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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853

Performance Analysis and Lifetime Maximization of Wireless


Sensor Network using Efficient Clustering Algorithm.
Mr. Ramjeet Maurya 1 Prof. P.A.Salunkhe 2
Yadavrao Tasgaonkar Institute Of Engineering and Technology, Chandhai, Karjat - 410201
Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
Email:ec.ramjeet@gmail.com1, pankaj.salunkhe@tasgaonkartech.com2
ABSTRACT
Wireless sensor networks consist of hundreds and thousands of non-rechargeable battery
powered small sensor node and deployed in remote and hostile areas where it is infeasible to
replace battery of sensor nodes. Due to its limited and non-rechargeable battery capability energy
efficient routing protocols are required to maximize the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In
recent years Clustering based routing protocols are proved to be best for Heterogeneous Wireless
sensor networks. Therefore in this paper the author have proposed a novel efficient clustering
protocol for heterogeneous networks (ECPHN). In the proposed system the Cluster Head is elected
by a weighted probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node, average
energy of the network and distance of the node from sink node or base station. A sensor node
utilizes single hop communication technique to communicate within the cluster and Cluster heads
utilises Multi hop communication technique communication with the sink nodes or base station.
Finally, Simulation results shows that the protocol can improve the performance of the network
and prolong the lifetime of Heterogeneous Wireless sensor networks as compared to other
clustering protocols.
Index Terms Wireless Sensor Network, Heterogeneous Network, S-EECP, M-EECP, ECPHN,
Clustering protocol etc.
I. INTRODUCTION
Recent advancecement in Electronics and Wireless communication technology WSN gain wide
applicability in remote and hostile areas for physical and environmental sensing measurement. Wireless
Sensor networks are subset of Ad-hoc network. Owing to the energy supply (e.g. battery), WSNs have
stringent requirements about power consumption. Therefore energy-efficient protocols are required to
save energy and prolong network lifetime [13]. In recent years, researchers have proved that clustering
is an efficient scheme in increasing network lifetime and scalability of WSNs [46]. Many existing
clustering schemes consider homogeneous WSNs where all sensor nodes are designed with the same
initial energy. Heterogeneous networks have different energy sensor nodes. The energy saving schemes
developed for homogeneous WSNs do not perform efficiently when applied to heterogeneous WSNs.
Therefore new energy efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of
heterogeneous WSNs. Putting a few more powerful sensor nodes can improve the network lifetime and
stability with marginal increase in the cost of network deployment [10].
Recently, heterogeneous networks received more attention by researchers than homogeneous networks,
because if we look into the real world applications viz., habitat target tracking [10], monitoring [11], and
disaster relief [12] and so on, heterogeneous WSNs are a better option than homogeneous WSNs.

31 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
The main focus of this paper is to develop a novel energy efficient clustering protocols for heterogeneous
wireless sensor network. In this we have assumed that all the sensor nodes deployed in a network are
equipped with different initial energy. In this protocol the Cluster head selection method used by
considering the residual energy, average energy of the nodes and distance of the nodes from the base
station. Finally the simulation results shows that this protocols increases the performances of wireless
sensor network and prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor network as compare to other Clustering
protocols. Outlines of this paper are as follows. In section 2 related works are outlined. Proposed
protocols are explained in section 3.simulation and results are discussed in section 4Finally section 5
concludes the paper.
II. RELATED WORK
There are two types of energy efficient clustering schemes for WSNs. The clustering schemes applied in
homogeneous WSNs are called homogeneous clustering schemes, and the clustering schemes applied in
heterogeneous WSNs are called heterogeneous clustering schemes. In LEACH All nodes are equipped
with equal energy and each sensor node have equal opportunity to be selected as cluster head, hence it is
applicable for homogeneous networks.
LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that minimizes energy
dissipation in sensor networks. However, LEACH outperforms classical clustering algorithms by using
adaptive clusters and rotating cluster-heads, allowing the energy requirements of the system to be
distributed among all the sensors. In addition, LEACH is able to perform local computation in each cluster
to reduce the amount of data that must be transmitted to the base station. This achieves a large reduction
in the energy dissipation, as computation is much cheaper than communication [2] .PEGASIS (PowerEfficient GAthering in Sensor Information Systems), a near optimal chain-based protocol that is an
improvement over LEACH. In PEGASIS, each node communicates only with a close neighbour and takes
turns transmitting to the base station, thus reducing the amount of energy spent per round [7].
In General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance routing protocol (GSTEB) which builds a routing
tree using a process where, for each round, BS assigns a root node and broadcasts this selection to all
sensor nodes. Subsequently, each node selects its parent by considering only itself and its neighbours
information, thus making GSTEB a dynamic protocol[8].M-EECP and S-EECP the authors have proposed a
new clustering based protocols for heterogeneous WSNs,which are called single-hop energy efficient
clustering protocol (S-EECP) and multi-hop energy efficient clustering protocol (M-EECP).In which
cluster heads are elected by a weighted probability based on the ratio between residual energy and
average energy of the network ][9].
In [12] Bhavnesh Kumar et. all proposed a new distance based cluster head selection method to improve
the lifetime of wireless sensor networks.In this the distance from BS to each node is calculated and the
cluster head is elected based on the net distance from base station for each node (NDBS), and thus
corresponding nodes will selected as cluster head this has improved the overall lifetime of wireless
sensor networks.
III. PROPOSED PROTOCOL
In this paper the authors have proposed a new efficient clustering protocol for heterogeneous networks
(ECPHN) to improve the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. This protocol uses a new cluster head
selection method based on the residual energy, average energy of the networks and the distance from
Base station for each node. In the proposed protocol single hop communication technique is used to

32 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

www.ijafrc.org

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
communicate within the cluster (S-EECP) and multi hop communication technique (M-EECP) is used to
communicate cluster heads to Base Station.
Our heterogeneous network model consists of three types of sensor nodes uniformly deployed in a
square region. Normal nodes super nodes and advanced node. We have considered N Normal nodes, m
fraction of N is Advanced nodes and m0 fraction of m are super nodes. Initial energy of Normal nodes is
E0.Thus there are mN advanced nodes having initial energy
(1 + ) , where advanced nodes
equipped with times more energy than normal nodes and m m0 super nodes equipped with (1 + )
initaial energy. Hence total initial energy of the new heterogeneous network setting is
=
(1 + ) where = (
( )).Now all the cluster head are elected by considering residual
energy ,average energy and distance of sensor nodes from base station.
A. Cluster Head Selection Mechanism
In LEACH, during the set-up phase, each node generates a random number between 0 and 1. If this
random number is less than the threshold value, T(s), then the nodes become a cluster head for the
current round. During each round new CHs are elected and as a result balanced load energy is distributed
among the CHs.
( )=

), !" $ *
0, &( )! (

(1)

where popt is the desired percentage of CHs, r is the count of current round, G is the set of sensor nodes
that have not been elected as CHs in the last 1/popt rounds. The residual energy of each node per round
is given by following equation
Eavg(r) = 1/ 3
24

2(

(2)

In heterogeneous WSNs, the reference value of each node should be different according to the initial
energy and Pi is replace with different weighted probability of residual energy. The distance vector for
each node is given by
8(1)
7
? 7
8(2)
6
> 6
68(3)> 6
6 . > =6
6 . > 6
6 . > 6
58(<)= 5

(1,1) + (1,2) + (1,3) . .


(2,1) + (2,2) + (2,3) . .
(3,1) + (3,2) + (3,3) . .
.
.
.
(<, 1) + (<, 2) + (<, 3) . .

(1, <)
?
(2, <)
>
(3, <) >
>
>
>
(<, <)=

(3)

Where d (1,1) Distance between S1 to S1 and d(1,2) Distance between S1 to S2 etc


Now the distance from base station to each node is calculated by

33 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

www.ijafrc.org

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
8A (1)
7
?
8A (2)
6
>
68A (3)>
.
6
>
.
6
>
.
6
>
58A (<)=

8!
7
8!
6
68!
=6
6
6
58!

&B<C( D(&)((<
&B<C( D(&)((<
&B<C( D(&)((<
.
.
.
&B<C( D(&)((<

(1)B< A
?
(2)B< A
>
(3)B< A >
>
>
>
(<)B< A =

(4)

Hence the net distance from Base station is calculated by following equation
8A (1) 8(1)
8A (1)
7
? 7
? 7
?
8A (2) 8(2)
8A (2)
6
> 6
> 6
>
6 8A (3)> 68(3)> 68A (3)>
.
.
6
> =6 . > + 6
>
.
.
.
6
> 6
> 6
>
.
.
6
> 6 . > 6
>
5 8A (<)= 58(<)= 58A (<)=

(5)

Now the cluster head is elected by NDBS(i)= min ( NDBS(1)+ NDBS(2)+ NDBS(3)......+ NDBS(n)).
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this section we have evaluated the performance of our protocol using ns-2 simulator. We perform two
experiments, a network of 100 nodes deployed uniformly over 100 x 100 m2 and in second 200 sensors
over 200 x 200 m2 area.MAC layer communication links are assumed.
Different performance Characteristics analyzed in paper is PDR (Packet delivery ratio), Delay, control
overhead, normalized overhead, average energy consumption, jitter and throughput. Some important
graphs are shown in figure 1 Nodes Vs Average energy consumptions and figure 2 Nodes Vs throughput
etc.

Figure 1 Node Vs Average Energy consumption

figure 2. Node Vs Throughput

V. CONCLUSION
In this paper we have proposed a new Efficient Clustering protocols for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor
Network(ECPHN) in which a new cluster head selection method using residual energy, average energy
and distance from the base station is used .Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor network depends upon
Cluster head selection .Simulation results shows that the performance characteristics using new cluster
head selection method improved the M-EECP over S-EECP using new ECPHN protocol, and thus
maximize the overall lifetime of Heterogeneous wireless sensor network.

34 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)


Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
IV. REFERENCES
[1]

Akkaya, K., Younis, M.: A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks, Elsevier Ad
Hoc Netw. J., 2005, 3, (3), pp. 325349

[2]

Manfredi, S.: Reliable and energy-efficient cooperative routing algorithm for wireless monitoring
systems, IET Wirel. Sens. Syst., 2012, 2, (2), pp. 128135

[3]

Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol forWireless Microsensor Networks Wendi Rabiner


Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Hari Balakrishnan Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii
International Conference on System Sciences - 2000

[4]

Abbasi, A.A., Younis, M.: A survey on clustering algorithms for wireless sensor networks, Elsevier
Comput. Commun., 2007, 30, (1415), pp. 28262841

[5]

Anastasi, G., Conti, M., Francescoa, M.D., Passarella, A.: Energy conservation in wireless sensor
networks, Elsevier Ad Hoc Netw. J., 2009, 7, (3), pp. 537568

[6]

Heinzelman, W.R., Chandrakasan, A.P., Balakrishnan, H.: An application-specific protocol


architecture for wireless micro sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., 2002, 1, (4), pp.
660670

[7]

PEGASIS: Power-Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information Systems Stephanie Lindsey and


Cauligi S. Raghavendra

[8]

A General Self-Organized Tree-Based Energy-Balance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor


Network Zhao Han, Jie Wu, Member, IEEE, Jie Zhang, Liefeng Liu, and Kaiyun Tian

[9]

Dilip Kumar, Performance analysis of energy efficient clustering protocols for maximising
lifetime of wireless sensor networks ,Published in IET Wireless Sensor Systems Received on
22nd November 2012 Revised on 29th May 2013 Accepted on 11th June 2013 doi: 10.1049/ietwss.2012.0150

[10]

Biswas, P.K., Phoha, S.: Self-organizing sensor networks for integrated target surveillance. Proc.
Int. Conf. Local Computer networks, August 2006, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 10331047

[11]

Szewczyk, R., Osterweil, E., Polastre, J., Hamilton, M., Mainwaring, A., Estrin, D.: Habitat
monitoring with sensor networks, Commun. ACM, 2004, 47, (6), pp. 3440

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