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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 7, July - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853

Perceptions on Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor

M. Umadevi*1 and Dr. M.Devapriya2
1Ph.D Scholar, PG & Research Dept. of CS, Government Arts College,Coimbatore, India.
Asst. Professor, PG & Research Dept. of CS, Government Arts College,Coimbatore, India.
*Corresponding Email: umamohanshri@gmail.com
A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of numerous sensor nodes and each node is
having capable of collecting, processing, storing, and transmitting to the base station. In case of
each node involves the transmission to sink node leads more energy consumption. So, a typical
data reporting operation provisions the aggregation mechanism to reduce the usage of battery
power. By cooperating the sensor nodes, data aggregation makes collective data to sink node.
This aggregation protocol reduce the communication cost of each sensor node. Prior works of
data aggregation mostly focused on structure based approaches. Still, there is a cost of
maintenance overhead, structure-free provides better results on data aggregation.
Index Terms: data aggregation, cluster, latency, transmission, structure free, integrity


A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of having the densely coupled sensor nodes which are easily
fatigued its energy. Since sensor nodes are energy constrained, it needs more energy on every node
directly involving the transmission to sink node. Data aggregation is an important sensitive process that
is receiving increasing attention in wireless sensor networks. By announcing the aggregator, the
collective data are aggregated as many to one form. The key idea of data aggregation is summarizing the
data packets coming from different sensor nodes. The communication cost is mostly large amount of
magnitude higher than the computation cost. Data aggregation is considered an effective technique to
give an optimized communication cost.
A typical data reporting to sink node is performed by aggregator with cooperation of sensor nodes. Since
data reporting is application specific, there are different kind of reporting mechanism as event driven
reporting, reporting by query and periodic reporting [1]. To improve the power efficiency, there are
number of prior work have been proposed. Still it needs better proposal on reducing number of
transmission to sustain its power. In this work, we deliberate on data aggregation protocols. In general,
this kind of protocols designed with two types as structure based and structure free. In Structure based
protocols, there are number of divisions like tree based, cluster based and flat based which produce
better results. Still there is a need of more energy on topology construction. To reduce its maintenance
overhead, this work considers the topology free aggregation. Here sensor nodes are designed with ad hoc
manner which supports dynamic participation of nodes. This ad hoc mannered nodes produce better
aggregation results when compared with structured network.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II presents the related work. Section III describes
the different research directions of data aggregation. Finally, section IV shows the conclusion.
Aggregation in sensor networks has attracted a lot of attention in the recent years and introduced unique
challenges compared to traditional data aggregation in wired networks. In this paper, we have described
17 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved


International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 7, July - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
recent research results on DA process in sensor networks and classied the approaches into some main
categories, namely tree based, cluster based, flat based and cyclic based data aggregation. However, we
have also observed that there is a structure free approach is t with many aspects. This section analyzed
the different research direction of DA to reduce energy consumption.
A. Tree based DA
Aggregating process is done with tree structure is called tree based approach. A typical data aggregation
technique in wireless sensor networks consists a minimum spanning tree with sink node as root and
communication nodes as leaves. This approach produces the optimal aggregation techniques. This kind
of nodes are aggregated to form a tree with hierarchical levels. The intermediate node involves into
aggregation process. Each leaf node send information to their parenting node. This spanning tree has the
ability to reduce the data redundancy and so as to decrease the energy consumption [2].
B. Cluster formation
The whole network is divided in to number of clusters in this approach. There is a head in each cluster is
called cluster-head. Cluster-heads perform the role of aggregator which combine the data received from
cluster members locally and then it transmits to the base station [3]. A Distributed Uniform Clustering
Algorithm (DUCA) for cluster based WSN was proposed [9] a cluster formation mechanism which is
based on a virtual-grid system. This work mainly focused for reducing the variations in cluster sizes in a
dynamic cluster based WSN.
C. Cluster head election
The data gather processing makes use of the hierarchical protocol based on clustered Architecture in
[10]. The clustering process is performed as virtual backbone in the sensor network. Here, CHs are
concerned with data transportation, and other cluster member nodes are free to follow their sensing
tasks. This procedure can reduce the network energy consumption in number of steps as the neighbor
discovery phase, CHs nd phase and nodes ascription phase.
D. Flat aggregation
In flat network each sensor nodes have a same battery power and plays the similar type of role in a
network. In this type of networks, data aggregation is done in data centric routing manner. The sink
usually sends a data packet to the sensor nodes, for example, flooding. Sensors that have data matching
the data packet along with transmit response data packet back to the sink in the flooding [17]. In this
each aggregation methods normally node has the same role and sensor nodes cooperate with each other
to perform the sensing task. Since the number of these types of node is very large, so it is not possible to
allocate a global identifier to each node. Therefore, Data centric routing is used, in which the base station
sends queries to assured regions and waits for data from sensors located in the preferred regions.
E. Cyclic based data aggregation
A Cycle-Based Data Aggregation Scheme (CBDAS) was proposed with grid-based WSNs with a motto of
extend the lifetime of a WSN. They designed the network with 2-D grid of cells and each cell has a head
which has high residual energy. In this paper, cell head is linked together to form a cyclic chain. In whole
round of cycling process, cell head is responsible for directly transmitting data to the BS as cycle leader.
Simultaneously, all the other nodes periodically forward their sensed information to its cell head. After
that, cycle header is responsible to aggregate the received the data [6].


Research direction of DA:
18 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved


International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 7, July - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
In this review work, data aggregation protocols discussed with some research direction of its application
specific. The objective of data aggregation protocols is to reduce the energy consumption by gathering,
as possible, the sensors data. These data packets are then deployed at each aggregator along the
aggregation path in order to reduce, merge, and remove redundant information to get a small packet size
which is suitable for efficient transmission towards the sink. Since data transmission is responsible for
the most of energy consumption, combining the transmitted packets at each network aggregator yields to
the reduction of the transmitted packet size, which saves the network energy.
A. Reducing number of transmissions
Many researches proposed the improved approaches with focusing on energy efficiency in sensor devices
[4, 5]. In order to reduce the data transmissions, only a few nodes are responsible for distributing the
data to the BS instead. In point of fact, the distribution nodes aggregate their sensed data and then it is
ready to transmit to the BS in order to reduce the amount of data transmission. Consequently, the
aggregated data forward to another node and finally a targeted node transmits to the BS [6].
B. Minimizing latency
Multi-channel design plays a major role technique to alleviate interference as a primary reason for long
latency of TDMA aggregation scheduling. Indeed, it provides more potential of parallel transmissions
over different frequency channels, thus minimizing time latency. [11] In this paper, we focus on designing
a multi-channel minimum latency aggregation scheduling protocol, named MC-MLAS, using a new joint
approach for tree construction. The authors in [12] propose a distributed algorithm to minimize
aggregation latency under the physical interference of arbitrary topologies model in wireless sensor
networks. It also give a centralized algorithm which can serve as a benchmark for comparison purposes.
It constructs the aggregation tree for the nearest-neighbor criterion.
C. Elimination of Redundancy
A greedy approach has adopted for energy reduction by performing duty cycling. This process is done
with multi-hop path at the cluster level. The network coder encodes packets and aggregates data, thus it
reduces redundancy in transmission which leads to improvement of energy efciency.
D. Increasing Power efficiency
The design of a new cluster based data collection scheme proposed in [13] by network coding technique
with clustering and duty cycling process. This work mainly improves for improving the energy efciency
in a cluster based duty-cycled WSN. The network coder nodes also act as aggregation points, based on the
level of data correlation. The method reduce the traffic control with energy efficiency manner. Several
Parameters were considered used for finding energy consumption [14, 15]. Wireless sensor nodes were
initially used to transfer the sensed data packets with associated data and exchange the facts along with
the existing base station of the mobile user. This leads to suffer with considerable energy loss and
bandwidth consumption [16].
E. Minimizing Communication cost
Since wireless sensor networks are not replenished with its energy which is difficult to maintain its
lifetime. Subsequently, aggregation is the main solution to minimize the high energy consumption and
maximize network lifetime by reducing communication overhead. [7] Proposed an efficient
confidentiality and integrity preserving aggregation protocol (ECIPAP) to reduce communication
overhead with result checking method. The experiment was done on physical nodes on TinyOS
environment. Moreover, how to reduce communication overhead is the significant issue to prolong the
life of wireless sensor networks [8]. There are number of different aggregation operations can be
performed as SUM and AVERAGE, on aggregation nodes.
19 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved


International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 7, July - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
F. Data integrity
Data Integrity guarantees the data being sent is never corrupted. This provide a better transformation of
data even in the presence of malicious node. Since malicious node always tries to alter the data into
corruption. [13] Proposed the homogenous nodes for transmitting their sensed information securely
across the network hierarchy. It established the trusted and direct link between neighbors for providing
the integrity of sensed information using data aggregation methods.
We have presented the description on different views of wireless sensor network with data aggregation.
We have considered various parameters such as network lifetime, latency, reduced transmission
integrity and less communication cost for efficient data aggregation process. New data aggregation
algorithms are needed in order to handle the overhead of mobility and topology changes in such energy
constrained environment. Other possible future research for aggregation includes the structure free
approaches of sensor networks. Most of the applications environment monitoring requires the data
collection from the sensor nodes to be transmitted to a server so that further analysis can be done.

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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 7, July - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853

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