(fitter)

ayados

or

(5

\(^a)v

(weaker)
(

5
5
($
,

(morally better)
(stronger)

(better worth choosing)


(pipTuTos (more profitable)

(worse in character)
(inferior)

adverb

(in

the least degree)

less

PRONOUNS
oAiyos

91

Comparative

Positive

or

(little)

Superlative
or oAiyiaros

KaKOs
CditAn)
paSios (easy)

pSffToj

405 (hating, hateful)


alaxpos (base, ugly)
aKyeivos (painful)

atffxiff-res

a\yl'

$
-,
-, -?,

.,, ,,
{,)

(swift)
i]5vs

Some ending

in

- make

those in -et? change the


do those in -, as

(,

/'

no positive

-et^ into

-oveararo^, and
as
Sometimes there is

adjective, as
adv., afterwards),

IV.

Pronouns

later,

etc.

last

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

92

has sometimes

For the plural

<;,

Ace.

Gen.
Dat.

The indirect reflexive is used when a person speaks


of somebody else as doing something to ///;//.
(a certain one, someone,
The Indefinite Pronoun

distinguished from the Interrogative Tt9 by


its accent, which is on the second syllable (none on the
nom. sing.), but is always transferred to the preceding
word when there is room for it {i.e. two acute accents
must not stand on adjoining syllables), as
These two pronouns are thus declined
Singular
Dual
Plural

anyone)

is

<

masi. fan.

Nom.

iiiasc. feni.

iieiil

t/s

N. A.
G. D.

Ti

Ace. TiVa

Gen.

t'ivus

Dat.

viasc. feui.

Ace.

Gen.

Dat.

/e

''

.' ()

Ti

Dual

ncut.

Ti'i'ey

rii'as

rivos or
or

or

or

Singular

Nom.

Plural
iiiasc. Jem.
ncut.

Ti

Tivi

()

declined just like the article with -Be after


each case, as
-Se,
-Se,
-Be.
The Relative
is
joined with the indefinite ?, to mean "whoever," and
is declined as these two side by side, as
but has
certain cases contracted.
this, is

6-,


THE NUMERALS
V.

Of

The
a'

30
40
50
60
70
:

The Numerals

the Numerals, the most essential are


Cardinals

9o|

100
200j
300,

400
500!

600
700I

800
900:

1,000
2,OOoj
3,oooj

10,000
20,000
100,000

letters of the

93

Ordinals

Adverhials

alphabet were used as figure-, three obsolete


ones for 6, 90 and 900)

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

94

,
VI.

For verbs in
as an example.

The Verb
make

to cease,

Active Voice
Indicative

Present

may

be taken

First (or JVeak) Aorist


Sing.
I.

(-

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

96

Middle Voice

The

J tA<iA

Passive Voice is conjugated in the same way,


except that there are distinct forms for the Future and
First Aorist.
Indicative

THE VERB
Indicative

97

98

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

Indicative
Future Perfect
Si.g.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

100

peculiar in their conjugation only in the Present, ImFour exemplar forms of


perfect and Second Aorist.
them are

-- -

Bo-),

The

(stem
(stem ^e-),
(stem BeiKvv-),

-),

parts not conjugated here arc formed as


respectively.

-, -, -,
The

from

,--;

Principal Parts are


First Aorist

Future

Active Voice
Indicative

if

(stem

Perfect reOeuca,

VERBS IN
Indicative

-iMi

101

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

102

Indicative
Imperfect

Dual

(---

2.

3.

--^
--

Pliir.
1.

2.

3.

Participle

Infinitive

--

-,

Present

Present
-rj,

Second Aorist Second Aor. Second Aor, Second Aor. Second Aor. Second Aor.
Imperative Infinitive
Optative
Participle
Siihjiinctive
Indicative
Sing.

3-

4--]
((-^

The

rest as

1.

2.

the

2.
3

,
etc.

All conjugated as the Present,

Im-

perfect.

The only

special Passive tenses are the First Aorist

and the Future.


First Aor.
Imperative

First Aorist First Aor. First Aor.


Optative
Indicative Subjunctive
i-rie-7]v

(-

(-)

reO-elriv

Future

Future

Indicative

^--

Optative

Both are conjugated with


same tense in the Passive of

The

make

First Aor.

(- --$
Future

Participle

the terminations

.,

I.

of the

to stand, set up.


:

Active Voice
Indicative

TeO-eis

Future

Infinitive

Future
Principal Parts are
(I stand), First Aorist
Second Aorist, which is intransitive,

Present
Sing.

First Aor.
Participle

Infinitive

?;,
It
I

Perfect

has also a
stood.

VERBS IN
Indicative

-/xt

103

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

104
Infinitive

Participle

<,

,"

was commonly used


ami
Future

in

for the Participle.

y],

Aorist

Principal Parts,

no Perfect.

Middle and Passive


Indicative

Present
Sing.
1.

2.

"-

(-).

But

prose for the Imperfect,

,.

VERBS IN

Indicative

105

Optative

Infinitive

Formations as in the Future Passive of


has no Second Aorist Middle.

,,
.

V^*"^

',
The

Principal Parts are


First Aorist

Active Voice
Indicative

Future

Future

Future

Future

-^Participle

.
,

Future

GS,

-7J,

-ov

Perfect

106

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

Indicative

VERBS IN
Indicative

107

108

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

Indicative

VERBS IN

109

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

110
Indicative

Subjunctive

Dual
2.
3

"(

Pita:
1.

2.
3

'\
Optative

Imperative

^
6 6

Pluperfect {with aorist


jneaning)
Sin^.

^
^
^
)

Plitr.
1.

2.
3.

(?)

(
6
^
Future

Future

Dual

Sing.
1.

2.
3

1.

2.

ilataQt

3.

efffOfToi

send

Active Voice
Indicative

^,

2.

Dual

i77/ii,

Future
Plur.

PRINCIPAL PARTS

111

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

112

yvuir]v,
iiid.
yvSi, yv^s, etc., sufij.
yvwvai, inf.
yvovs, pari.
only found in epic poetry, 1 /s /
^
^ '
except /;-//) fear
j ^

{iyvwv 2 aor.

(,

Present

yvwdi, itnpcr.

opt.

/"^
J

,s
^

y..

'

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

113

before, with Genitive, as

before the house.


before the peace.

T7)s o'lKtas,

(-!,

T7)s

sooner than, rather than,

\5

this.

(on both sides of; aliout, with Genitive (rare in prose), as


yvvaiKOs, a

' &,

with Dative (only in

,,

war about a wonian.

poetr}'), as

-^

'^

about his shoulders.

Avith Accusative, about, near, as

(\ 7]

,,^,
rhv

up along {Dat. only

in poetry),

the king's attendants.

with Accusative, as

up the

ava Thv
aia
ava
irpos, to,

near the sea.

towards evening.

SeiAjjv,
oi

river.

in course of time.

every day, day by day.

,
,
^!
,',

towards, with Accusative, as

!) \

with Genitive, as

TTphs

towards the island.


looking to this, therefore.

)5

in the sight of gods


Qiwv, by the gods
(an adjuration)
in consequence of this,

and men.

with Datiie, as

irphs

-,

close to the island.

,
,
,,

TTphs TovTois, in

addition to

this.

rapi, beside, with Genitive, as


irapa

with Dative, as irapa


with Accusative, as

from beside the

(rest)

Thv

to (beside), or

law

contrary to

within

river.

beside the river.

along by, the


(i.e.

beside,

river.

and not

it).

XI Conditional Sentences
Conditional sentences or clauses are such as involve a
supposition, an uncertainty, as distinguished from an
ascertained fact.
The Indicative, Subjunctive and Optative are used in
them according to the meaning of the speaker also the
;

Infinitive

To

and Participle

may convey

a similar idea.
general uses of the Subjunctive are

The

express
I

(i)

an exhortation, as

^,

let

us go.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

114

a purpose, present or future, as


send in order that
\],

(2)

he

may come.
(3) hesitation, as

say

To

am

to

^
,

a condition, of present or future time.

(4)

The

what

general uses of the Optative are

express (i) a wish, as

^V-b./iT(2)

e^eiv ^puaeia

not for me to
possess talents of gold
a purpose in past time, as
I sent in order that he might

be

it

come.

(3) a condition.

av

With

^,

which marks statements as con-

the particle

is

Thus

ditional.

Infinitive

,,

the

man

fled

he said that

, he

avSpa

said that

man would have fled.


those who actually fled
those who would
av

the

With

Participles

ol

ol

have

A relative

may

e'Se,

fled.

contain the idea of uncertainty

many

as

as

he saw

av 801, as many as he from time to time saw


av 8], as many as he may (presently) happen

to see.

how nreat,.IV,
pi. how many.
J
r

-os,

-77,

'

'

-ov,

t>

ol-os, -a, -ov, of

1-

what kmd.

!,
_'

so iireat
^^

yrocovTOS,
\

[^TOtOVTOS,

;
'

pi. so
^

many
'

,,

(toIos, of such a
,,

kind
,,

used with the Subjunctive combined with


" if," et (iav
el av), or a relative, as 0? av, or some conwhenjunctions, as
{=
), when, or

But av

soever.

is

-,

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

115

Sentences, of
is especially used in Conditional
which there ^refour kinds.

The

z/-clause

is

called the Protasis, the conclusion the

Apodosis.
I. Mere assumption.
Here the Indicative
both Protasis and Apodosis. There is no

el al TrXevpai
sides are equal (as
are equal.

used

we have

is

If

in

the

just proved), the angles also

II. Temporary uncertainty.


Protasis in Subjunctive
with iav. Apodosis in Indicative.
idv Ti
If he (presently) finds that he has
anything, he will give it.
III. Absolute uncertainty, or mere supposition. Both
Protasis and Apodosis in Optative, with
in Apodosis.
0 Ti
Soil]
If he should turn out to have anything (but there's no telling), he would give it.
IV. The condition, it is implied, is not fulfilled.
Indicative in both clauses, the imperfect tense for
present time, the aorist for past time,
in Apodosis.
el
eiroLei,
If he were now
enpaTre.
doing this (butlie isn't), he would be acting wisely.

],

el

this (but

, .

he did

not),

^9:-

If

he had done

he would have acted wisely.

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION


The Greek Testament

,
-,
-\,

iSov,

I.

ii.,

face

,
,

make

ready

-,
[,

'
.
^

-eta,

evayyeXiou

,
^;
?,
,
/
yvo ''
?<,^; ^,
'
< '^ .

,
-,

iv

ayyeXov

iv

'lopSavrj

,
,

-oo\oyoev(l
2.

St.

John,

(close) unto, with

et?

apart from
arrest,

re-

/., testimony
bear testimony

-a, -ov, one's

i,

1-12

,
,

believe, put trust

in

press

'-?,

admit,

e,

con less

straightway)

670-6

?,

an army)

agr

-, straight

yeypanTat

.It*

(of

way

2/.,

pro-

,
,
/,
,'^]. ,,.

shout, cry aloud

09,

path

-,

fut.

I /.,
change of
purpose, repentance
3/., remission, forgiveness
(missing the
I /.
mark), sin, error
journey, march

prepare

fut.

2/., (trodden)

claim

-,

fut.

1-5

-,

partic.

--,
,
-, -,

i.

<;,

pass. perf.

Mark,

St,

even as
behold
send forth

own

true
give light to
I
/. (delegated)
authority, power
2 ., a child

[19

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

, 9

120

<

,
,
.
, . ,, , ',
, ,.
,
,
-.
,
. ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
ev iipxfj

?,

ev

ijevero,

hi

yeyovev.

ev

&eov,

'.

?-

iyevcTO ovSe ev

ev

eyeveTO

'

(tdeov,

Si

,''.

Revelation, xxi. g,

3.

be

,
,
,
,
,

xxii. 1-5

of

full

talk
hither

,
,

., a curse

///.,

bondman,

servant

high

bright
2 ., a lamb
l/".,

XP^^a,

street

serve

2 ., forehead

need

/.,

on this side
on that side

;;/.,

(-),

lamp

3 /.,

night

^^^) ^
,
, ^,.,,-^
3

;;/.,

^ (
< o\jOVj

again,

any more

month

Xyv,

yvvaiKa

ya

ayiav,

******

^^,-^."^'

).

(^,

^^^r

<^

^.-^

ulj'

^fiO'hi^i^/^^ '5:4::-^/-^^

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

ivrevOev

ScoSeKa,

121

,
, ]' '
,

?^
.
eKeWev

et9

'

hovXoL

ev

Book

Ch.

Anabasis
vi.,

3-1

Trial of a Traitor.

T/ie

4.

I,

Cyrus, prince of Asia Minor, a province of Persia,


his brother Artaxerxes, king of Persia,
with an army of Persians, and a contingent of Greek
troops, under command of Klearchus, a Spartan generah
Orontes, a staft-officer in his Persian army, sent a letter
to the king, offering to betray him.

marched against

,
-,
,
\,

arrest

call

()

to-

in.,

man-at-arms
ground

arms

,
,
,
,
,

make war

|^, seem, seem

fut.

to

think

/.,

it

right

;//.,

counsellor

(-),

T,f.,

judgment,

hand,

within
thus

act unjustly,

trial

counsel

best

solemn pledge

;//3?, 2

(eVi-

plot)

consult

just

j{,

:,

good

gether

,
8
,,
,
,
,
,
,

a subject

(-), arrange
set on, instigated

(),
()

,,
not then
2

in.,

wrong

answer
have you
?

altar
I

repent

manifest, detected
indeed, in truth

''l/h 6
\,'ji.
,

t-*

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

122

necessity

/.,

,
-,,

-^,

,
,

" I

must"^

-,

7/9,

"Yes"
After
context rquires.

,,

"No"

or

\ ,
\-\

1^1

88.

Se

ever
ask

again
understood, as the

ttoKlv,
is

avSpi,

avayvqv^ Be
avjKaXel

]''

ei9

? '

.
.
\-^^
.
-\,
^
, ,
,, , ,,,
Be

yecv,

Be

1'^

eirel Be

Xoyou

Be

iyeveTO.

^,

aja -

yayve

Be

^~
^^-

obei-

how

an enemy

declare
out of the way
assent

make

sance, salaam

,
,
,
,
,
.,- , '
6

yap

,i"^r

ey

9*^-

,,^

\^fJt"^v'^
vf^*-^
l\t^
,

C^t

'

uj

^
^

eyv

"

^ oXye

Be

.,,
,
. '
,

These common w ords do not require the copula

&(los,

OTi 'tX^^

hard,

/,

after

4,

them

'77),

morally lawful,
ready,
as S>pa awtevai, it is time to depart.

worthy, Swaros, able, possible,

p^Siov, easy,

"

oXoy,

^
,

,, ' , ^
. ,' ',,,6,"
PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

yiyova^

yap

^<,*^

rv.V^

TTj

^^

\eyei'

^'^*

)
,
,
,

iyo)

'in'^S

*^"

^,,^.

,
,
^,
^
. ^ -/
.

^1^."?

1^^.,

8e

yevoio

7'

123

.^

el

,- -. /

,,

yvr]

'

-',?

ayoiTO.

^.

bb^-1

-^.

^*-^
3?^.^^.

i""-f^^''

j)^ijo^c^^'-u^'j"l>-^-

^^^<^^'

Xenophon, Book

II,

iii.

14-16

f
.

At Cunaxa, somewhere near Babylon, a battle was


fought, in which Cyrus, rashly exposing himself, was
His Persian troops fled but the Greeks were
killed.
undefeated, for the king's troops dared not fight them.
Their generals were murdered by treachery but they
elected others from the ranks, and forced their way, the
Ten Thousand of them, some 800 miles up to the Black
;

^ Greek uses the genitive absolute where Latin uses the abl. abs.,
" Orontes having said."
^ High-born Persians were taught, as boys, "to ride, to shoot, and to

speak the truth." Orontes, even when


or palter with the truth.

ifi^^ '^'

^**

Xyv,

iv

his life

is

at stake,

dees not shuffle,

'

-^

^-^2<;*.^

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

124

Sea, and thence to Greece.


of Mesopotamia.

,
,
^

I /, a village
whence, from which

{--),

78,

,
,
-,
^,

T,

fi.,

JU.,a.gu\de

provisions

a palm-tree
vinegar

3 w.,

11.,

<;,

,
-,,

Here they are

in the heart

dry (crystallize
3

;;.,

(beside drinking) at one's wine

\^<;,

';,

apt to cause

headache

distilled

;/;.,

house-servant
lie by, be stored

;//.,

up

picked, selected

(-), wondev

at

wonderful

;/.,

//.,

liarity

^^^',

pleasure, flavour

^,{
away
I

/!,

middle) wither

oOev

iv

hk

Ihelv

he

rjhij

he

oi/hev

h-ep^

87]
aay.
yao

'"^'^

lho

Euripides, Alcestis,

11.

371-383

King Admetus, has consented to die


husband's stead when his fated hour has come.
He has pledged himself never to marry again, setting a
stepmother over her two young children.
Alcestis, wife of

in her

"J

h^a

he'

hpa

jo'

he

he

hov.

'

\/

bigness

eVtTJ/Seta.

(brain)

terminal shoot of palm,


Hke a small cabbage
(--), 3 /., pecu-

he

*^

a soldier

,
, - ,
,
"
-,
,
, ^'-.^
',
- .
2/., a date

(^

?)

sweetmeat

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

,
'

,
,
,

,
,

The Deathbed of Alcestis

6.

,
\,,

marry

\,

XPVV

(-),
fulfil,

dishonour
perform

fut.

receive

might well have


do
bereaved
(-^), soothe,

console

bereave

imperf.

125
'^'' """^

or

suffice

aWev, poetic form

ought

must,

for

(with ace.)
<ye,

at least (as

',

,,
?,^
^,
I

sometimes

at least), modifies,

emphasizes, the preceding word,


yes, I
now say it
<ye,
je
a dear, dear gift
great indeed
adds emphasis, as
ye, of _you.
Sr;, your
By'], then
indeed Xije
do speak
very selves. ?], a more emphatic form of
:

,, ^

AAKHSTIS.

^ 6'

\eyovTO<;

.
.
.
.
.
.
.. ,
.

ye

ye

yevod

y
,

avayKrj,
ore

ay

Two

,'

y
*,

'

..
.

.
.
.

.
^.

.
,^ .^

yL

ttO^

1^ ^jl^

ayou

Stories of Child Life from Herodotus

Herodotus wrote in the Ionic dialect, the chief characteristics of which are that it avoids aspirates and contractions, as

The

for

{-a for -v), writes

person plural is often used for the singular in Greek ; a style


in English now confined to royalty.
A woman, when she speaks in the
plural of herself, uses the masculine in Greek.
^

first

^ic.U>

i:flU

^- ,(- ),, ,
GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

126
for -a, as

for

sometimes
-6t for -6.

for

for -o

for ovv,

-,

-ev for -eo,

and

as
and
ore, for
used the article as a personal pronoun or

- for

They

?,

-, - or -eo for -of, as

for

a relative.

The

style of Herodotus is as simple as that of Xenothe student has merely to recognise these peculiarities of dialect
and he is most interesting, a perfect
mine of good stories.

phon

Herodotus, Book V, 92
'33

J^ozu Rhirdercrs were

7.

Disarmed by a

Child's

Smile.

man named Eetion married Labda, a daughter of


the Bacchiad family, who were the ruling nobility of
Corinth she was so plain that none of the nobles would
marry her. Before the birth of her child, it was prophesied that he would become the supreme ruler of that
city.
So the Bacchiads determined to prevent this by
murdering the baby,

,
,',
8}

,
,
-,
-

, ,,,
,
I

ask for

evexa, on account of (fol-

lows the noun)


I think (also seem)
decided on

^-,

punction

friendliness

place

in

BLepya

back again

the

(its

brains out) on the floor


by divine fortune, providentially

],

until in fact

dis-

reproach

{-), dash

emphasises

pity (verb)

(-),

patch

hands of

87']

to smile at
m., pity, com-

e?

8,

cast

the

blame on

'

to share in

= '%),

hold back,

restrain

e?

2 m.,

murder

,^,-

6
,
,
^],' '
/
,
,
,
. ^' PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

\,

ovSev

e'ivcKa

iveXeipiae

'

686

evj,.

8, ]
8,

etwKe

enei he

heep, 6

he

a-KOKTelvai,

h-e-X

he

hexa,

hta

hepyaa.

fc^^iiJi*.

heho'yeva,

j^fjj^
'

eho^ev

^>^^^

'^

he

ohevo

e-eXve |,

Traihiov,

127

he

Aha

h i)

"^''
i^-~txi *.

\*-^\

].

7}

?;

and they searched


and that chest, of
carved cedar, ivory, and gold, was kept as an heirloom
in the family, and was seen and described by the
traveller Pausanias 800 years later.

She ran and hid the

child in a chest,

The prophecy was

in vain.

fulfilled

,
,
,

Herodotus, Book VI,

,
,
,
,
8.

Magic Touch

T/ie

that

or

regard, account
think of, de-

(poetic) for 3rd

viv,

pers.

pron.,

him,

her

plain,

uncomely

ola (neut. pi.), as being


(happy), wealthy
^-?;'?, of ill appearance,

(yove-), 3 7U.,
I

/., a

vise

,
,

frequentative

/.,

a parent

calamity

of

a nurse

sacred

,
,^ ()
temple

., a

(), as often as
Ionic

ill-favoured

<6

j"

made an Ugly Child Beautiful

by far
however

sing.

61.

first aorist for

pray

^3

--

,,

-,

(-), change

-/^/), l/.,

(ill

shape),

uncomeliness

76

,
-,

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

128

when

^,

once

ask
/.,

a'yak^a

bend of arm

oBe to

what

statue

what has been mentioned,


as in this passage
and

is

going to be,

] ,.
,

-^' - ,
' '\
.-, ' ^ ^.
,
'
,} '

ev

yvvaiKcov,

being)

Tepa

Lli"^

p\fi'''^^J

SvaeiBea

yap

ayKaXr),

eovaav,

he

he iveUeie

Homer, who

e/c

ev

ev

iyevsTo:

elSo^

Ovya-

Be

(from

>

air-LOjuarj

Tfi

(Cm

change, alter
;/., image,

(--), 3

as a rule, refers to

.
h'

most

beautiful

irore,

stroke
be the

Be

Be

Homer

some hundreds of years before


Herodotus, used the Old Ionic, which is sometimes
called the Epic, from its employment in the Epos (poetry
lived

of heroic deeds) and, besides the peculiarities of Ionic


already given, he employs others, as it may suit the
music of his metre. He omits the augment at pleasure
lengthens words, as
for yij,
has
for
;

ya

^ Helen, the beautiful cause of the Trojan War, being a daughter of


Zeus, was deified, and was especially worshipped in Sparta.

yfiUt-^i v

|u-f

jpt^..

PASSAGES^ FOR TRANSLATION


as

-oLo for

-ov,

3rd

pi.

,for

infin. -eiv, as

for

appends

, ,,

(w/ience), as locative endings, as

from heaven

has

has
remain has -ei
(denoting wJicre),
to

129
for

for

before Ilium,

Iliad VIII, 553-561

A Night

9.

Scene

The Trojans have been

on the

think

/-

have

to

velv,

^,

thoughts, exult
I /., bridge

great

,
,

here,

(perf with present

and are bivouacking

sit

-a,

-01, all

night

long

shining bright

(-Trpeire-), clear-

ly seen

imperf.

to be

mountain-

;/,

foreland

and

,
,
poi'j,

stream
topmost, highest
i
f., a glen

/., a

,
,
,
,
,
,
^,
meaning),

''-,

(view-point),

/.

peak

8,

battle-field

eiaro, 3rd plur. pluperf. of

'

and Stars

the Mooji

victorious,

battle-field.

^),

(aorist

pass.

burst open

unspeakable, im-

measurable
be seen
/;^6> (perf

^^), rejoice

7ro{/i?;V(-/iev-), 3;//., shepherd

between

windless

The

Aorist (and Perfect also) is sometimes used to


denote a general truth or an habitual act it is then to
be translated by the Present (v. 11. 558, 559). re is
often used by Homer in similes, as three times in this
passage, and need not be translated.
:

'
9
01

Se

'

,,

'ya

ore r

for elvai.

.
' ,

Uji^f-

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

130

<,

'
, ,
/^
/ '<

'

'

he

eiSerai

'^/

\^.1>.

\*^

Odyssey IX, 82-97


10. Lotus- Land

1<
Odysseus

fall

is

returning liome across the sea, after the

of Troy.
there

7-7]

-,

,
,
-<
,
,
, -^
,
,
,
,
,
,
,,- ,,,
,',';^.,
},
-09,

hOev, thence

for nine

-,
2

(--),

deadly hurt
open sea

send forth

(-),

;//.,

111.,

fish-

{-oevT-),

haunted

{--),
I

',

;//.,

(aor. pass,

(continent),

land

earth,

a herald

eKpiva, choose

(-), send
straightway

flower-like
el-hap {-har-), 3 ;/., food
eat
2 f.

3 /.,

land

aor.

^;,

drink

3/".,

irpoteLv, imerf,

destructive

-Qv,

days

^),

mingle with

then, after all

), draw

helirvov, 2 n.,

-, -, -,

purpose

(aor,

\-<;

2 w.,

swift

kvaev

aor.

sweet as

return

comrade

pluck
home-return

there

7^

{-7]he-),

honey

supper

2 VI.,

tj.ste

of

but, however
together, along with

'

eV

<<;

''

elhap

' eV

hp,

he helrrvov

'

C)\>k'if t

ehoLV.

7]he

''
'- '
'
8
^, ^

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

TOT iycov

Tive^

avhpe

'

>,

'
'

" ?.

-^,

-^

'

|(;.

'
^
eBovT<f,

elev eirl

AoyoL

131

*^

"cAh

obSe veeaOai,

iiTT-wyyetXaL

''

avhpaat

'

'''

The Doric dialect was used in Sparta and the


Peloponnesus and colonies founded therefrom, especially
Sicily.
Its main characteristic was the use of broad
for
vowel-sounds (like Scotch and Italian), especially
. This made it very suitable for song and so it was
employed by the tragedians in all the choruses and

,,
;

In

solos of their plays.

Ionic

for

but

-,

some

- ',

used

it

for

as

-",

respects
for

for

The poet Theocritus used

it

was

it

like the

for

as

for

for his Idylls of rural life in

Sicily.

i7g^<w.- Ir-'^^ii.

Solo

from

The mother has


little

boy.

,
-',
6<;

This

is

me

(with

genitive of cause)
forsake

.,
,

(--),

bereave,

to

orphan

Ji.,

nerveless

for

-ov,

;/.,

,
mouth

pi. lips

vi.,

nestling,

" birdie "

eyelid

m./.,

beseech

poetic

fall

OUT

for

the lament of her

is

,
,
,
,
--,
,
woe

|./3(i

Euripides, Akestis, 393-400

just died.

n.,

wretched

t^nAJ-^

^-^^^^-"^""

atr-^yyiA>i^?/>^S^Tr^yyiU^,o<7r'7yyccK,r

'
,
, ' ,, -^
.
-,
,
,
,
,
-,
. <<
,
,
,
-,
,
GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

132

ji>

1<^

('^-

-liAt^tO

'

the 'yap, iSe

lyap

.rif eif

Stanza from Theocritus, Idyll VIII,

\2.

before, faster than

run

in

my

,
'^
'
"^ ,
middle

of

^^-^
-ov,

n.,

grazing together
{ok-), 3/., sea

,8
"^

?^

'

^^

:(-|>

''^'

\"

\.

6r<t*eci,M.^

Aeolic and Sappho

'

The AeoHc dialect, used in the north-west of Asia


Minor, and islands thereby, is principally interesting
because the poetess Sappho wrote in it. It has characteristics of other dialects, especially Doric.
Among
peculiarities exemplified in the passages given below are

,
-

for

,
,
,
,

for

>^

^^

arms

m.f.,

fut.

sing

^
C"1^

,
-,

for eivai,

for

(participle,

opposite, face to

face with
sit

near
speak

for 6

whensoever,

nom.

,,
for

for

fern.).

,
-,

,
',

again, in their turn


to be full

shine
silver-like

''^

f o<tvirocc

rt'^>c(o

^^AM^^g

if-C<.

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

"^**
7

13.

r.

"*1
nffo'tif^^

)f>''^C.

-.,
\

Moon and

eVi

;-*^

-\

.7
-

--'

efxjxev (ovrjp,
j^

T/u:

A
Lover

133

<-

t' ^'

e-^^^

-^

<r.

y
^
'

Stars

apyvpla.

'.-

TRANSLATIONS OF PASSAGES

- djf^^^'* ^ *
=

- '0<^<^

'

7-13

IN DIALECT

Herodotus.
their number to the house

7.

They send ten of


of Eetion
These, on arriving and
with intent to kill the little boy.
entering the court, asked to see the child,
Labda,
knowing naught of the purpose wherewith they came,
and thinking that it was out of friendly feeling for the
father that they asked, brought the babe and laid it in
Now, it had been decided on
the hands of one of them.
the way thither that the first of them who received the
infant should dash it down on the fioor.
But when
Labda brought it and gave it to him, by heaven-sent
good hap the little child smiled in the face of that one
who received it. Pity holds him back from murdering
it, and in his compassion he passes it to the second, and
he to the third. And so it passed from hand to hand of
all the ten, no man wishing to perpetrate the deed.
So
they gave back the baby to the mother, and passed forth
without the house. There, standing close to the folding
doors, they began to upbraid one another, laying the
blame most of all on the man who first received the
child, because he did not act according to what had
been decided on, until they decided to enter the house
again, and all to share in the murder.
But Labda
heard all this, standing close behind those very doors.

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

134

certain

beautiful of

8. Herodotus.
man had a wife Avho was by
the women in Sparta, and that,

most

far the

however, by

becoming, from being most ill-favoured, most lovely.

For when she was foul of feature, her nurse, seeing that
she was the daughter of wealthy people, and yet so illlooking, and noting moreover that her parents accounted
her looks a calamity, considering all this, bethinks her of
She used to carry her every day
the following device.
and as often as the nurse bore
to the temple of Helen
the child thereinto, she used to place it near to the
statue, and pray the goddess to change it from its
And so one day as she was leaving the
evil looks.
temple, a lady appeared to the nurse and asked her,
" What are you bearing in the bend of your arm ? " She
The lady bade
says, " I am carrying a little child."
her show it to her. The nurse showed the baby and
the lady softly stroked the child's head, and said, " She
shall excel in beauty all women in Sparta."
And in
sooth from that day she began to change her appearance,
and became of all women the fairest.
;

(^ ^CMt*^ Ip.'i'y

So thereon

Homer.

Iliad.

the highways of battle uplifted in heart they

abode,
Sitting the livelong night
fires

where the countless watch-

glowed.

And

as when in the heaven the stars round the moon as


she walketh in light
Glitter and flash through the breathless hush of the air
of the night.
And out of the shadows the heights and the mountainforelands start,
And the glens, and the heaven's abysses unfathomed are
rifted apart,

And

revealed are the uttermost star-hosts


shepherd's heart

glad

is

the

PASSAGES FOR TRANSLATION

135

So many the

fires were that shone before Ilium 'twixt


Xanthus' streams
And the galleys, while ever the Troyfolk fed those
wavering gleams.

10. Homer.
Odyssey.
Thence nine days did we sweep before winds that were
hungry to slay
Over the fish-fraught deep, till we came on the tenth sad
day

To

the Lotos-eaters' land, on the flower-like dainty

who

feed.

There went we forth on the strand, and water we drew


for our need
And a meal each crew soon spread on the shore by the
;

swift ship's hull.

But when we had eaten the bread, and had drunk of the
wine to the full.
Then I sent of my comrades away to the folk of the
land, to find

What manner

of
eating kind.

men were

they, of the earth's corn-

And

chose two men for the quest, and with them a


I
herald I sent;
And leaving with speed the rest, to the Lotos-eaters
they went.
And the Lotos-eaters thought no mischief against those
three
Only unto them they brought of the fruit of the Lotus;

tree.

And

whoe'er of the fruit


never more
Again to bring word to
land-shore
But with Lotos-eaters
earnestly yearn
Plucking the Lotos to

honey-sweet once tasted, desired


the

fleet,

or return to his father-

return.

for

stay,

aye did the poor wretch

and forgetting

his

home-

GREEK THROUGH ENGLISH

136

Solo from Euripides.

II,

Woe

my

for

lot

to

the

cended, descended

tomb hath

my

mother des-

Never again,
my father, she seeth the Hght of the sun
In anguish she leaves us forsaken
the story is ended, is

ended,
her sheltering love, and the tale of the motherless
life is begun.
Look, look on her eyelids, her hands drooping nerveless
hear me,
hear me
It is I
I beseech thee, my mother
thine own little,

Of

own
It is

bird
cast me

little

O,

so near

me

upon thee

thy

but

pressing them, mother

a word

plead for

12. Theocritus.
Not mine be the lands of a king, no treasure

me,

near me,

lips are so

Unto mine am
a word

of gold for

love.

Nor

feet that can speed in the race more swiftly than


breezes can flee
But beneath this rock will I sing, in my arms enfolding
;

thee, love,

Watching our sheep

as they graze

by the

side of

Sicilia's sea.
13.

Sappho.

Blest as gods immortal is he, meseemeth,


Who, when tJiou dost witchingly speak, may hear thee,
Darling, while his gaze upon thine eyes dreameth.
Sitting anear thee.

The

stars that round the Queen of Night


Like maids attend her

Hide

as in veils of mist their light


she, in full-orbed glory bright,
O'er all the earth shines from her height,

When

silver

splendour

INDEX
Two

references are given where a word


sense.

,
,

The numbers given

-,
&\,

ayapiKov, 12
ayyuov, 12
&yy(\os, 59
1 28
ayKas, 132
ayvas, 23

y,
aypios,

ayxouaa, 9

/,
,

ofiSco,

$,

64

3^

ciyua,

^, 6
)!,
7'''5,
,,
?,

12

34
47

54

91

12

,
,

6g

60

119

91
120

\1/, 130

', 45

2
40

130

,
,
,
,
,

131

137

(45,
,

128

75
124
121

124
42
72

113
113

42

51

49
48

av5p~ios, 21

II

121
18

--,

22

\5,

76

46

-,

122
72
53
37

29

131

48

132

/'"))

73

77(,

/,

',
,
!,
!,
,
afcu,

'''''''''''^'^)

alpfw, III

),

21

&$,9
^,

25

aopaya,

26

/^,

,
,
,
,
-,
,

12

a.vayvs,

/,
,
05,
a\6rj,

aipeats

^-,

avOpaiTros,

a^oAeoS, 9

Si'Sos,

34
36

&\\os, 33

75

130

itr^iiOi,

$,
, ,
,
',
aei.

05, 5

53

15

21

38

21

go

6g
49

21
121

-eaj,

129

,
,
-,

17

^,
7,

&5,

repeated in a different

refer to pages.

73

,
',
55,

,
,
!,
^,
&5,

23
I2S

is

04

,
,
,

),6

,
,

Iig

1 25
58
122

a.(peya,
1

43

120

130

apyopeos, 88

138

iri'p^^cc

INDEX
'/,

47

139

1
1

i^o<r<;cfocc^o7r

INDEX

140

05,

OfaTpov, 34

fleTos,

126
121

657?05,

\,

,,
,
,
,
,

76

121

128

,
,
,
,
,
,
,

II

K^pif^os, 26

64

20

65

!, 09

,
',

37

''$,

12

,
',
,
,
,
62

75

15
131

,
15,
41
119

74

14

^,

02

120

132

119

47

35

7ror;uos, 9
4^ Xy

,,
ipfJi/,

19

128

17

127

46

-, 02

52

46
'',

54
59

!,
',

,
,

59
82

126

5'

02

), 20

KeVTpov, 51
Kepas, 14

7)),

/05,

65

11

45

40

74

/7), 124

"^^

-!,

Kiiyi^ffoypa,
/cupio/idi,

69

/^'',

),

!,
!,

38

126

13

75
', 9
".

26

12

,
,
, ,,
,
,
,
,
,
,
',
,
,
,
,
,
,
64

13

37

127

75

49

119

124

121

4^

17

25

5,
!
05,
,
!,
(,
!,

26

"JO

15

82

^!,
^),

KiJpr;,

35

5,
/0,

82

,
/,

20
40

12

KOiptvos,

112

130

iepds,

(,

65

15

13

(/,

03,

3,
^,

43

7),

48

4"

82

,
,
,
,

',

119

!,

74

II

62

46
j6
KOyXV, 16

Kaivos,

'), 132

/os,

131

yb

05, 46

/(, 6

21

-^,
^,

34

26

23

,
,

130

50

\05,

21

58

$,

eeo's,

,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
-,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
,

;({,

124
124

112
120
32
112

124

73

65

112

{$,

119

Aoj

S8

19

,
\4yw,

INDEX

!, 6
,
-,

62

20

,
,
,
,
,

,
,
-,
,

XiTovpyia, 64

W,

41

,
,
,
13

7?,

79
127

64

,
,
,

^,

%^t*-1)

51

,
,

69
20

74

'

119
119

/$, 59
tyas, Ij
1

', 82

,
^,
,

/xeV,

130

127

,
-^,

g
47
129

,
!,
,

, 59

((,

50
40

121

128

42

125

42
79
48
45

124
20
26
oIktos, 126
oivos, 26
129
olos, 114

oIkos,

,
,
,
",

127
127
130,
3^
S, 91

6\$,

,
,

30

130

8, 48

8
"JO

,
,
89
JO
29

45

131

vedpov, 73

129

42
53
119

',
,
,
,
31

27
130

!,

,
,
,
,
$,

o/cois,

129

6$,

47

,
/, 09

ovos, 13

47

veos,

82
70
124
127

43
47
3^

^Cs, 13

vavs,

50

$,

,
,
,

36
64

,
,
,
!,
$,
,
,
,
,
,
5,
},

24

^', 4^
/7},

6$,

,
,
,
(5,
,
,
5,

127
125

120
6

, , ',

/5,

20

eyeos,

04
45

20

20

53

130

,
,
,

120

,
,

,
,

yCv, 18

127
17

35

XvpiKOs, 42

ytta,

,
,

130
13^

M'Kpf^s. 5

21

127

26
cjffoi, 69
130
Numerals, 93
29

20

yv,

43

XOyos, 15
13

,
,
!,
,
,
,
,

20

T,S

19

viv,

120

/iTjr,

47

Ni/f

70

9,

"JT,

38

XoyiK-fi,

,
,
^,

120

27

15^

141

/,

65

sf
'

48
49

i|oj,

129

5, 70
^), 130

,
,

120
121

//.

ult

/2

INDEX
^//, 129

,
,
,
-,
^,
",
!,
,
,
,
,

142

',

132
Svws, 127

',

$,
,

37
34

35
112

,
,
,
,
,
-,
,

20

opyavov, iS

--,
|$,

52

51,

40

605,

40

40

113

/,.', 47

\5, 3

52

14

73

', 47

14

42

131

19

),

29
34

,
,

oVos, 114

),

121

24
45

,1
20

irayKp^as,
tj, 20

77<5, 4 i
65
$, 17
7?

,
-,
,
traiSiov,

19

,,

51

IJ

122
76
S,

$,
!,

69
127

20
41

,
,
-,
,

20

129

20

121

\5,
7(^/,

122

45

36

\$,

36

7/(, 36

$,
^,

50

5,2
,
-,
,
,
,
,

29

<6;

21

27

4-

49

19

54

26
14

26

31

54

43

113

34
130

'-,

),
5,

,
,
,
TrpJs,

/,
,
',

29

119

25
128
128
124
3

,
\5,
(,

1 1

.$,
^^, 6

112
1

7y
/

TTviy^ofia, '69

, ,

,
/^,
,
,
,
),

39

59

48

^,

45

21
irirpos, 21

II

.05,

21

29

17

'/

3*f

3^

\}$,

41

54

19

\5,

46

15

129

38

83

\05,

,
9

72
132
132
27

, ,

12

',

14

46

-,
,
5,
(,
(),
^,
,
^,

oiipavos,

41

',

ovZeis,

30

76(, 8

69
62

12

,
(,

!9

92

gre,

',

33

4,
,

40

43

5''^, 33

8s,

5^

,
,
,
,
,
-,

131

34

113

)5,
^),

,
^,
1

7<^)/,

126

59

32

122

126
122

42
119

,
,

INDEX

,
,
-,

73

27

72

,
-,
,

13

49

Ti;UO0OS, 21

64

13

,
,
,
,
),
,
,
,

27
37
37
124

37

45
76

121

-],
/),

73

Ti's,

19

-,

Tis,

92

TOi,

132
114

29

41

121

43

121

toioCtos,

^, 75
;($,

78
7S
30

TliiOS,

To|i/c(is,

^^^,

51

^,

47

rdiros,

^,

14

114

67

12J

19

/},
'',

41

41

79
39
42

,
,
-,
),

124

,
,,

74
79

',

119

Tpeis, 52

51

,
,
/,
,
',
,
,
,
,
'
27

37

79
79

12

37

65

31

iS

82

121

36
gz

65
129

(^

?,

127

39

("

34
35

76(,',

39

6
49
4

,
/,
,
,

14

7S

42

59
74
132
02

31

Toioj,

,
,
,
',
,
',
,
,
,
,
, /,
,
,
',
,
,
,

52

", 49

,
,
,
],
-,
-,
27,

52

35

6, 3^

4S
4^

19
21

-,

^,
^,
"??,

35

5,
^,
45,

143

119
125
75

19

-/5,

,
),
,

>0

'*)(

^^
INDEX

144

"$,

54