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For protection against electrical shock, all hand-held electrical tools and equipment shall
be grounded. The path to ground through cords, receptacles, and to the tool itself must
be continuous. Plugs with missing ground pins shall not be used.
Electrical cords used with portable electric tools and appliances shall be of the three-wire
type. Double-insulated tools are an exception as they do not require grounding.
Electric-powered tools showing signs of worn, deteriorated, or inadequate insulation, or
other defective parts, must be removed from service for replacement or repair.
Cords shall not be jerked from receptacles, and they must be protected against being
trodden on, run-over, and pinched in doors. Cords must not be left tangled and kinked.
Such abuse causes broken insulation and strained connections which become an
extremely dangerous electrical shock and fire hazard the moment that live wires are
exposed. Cords shall never be used to raise or lower a tool.
Damaged or defective cords and fittings should be taken out of service and repaired
immediately. A broken earth wire can pass unnoticed since the tool will continue to
function. From a safety standpoint, periodic testing of cords for ground continuity is
strongly recommended.
Necessary repairs must be carried out by qualified electricians. This class of work
requires that all connections be mechanically sound. Taped splices are not permitted.
Plug caps and receptacle tops must be in place leaving no live parts exposed.
The hazards associated with portable electrical equipment are intensified through hard
use and exposure to adverse conditions. Tools may be carried to places where workers
can come into contact with grounded metal surfaces or wet conditions. In these
surroundings, any margin of electrical safety is reduced.
Special precautions are necessary when portable electrical equipment is used in wet or
damp places, or inside tanks or vessels. These locations present the greatest shock
hazards, and only extra precautions, such as the use of insulating rubber mats, rubber
gloves and rubber boots, are in minimizing the risk.
Dampness caused by perspiration can also greatly increase the danger of shock from
defective electrical equipment.
Electrically-powered tools shall not be used in vessels where air-powered tools are
Employees working in cramped spaces with electric tools (especially drills) should never
wedge their bodies into a working position where, in the event of shock, they would have
no chance of being thrown clear and thus breaking contact.


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