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Running Head: Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Thermal Fluids Science Lab 1


Centrifugal Pump Characteristics
Carlo O Lounds
University Of Technology Jamaica

Contents

Introduction..........................................................................................................................5
Procedure.............................................................................................................................8
Apparatus...........................................................................................................................10
Figa1:Weir Channel...........................................................................................................11
...................................................................................................................................12
Figa2: v-Notch...................................................................................................................12
Figa3: Watt Meter Display.................................................................................................13
Figa4: Volumetric Scale.....................................................................................................14
Results and Calculations (sample).....................................................................................15

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Table I: Water Properties...................................................................................................15


Table A: Pump Speed(60rps).............................................................................................24
Table B: Pump Speed(70rps)`............................................................................................25
Table C: Pump Speed(80rps).............................................................................................26
Table A(1): Pump Speed(60rps)..........................................................................................27
Table B(1): Pump Speed(70rps)..........................................................................................28
Table C(1): Pump Speed(80rps)..........................................................................................29
GraphA: Hm v.s Q at (60,70 and 80)rps.............................................................................30
Table D: Head-Discharge for 085D and 1.15D.................................................................33
GraphD: Hm v.s Q For Change In Impeller Diameter(D) at 70RPS.........................34
Discussion............................................................................................................. 35

Figb1:NPSH.......................................................................................................................36
Reference...........................................................................................................................39

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Introduction
Pumps are fluid machines that move a liquid. A Pump in which energy is supplied by a rotating
shaft falls under the class of Turbo-machines, since the Latin prefix turbo means spin. Under
the category of Turbo-machines there are dynamic machines. In dynamic machines, there is no
closed volume; instead, rotating blades supply or extract energy to or from the fluid. For pumps,
these rotating blades are called impeller blades. Dynamic pumps include enclosed pumps and
ducted pumps (those with casings around the blades such as the water pump in your cars
engine).
The purpose of a pump is to add energy to a fluid, resulting in an increase in
fluid pressure, not necessarily an increase of fluid speed across the pump. A Centrifugal Pump
can correctly be described as one having the aforementioned properties or characteristics along
with the following. Additionally it can be referred to as a Rotodynamic Pump or Rotary pumps.
Rotary pumps are classified by the manner in which flow exits the pump: centrifugal flow (Fig.
A), axial flow, and mixed flow.

Fig A: Cross Sectional View of Flow Movement on Impeller

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

In a centrifugal-flow pump, fluid enters axially (in the same direction as the axis of the rotating
shaft) in the center of the pump, but is discharged radially (or tangentially) along the outer radius
of the pump casing. For this reason centrifugal pumps are also called radial-flow pumps
Operation of Centrifugal Pumps: According to, Thermodynamics an Engineering Approach
A shroud often surrounds the impeller blades to increase blade stiffness. In pump
terminology, the rotating assembly that consists of the shaft, the hub, the impeller blades, and the
impeller shroud is called the impeller or rotor. Fluid enters axially through the hollow middle
portion of the pump (the eye), after which it encounters the rotating blades. It acquires tangential
and radial velocity by momentum transfer with the impeller blades, and acquires additional radial
velocity by so-called centrifugal forces, which are actually a lack of sufficient centripetal forces
to sustain circular motion. The flow leaves the impeller after gaining both speed and pressure as
it is flung radially outward into the scroll (also called the volute). As sketched in Fig. 1433, the
scroll is a snail-shaped diffuser whose purpose is to decelerate the fast-moving fluid leaving the
trailing edges of the impeller blades, thereby further increasing the fluids pressure, and to
combine and direct the flow from all the blade passages toward a common outlet (Cengel &
Boles, 1989).

Fig:B

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Pump Characteristic Curves: These are Curves of; Manometric-Head, H/m, Pump
Efficiency, pump , and Power Input, Wi as functions of Volumetric Flow Rate, Q or
V/m3s-1 corresponding to a specific rotational speed. They are also referred to as
Pump-performance curves or Characteristic-curves.The pump performance curves
change with rotational speed. It is important to realize that for steady conditions, a pump

can operate only along its performance curve. Thus, the operating point of a piping system is
determined by matching system requirements (required net head) to pump performance
(available net head) and this is the major importance of these charts. (Cengel & Boles 1989).
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH): This is the pressure available in the system. There are
two types of (NPSH): NPSHavailable and NPSHrequired. NPSHavailable: This is the pressure above vapor
pressure of the liquid at its pumping temperature in the system. NPSHrequired,: This is pressure drop
at the pump entrance to the Eye of the impeller

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Procedure

It was ensured that the Wattmeter was connected to the pumps. The pump inlet valve was
then opened. It was then ensured that the water level in the Reservoir tank was in 20-50mm of
the top. Next, the stilling basket was placed in the left side of Weir channel and then the bench
flexible water supply water hose was supplied to the stilling basket. After wards, the benchregulating valve was closed and then the knob on the speed control unit was set to mid-range.
The electrical supply was then connected to the bench and then it was switched on.
The bench regulating valve and pump speed control unit was adjusted to obtain required
flow, this was done by selecting the P6012 pump on the speed control unit, to ensure pump speed
is maintained at desired value. The pump flow was adjusted by using by the Bench regulating
valve and speed control unit to adjust changes in pump speed. Next a 60rpm pump speed was
selected, with the bench regulating valve fully closed. After which the values of; pump suction,
delivery pressures and pump speed were recorded.
Next, the regulating valve was then gradually turned to its fully opened position and then
the pressure values were recorded again. The pressure difference between the values when the
valve was closed and opened was then calculated and the obtained value was used as a marker to
select subsequent readings.
After which the bench regulating valve was closed and pressure and power input values
were recorded. Then the regulating was partially re-opened in order for the pumps to produce a
discharge flow with a corresponding pressure of 10% less than the initial stagnation(no flow)
value. Simultaneously the flow rate of a suitable amount was measure for the measuring tank by
using a stopwatch, the V-notch and Rotameter. Then, the corresponding pressures, pump speed,

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

time and flow rate readings were recorded. After which other flow settings were selected that
covered the change in pressure difference calculated, such that 60% to 70% of them were in the
first-half of the pressure difference and the remaining 40%-30% covering the latter-half of the
change in pressure range. The experiment was repeated for a pump speed of 70rpms and 80rpms.

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Apparatus
This consists of a steel frame, which supports a fibreglass worktop with integral weir channel,
and volumetric measuring tank, a sump tank, variable speed centrifugal water pump(s) with
associated pipe work and valves. The measuring tank is provided with a sight glass and scale,
and is stepped with a 10-litre tower portion and a 35-litre upper portion to allow accurate
measurements of both low and high flow rates. The measuring tank discharges into a fiberglass
sump tank of about 120 litres capacity, via a quick acting ball valve located in the connecting
pipe work. An overflow pipe prevents the sump from running dry. A V-Notch weir at the end of
the weir channel has a scale calibrated in litres/min, and this provides a crude indication of
flowrates. A centrifugal pump delivers water to the supply hose at the bench top. The flow rate of
water is controlled both by a chrome-plated valve, and by a variable pump speed control.

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Figa1:Weir Channel

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Figa2: v-Notch

10

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Figa3: Watt Meter Display

11

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Figa4: Volumetric Scale

12

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics


Results and Calculations (sample)

13

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Table I: Water Properties

14

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

15

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

16

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

17

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

18

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

19

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

20

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

21

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

22

Pump Speed=60rps and Water Temperature=280C


Time
Rotameter V-Notch Suction
Volum
e(L)

Time Time2
1

(s)

Average

P2-P1

(s)

(s)

(m3/h)

(Lmin-1)

Dischar

Power

Pressure

ge

Input

P1(Kpa)

Pressur

(Wi)

Pa

e P2

82

80

81

60100

(Kpa)
52.5

61

23.43

23.44

23.435

57600

0.1

50

73

27.66

27.88

27.77

55100

0.41

12

47.5

82.5

23.92

23.05

23.485

52600

0.52

15

45

90

28.31

29

28.655

50100

0.7

18

42.5

94

25.98

25.83

25.905

47600

0.82

20

40

99

10

24.29

24.29

24.29

42600

1.2

24

35

106

10

22.25

22.14

22.195

37600

1.26

26

30

108

Table A: Pump Speed(60rps)

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Pump Speed=70rps and Water Temperature=280C


Time
P2-P1 Rotameter VSuction
Volume(

Time1(

Time2(

Average

L)

s)

s)

(s)

Pa

(m3/h)

Dischar

Power

Notch

Pressure

ge

Input

Lmin-1

P1(Kpa)

Pressur

(Wi)

e P2
2

133.061

83600

(Kpa)
76

134

133.530

79600

72

32.89

33.46

5
33.175

75

20.08

18.96

19.52

75600

0.35

10

68

14.66

15.72

15.19

71600

0.58

15

64

17.33

17.11

17.22

67600

0.84

20

60

13.2

13.1

13.15

59600

1.1

24

52

14.53

14.43

14.48

51600

1.42

30

44

13.88

13.82

13.85

47600

1.85

30

40

82
105
115
127
139
150
154

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Table B: Pump Speed(70rps)`

Pump Speed=80rps and Water Temperature=280C


P2-P1
Time
Rotameter V-Notch Suction
Volum

Time1

Time2

Average

(s)

(s)

(s)

(Pa)

(m3/h)

(Lmin-1)

Discharge

Pow

Pressure

Pressure

Inpu

P1(Kpa)

P2

(Wi

(Kpa)

(L)
1

200.058

180.055

190.0565

110100

102.5

95

57.71

57.86

57.785

107600

100

93

39.5

38.55

39.025

105100

97.5

101

11.78

12.43

12.105

97600

0.26

9.8

90

124

17.44

17.11

17.275

95100

0.45

12

87.5

133

14.4

13.89

14.145

92600

0.6

15

85

145

19.41

19.43

19.42

90100

0.68

17

82.5

148

17.46

17.51

17.485

87600

0.8

19

80

155

Table C: Pump Speed(80rps)

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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ump Speed=60rps and Water Temperature=280C


Volumetric
Hydraulic
Shaft Power Electrical
Overall

Manometric

P2-P1

Hm

Flow Rate

Power

(m)

(Pa)

Q
(m3s-1)

Wsh

Power

Efficiency

Wh

Wi

(Watt/W)

(Watt/W)

Electrica
and

Mechanic

Efficienc
em

6.16611316

60100

5.909619268

57600

3.7e-5
1.3e-4
5.653125376

55100

5.396631484

52600

2.22592592

51.85

61

0.04293010

0.85

6
7.37358651

62.05

73

5
0.118832982

0.85

6
11.90493338 70.125

82.5

0.16976732

0.85

13.4383649

90

1
0.17566490

0.85
0.85

2.1e-4
0.3e-4
5.140137592

50100

4.883643701

47600

3.1e-4

76.5

1
15.7354737

79.9

94

1
0.19693959

4
16.537348

84.15

99

6
0.19652225

0.85
0.85
0.85

3.5e-4
4.370655917

42600

3.857668133

37600

4.1e-4
4.5e-4

17.5380815

90.1

106

8
0.19465129

2
16.9407524

91.8

108

3
0.18453978

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Table A(1): Pump Speed(60rps)

Manometric

Pump Speed=70rps and Water Temperature=280C


P2-P1
Volumetric
Hydraulic
Shaft
Electrical
Overall

Electrical

Hm

Flow Rate

Power

Power

Power

Efficiency

Mechanic

(m)

(Pa)

Wh

Wsh

Wi

Efficienc

(m3s-1)

(Watt/W)

8.577155743

83600

8.166765516

79600

1.5e-5
6.0e-5
7.756375289

75600
2.0e-4

em

(Watt/W)

1.25214838 63.75

95

0.01964154

0.85

6
4.79879427 69.7

93

3
0.06884927

0.85

101

2
0.17357762

0.85

3
15.4918032 89.25
8

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics


7.345985062

71600

18.8545095 97.75
2.6e-4

6.935594835

67600

6.114814381

59600

3.54-4
4.6e-4
5.294033927

51600

4.883643701

47600

27

5.5e-4
5.8e-4

124

0.19288500

0.85

5
23.5540069 107.95

133

8
0.21819367

0.85

7
27.1939163 118.15

145

3
0.23016433

0.85

5
28.5082872 127.5

148

6
0.22359441

0.85

9
27.4945848 130.9

154

0.21004266

0.85

Table B(1): Pump Speed(70rps)

Pump Speed=80rps and Water Tempe


Electrical
Overall
Electrical and

P2-P1

Volumetric

Hydraulic

Shaft

Flow Rate

Power

Power

Power

Efficiency

Mechanical

Hm

Wh

Wsh

Wi

Efficiency

(m)

(m3s-1)

(Watt/W)

Man
ometric

11.295991

110100

110100

0.5793014

em

(Watt/W)
80.75

95

0.0071740

0.85

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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11.0394971

107600

107600

18
1.8620749

79.05

93

11
0.0235556

10.7830032

105100

105100

33
5.3862908

101

6
0.0627407

0.85

85.85
105.4

124

2
0.1529940

0.85

133

03
0.1947833

0.85

113.05

0.85

1
10.0135215

97600

97600

39
16.125567

4
9.75702764

95100

95100

95
22.020260

123.25

145

75
0.2124619

148

18
0.2212820

0.85

125.8

0.85

155

44
0.2281597

5
9.50053375

92600

92600

49
26.185931

4
9.24403986

90100

90100

42
27.837281

87600

15
30.060051

2
8.98754597

87600

131.75

47

Table C(1): Pump Speed(80rps)

83

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Manometric Head V.S Volumetric Flow Rate for Pump at different Revolutions Per Second (rps)
11.3
11.04
10.78
10.01

9.76

9.5

9.24
Polynomial (60rps) 8.99

60rps

70rps

Polynomial (70rps)

8.58
8.17
7.76
7.35
6.94
6.17

80rps

5.91

6.11
5.65

5.4

5.14

Exponential (80rps)

5.29
4.88

4.88
4.37
3.86

GraphA: Hm v.s Q at (60,70 and 80)rps

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

GraphB: 0 ,Wi, ,Hm v.s Q for (60,70and80)rps

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Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

GraphC: 0 ,Wi, and Hm v.s Q at 70rps

31

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Volumetric Flow Rate,Q and Manometric Head,H values for


Diameter,D at 0.85D and 1.15D for 70rps
0.85D Q/m3s-1 1.15D Q/m3s-1
.85D H/m
1.15D H/m
9.19827E-06

2.27794E-05

6.196995024

11.34328847

3.70234E-05

9.1688E-05

5.900488085

10.80054739

0.000125845

0.000311655

5.603981146

10.25780632

0.000161718

0.000400494

5.307474207

9.715065245

0.000213981

0.000529922

5.010967268

9.17232417

0.000280209

0.000693935

4.417953391

8.086842019

0.000339296

0.000840262

3.824939513

7.001359869

0.000354729

0.000878484

3.528432574

6.458618794

Table D: Head-Discharge for 085D and 1.15D

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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Manometric Head v.s Volumetric Flow Rate For a Change In Impeller Diameter(D) at 70RPS

1.15D

Polynomial (1.15D)

0.85D

Polynomial (0.85D)

GraphD: Hm v.s Q For Change In Impeller Diameter(D) at 70RPS

Discussion

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

34

Volumetric flow rate is an appropriate fundamental character which is used to analyze the
performance of a pump, also known as the capacity. Using the Net Head gives a more detailed
description of the pump. The Net Head is described as the change in Bernoulli Head from the
inlet to the outlet, given by equation 1 on page 14. The hydraulic power of the pump, Wh is
power supplied to the fluid by the pump and Wsh is the external power supplied to the pump.
Now, overall efficienc, 0

is

the ratio of hydraulic power to shaft power. It should be noted that

the power supplied to the pump must be larger than the hydraulic power, as to compensate for the
losses that will be encountered in a piping system.
According to GraphA we see an increase in Head from 60rps-80rps and also in the
corresponding Hydraulic powers. Just as important though is point where these lines would
eventually intersect the Volumetric Flow rate line, which corresponds to a maximum flow rate
and a minimum Head and this point is called the Free Delivery. Next, is the point of maximum
Head for each Revolution per second(rms), we can see a minimum of zero volumetric flow rate
and this point is called the Shut off head.
Free Delivery: The free delivery condition is achieved when there is no flow restriction at
the pump inlet or outlet, in other words when there is no load on the pump.
Shut off head: This occurs when the outlet port of the pump is blocked off.
Focusing our attention Graph B: we see that Manometric Head, Overall Efficiency and Hydraulic
Power are plot against Volumetric Flow rate. It can be seen that in ascending order of maximum
Hydraulic Power reached it corresponds to 60rps-80rps, which based on the formula for
Hydraulic power is expected since it is proportional to Manometric head and since Monomteric
head from Graph A: increase from 60rps-80rps. For the Overall efficiency it can be seen that

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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70rps corresponds to the highest maximum value for all three rps values, with 80rps having the
second highest and 60rps having the least.
Now as it relates to Graph D we can see manometric plot against volumetric flow rate for the
pump operating at 70rps . The line in red represents the manometric head obtained for using an
impeller diameter of 1.15 times greater than the one used in the original experiment. The blue
line represents an impeller diameter which is 0.85 times the original. We can see from Graph D
that increasing the diameter of the impeller increases the manometric head and the range of
volumetric flow rate. The graph was developed by the Affinity Laws (pages 21-20), which are a
set of equations used to scale the size of pump up or down without first having to physically
make one first,(Noel Brown).

Figb1:NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head is of two types(NPSH): Net Positive Suction Head required(NPSHr)
and Net Positive Suction Head available(NPSHa). NPSHa is important in pumps because it tells
us the point at which we can safely operate without causing damage to the pump due to
cavitation. NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr or else vapor bubbles will form in the eye of the
impeller and when the bubbles enter the pump where there is higher pressure it will cause the

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

36

bubbles to collapse and cause noise due to cavitation, this is why NPSH is important when

pumping a liquid. As can be seen in the figb1, NPSH increases with volume flow rate

.
V

and

the point intersection of the two NPSH curves indicates the point at which of maximum NPSH
and volumetric flow rate where cavitation wont occur. The formula that for calculating NPSH is,
NPSH=P+hs-hfs-hvp. Where P=pressure of liquid from source,hs =Static Height, hfs=friction loss
on suction side and hvp= vapour pressure of liquid at the pumping temperature. For this
experiment NPSH=9.60Pa (calculation on page 22).

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

37

Conclusion

With increasing revolutions per second(rps) maximum manometric head and maximum
hydraulic power increased for each consecutively larger value of rps(Graph B). The maximum
manometric head and maximum hydraulic power values for 60rps,70rps and 80rps respectively
are as follows; 6.16m,8.57m and 11.29m and 7.53W,28.50W and 30.06W. Based on the results
manometric head and hydraulic power of a pump increases with rps.
As it relates to the efficiency we can see from Graph B a maximum overall efficiency of
0.23/23%, at 80rp there is a max value of 0.228/22.8% and at 60rps there is a max value of
0.19/19%. From this its can be seen that the pump had ist maximum efficiency at 70rpm at a
volumetric flow rate of 4.6e-4m3s-1 and manometric head of 6.16m.

Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

Reference

Yunus A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles(January 1, 1989)


Thermodynamics an engineering approach
USA: McGraw-Hill
Doug Kriebel
System Head Curves: How to Have A Successful
Pumping System
Retrieved Oct21; 2015
From: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=okKKZiRqrPI

Noel Brown(Mechanical Engineering Lecturer)


Centrifugal Pumps Document
From: https://utechonline.utech.edu.jm/login/index.php

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Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

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