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E & M - Basic Physical Concepts

Current and resistance

Current: I = ddtQ = n q vd A
Ohms law: V = I R, E = J
I , R = `
E = V` , J = A
A

Electric force and electric field

Electric force between 2 point charges:
|q | |q |

|F | = k 1r2 2
k = 8.987551787 109 N m2 /C2
0 = 4 1 k = 8.854187817 1012 C2 /N m2
qp = qe = 1.60217733 (49) 1019 C
mp = 1.672623 (10) 1027 kg
me = 9.1093897 (54) 1031 kg
~
~ =F
Electric field: E

Power: P = I V = VR = I 2 R
Thermal coefficient of : =
0 T
Motion of free electrons in an ideal conductor:
a = vd qmE = nJq = n qm2

|Q|
~ =E
~1 + E
~2 +
Point charge: |E| = k r2 , E
Field patterns: point charge, dipole, k plates, rod,
spheres, cylinders,. . .
Charge distributions:
Linear charge density: = Q
x

A

Surface charge density: surf =

Q
Volume charge density: = V

Qsurf
A

Electric flux and Gauss law

~ n
Flux: = E A = E
A
Gauss law: Outgoing Flux from S, S = Qenclosed
0
Steps: to obtain electric field
~ pattern and construct S
Inspect E
H
~ dA
~ = Qencl , solve for E
~
Find s = surf ace E

Spherical: s = 4 r 2 E
Cylindrical: s = 2 r ` E
Pill box: s = E A, 1 side; = 2 E A, 2 sides

k
~ = 0, Esurf
Conductor: E
= 0, E = surf
in

surf

Potential

Potential energy: U = q V 1 eV 1.6 1019 J

Positive charge moves from high V to low V
Point charge: V = krQ V = V1 + V2 = . . .
1 q2
Energy of a charge-pair: U = k rq12
Potential difference: |V | = |E sk |,
R
~ ~s, V V = B E
~ d~s
V = E
B
A
A

d
V
V
= V
E = dr , Ex = x
x , etc.

f ix y,z

Capacitances

Q=CV

Series: V = CQ = CQ + CQ + CQ + , Q = Qi
eq
1
2
3
Parallel: Q = Ceq V = C1 V + C2 V + , V = Vi

A
Q
Parallel plate-capacitor: C = V
= EQd = 0d
2
RQ
Q
Energy: U = 0 V dq = 12 C , u = 21 0 E 2
2

1
2
U = 21 Q
C 0 , u = 2 0 E
Q
Q
Spherical capacitor: V = 4 r1 4 r2
0
0
~
Potential energy: U = ~
pE

Dielectrics: C = C0 ,

V =IR

Direct current circuits

Series: V = I Req = I R1 + I R2 + I R3 + , I = Ii
V + V + V + , V = V
Parallel: I = RV = R
i
R2
R3
eq
1
Steps: in application of Kirchhoffs Rules
Label currents: i1 , i2 , i3 , . . .
P
P
Node equations:
i =
i
P in
Pout
Loop equations: (E) + (iR)=0
Natural: + for loop-arrow entering terminal
for loop-arrow-parallel to current flow
RC circuit: if ddty + R1C y = 0, y = y0 exp( RtC )

Charging: E Vc R i = 0, 1c ddtq + R ddti = ci + R ddti = 0

Discharge: 0 = Vc R i = qc + R ddtq , ci + R ddti = 0

Magnetic field and magnetic force

0 = 4 107 T m/A

a2 i

0
Axis of loop: B =
Wire: B = 2 0 r
2 (a2 +x2 )3/2
~ q ~v B
~
Magnetic force: F~M = i ~` B
~ B,
~
Loop-magnet ID: ~ = i A

~ = iAn

2
Circular motion: F = mrv = q v B, T = f1 = 2 v r
~ + q ~v B
~
Lorentz force: F~ = q E
~
Hall effect: V = FM d , U = ~
B

~ and magnetism of matter

Sources of B

v
r
r
0 q~
~ = 0 i `
Biot-Savart Law: B
4 r2 , B = 4 r2
2
0 i y
sin , sin = ar , y = r a
B = 4
r2
H
~ d~s = I
Amperes law: M =
B
L

encircled

Steps: to obtain magnetic field

~ pattern and construct loop L
Inspect B
~
Find M and Iencl , and solve for B.
d (E A)

E =
Displ. current: Id = 0 d dt
0
dt
Magnetism in atom:
Orbital motion: = i A = 2 em L

L = mvr = n
h,

QA
= d dt

h = 2h = 1.06 1034 J s

h
= 9.27 1024 J/T
B = 2em
spin = B
Magnetism in matter:
0
B = B0 + BM = (1 + ) B0 = (1 + ) 0 B
0 = m H
Ferromagnetic: 1
Diamagnetic: 1 < 0
Paramagnetic: 0 < 1, M = C
TB

orbit = n B ,
,
Spin: S = h
2

B
,
E = N ddt

B =

~ dA
~,
B

Reflection and Refraction

~M
~ = F
E
q

~ d~s,
E= E
~ opposes change of
Lenz law: Induced B
B
R

d (B A )
d B
A
= ddtB A + B d dt
dt =
dt

d 1 R R
Moving rods: ddtA = ` v, ddtA = dt
2
A = d (A cos t)
Rotating loop: d dt
dt
Cutting B lines change B Eind Eind

Maxwell equations:
H
~ dA
~ = Q,
E
0
H
B
~
,
E d~s = ddt

~ dA
~ = 0,
B
~ d~s = [I + d E ]
B
0
0 dt

Inductance

Mutual: E2 = M21 ddti1 , M21 = M12 = N2i 21

1
Self: E = L ddti , L = Ni , VL = L ddti
A
Long solenoid: L = N B
i , B = 0 n i
Energies: UL = 12 L i2 , uB = 2 1 B 2
0

UC = 21C q 2 , uE = 12 0 E 2
q
q = q0 cos( t + ),
L C: VL + VC = 0 L ddti = C
q
= L1C , UC + UL = UC max = UL max = U0

Decay Equations: ddty = a y, y = y0 exp(a t)

VL + R VL = 0,
L R: E = VL + R i, ddt
Lh

E 1 exp R t
,
i
=
VL = E exp Rt
L
R
L
L R C:
r
2
R
Q Q0 e 2 L t cos d t, d = L1C 2RL

Underdamped, critically damped & overdamped

A C Circuits
q

Impedance: [Ohm ]

R2 + (XL XC )2

Inductive XL = L, Capactive XC = 1C
R
Mean value: f(t) = T1 0T f (t) dt
1

2
2
[sin t]rms = [sin2 t] = [ 21 (1 cos 2 t)] = 1
2

Electromagnetic waves

Properties of em waves:
E = Em cos(k z t), B = E
c
c

v = ddtz =
k = f = T , n = v
speed of light: c = 1 = 2.99792458 108 m/s
0

P = 2cS

~ E,
~ propagating along: E
~ B
~
B
u = u E + u B , uE = u B
~ B
~
~ = E
, S = I = Erms Brms
Poynting vector: S

0
0
U
d
z
P
Intensity: I = A = A z dt = u c
R
~ dA
~ = dU + P
S
Energy conservation:
R
dt
Complete absorption: Momentum p = Uc
p 1
U 1
S
Pressure: P = F
A = t A = c t A = u = c

n 1 = v 2 = 2
Index of refraction: n
v1
1
2
Snells law: n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
Critical angle: n2 > n1 , n2 sin c = n1 sin 90
Total reflection: > c

1
1
1
p+q = f

Ray tracing rules:

Mirror: At symm pt S, reflected symmetrically through
center of sphere, undeflected. Parallel to axis, converges
toward F (or diverges away from F ), f = R
2 .
Lens: Through center of lens, undeflected. Parallel to
axis, converges toward F (or diverges away from F )
Image: q > 0 (real), q < 0 (virtual)
Focal point F : at p = , q = f
f = |f |, + convergent, divergent
0
Magnification: M = hh = pq
1
Refraction at spherical surface: np1 + nq2 = n2 n
R
R is coordinate of center with origin at S, with
S the symmetrypoint of
surface on the axis
n
1
2
Lens maker: f = n1 1 R1 R1
1

n1
Two media: M = hh = pq n
2
Huygens principles:
Points in wave front are sources of next wavelets
Forward tangent surface is next wave front

Interference
Maxima = 0, 2 , 4 , ; Minima
= , 3 , 5 ,
Double slits: Iaverage = I0 cos2
2 , = k.

y
for small , sin tan
sin =
d , tan = L ,
~=A
~1 + A
~2 + A
~3 +
Phasor diagram: A
Ax = A1x +A2x +A3x + , Ay = A1y +A2y +
a
c
b
sin = sin = sin

First minimum for N slits: = 2N

Thin film: = k + |1ref lected 2ref lected |, = 2 t
ref lected = (denser medium); =0 (lighter medium)
2
Diffraction
sin 2
, = k,
Single slit: I = I0

= a sin

Resolution criterion: criterion = 1.22 D

Grating: Principle maxima = m

Polarization
Brewster (n1 < n2 ): n1 sin br = n2 sin( 2 br )
Polarizer: Etransmit = E0 cos , I = I0 cos2
I0
Unpolarized light: I
= 2
Transmitted Intensity: I 0 = I cos2
R
I 0 = 2I0 02 cos2 d = I20

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

This print-out should have 36 questions.
Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page find all choices
before answering. V1:1, V2:1, V3:1, V4:1,
V5:2.

Four Charges in Square JMS

23:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
001 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Consider charges in a square again, but this
time with a different assignment of charges
(shown in the figure below).
QA = q
QB = q

O
QD = q

QC = q

Find EO at O .
kq
correct
a2
kq
= 2 2
a
kq
=2 2 2
a
kq
= 2
a
1 kq
=
2 a2
1 kq
=
5 2 a2
1 kq
=
4 2 a2
kq
=3 2
a
kq
=3 2 2
a
1 kq
=
3 2 a2

1. EO = 4
2. EO
3. EO
4. EO
5. EO
6. EO
7. EO
8. EO
9. EO
10. EO

Explanation:
The magnitudes of all four E-components at

q
O are equal to EA = 2 k 2 . Draw a diagram,
a
similar to the one in the explanation to part
1, to show the directions of the field vectors
at O.
You should find that the contributions from
B and D cancel, whereas the contributions
from A and C add. This means the magnitude
of the total field is
E = (2) (2) k

q
q
= 4k 2 .
2
a
a

Charged Arc JMS

, , , < 1 min, .
002 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A uniformly charged circular arc AB of radius
R is shown in the figure. It covers a quarter
of a circle and it is located in the second
quadrant. The total charge on the arc is
Q > 0.
y
s R
y

+
A
+
II
I
++
+
x
++
R
III IV
+
+
x
B
O
~
The direction of the electric field vector E
at the origin, due to the charge distribution,
is
1. in quadrant IV. correct
2. along the positive x-axis.
3. along the positive y-axis.
4. along the negative y-axis.
5. along the negative x-axis.
6. in quadrant I.
7. in quadrant III.
8. in quadrant II.
Explanation:

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

The electric field for a positive charge is
directed away from it. In this case, the electric
field generated by each q will be directed
into quadrant IV, so the total electric field
will be in the same quadrant.
Charge Inside a Box 02
24:02, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
003 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A cubic box of side a, oriented as shown, contains an unknown charge. The vertically directed electric field has a uniform magnitude
E at the top surface and 2 E at the bottom
surface.
E

2E
How much charge Q is inside the box?
1. Qencl = 0
2. Qencl = 2 0 E a2
3. Qencl = 0 E a2 correct
4. Qencl =

Explanation:
Electric flux through a surface S is, by convention, positive for electric field lines going
out of the surface S and negative for lines
going in.
Here the surface is a cube and no flux goes
through the vertical sides. The top receives
top = E a2
(inward is negative) and the bottom
bottom = 2 E a2 .
The total electric flux is
E = E a2 + 2 E a2 = E a2 .
Using Gausss Law, the charge inside the box
is
Qencl = 0 E = 0 E a2 .
Concentric Conductors JMS
24:04, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
004 (part 1 of 3) 10 points
Consider a solid conducting sphere with a
radius a and charge Q1 on it. There is a
conducting spherical shell concentric to the
sphere. The shell has an inner radius b (with
b > a) and outer radius c and a net charge
Q2 on the shell. Denote the charge on the inner surface of the shell by Q02 and that on the
outer surface of the shell by Q002 .

5. Qencl = 3 0 E a2
E
0 a2
E
=
0 a2
E
=3
0 a2

7. Qencl
8. Qencl

9. Qencl = 6 0 E a2
10. insufficient information

b , Q02

Q1 , a

1
0 E a2
2

6. Qencl = 2

Q002 , c
Find the charge Q002 .
1. Q002 = Q1 + Q2 correct
2. Q002 = Q1 Q2
3. Q002 = Q2 Q1

Q2

Q1

5

~ P k EP , where the distance

point
P
k
E
4. Q002 = 2 (Q1 + Q2 )
a+b
from P to the center is r =
.
00
2
5. Q2 = 2 (Q1 Q2 )
4 k e Q1
correct
1. EP =
00
(a + b)2
6. Q2 = 2 (Q2 Q1 )
2. EP = 0

Q1 + Q 2
2
Q

Q1
2
8. Q002 =
2
Q1 Q 2
9. Q002 =
2
(Q1 + Q2 )2
10. Q002 =
Q1 Q 2
7. Q002 =

3. EP =
4. EP =
5. EP =

Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Gauss Law
Sketch a concentric Gaussian surface S
(dashed line) within the shell.

6. EP =
7. EP =
8. EP =

9. EP =
10. EP =

Since the electrostatic field in a conducting

medium is zero, according to Gausss Law,
S =
Q02

4 k e Q2
(a + b)2
4 ke (Q1 Q2 )
(a + b)2
2 k e Q1
(a + b)2
2 k e Q2
(a + b)2
2 ke (Q1 Q2 )
(a + b)2
4 ke (Q1 + Q2 )
(a + b)2
2 ke (Q1 + Q2 )
(a + b)2
2 k e Q1 a
(a + b)3

Explanation:
Choose the spherical surface S centered at
O, which passes through P . Here,
Q1
0
Q1
EP =
4 0 r 2
k e Q1
=
r2
4 k e Q1
=
.
(a + b)2

4 r 2 EP =

Q1 + Q02
0

=0
= Q1

But the net charge on the shell is

Q2 = Q02 + Q002 ,
so the charge on the outer surface of the shell
is
Q002 = Q2 Q02

= Q2 + Q1 .

005 (part 2 of 3) 10 points

Find the magnitude of the electric field at

006 (part 3 of 3) 10 points

Assume: The potential at r = is zero.
Find the potential VP at point P .
2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 + Q2 )
1. VP =

+
cora+b
b
c
rect
2. VP =

2 k e Q1
a+b

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

3. VP =

2 ke (Q1 Q2 )
a+b

2. W =

4. VP = 0

3. W =

2 k e Q1 k e Q2
+
a+b
c
k e Q1 k e Q2

6. VP =
a+b
b
2 k e Q1 2 k e Q2

7. VP =
a+b
b
2 k e Q1 k e Q2

8. VP =
a+b
c
2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 Q2 )
+

9. VP =
a+b
b
c
2 k e Q1
10. VP =
a
Explanation:
Using the superposition principle, adding
the 3 concentric charge distributions; i.e., Q1
at a, Q at b and Q1 + Q2 at c, gives
5. VP =

V =

2 ke Q1 ke Q1 ke (Q1 + Q2 )

+
.
a+b
b
c

Add a Charge to Four JMS

25:01, highSchool, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
007 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Four charges are placed at the corners of a
square of side a, with q1 = q2 = q, q3 = q4 =
+q, where q is positive. Initially there is no
charge at the center of the square.
q2 = q
q3 = +q

q4 = +q

Find the work required to bring the charge

q from infinity and place it at the center of
the square.
1. W = 0 correct

5. W =
6. W =
7. W =
8. W =
9. W =
10. W =

4 k q2
a2
2 k q2
a2
2 k q 2
a2
4 k q 2
a2
4 k q2
a
2 k q2
a
2 k q 2
a
4 k q 2
a
8 k q2
a2

Explanation:
Based on the superposition principle, the
potential at the center due to the charges at
the corners is

V = V 1 + V2 + V3 + V4
kq
=
(1 1 + 1 + 1) = 0 .
r

Here r is the common distance from the center

to the corners. The work required to bring
the charge q from infinity to the center is then
W = q V = 0.

q1 = q

4. W =

Electric Potential or FieldJMS

25:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
008 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Two charges are located in the (x, y) plane
as shown in the figure below. The fields produced by these charges are observed at the
origin, p = (0, 0).

p
y
=
a 2 + b2 ,
x
p
r2 = r 1 = r .

7
so

b
Q

Q
a

E2

Use Coulombs law to find the x-component

of the electric field at p.

b
b
=
r
a2 + b2
a
a
.
| cos | = =
r
a2 + b 2
| sin | =

In the x-direction, the contributions from

the two charges are
(Q)
| cos()|
r12
(Q)
a

= ke 2
2
(a + b ) a2 + b2
Qa
= +ke 2
(a + b2 )3/2

Ex1 = ke

b
Q1
a

a
q
r1 = x21 + y12
p
= a 2 + b2 .
=

x22 + y22
(a)2 + b2

(+Q)
| cos()|
r22
a
(+Q)

= ke 2
(a + b2 ) a2 + b2
Qa
= ke 2
(a + b2 )3/2

Ex2 = ke

Q2

Q1

where

4 ke Q a
(a2 + b2 )3/2
4 ke Q a
3. Ex = 2
(a + b2 )3/2
2 ke Q a
4. Ex = 2
(a + b2 )3/2
2 ke Q a
5. Ex = 2
(a + b2 )3/2
ke Q a
6. Ex = 2
(a + b2 )3/2
ke Q a
7. Ex = 2
(a + b2 )3/2
2 ke Q
8. Ex = 2
a + b2
2 ke Q
9. Ex = 2
a + b2
Explanation:
Let: ke = 8.98755 109 N m2 /C2 .
2. Ex =

r2 =

E1

Q2

1. Ex = 0 correct

E x = E x1 + E x2
= 0.

009 (part 2 of 2) 10 points

Let: V = 0 at infinity.
Find the electric potential at p .
2 ke Q
correct
1. Vy =
a2 + b2

(1)

(2)

2 ke Q
2. Vy = +
a2 + b2
4 ke Q
3. Vy =
a2 + b2
4 ke Q
4. Vy =
a2 + b2
2 ke Q a
5. Vy =
a2 + b2
2 ke Q a
6. Vy =
a2 + b2
4 ke Q a
7. Vy =
a2 + b2
4 ke Q a
8. Vy =
a2 + b2

+Q

Q
a
A

The capacitance of this spherical capacitor

is
1. C =
2. C =

9. Vy = 0
Explanation:
The potential for a point charge Q is
V = ke

Q
.
r

For the two charges in this problem, we

have
V1 = k e

Q
.
a2 + b2

V2 = k e

Q
.
a2 + b2

Vp = V 1 + V 2
ke
[Q + (Q)]
=
a2 + b2
2 ke Q
=
.
a2 + b2

3. C =
4. C =
5. C =
6. C =
7. C =
8. C =

9. C =

10. C =

ke
.
b
a
.
ke
b
.
ke
a+b
.
ke
1
.
ke (a + b)
1
.
ke (a b)
ke
.
a
1
. correct

1 1
ke

a b
ba
, .
b
2 ke ln
a
2
b
,.
4 ke ( b a)

Explanation:
Spherical Capacitor JMS
26:02, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
010 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Given a spherical capacitor with radius of the
inner conducting sphere a and the outer shell
b. The outer shell is grounded. The charges
are +Q and Q. A point C is located at
R
r = , where R = a + b.
2

V = Va Vb

1 1

0
= ke Q
a b
since Vb is grounded. The charge on the
inside of the shell doesnt affect the grounded
potential.

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

The capacitance of this spherical capacitor
is

Q2
A.
0 d
Explanation:
8. V 0 =

C=

Q
V

1 1
ke Q

a b
1
.
=
1 1

ke
a b
=

Introduce a Dielectric JMS

26:05, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
011 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider an air-filled parallel plate capacitor with plate area A and gap width d. The
plate charge is Q.
Subsequent to full charging of the capacitor, the battery is disconnected.
Now, the gap is filled with of dielectric of
dielectric constant .
d
+Q
Q

The voltage within the gap in the presence

of the dielectric is given by
1. V 0 =
0

2. V =
3. V 0 =
4. V 0 =
5. V 0 =
6. V 0 =
7. V 0 =

Q2
d.
0 A
Q
d.
0 A
QA
d.
0
Q
A.
0 d
Q2
A.
0
Q2
d.
0 A
Q
d . correct
0 A

V0 =

V
Ed
Q
=
=
d

0 A

012 (part 2 of 2) 10 points

The energy within the gap in the presence of
the dielectric is given by
Q2
A.
2 0 d
Q2
2. U 0 =
d.
2 0 A
Q2
d . correct
3. U 0 =
2 0 A
Q2
d.
4. U 0 =
2 0 A
Q
5. U 0 =
d.
0 A
Q
6. U 0 =
d.
0 A
Q
A.
7. U 0 =
0 d
Q
8. U 0 =
d.
0 A
Explanation:
1. U 0 =

U0 =

Q2
Q2
Q2

=
=
d.
2 C0
2 0 A
2 d0 A

Light Bulb in a Circuit JMS

, , , < 1 min, .
013 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A 75 W bulb is connected to a 120 V source.

1. 0.466667 A
2. 0.506306 A

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

3. 0.561789 A

10

9. 208 correct

4. 0.608182 A

10. 212.982
Explanation:

5. 0.625 A correct
Rtotal = R + R1 ,
6. 0.645669 A

V = I1 Rtotal = I1 R + I1 R1

7. 0.653043 A

so that
V
V I1 R
=
R
I1
I1
120 V
=
192
0.3 A
= 208 .

8. 0.670588 A

R1 =

9. 0.696581 A
10. 0.705385 A
Explanation:
and

The current is
I=

P
75 W
=
= 0.625 A .
V
120 V

Dimensional analysis for I:

J/s
J C
C
W
=
= = =A
V
J/C
s J
s
014 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
A lamp dimmer puts a resistance in series
with the bulb.
What resistance would be needed to reduce
the current to 0.3 A?
1. 32.7125

Four Resistors JMS

28:02, highSchool, multiple choice, > 1 min,
normal.
015 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Four resistors are connected as shown in the
figure.
c
50

10
a

90 V

30

Given : P = 75 W ,
V = 120 V.

and

7
d

S1

Find the resistance between points a and b.

1. 31.5686 correct

2. 45.0553

2. 33.3855

3. 57.0368

3. 34.4127

4. 58.2651

4. 36.0099

5. 92.1429

5. 37.6052

6. 120.044

6. 38.1779

7. 122.723

7. 38.9958

8. 132.777

8. 39.4313

R12

9. 40.046
10. 42.0635
Explanation:

R3

b
R4

Given : R1
R2
R3
R4
EB

The series connection of R12 and R3 gives

the equivalent resistance

= 10 ,
= 30 ,
= 50 ,
= 70 ,
= 90 V .

R123 = R12 + R3
= 7.5 + 50
= 57.5 .

and

R123
a

R1

R3

R4

R4
S1

Ohms law is V = I R .
A good rule of thumb is to eliminate junctions connected by zero resistance.
R1
R2

R2
EB

a
d

11

R3
b
R4

The parallel connection of R1 and R2 gives

the equivalent resistance

1
1
1
R2 + R 1
=
+
=
R12
R1 R2
R1 R2
R1 R2
R12 =
R1 + R 2
(10 ) (30 )
=
10 + 30
= 7.5 .

The parallel connection of R123 and R4

gives the equivalent resistance
1
1
R4 + R123
1
=
+
=
Rab
R123 R4
R123 R4
R123 R4
Rab =
R123 + R4
(57.5 ) (70 )
=
57.5 + 70
= 31.5686 .
or combining the above steps, the equivalent
resistance is

R1 R2
+ R 3 R4
R1 + R 2
Rab =
R1 R2
+ R3 + R4
R + R2
1

(10 ) (30 )
+ 50 (70 )
10 + 30
=
(10 ) (30 )
+ 50 + 70
10 + 30
= 31.5686 .
a
EB

Rab

12

1. zero through both resistors

RC Circuit 02
28:04, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
016 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider the circut below, which consists of
two conducting loops.

R2 .
3. i1 =
circuit 2.

R2
C

R1
E

2. i1 =

E
through R1 and zero through
R1
E
E
through R1 and i2 =
in
R1
R2

4. oscillating with constant amplitude in

both circuits.
5. zero through R1 and i2 =

correct

E
through R2 .
R2

6. impossible to calculate
After the switch S is closed, the current
through resistor R2 is,
1. oscillating with constant amplitude.
2. from right to left through R2 .
3. zero at all times.

E (R1 + R2 )
R1 R2
E
9. i1 = i2 =
R1 + R 2
8. i1 = i2 =

10. infinite

4. oscillating with decreasing amplitude.

5. from left to right through R2 . correct
6. Exponentially increasing
7. Exponentially damping
8. not well defined
9. impossible to calculate
10. Increasing linearly
Explanation:
Since the potential drop across resistor R2
is fixed to be E after the switch is closed, the
current is also a fixed value and the direction
is from left to right on R2 .
017 (part 2 of 2) 10 points
After the switch S has been closed for a very
long time, the currents in the two circuits are

Explanation:
As mentioned above, the current in R2 remains unchanged to be RE2 , while for R1 , after
a long time, the current in the circuit tends
to an equilibrium state, namely the capacitor doesnt get charged or release charge any
more. There is no current through the capacitor as well as resistor R1 after a long time.
Charged Particle in a FieldJMS
29:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
018 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A particle of mass m and charge q starts from
rest at the origin (point A in the figure below).

Y

forces as the particle moves from A to C,

where point C is any point on the path, with
coordinates (x , y).

G
C
A

13

1. W = q E x
p
2. W = q E x2 + y 2

3. W = q B x
~ in the
There is a uniform electric field E
positive y-direction and a uniform magnetic
~ directed towards the reader. It can
field B
be shown that the path is a cycloid whose
radius of curvature at the top point is twice
the y-coordinate at that level.
What is the relation between kinetic energy
of the charge at points A and B?
1. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is the same as it was at point A. correct
2. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is larger than the energy at point A.
3. The kinetic energy of the particle at point
B is smaller than the energy at point A.
4. The relationship between the kinetic energy of the particle at point A and at point
B cannot be determined by the information
given.

4. W = q B y
p
5. W = q B x2 + y 2

6. W = q E y correct

7. W = q E y + q B x
8. W = q B y + q E x
p
9. W = q (E + B) x2 + y 2

10. W = 0

Explanation:
Because the magnetic force does not do any
work on the particle, the net work is done by
the conservative electric force; i.e.,
W = Fe y = q E y ,

5. This setup is inherently unphysical, and

hence, any discussion regarding energy is
meaningless.

where y is the displacement of the particle in

~ as the particle reaches the
the direction of E
point C.

Explanation:
When the particle has reached point B, its
~ is zero.
displacement in the direction of E
Therefore the net work done by the conservative electric force is zero. The magnetic force
never does any work. Therefore the workenergy theorem, (W = K) says that the
kinetic energy of the particle at point B must
be the same as it was at point A. Thus at B
the particle is again at rest.

Current on a Cube JMS

, , , < 1 min, .
020 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Note: The conventional Cartesian notation of
(a unit vector along the positive x axis),
(a unit vector along the positive y axis), and
k (a unit vector along the positive z axis), is
used.
Given a current segment which flows along
the edges of a cube as shown in the figure.
The cube has sides of length a. The current
flows along the path A C D E G.
~ = B .
There is a uniform magnetic field B

019 (part 2 of 2) 10 points

How much is the work done by the external

B

Top View

a
B

14

a
G

x
a

b = correct
1. F

b = k
2. F

b =
3. F

b =
4. F

b =
5. F

b = k
6. F

7. Undetermined, since the magnitude of the

force is zero.

b = 1
8. F
k
2

b
k
9. F =
2

b = 1
10. F
+ k
2

Explanation:
Note: The current in wire segment CD
flows in the direction and the current in wire

segment DE flows in the k.

Refer to the following sketch when reading
the explanation

~
b F of the resulFind the direction F
~k
kF
tant magnetic force on the current segment
ACDEG.

B
B

The magnetic force on a wire is given by

~ mag = I ~` B
~.
F
The vector ~` is given by the sum of the
current segments

~` =
AC + CD + DE + EG ,

and this is the vector AG , (see figure above).

The magnitude is given by
~ ' ~` B
~
F
()
' ( k)
= ( ) (k )
= 0

b = .
F
Magnetic Field from an Arc JMS
30:01, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
021 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Consider two radial legs (extending to in20
circular arc carfinity) and a connecting
23
rying a current I as shown below.

y

wire, we have
I

I
20

23

r
x

I
I

What is the magnitude of the magnetic

field BO (at the origin O) due to the current
through this path?
5 0 I
0 I
+
correct
23 r
2r
0 I
5 0 I
+
2. BO =
23 r
4r
5 0 I
0 I
3. BO =
+
23 r
2r
5 0 I
0 I
4. BO =
+
23 r
4r
0 I
5 0 I
+
5. BO =
23 r
2r
2 0 I
0 I
+
6. BO =
23 r
2r
2 0 I
0 I
7. BO =
+
23 r
4r
2 0 I
0 I
8. BO =
+
23 r
2r
0 I
2 0 I
+
9. BO =
23 r
4r
2 0 I
0 I
10. BO =
+
23 r
2r
Explanation:
Note: The magnetic field at BO for the
entire path points in the same direction.
The two straight wire segments produce
the same magnetic field at BO as a single long
straight wire. Using Amperes law, for the
magnetic field a distance r from a straight
1. BO =

15

~ d~s = 0 I
B

B ds = 0 I
I
B ds = 0 I

B 2 r = 0 I , so
0 I
BO =
.
2r

(1)

However, around the arc we will use the

Biot-Savart law, where |d~s r| = ds = r d .
The magnetic field at at the center of an
arc with a current I is
Z
d~s r
0 I
BO =
4
r2
Z
0 I
ds
=
4 r2
Z
0 I
=
r d
4 r2
Z 20
23
0 I
=
d
4r 0
20
0 I 23

=
4 r 0

0 I
20
=
0
4 r 23
5 0 I
=
.
(2)
23 r
The magnetic field at BO for the entire path
is the sum of Eqs. 2 and 1.
BO =

5 0 I
0 I
+
23 r
2r

into the page or out of the page

Off Centered Hole
30:03, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, wordingvariable.
022 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A total current of 50 mA flows through an
infinitely long cylinder of radius r = 4 cm
which has an infinitely long cylindrical hole
r
through it of diameter r centered at along
2
the x-axis (as in figure 1).

16

r
x

What is the magnitude of the magnetic

field at a distance of 12 cm along the positive x-axis? Assume that the magnitude of
the current density is the same in the cylinder and in the hole and that the currents in
the cylinder and the hole flow in opposite directions with respect to each other.
1. 1.40851 108 T
2. 2.33987 108 T
3. 4.25256 108 T
4. 5.32468 108 T
5. 5.88477 108 T
6. 7.08751 108 T
7. 7.77778 108 T correct
8. 8.64532 108 T
9. 1.14872 107 T
10. 1.19632 107 T
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Magnetic Field due to a
Long Cylinder
0 I
B =
.
2r
Principle of Superposition.
Solution: Our goal is to model the given situation, which is complex and lacks symmetry,
by adding together the fields from combinations of simpler current configurations which
together match the given current distribution.
The combination of the currents in Fig. 2 will
do so if we choose Icyl and Ihole correctly.

I cyl

r
Ihole

Since the current is uniform, the current

I
density J =
is constant. Then
A
J = Icyl Acyl = Ihole Ahole .
r2
. Thus
Clearly, Acyl = r2 , and Ahole =
4
Icyl
.
Ihole =
4
Note: The minus sign means Ihole is flowing
in the direction opposite Icyl and I, as it must
if it is going to cancel with Icyl to model the
hole.
We also require I = Icyl + Ihole . We then
4
1
have Icyl = I, and Ihole = I. With these
3
3
currents, the combination of the two cylinders
in figure 2 gives the same net current and
current distribution as the conductor in our
problem.
The magnetic fields are

4
I
0
3
Bcyl =
2
x
1
0 I
3
Bhole =
.
2 (x r/2)
Thus the total magnetic field is
Btotal = Bcyl + Bhole

1
0 I 4

=
6 x x r
2

0 I 3 x 2 r

=
6 x x r
2
7
(4 10 T m/A) (50 mA)
=
6

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

17

10. 0.000600358 V

3 (12 cm) 2 (4 cm)

Explanation:

Basic Concept:
(4 cm)
(12 cm) (12 cm)
Motional emf
2
E = Blv
= 7.77778 108 T .
For a point on the bar, the velocity with
which the point moves changes linearly with
the distance from the point to the rotation
Rotating Metal Bar 02
center. So, the effective velocity for the whole
31:02, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
bar equals:
023 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
l
A metal bar spins at a constant rate in the
vef f =
magnetic field of the Earth as in Figure. The
2
2f l
rotation occurs in a region where the compo=
nent of the Earths magnetic field perpendic2
ular to the plane of rotation is 3.3 105 T.
= 7.85398 m/s ,
The bar is 1 m in length and its angular speed
and the induced emf in the bar is
is 5 .
B in

E = B l vef f
= 0.000259181 V .

dr
l

Therefore, the potential difference between

the ends of the bar is:
V = E
= 0.000259181 V .

1. 2.86804 105 V
2. 7.05979 105 V
3. 8.13233 105 V
4. 0.000141863 V
5. 0.000162982 V

Bar Pulled Through Field JMS

31:03, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
024 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A bar of negligible resistance and mass m in
the figure below is pulled horizontally across
frictionless parallel rails, also of negligible resistance, by a massless string that passes over
an ideal pulley and is attached to a suspended
mass M . The uniform magnetic field has a
magnitude B, and the distance between the
rails is `. The rails are connected at one end
by a load resistor R. Use g.
m

6. 0.00022808 V
7. 0.000252191 V

8. 0.000259181 V correct
9. 0.000461814 V

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

What is the magnitude of the terminal velocity (i.e., the eventual steady-state speed
v ) reached by the bar?
1. v =
2. v =
3. v =
4. v =
5. v =
6. v =
7. v =
8. v =
9. v =
10. v =

M gR
`B
M gR
correct
`2 B 2
M gR
` B2
M gR
`2 B
M g R2
`2 B 2
M g R2
` B2
M g R2
`2 B
M g R2
`B
M 2 g 2 R2
`2 B 2
M 2 g2 R
`B

18
m

a
T
T
a

Fm

Fg

Fg = M g = F m = ` I B

(1)

Mg
(2)
`B
To find the induced current, we use Ohms law
d
and substitute in the induced emf, E =
dt
I=

I=

|E|
1 d
=
R
R dt

(3)

Note, we have ignored the minus sign from

the induced emf E because we will eventually evaluate the magnitude of the terminal
velocity. The flux is = BA. So
dA
d
=B
= B `v
dt
dt

Explanation:
Basic Concepts:

(4)

B `v
(5)
R
Using (2) and (5) and noting that v is the
terminal velocity v
I=

~ g = M ~g
F
~ m = I ~` B
~
F

Mg
B ` v
=
.
`B
R

~ net = (M + m) ~a = F
~g F
~m
F

Solving for the magnitude of the terminal

velocity v

E =IR=

d B
dt

~ A
~
B = B
E = B`v
Solution: It follows from Lenzs law that the
magnetic force opposes the motion of the bar.
When the wire acquires steady-state speed,
the gravitational force Fg is counter-balanced
by the magnetic force Fm (see figure below):

v =

M gR
.
`2 B 2

(6)

(7)

Energy in an LC Circuit JMS

32:05, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
025 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Consider the LC circuit shown below. Switch
S is initially open, and the capacitor has a
charge Qm on its plates. At t=0 the switch is
closed.

C

Qm

026 (part 2 of 2) 10 points

What will be the total energy U as a function
of time?
Q2m
correct
2C

2
t
Qm
cos
=
2C
LC
2

Qm
2
cos t LC
=
2C
2

Qm
t
=
exp
2C
LC
2

t
Qm
=
1 exp
2C
LC
Q2m
=
C
1
=
LC
Q2m
=
4C
2 Q2m
=
C

= LC

1. U =
2. U

What will be the energy UC stored in the

capacitor as a function of time?

Qm
t
2
1. UC =
correct
cos
2C
LC
2

Qm
t
2
2. UC =
sin
C
LC
2
Q
3. UC = m
2C

2
t
Qm
exp
4. UC =
2C
LC

t
Qm
5. UC =
1 exp
2C
LC
2

Qm
6. UC =
cos t LC
2C
2

Qm
t
2
7. UC =
sin
2C
LC
2

Qm
t
2
8. UC =
cos
C
rLC!
2
Qm
L
sin2 t
9. UC =
2C
C
2

Qm
t
10. UC =
cos
2C
LC
Explanation:
Solution: The charge on the capacitor in
the L C circuit satisfies
1
d2 Q
=

Q
dt2
LC
The solution is

t
Q = Qm cos
LC
where Qm is the initial charge on the capacitor. Thus the energy is given by

Q2
Q2m
t
2
Uc =
=
cos
2C
2C
LC

19

3. U
4. U
5. U
6. U
7. U
8. U
9. U
10. U

Explanation:
This is just the sum of Part 1 and Part 2:
U = U L + Uc

Q2m
t
t
2
2
=
cos
+ sin
2C
LC
LC
2
Q
= m.
2C

Point Light Source JMS

34:03, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
027 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
A point light source delivers a time-averaged
power P . It radiates light isotropically. A
piece of small flat surface is placed at D, which
is a distance r away. This piece has a cross
1
of the
section Asurf . The surface reflects
4

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

3
light and absorbs of the light. Assume the
4
light hitting the various parts of the surface is
perpendicular to them.

r
Point
source

The time-averaged energy density hitting

the surface is given by:
1. u = 4 r 2

P
c

P
c
P
3. u = Asurf
c
P
correct
4. u =
4 c r2
P
5. u =
c Asurf
2. u = r2

6. u = 4 r 2 P
7. u = r2 P
8. u = Asurf P
P
Asurf
P
10. u =
4 r2
Explanation:
Basic Concepts EM Wave
The time-averaged energy density at D is
given by
I
P
u= =
.
c
4 r2 c
9. u =

028 (part 2 of 2) 10 points

Find the total time-averaged force on the surface in terms of the intensity I of the light at
D.
Asurf I
c
7 4I
2. F =
4 c
1. F =

20

3 Asurf I
2c
7 Asurf I
4. F =
4c
2 Asurf I
5. F =
c
4I
6. F =
c
5 4I
7. F =
4 c
3 4I
8. F =
2 c
5 Asurf I
correct
9. F =
4c
4I
10. F = 2
c
Explanation:
The time-average force is
3. F =

F = Pressure Asurf
= Fabs + Frefl

3
1
=
u + 2 u Asurf
4
4
= 5 Asurf I
4c
Diamond Critical Angle
35:07, calculus, numeric, > 1 min, normal.
029 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
Assume:
Refraction index for diamond
ndiamond = 2.419 .
The smallness of the critical angle c for diamond means that light is easily trapped
within a diamond and eventually emerges
from the many cut faces. This makes a diamond more brilliant than stones with smaller
n and larger c . Traveling inside a diamond, a
light ray is incident on the interface between
diamond and air.
What is the critical angle for total internal
reflection?
1. 20.9248
2. 21.1623

3. 21.9091

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

4. 22.9934

5. 23.4786

6. 24.4182

7. 24.7343

8. 25.7715

9. 26.5148

4.

10. 28.1446
Explanation:
Basic Concept: Critical angle c for total
internal reflection
n2
sin c =
.
n1
Solution: For diamond, the critical angle
1
.
2.419

c = 24.4182 .
Image of a Cat JMS
36:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
normal.
030 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
A cat is a distance d = 15 cm from a thin
converging lens with focal length f = 10 cm.
d

correct

9. d + f
10.

2
2
+
d
f

Explanation:
Basic Concepts:
1 1
1
h0
q
+ =
m=
=
p q
f
h
p
Converging Lens
f >0
>p> f
f >p> 0

f <q<
0 > m >
< q < 0
>m> 1

Diverging Lens
>p> 0

f <q< 0

0>f

0 <m< 1

1
1
1
+ 0 = ,
s s
f

lens

How far from the lens is the image of the

cat due only to this lens?

1
1

f
d

1
1
1

5.
d
f
d
6. q
2
2
( f1 ) + ( d1 )
1
7.
df
1

2
2
8.

f
d

correct

sin c =

21

1
1
1
1.
+
f
d
1
2.
f d
f
3. q
2
2
( f1 ) + ( d1 )

we can compute the position of the image

which would be:

1
1 1
x=

f
d
1

1
1

=
10 cm 15 cm
= 30 cm
MultiSlits JMS
37:04, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
wording-variable.
031 (part 1 of 1) 10 points

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

Given: The setup of a six slit diffraction
experiment shown in the figure.
1

22

E4
E5

E3

E6

E2

2
3
4
5
6

E1

L
Figure: Not drawn to scale.
Find the path difference difference between
two rays from adjacent slits which gives rise
to the first minimum.
1. =
2. =
3. =
4. =
5. =
6. =
7. =
8. =

1
correct
6
1

4
1

5
2

5
3

4
3

5
2

3
1

9. = 2

The first minimum occurs when the six phasor vectors of the six rays in the phasor diagram form a closed hexagon. Thus, the relative phas angle between the adjacent phasor
vectors is given by
=

1
360
= 60 = ,
6
3

=

1
1
=
= .
2
2 3
6

Thin Wedge of Air 03

37:06, calculus, multiple choice, > 1 min,
fixed.
032 (part 1 of 2) 10 points
Let us do the air wedge problem without making the approximation that the index of refraction of air is unity. Let the wavelength
of the incident light waves in the vacuum be
vac . As shown in the figure, denote the index of refraction of the glass as n1 and that of
air as n2 . The height of the thin wedge at the
point of interest is h.
1

10. =

n1
h

Explanation:
Basic Concept: Light Interference

n2

paper

The phase angle difference between reflected rays # 1 and # 2 due to their path
difference is given by

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

4
h.
n1 vac
4 n1
h.
2. path =
vac
4 n1
3. path =
h.
n2 vac
4 n2
h . correct
4. path =
vac
4
5. path =
h.
n2 vac
2 n2
h.
6. path =
vac
2 n1
h.
7. path =
vac
2 n1
h.
8. path =
n2 vac
2
h.
9. path =
n1 vac
2
10. path =
h.
n2 vac
Explanation:
The wavelength in air is related to the wavelength in the vacuum by
1. path =

air =

vac
.
n2

= 2 h by

air
2 h n2
= 2
vac
4 n2
h.
=
vac

path = 2

033 (part 2 of 2) 10 points

If the maximum phase difference due to the
path difference is 40 radians, what is the total
number of dark fringes, including the dark
fringe at zero separation along the point of
contact?
1. Ntotal = 13
2. Ntotal = 5

23

3. Ntotal = 6
4. Ntotal = 8
5. Ntotal = 9
6. Ntotal = 10
7. Ntotal = 11
8. Ntotal = 12
9. Ntotal = 7 correct
10. Ntotal = 14
Explanation:
Since theres a phase change at the air
glass interface, the total phase difference is
= path + .
Generally, destructive interference occurs
when
(2n 1) = path + ,

n = 1, 2, 3 .

Note: When path = 0, the equation is

satisfied by n = 1.
So the above expression includes the minimum at zero separation. Now, the maximum
number of dark fringes, N , for path = 40 rad
can be found by considering
(2N 1) max = 40 + .
Solving for N yields
N

40
+ 1.
2

Since N must be an integer, we arrive at

40
N = int
+ 1 = 7.
2
Dark Fringe Position
38:02, trigonometry, multiple choice, > 1 min,
wording-variable.
034 (part 1 of 1) 10 points

15

S2

where m is the first, second, third, fourth, ,

minimum in the diffraction pattern.
Solution: The first minimum is at = 2 ,
where = 2 = 2 , where = is the
phase difference of the two rays for destructive
interference.
The fifth minimum occurs at = 10 ,
which corresponds to a path difference between two end rays

viewing
screen

S1

y5

Hint: Use a small angle approximation; e.g.,

sin = tan .
Consider the setup of a single slit experiment.

24

Determine the height y5 , where the fifth

minimum occurs.
L
correct
a
11 L
2. y5 =
2 a
L
3. y5 = 6
a
13 L
4. y5 =
2 a
L
5. y5 = 7
a
15 L
6. y5 =
2 a
9 L
7. y5 =
2 a
L
8. y5 = 4
a
7 L
9. y5 =
2 a
L
10. y5 = 3
a
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Light Diffraction

2
sin
I

2 ,
=

I0
2
where the minima are at

= , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , , or
2
= 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 10 , 12 , ,
= 2m,

10
=
2

= 5

=
a
y5
=
L

y5 = L
a
L
=5
,
a

1. y5 = 5

where k

2
.

Beam Intensity
38:06, calculus, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
035 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
An unpolarized light beam with intensity of
I0 passes through 2 polarizers shown in the
picture.
Unpolarized
light

Polarizer
E0

Analyzer

Transmission
axis

E 0 cos

Polarized
lihgt

If = 30 ,what is the beam intensity after

the second polarizer?
1.

1
I0
16

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

3
2. I0 correct
8
1
3. I0
8
3
4. I0
16
1
5. I0
4
5
6. I0
16
7
7. I0
16
1
8. I0
2
9
9. I0
16
5
10. I0
8
Explanation:
The beam intensity after the first polarizer
is
I1 =

I0
2

We use the formula for the intensity of the

transmitted (polarized) light. Thus the beam
intensity after the second polarizer is

25

Knowing that laser light, in contrast to

ordinary light sources, is generated with very
well-defined phase (the laser light is coherent),
which of the above setups will produce an
interference pattern on the screen?
Note: the light bulb emits monochromatic
(one-colored) light.
1. (a) (b) and (c) correct
2. (a) and (b)
3. (c) and (d)

I = I1 cos2
I0
cos2 (30 )
=
2
3 I0
=
8

4. (b) and (d)

5. (a) and (c)
6. (a) (b) and (d)
7. (a) (c) and (d)

Coherence and Slits

38:99, trigonometry, multiple choice, < 1 min,
fixed.
036 (part 1 of 1) 10 points
For this problem, consider a screen illuminated by various combinations of slits and
light sources, as described by the following
diagram:

8. (b) (c) and (d)

9. all of them
10. none of them
Explanation:
Laser light is coherent. Consequently, ap-

Version 001 Final 1 Chih Kang Shih (56615)

plying simple double and single slits to it
will not destroy its coherence. Consequently,
both (a) and (b) will produce intereference
patterns.
Similarly, by filtering the light through a
single slit apparatus, one constrains the path
of the light from the light bulb to the screen.
This makes the light leaving the single slit
coherent. Consequently, when this newly coherent light passes through the double slit, an
intereference pattern will result. If one only
looks at light of a given wavelength, the pattern will be very similar to that generated by
passing laser light through a double slit.
When the single slit is not availible to filter
the light, however, the phases of the light bulb
light hitting the double slit are essentially
random. Consequently, any effect due to path
differences is washed out by this randomness,
and no pattern is observed.
Therefore, the correct answer is (a) (b) and
(c).

26