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ECM 241
CHAPTER 5 Prcatical Comm System
Fiber Optic System(FOS)
-Comm. system with info is put on a light beam &
transmitted thru a guided cable
Light freq used in FOS

6) Fiber optic cable
a) Transfer signal in form of light from a point to
other point
b) It size almost same as human hair
Part in FO cable(typical layer in FO)
1) Core
- Where light passing thru
2) Cladding
- Ensure light waves remain within core
- Protect fiber core from scratches
- Strengthen fiber core
3) Protective coating
- Provides 1st level shock
- Resistance to damage & moisture to fiber
4) Kevlar Sleeve(protecting jacket)
- Strong & act as insulator
5) Plastic outer jacket

Basic element of single-ch fos

Main element in optical fiber comm. link
1) Driving circuitry
a) Serve as electrical interference bween i/p
circuitry & light source
b) Convert V source to I source to drive light
2) Light source(2 types)
a) Light Emitting Diode (LED)
b) Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation (LASER)
c) Convert electrical energy to optical energy
(amount of light emitted proportional to
amount of drive current)
3) Light source-to-fiber coupler
a) Couple light emitted by source into optical
fiber cable
4) Fiber to-detector coupler
a) Couple as much light as possible from fiber
cable into light detector
5) Light detector
a) PIN(p-type-intrinsic-n-type) diode
b) APD(avalanche photodiode)
c) Convert light energy to electrical

Typical layer in FO cable

FO cable in flat ribbon form
- Easier to use
- More space efficient (for multiple fiber)

Typical construction of flat ribbon FO cable

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Type of FO

a) Step index
-centre core about
-large light-to-fiber aperture
-allows more light to enter cable
-light rays propagated in zig zag pattern
-many path
-all light rays dont follow same path w. diff
propagation time
-modal dispersion exist
b) Graded index
-centre core about
-non-uniform refractive index( max at centre &
toward side of cable)
- light rays propagated by refraction
-continuous bending of light rays at diff angles
-light rays travel at outermost area have great
distance but velocity than the innermost
-all rays arrive at end point almost at same time
-less modal dispersion
c) Single mode
-very small core diameter(
-only single path of light can propagated
-all light rays follow same path, take same
amount of time to travel
-zero modal dispersion
Modal dispersion
-The pulse at end of cable is lower in amplitude due
to attenuation of light in cable & in duration due to
diff time arrival of light rays.

Advantages of FO cable over Metallic cable

a. Wider bandwidth
b. Lower attenuation
over long distance
c. Light weight
glass/plastic is lighter than copper
d. Small in size
FO cable hv smaller diameter than electrical
-manufactured w. very high tensile strengths
-can be bent/twisted w.out damage
-can be tapped as easily as electrical cable
-dont radiate signals
g. Interference immunity
-free from EMI,RFI or EMP
-no optical interference & crosstalk
h. Greater safety
-dont carry electricity
-no shock hazard, arching, sparks & short cct
-its insulator - not susceptible to lightning strikes
i. System reliability & easy maintenance
j. No problem of corrosions
Losses in FO
1. Scattering losses
-refer to radiation of propagation light
-due to microscopic imperfection of fiber
-refer to light loss bcoz of light waves entering
wrong incident angle & lost in cladding(called as
Rayleigh scattering loss)
-due to refraction
2. Absorption losses
-refer to how light wave soaked-up in fiber core
-due to impurity of glass/plastic
-due to any imperfection
3. Bending losses
-due to light rays outside sharp bend cant travel
fast enough to keep up w other rays & lost
4. Splicing losses
-permanent joining of 2 fibers
-due to fiber misalignments, fiber end cleanliness
or different size
5. Coupling losses
-represent a large source of loss in commercial
fiber optic system
-due to misalignment

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Mobile & Cellular Comm

4) Each mobile user assigned a freq & communicates

w. closest RBS
5) When user crossed to other cell, its linked to new
6) RBS are linked together(so conversation can pass
from one cell to another)

Each zone
-sub-divided into cell (hexadiagonal-shaped) that fit
together to form honey-comb pattern
-allocate a fixed no. of cellular voice channels

Physical Size of Cells

a. Macrocells
- Radius - 1.8km to 28km
- Base station transmit power - 1 W to 6 W
b. Microcells
- Radius - <450m
- Base station transmit Power 0.1 W to 1 W
- Application: High density area
- Limitations: Low effective working area
c. Picocells
- Provide reliable comm. indoors, well-shielded
area/area w. high level of interference
Frequency Reuse
-proc in which same set of freq or CH can be allocated
to more than one cell
-concept of freq reuse shown in figure 1

1 cluster, 7 cells
Cellular telephone system
-allows large no. of users to share limited no. of
common usage of radio CH

Main objective of freq reuse

a. To keep transmitted power from each base station
to minimum
b. To keep position of antenna of base station just
high enough to provide area of coverage of
respective cells
Cellular system topology
-arrangement of components which includes RF
transceiver located each of cells

Figure 1
Concept of cellular
1) Cellular system allows freq reused in same area by
splitting entire region into many smaller cells
2) Each cell hv radio base station(RBS)
3) Due to low power signal from RBS, same freq can
be used for other cell (not adjacent, adjacent cell
hv diff freq to avoid interference)

Simplified cellular telephone system topology

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Mobile Unit
-It communicates directly with RBS over freespace/air
-RBS communicates directly with MTSO over
dedicated data link (microwave/coaxial cable/fo
-RBS serves as central control for all users cell
-It consists of low-power radio transceiver, power
amplifier & cell-site controller
-provides interface bween mobile phone & MTSO
Mobile Telephone Switching Office(MTSO)
-it control CH assignment, call processing, setup &
termination, includes signalling, switching,
supervision & allocating RF CH
-provides centralized administration & maintenance
pt. for entire network interfaces w. public phone
network over wire line voice trunks for conventional
wired telephone & interface w. data links
-most MTSO connected to SS7 signalling network,
which allow cell phone to operate outside their
service are
Satellite Comm. System
A satellite system consist of:
1) Transponder(radio repeater on the sky)
2) Ground-based station(control operation)
3) User network of earth station(provides facilities
for transmission & reception of comm. traffics
thru satellite system)
Comm. Satellite
-a radio relay station in orbit above the earth that
receives, amplifies & redirects analog & digital signals
carried on specific RF

Satellite process
-Receive a signal from ground station
-Do amplification & translate frequency
-Broadcast it to earth stations that are able to receive
-A satellite begins at single earth station
-Passes thru satellite
-End at one/more earth stations
-It utilize microwave terminals both on satellite & in
earth station for high reliable & high capacity system
Satellite Transponder
-act like repeater
-consist of receiver & transmitter
Main function of Satellite Transponder
-pick up transmitted signal from transmitter on earth
-amplify signal
-convert carrier freq to another freq
-retransmit amplified signal to receiver on earth

-BPF limits total noise

-LNA amplifies received signal & feeds it to freq
converter which converts high-band uplink freq to
low-band downlink freq
-each RF satellite CH requires a satellite transponder
Satellite System Links
-path of satellite signal from earth transmitter to
receiver of satellite
-path of satellite signal from satellite transmitter to
receiver on earth
p/s: uplink & downlink use diff carrier freq to avoid
interference & freq conversion is done in transponder

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Earth Stations

a) Modulator
- Convert i/p basebands signals to FM, PSK or
QAM modulated intermediate freq(IF)
b) Up-converter
- Consists of a mixer & BPF converts IF to an
appropriate RF carrier freq
c) HPA
- Provides adequate i/p sensitivity & o/p
power to propagated the signal to satellite

a) LNA
- Highly sensitive & low-noise device amplifies
received signal
b) RF-to-IF down-converter
- Mixer & BPF combination which converts
received RF signal to an IF
c) Demodulator
- Detects info signals & feed to appropriate
baseband o/p
Frequency Allocations
Most common bands used for satellite comm. are:
C-band(4-8GHz) for voice & data tel.comm.
Ku-band(12-18GHz) for TV-broadcasting
At these bands signal attenuation is at

Satellite Orbit

3 basic types of orbits

1) Polar
-north-south orbit
-used for navigation, weather satellites,
meteorological & land resource satellite systems
2) Elliptical inclined
-used for Russian domestic systems w. inclination
of 63 & a 12-hour orbit period but visible for 8
hours only
-3 satellites needed for continuous coverage a
3) Circular equatorial
-called geosynchronous orbit
-at height of about 35.8km
-24 hour orbit period
-its angular speed is equal to rotational speed of
-so, it appears stationary/motionless over fixed pt
on earth
-its visible from 1/3 of earths surface
-3 satellites needed for full coverage of
earth(except on polar regions)
Advantages of Circular equatorial
a) Satellite remains almost stationary relative to
earth station
- So, computer-controlled tracking of satellite
b) Permanently in view
- So, no breaks in transmission
- No need to switch from one satellite to

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c) Due to high altitude, it can cover large area on

earth & large no. of earth stations may
d) Effects of Doppler shift are negligible
- Doppler shift is change in apparent freq of
radiation to & from satellite caused by
motion of satellite to & from earth station
Disadvantages of Circular equatorial
a) Latitudes greater than 81.25 North & South are
not covered
b) Due to high latitudes, received signal power which
is inversely proportional to square of distance is
very weak & signal propagation delay is about
Applications of Satellite Comm
a. Weather satellite
- Provide meteorologist w. scientific data to
predict weather conditions
b. Earth observation satellite
- Allow scientist to gather valuable data about
earths ecosystem
c. Navigation satellite
- GPS technology
- Provide building exact location on earth to a few meters
d. Digital audio broadcasting
e. Satellite TV broadcasting, Direct broadcast
satellite, Direct To Home(DTH) satellite
f. Vehicle tracking
g. Mobile comm.
h. Video teleconferencing
i. Satellite internets
Comparison bween Satellite System & Terrestrial
Microwave System

Access wide zone

Wide bandwidth
High reliability
Distance insensitive cost
Terrestrial infrastructure
Rapid installation
Low cost per added site
Uniform service
Single provider

- High initial cost

- Very far away from
earth & propagation
delay bween time msg
sent & delivered about
300msec for up &
- Inside building-satellite
phone cant work
- Regulatory licensing
- Limited orbital parking

Public Switching Telephone Networks (PSTN)

- Definition: It is global collection of interconnects
originally designed to support cct-switched voice
- Provide traditional telephone service
Types of Subscribers
a) Private-line cct/dedicated cct
-customer lease equipments, trans media &
services from tel. companies/service providers
on permanent basis
b) Public subscribers
-customer share equipments thtre available to
all public subscribers to network
PSTN Primary Characteristic
a) Analog access(300Hz-3.4kHz)
b) Cct-switched duplex connection
c) Basic PSTN network link supports 64kbps
d) PSTN utilizes SS7 signalling protocol
e) Immobility
f) Many functions in common w. another bearer
PSTN Teleservices

- PSTN interface is analog

- Fax & data traffic must be converted to analog
signals in freq band 0.3 to 3kHz w. help of built-in
modem/stand-alone modem
- Modem adapts signal to PSTN
- By converting info from digital to analog & vv
Terminals can be connected to PSTN
- Fixed telephone
- Fax service
- Data communication
- Video, multimedia & teleworking
- Cordless phone

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Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
- 1st tel.comm. service designed specially for
sending voice, video & data over digital phone
lines/normal phone wires system
- Support data transfer rates of 64kbps
- Requires adapters at both ends of tans
- ISDN is no longer popular
ISDN Channels
- 2 bearer CH/B-CH & 1 data CH/D-CH
- B-CH
- Carry end-users actual data
- In US it always 64kbps
- In elsewhere it always 56kbps
- D-CH
- Contains data like signalling error, framing dll
- For BRI it is 16kbps
- For PRI it is 64kbps
2 types of ISDN Services
a. Primary Rate Interface(PRI)
- In US
- 23 B-cH (64kbps), 1 D-cH (64kbps)
- In EU & elsewhere
- 30 B-cH (56kbps), 1 D-cH (64kbps)
- Reason
- US use 8-bit word w. echo cancellation
-Elsewhere use 7-bit word & no echo
- Used in larger envi. Bcoz it provides er
b. Basic Rate Interface(BRI)
- 2 B-CH & 1 D-CH
- B-CH (US=64kbps, elsewhere=56kbps)
- D-CH(16kbps)
- Data transmitted=144kbps
- Usable user data=128kbps
- Typically use in small office/home connection


Broadband ISDN(B-ISDN)
-ori version of ISDN employs baseband trans
-B-ISDN use broadband trans & able to support trans
rates of 1.5Mbps
-B-ISDN requires fiber optic cables
-intended to extend integration of both services
thru.out rest of end-to-end path using FO/radio
-support trans from 2Mbps up to much higher rate
ISDN Pro & Conts
-Governed by world-wide
set of standards
-provides symmetrical
transfer rates
-consistent transfer rates
-Possibility of multiple
simultaneous calls
-more reliable than POTS

-external power supply is
-special digital
phone/terminal adapter
required to talk to existing
POTS service
-very expensive to
upgrade from central
office switch to ISDN


ISDN application
a) Alternative to analog connections
b) Commonly used in radio broadcasting
c) Videoconferences(provides simultaneous
voice,video & texting trans)

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