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Homework 1

1.

Book 2.3

2.

Book 2.6

3.

Solve Book Problem 2.4 using PSCAD except assuming for the transmission line that you are
using solid-core conductor which has an outside diameter of 0.06 meter and dc resistance of
0.03206 ohm per km. Further assume the conductors are spaced 10 meter apart and height of all
conductors is 40 meter. Use the 160 km length from the problem.
PSCAD is a general purpose time domain simulation program for multi-phase power systems. It
mainly dedicated to the study of transients in power systems. Free version can be downloaded
from PSCAD website (details given below). A tutorial of PSCAD is given to guide you through
the simulation assignment included in this homework.

A Basic User Guide to PSCAD


I. Installation & Launch PSCAD
1.
2.
3.
4.

Go to https://hvdc.ca/pscad/pscad-features/read,article/7/free-version
You will have to create a free account in order to complete the download
Install PSCAD
Launch PSCAD from Start Menu

Click RUN

II. Making a New Project and schematic


1. Create a new project : Click on PSCAD Icon-New-New Case

A new project appears in the left workspace window and a blank schematic window appears.

2. Add components to a project


Components required for Example 2.1
- Single Phase Voltage Source with ideal source impedance
- R, L load
- Breaker and Timed Breaker logic for switching function
- Transmission line
1) Click on master library in left top workspace. Navigate to the area containing desired
component.
2) Right click on component and select Copy (Select components and Ctrl + C). Open the
project where you wish to add the component, right click over blank area and select Paste (Ctrl
+ V).
3) There are many different ways to add components
- Some components which are frequently used can be found by Right click over blank area
Add Component Select components which you want
- Components Tab on the top of window Select components which you want
4) Add Transmission line
Right click over blank area Select Component Wizard Click Transmission Tap Click Finish

3. Setting Properties
To set the properties, double click on any component or Right click-Edit Parameters and change
the parameters. At the top of the parameter dialog there is a drop list, which contains list of all
parameter dialog pages. If only one page exists, then the drop list will be disabled.
Setting for Example 2.1
1) Single Phase Voltage Source
- Configuration (Drop list) Source Impedance
- Signal Parameters Magnitude, Ramp up Time and Initial Phase
2) Time Breaker Logic
- Parameters Number of Breaker Operations
- Parameters Initial State
- Parameters Time of First Breaker Operation

3) Resistance and Inductor Values


4) Transmission line
- Right click on the transmission line component Edit Parameters Configuration [Drop List]
Segment Length and Number of conductors
- Double click on the transmission line component Delete Frequency Dependent Model
Options Right click over blank page Select Transmission Model Master Library
Bergeron Model
- Right click over blank page Add Tower Cross Section Master Library Select a tower
- You can go back to Main schematic page by pressing Backspace key
4. Making connections between components
1) Select Wire
- Right Click over blank area Add components Wire
- Choose Components tap on the top of Schematic Window Wire at the top left corner
2) Move the wire to where you want to put the line
3) Wire length can be changed
5. Measurement
1) To measure currents and voltages, ammeter and voltmeter are provided on the component tap
or master library. Ammeter should be connected in series.
2) To plot currents and voltages, use output channel and data signal label on component tap, as
shown in the figure below.

Where VHigh is data signal label and is same signal name given in voltmeter or ammeter.
Voltmeter/Ammeter signal name and data label signal name should be match. In the output channel
parameter dialogue, you can give title, unit, scale factor and min/max limits.
6. Add a Graph Frame
- Right click on the output channel component Graphs/Meters/Controls Select Add
Overlay Graph with Signal
- For adding more graphs on same graph frame, Graphs/Meters/Controls Select Add as
Curve Paste Curve at the graph frame where you want to place

III.

Simulation RUN

7. Setting Simulation conditions : Time step and Duration of run


- Right click on blank space in project Select Project Settings Runtime tap
- You can set simulation time, time step and plot step
8. Simulate the project
- Click Build to check errors/warning of the schematic
- Click RUN

[Note : For Example 2.1, we need to enter L and C values directly for a transmission line configuration.
But, PSCAD generates those values automatically based on tower configuration and conductor data.
Instead, there is a way to enter characteristic impedance (Zc) and travel time manually.
1) If no any error messages come out after Build, you can find out TLine_1.tlo in your working
folder. If you use different name to the transmission line, then you may see name.tlo.
2) Open TLine_1.tlo with notepad

Travel
Time

Characteristic
Impedance

You can change travel time and characteristic impedance to what you want
3) Save the modified
- If you Build the circuit again, PSCAD calculates the line parameters and what you entered will
be changed.

[Example 2.1 PSCAD Schematic]

[Online Video Tutorials]


1. PSCAD How to get the Free Edition :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKxtuSU8Fq4
2. Creating a simple circuit : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUKCos3wdpY
3. The PSCAD workspace : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9P_hfcRasE
4. An overview of the examples : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdIZZiX9xEI
5. University of Minnesota Electric Energy Systems:
http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/power.bad/labs/ps/video_instructions.html

[Reference]
1. University of Minnesota Electric Energy Systems Power System Laboratory User
Manual :
http://www.ece.umn.edu/groups/power.bad/labs/ps/LabManual_PSBook2006_Revise
d_Sept2010.pdf